This chapter is built on a broad view of “individual assessment” relative to its use in industrial and organizational settings. In constructing our treatment, we address historical, theoretical, as well as practical issues surrounding assessments in work settings. Specifically, we highlight the multiple purposes, the types of factors measured, the approaches used, and the role that assessment must play to ensure business success. While the skills and techniques involved in workplace assessments would be familiar to most psychologists, the application of the former must be sensitive and appropriate to particular work-context realities. Therefore, our treatment of assessment is embedded within a broader discussion of the business and technical considerations inherent in the workplace. We begin the chapter with a brief historical introduction to the role and development of assessments in work settings, including a discussion of purposes for, attributes of, and approaches to assessment. Following this, attention is given to the technical implementation of assessments, the focus of those assessments, and the major tools used to conduct these assessments. Finally, we conclude our chapter with an examination of the major issues surrounding contemporary assessment in work settings such as business necessity, social policy, and technical/professional concerns.
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