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Karparti ecology: Recognition of Aboriginal Ecological Knowledge and its application to management in north-western Australia

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Abstract

The application of Aboriginal knowledge, the result of millennia of experience, is essential to improve ecological management and inform environmental understanding. A case study from the Kimberley in north-western Australia, however, shows that the management responsibilities of traditional custodians need to be respected if Aboriginal knowledge is to be shared in ways that are beneficial for people, their country, and the interests of the broader Australian community.

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... Research from around the world has shown that the inclusion of traditional ecological knowledge in modern natural resource management leads to an increase in favourable economic, environmental and social outcomes for industries and communities involved (Berkes et al. 2000;Horstman and Wightman 2001;Ross et al. 2011). Australian Aboriginal culture is a living culture, not a historical culture. ...
... Given our methodological approach the results, however, were largely limited to Western, colonial perspectives, with Indigenous perspectives only being recorded in more recent literature. Given the limitations in the archival sources, and that ecological knowledge in Indigenous Australian cultures is traditionally handed down through oral teachings (Horstman and Wightman 2001), interviews with Traditional Owners/ Guardians and the collation of oral histories using established methods (Arbon 2008;Martin 2008;Wilson 2008;Yunkaporta 2010;Smith 2012Rose 2017) is a clear next step towards eliciting a comprehensive understanding of the nature and variety of uses of seaweed by Indigenous Australian peoples. The historical dispossession of Indigenous nations from their ancestral lands may mean that much traditional ecological knowledge has already been lost from many communities. ...
... Moreover, historical devaluation of traditional ecological knowledge has also resulted in researchers recording or using Indigenous knowledge without appropriate consent or acknowledgement (Wynberg et al. 2009). Therefore, documentation and synthesis of remaining knowledge should be performed with Indigenous communities' informed consent, and preferably with the communities as active, equal partners in the process of data collection and distribution (Horstman and Wightman 2001), and subsequent potential commercial application of their knowledge (e.g. Ball and Janyst 2008;Hudson 2009). ...
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Global demand for seaweed has increased dramatically over recent decades and the potential for seaweed aquaculture to address issues around food security and climate-change mitigation are being recognised. Australia is a global hotspot for seaweed biodiversity with a rich, diverse Indigenous history dating back 65,000 years, including an extensive traditional knowledge of Australian natural resources. In our present review of archival literature, we explored the contemporary and historical uses and cultural significance of seaweeds to Indigenous Australians. We found records of seaweed use by Indigenous Saltwater Australians (Australian Aboriginal peoples from coastal areas across the nation who are the Traditional Owners/Guardians and custodians of the lands and waters characterised by saltwater environment) for a variety of purposes including cultural activities, ceremonial activities, medicinal uses, clothing, cultural history, food, fishing, shelter and domestic uses. Species-specific records were rarely recorded (and/or accurately translated) in the archival literature, with the exception of the use of the fucoid bull kelp, Durvillaea potatorum, which was prevalent. Our research is a step forward in the important task of recovering and conserving Indigenous Australian knowledge and customary traditions surrounding coastal resource use. Unlocking this knowledge creates opportunities for the continuance and revitalization of traditional customary practises that may enable innovative Indigenous business activities and product creation, based around food, sustainable natural-fibre technologies and health. Such research also has the potential to enhance a developing Australian seaweed industry by guiding species selection, preparation, use and sustainable resource management. We recommend our findings are used to inform the direction and locations of further research conducted in conjunction with Indigenous coastal communities in Australia’s temperate regions, to explore in more detail the Indigenous Australian’s historical heritage associated with coastal seaweed resources and their uses.
... T he holistic and evolving nature of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK), grounded in tens of thousands of years of observations and interactions with nature, provides an essential link between ecology and culture (Madhav et al. 1993;Langton & Rhea 2005;Clarkson et al. 2017). For millennia, IEK has determined how Indigenous peoples interact with Country, and offers immense value to Western Science (WS) environmental management (Baker & Mutitjulu Community 1992;Horstman & Wightman 2001;Ens et al. 2012a). Indigenous-led management, through ranger programs, Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs) and other co-management initiatives, has enabled Indigenous people to make decisions for their Country after centuries of disenfranchisement and Eurocentric management strategies (Dudley 2008;Hill et al. 2012). ...
... Whilst the use of multiple methods was beneficial, as encountered by other studies, our choice of structured WS methodologies to explore IEK slightly inhibited collection of qualitative data (Nursey-Bray et al. 2009). The rigidity and intensity of one-on-one interview perhaps made some participants nervous and prohibited some from providing detailed responses (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Ens et al. 2015). Other qualitative studies with Indigenous Australians have found that more informal methods of data collection, like focus groups, unstructured outdoor interviews or workshops, were more useful in recording IEK (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Danielsen et al. 2014). ...
... The rigidity and intensity of one-on-one interview perhaps made some participants nervous and prohibited some from providing detailed responses (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Ens et al. 2015). Other qualitative studies with Indigenous Australians have found that more informal methods of data collection, like focus groups, unstructured outdoor interviews or workshops, were more useful in recording IEK (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Danielsen et al. 2014). We saw this in our focus groups, in which participants appeared more comfortable, as they were surrounded by fellow community members and could collaboratively share experiences. ...
Article
The Karajarri Indigenous Protected Area, in the south-west Kimberley, is home to vast intertidal rock platforms that form a culturally and ecologically important environment for Karajarri Traditional Owners and wider Bidyadanga community. Karajarri Rangers initiated a collaborative partnership with researchers to devise an intertidal invertebrate monitoring protocol to meet the requirements of their Healthy Country Plan and sustainably manage their cultural harvesting. The project aimed to design and trial a monitoring protocol that blended Indigenous ecological knowledge and values with western scientific rigour. To investigate and document the community’s ecological knowledge of marine resources, a series of Ranger interviews, focus groups and collaborative fieldwork was conducted. Data collected from these qualitative methods provided valuable insights into knowledge of the intertidal environment and fauna and the community’s management aspirations and priorities. Informed by these data, a monitoring protocol was cross-culturally designed to combine Indigenous knowledge and values within a western scientific framework. Two methodologies were piloted, focusing on a small subset of culturally significant target species. Although both were successful, the trial indicated that Rangers preferred abundance-focused methods for ecological monitoring. Further refinement of the monitoring protocol is required to build western science knowledge of the ecosystem and meet Ranger management goals. However, this study provided the basis of future monitoring strategies for Karajarri Rangers, formed a lasting collaborative partnership and is a useful exploration of Indigenous preferred approaches to western scientific monitoring of intertidal rock platforms.
... Although TEK has been recognized as a useful resource (Hanks 1984;Ross et al. 1994;Horstman & Wightman 2001) it has been utilized in few published studies (Huntington 2000;Horstman & Wightman 2001). Species currently coded as data deficient can be difficult to code under the IUCN guidelines. ...
... Although TEK has been recognized as a useful resource (Hanks 1984;Ross et al. 1994;Horstman & Wightman 2001) it has been utilized in few published studies (Huntington 2000;Horstman & Wightman 2001). Species currently coded as data deficient can be difficult to code under the IUCN guidelines. ...
Article
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The Giant Sweet Potato, Ipomoea polpha subsp. latzii R.W.Johnson (Convolvulaceae), or “Antjulkinah”, is a rare plant endemic to central Australia, and features prominently in the mythology of the Traditional Owners of the area, the Anmatjerre people. The taxon is known from three sub-populations and has a highly restricted geographic distribution. Our study of the distribution, density and population size of Ipomoea polpha subsp. latzii incorporated traditional ecological knowledge, and led to the identification of an additional extensive sub-population. The distance-transect method was used to calculate estimates of population size and density for the Giant Sweet Potato, and is one of the only published examples of the application of this method to a plant species. We estimate the area of occupancy of the taxon to be at least 26.7 km2, significantly greater than the population estimate reported by a survey in 1987. Our data support listing the species as Vulnerable under IUCN (2008) criterion D2.
... Following recognition of Indigenous rights to and involvement in the marine environment, the term traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) began to gain recognition. Integration of TEK with science and management knowledge (SMK) is beginning to occur, providing a rich body of knowledge for problem solving and essentially enhancing the resilience of social ecological systems [21][22][23][24]. ...
... Indigenous people have accumulated knowledge through continuity of resource use, and this knowledge has been transmitted from generation to generation [5,73,74]. These observations over time form a rich body of traditional ecological knowledge, which is gaining increasing recognition in Australia [21,22,24,75,76] and internationally [77][78][79] The Gumbaynggirr People have always been governed by customary traditions, sacred Lore and the seasons [74]. Tides, seasons and moon cycles would have historically influenced resource use and key environmental indicators are still seen to inform resource collection and use today. ...
Article
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Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. This suggests the need for further investigation of this issue to minimize any possible health risk.
... "The term karparti is based on the Kriol word for the English expression 'cup of tea'…The phrase 'karparti' is used here as an analogy for an unhurried and respectful approach to discussions or research with senior custodians of knowledge on mutually beneficial terms" [28] Such systems of ethics have survived millennia exactly because they can be used to successfully navigate complex systems of change, so much so that a "sea change" should be sought [28] in how we approach environmental discussionsand the inclusion of non-Western perspectives is critical to ensuring the ability of discussions around AI ethics to have any genuine impact on the world. ...
... "The term karparti is based on the Kriol word for the English expression 'cup of tea'…The phrase 'karparti' is used here as an analogy for an unhurried and respectful approach to discussions or research with senior custodians of knowledge on mutually beneficial terms" [28] Such systems of ethics have survived millennia exactly because they can be used to successfully navigate complex systems of change, so much so that a "sea change" should be sought [28] in how we approach environmental discussionsand the inclusion of non-Western perspectives is critical to ensuring the ability of discussions around AI ethics to have any genuine impact on the world. ...
Article
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This paper outlines the ethical implications of AI from a climate perspective. So far, much of the discussion around AI ethics have focused on bias, unexplainable outcomes, privacy and other social impacts of such systems. The role and contribution of AI towards climate change and the ethical implications of its contribution to an unjust distribution of impact on the planet, humans and flora and fauna have not yet been covered in detail within the technical community. Within this paper, we aim to raise some of the issues of AI associated with climate justice and we propose a framework that will allow the AI and ICT industries to measure their true impact on the planet, propose an organisational structure to take this work forward and propose future research areas for this important topic.
... Food web ecology is a critical issue for ecosystem functioning (Tylianakis, Didham, Bascompte, & Wardle, 2008) and thus for successful ecosystem conservation and restoration at landscape scales. Regional or temporal variance in species names, as reported here, is frequently built and maintained over centuries in IK, in contrast to scientific documentation or investigation that is often limited in space and time (Horstman & Wightman, 2001). As such, IK can offer both spatial and temporal ecological information critical to conservation processes. ...
... IK insights may also be useful for rare species or to help identify ecological interactions in past ecosystems with extinct species (e.g., Ziembicki, Woinarski, & Mackey, 2013), and systematic documentation of IK can result in early detection of ecological change, including population decline or loss of ecosystem function (Kutz & Tomaselli, 2019;Tomaselli, Kutz, Gerlach, & Checkley, 2018). Such gains are not necessarily limited to species names; ecological distributions identified from landscape wide modeling of Indigenous place names might also assist restoration of ecosystems and landscapes (Horstman & Wightman, 2001). ...
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Drawing from both Indigenous and “Western” scientific knowledge offers the opportunity to better incorporate ecological systems knowledge into conservation science. Here, we demonstrate a “two‐eyed” approach that weaves Indigenous ecological knowledge (IK) with experimental data to provide detailed and comprehensive information about regional plant–insect interactions in New Zealand forests. We first examined Māori names for a common forest tree, Carpodetus serratus, that suggest a close species interaction between an herbivorous, hole‐dwelling insect, and host trees. We detected consistent regional variation in both Māori names for C. serratus and the plant–insect relationship that reflect Hemideina spp. abundances, mediated by the presence of a wood‐boring moth species. We found that in regions with moths C. serratus trees are home to more wētā than adjacent forest species and that these wētā readily ate C. serratus leaves, fruits and seeds. These findings confirm that a joint IK—experimental approach can stimulate new hypotheses and reveal spatially important ecological patterns. We recommend that conservation managers partner with local IK‐holders to develop two‐eyed seeing approaches that weave IK with quantitative data to assist planning and management. Next steps in our system could include assembling IK species names within each locality to construct a multilayered understanding of local ecosystems through an IK lens.
... Australian first nations represent the longest living culture on earth and their TEK has been refined over thousands of years of direct observation and experimentation (Horstman and Wightman, 2001). A profound spiritual connection to nature underpins Australian saltwater peoples' systems of traditional law and governance (Muir et al., 2010). ...
... With this comes great respect for 'Country' and an obligation to safeguard it for future generations. TEK has been passed down orally from generation to generation, however, due to the relatively recent dispossession and displacement of Aboriginal lands and people (<200 years), Australian Indigenous TEK is being lost at an alarming rate (Horstman and Wightman, 2001). There is therefore great interest from Indigenous communities in documenting TEK for future generations to prevent this extensive knowledge from being lost as Elders pass away. ...
Article
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There is a growing emphasis on formally recognizing the connection to the marine environment of Indigenous peoples and the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) these strong connections cultivate. The potential for TEK to significantly enrich the scientific comprehension of the marine environment, whilst also celebrating the rich bio-cultural knowledge in its own right, is indisputable. Here, we present a scientifically robust and culturally appropriate participatory mapping methodology for the marine environment which can effectively achieve genuine cross-cultural ecological knowledge transfer between scientists and Indigenous Peoples. Through a case study working with the Anindilyakwa people of the Groote Eylandt Archipelago, we mapped the TEK of benthic habitats off Australia’s poorly surveyed northern coast. Representatives from 14 Anindilyakwa clan groups participated in the marine mapping (n = 53), resulting in 22 individual maps. Eleven broad-scale habitat classifications, predominately in the intertidal and nearshore marine environment, were described in both Anindilyakwa and English. The information gathered was then used to develop benthic habitat maps covering a combined area of ∼1800 km2 and was assessed for accuracy against in situ observations. We found that despite the difficulties in working across two different world views, through the application of this carefully refined methodology, scientists can effectively document the rich TEK of the marine environment in a manner suitable for conservation and management planning while also supporting the prioritization of Indigenous values within the decision-making process.
... Indigenous knowledge informs science in areas such as ethnobotany, agroforestry, agroecology and resource management (Hunting 2000). In Australia, Aboriginal knowledge, also known as traditional ecological knowledge, is increasingly called upon for sustainable management of resources like water and wildlife and for burning of bushlands (Horstman and Wightman 2001). Research undertaken in the Kakadu National Park in northern Australia by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) showed that the historical burning by Aboriginal people controlled the native grass mudja. ...
... Environment was one of the ideas students listed as a link between scientific and cultural knowledge, providing a logical topic for discussion of the role of both in development of understanding of the natural world. There are a number of Australian examples of research in ecology and environment that present opportunities to engage students with connections between scientific and cultural knowledge (Horstman and Wightman 2001;Hunting 2000;Russell-Smith et al. 1997). ...
Article
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There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7–9 (with students aged 12–15 years) (n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.
... The development of the ecological sciences, particularly in northern Australia, is considered relatively young (Horstman and Wightman 2001). Cultural activities and interactions with plants create dynamic relationships that take place in specific landscapes and environments (Hynes and Chase 1982:38). ...
... The integration of traditional ecological knowledge with positivist, scientific NRM for biodiversity conservation outcomes is still in development (Horstman and Wightman 2001), but as highlighted above, the previous work by Robinson et al. (2003) suggests what is possible when work is undertaken in good faith, with significant investment and over substantial timeframes. Just as we need to learn how to adapt systems to climate change, there needs to be more serious attempts at integrating traditional knowledge into biodiversity conservation practice, and substantial investment for facilitating effective responses to future climate change. ...
... (Horstman and Wightman 2001) . Though collecting glaucous-winged gull eggs is a traditional subsistence activity for the Huna Tlingit, for example, the practice is illegal under U.S. law. ...
Article
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In 1977, scientific surveys indicated that bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the Beaufort Sea were in trouble, with fewer than 1,000 individuals remaining. The International Whaling Commission took action to put a moratorium on native hunts in order to protect the species. Yet local Inuit hunters didn't see what the fuss was about. Their own estimates, gleaned from time and experience, put bowhead numbers at 7,000. The Inuits also disputed western scientists' contentions that whales couldn't swim under offshore ice and that they did not feed during migration. Researchers responded to these criticisms by developing a new survey method to census the population, incorporating Inuit understanding of whale behavior. In 1991, the new survey estimated that bowheads numbered 8,000- an affirmation of the ecological knowledge held by individuals who depended upon the whales for food, fuel, and shelter (Freeman 1995). As indigenous sovereignty and other rights become recognized around the globe, many governments are developing strategies to work with indigenous communities to co-manage land and resources (Colchester 2004). In navigating this often daunting process, a new challenge has arisen: How to accept and incorporate into western science the traditional ecological knowledge and cultural norms that guide how indigenous communities use and manage natural resources.
... Other significant natural and cultural resource management projects are the Bardi-Jawi Dugong and Marine Turtle Management Project (Kennett and Kitchens 2009), the North Kimberley Fire Abatement Project (http://klc. org.au/land-sea/north-kimberley-fire-abatementproject/;Fitzsimons et al. 2012) and Traditional Knowledge recording projects (Horstman and Wightman 2001;Karadada et al. 2011). In 2008, the Australian Heritage Council commenced a National Heritage assessment of the West Kimberley. ...
... Haynes (2009), whose ethnographic account of Kakadu joint management draws on extensive interviews as well as personal management experience, concludes that the 'joint-ness' of joint management comes through only in rare situations, e.g., in a specialist weed-control team where Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal staff worked together in equitable and uncontested ways on tasks that were critical to maintaining both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal landscape values. Markham (2009) draws attention to the importance of unstructured relationship building through the Aboriginal owners and the park staff travelling and camping together or sharing a 'cuppa tea' (see also Horstman and Wightman 2001). Markham (2009) also notes that such activities are not recognised as productive in government assessment frameworks. ...
Article
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Efforts to resolve indigenous peoples grievances about the negative impacts of protected areas established on their customary estates by governments are driving the development of shared governance and management. The Tuhoe people have sought that the settlement of their grievances against the New Zealand government include unencumbered rights to manage Te Urewera, guided by scientific and traditional knowledge and practices, for conservation and social benefits for the Tuhoe people and the broader public. We led a study tour to allow Tuhoe and other Mori representatives to gain first-hand experience of long-standing jointly managed protected areas in Australia that the New Zealand government had drawn on in proposing mechanisms to resolve the Tuhoe claim. We found that these areas were a poor fit to the study tour participants aspirations that indigenous world views would underpin governance and that indigenous people would be empowered. Our findings highlight that settlement must be transformational in terms of attitudes and relationships. Collaborative problem-solving processes that build trust can contribute. In areas like Te Urewera, where tenure boundaries fragment a landscape that is a coherent whole in indigenous world views, settlement processes can offer the prospect of landscape-scale outcomes for social justice and conservation.
... Looking after country Human actions that materially affect the physical health of the landscape and/or alter human perceptions of landscape health (Williams and Hunn 1982, Strang 1997, Baker et al. 2001, Johnston et al. 2007, Morrison 2007, Walsh 2008, Laudine 2009, Altman and Kerins 2012; A. Griffiths, unpublished manuscript presented at the Third International Wildlife Management Congress, University of Christchurch, Christchurch, New Zealand). This incorporates: contemporary natural resource management activities (Phelan 2003, Walker 2010, Stacey et al. 2013); customary activities with material effects such as burning regimes and water diversions (Altman 1983, Rose 1995, Russell-Smith et al. 1997, Horstman and Wightman 2001, Laudine 2009, Gammage 2011, Barber and Jackson 2012; and customary activities that are influential on perceptions of health but without evident material effects such as conducting ceremonies and communicating with ancestral powers (Biernoff 1978, Keen 1994, Morphy 1995, Rose 2000. 11 ...
Article
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Subsistence remains critical to indigenous people in settler-colonial states such as Australia, providing key foundations for indigenous identities and for wider state recognition. However, the drivers of contemporary subsistence are rarely fully articulated and analyzed in terms of likely changing conditions. Our interdisciplinary team combined past research experience gained from multiple sites with published literature to create two generalized qualitative models of the socio-cultural and environmental influences on indigenous aquatic subsistence in northern Australia. One model focused on the longer term (inter-year to generational) persistence of subsistence at the community scale, the other model on shorter term (day to season) drivers of effort by active individuals. The specification of driver definitions and relationships demonstrates the complexities of even generalized and materialist models of contemporary subsistence practices. The qualitative models were analyzed for emergent properties and for responses to plausible changes in key variables: access, habitat degradation, social security availability, and community dysfunction. Positive human community condition is shown to be critical to the long-term persistence of subsistence, but complex interactions of negative and positive drivers shape subsistence effort expended at the individual scale and within shorter time frames. Such models enable motivations, complexities, and the potential management and policy levers of significance to be identified, defined, causally related, and debated. The models can be used to augment future models of human-natural systems, be tested against case-specific field conditions and/or indigenous perspectives, and aid preliminary assessments of the effects on subsistence of changes in social and environmental conditions, including policy settings.
... Indigenous knowledge can be 'geographically and temporally more extensive' than research-based knowledge (Fraser et al. 2006), especially in regions where Indigenous livelihoods are reliant on natural resources, because of the relatively widespread and long duration of Indigenous occupation and observation. For this reason, studies of IEK are growing in popularity in current scientific endeavours, informing north Australian NRM (Russell-Smith et al. 1997;Horstman & Wightman 2001;Ens et al. 2010;Hill et al. In press), and there have been a number of valuable ethno-biological studies of Indigenous subsistence strategies (Chase & Sutton 1981;Meehan 1981;Altman 1987;Rose 1987;Walsh 1990;Buchanan et al. 2009). ...
Article
Summary Indigenous ecological knowledge can inform contemporary water management activities including water allocation planning. This paper draws on results obtained from a 3‐year study to reveal the connection between Indigenous socio‐economic values and river flows in the Daly River, Northern Territory. Qualitative phenological knowledge was analysed and compared to quantitative resource‐use data, obtained through a large household survey of Indigenous harvesting and fishing effort. A more complete picture of Indigenous resource‐use and management strategies was found to be provided by the adoption of mixed methods. The quantitative data revealed resource‐use patterns including when and where species are harvested. The qualitative Indigenous ecological data validated results from the quantitative surveys and provided insights into harvesting and resource management strategies not revealed by the discrete time‐bound surveys. As such, it informed the scientific understanding of patterns of resource use and relationships between people, subsistence use and river flows in the Daly River catchment. We recommend that natural resource managers, researchers and Indigenous experts prioritise collaborative projects that record Indigenous knowledge to improve water managers’ understanding of Indigenous customary aquatic resource use.
... Packer et al., 2011). From our literature search it also evident that the ethnosciences tended to be documented for cultural posterity rather than an exploration of biocultural values that could be monitored and managed as part of active biological conservation strategies (Horstman and Wightman, 2001). However, we suggest that the latter would offer substantial gains towards philosophical and practical engagement of Indigenous knowledge systems in ecosystem science that could inform Indigenous focussed adaptive management of Country. ...
... Most seabirds show extreme philopatry to their nest site and breeding partners (i.e., mate for life), therefore the largescale loss Under the cultural practice of 'caring for country' and as directed by Elders, cultural burns are planned on several islands. Methods of cultural burning are unique to vegetation systems, evident in knowledge systems of that region (Horstman & Wightman, 2001;McKemey et al., 2021). Thus, the cultural burning program on the Recherche Archipelago demonstrates a continuous cultural connection to the coastal heath structural vegetation of the islands, thorough knowledge of plants and vegetation zones -culturally caring for the country. ...
Article
Traditional burning regimes have long been employed to enhance biodiversity and mitigate high-intensity wildfires. The link between changes in the distribution, success, and timing of breeding in seabirds and climatic and oceanographic variation in the marine environment has been established, with migratory seabirds less able to respond to climate variability than resident species. While climate-driven changes can also occur on seabird breeding islands, few data are available regarding potential impacts. Here we investigate the frequency and severity of bushfires on seabird breeding islands in Western Australia, regarding the 2020 fire on Figure of Eight Island in the Recherche Archipelago. A lack of quantitative, historical surveys limited our ability to quantify the number of shearwaters lost in this event. However, a review of available data suggests thousands of birds die due to burning every one or two years across the Archipelago. On Figure of Eight, shearwater burrow occupancy and density were low 12 months post-burn (0.25 and 0.02 ± 0.03, respectively), with minimal evidence of recovery (very few burrows detected) 23 months post-burn. We discuss opportunities to develop an adaptive, community-based program for reinstating collaborative, cultural methods of fire management and monitoring regimes on seabird breeding islands in Australia.
... Secondly, core CAP concepts, based on ecological processes and systems, were adapted so they included categories defined by Wunambal Gaambera Traditional Owners and incorporated Indigenous knowledge. These changes, elaborated below, reflect the Karparti approach described by Horstman and Wightman (2001) when commenting on their ethnobiological work with Traditional Owners of the same area. ...
Article
This article illustrates how a conservation planning approach combined Indigenous knowledge and Western science to support Indigenous Traditional Owners to make decisions about managing their ancestral lands and seas, and communicate more strategically with external stakeholders
... The relationships Indigenous people hold with their traditional lands and waters, and how these relationships inform their unique contribution to land and water management, have been the subject of extensive study in Australia and internationally (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Braun 2002;Kinnane 2002;Rose 2004). A dominant theme in this literature is Indigenous people's critique of the hyperseparation of nature and culture, a Cartesian dualism that has been very influential in the natural sciences, as well as state approaches to land and water management (Scott 1998;Worster 2008). ...
Article
This article applies the experience of one Indigenous organisation's activity in advocating the adoption of a cultural–environmental management approach in the forested wetlands of the Edward/Kolety and Wakool rivers, New South Wales, Australia. These experiences are analysed using the frameworks of academics' rethink of ‘nature’ and Indigenous people's philosophies of ‘Country’. In doing so, different understandings of fact and governance are shown to have implications for natural resource and environmental management. We demonstrate how Indigenous people express attachments to place and culture as part of reconfiguring modernity to create better conditions for their knowledges and priorities. This analysis takes place in the context of degraded river ecologies, intense debates about over-allocated river systems, the transfer of riverine forest lands to the conservation estate, and the contested Indigenous presence in colonial-settler societies. This research is a partnership between the research institution and the Indigenous organisation, and involved workshops, fieldwork and semi-structured interviews.
... Haynes (2009), whose ethnographic account of Kakadu joint management draws on extensive interviews as well as personal management experience, concludes that the 'joint-ness' of joint management comes through only in rare situations, e.g., in a specialist weed-control team where Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal staff worked together in equitable and uncontested ways on tasks that were critical to maintaining both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal landscape values. Markham (2009) draws attention to the importance of unstructured relationship building through the Aboriginal owners and the park staff travelling and camping together or sharing a 'cuppa tea' (see also Horstman and Wightman 2001). Markham (2009) also notes that such activities are not recognised as productive in government assessment frameworks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to resolve indigenous peoples’ grievances about the negative impacts of protected areas established on their customary estates by governments are driving the development of shared governance and management. The Tūhoe people have sought that the settlement of their grievances against the New Zealand government include unencumbered rights to manage Te Urewera, guided by scientific and traditional knowledge and practices, for conservation and social benefits for the Tūhoe people and the broader public. We led a study tour to allow Tūhoe and other Māori representatives to gain first-hand experience of long-standing jointly managed protected areas in Australia that the New Zealand government had drawn on in proposing mechanisms to resolve the Tūhoe claim. We found that these areas were a poor fit to the study tour participants’ aspirations that indigenous world views would underpin governance and that indigenous people would be empowered. Our findings highlight that settlement must be transformational in terms of attitudes and relationships. Collaborative problem-solving processes that build trust can contribute. In areas like Te Urewera, where tenure boundaries fragment a landscape that is a coherent whole in indigenous world views, settlement processes can offer the prospect of landscape-scale outcomes for social justice and conservation. Keywords: indigenous governance, co-management, joint management, collaborative governance, Tūhoe, Māori, Te Urewera, New Zealand, Australia
... Even if not always with brilliant results (Diamond, 2005), social memory has historically, and all over the world, structured the local communities' decision making processes in ecosystems and landscape management (Franco et al., 2007;Horstman and Wightman, 2001). Therefore its loss represents a problem. ...
Article
The estimation of wetlands’ non-use values to build up a total economic evaluation can be based on stated preference methods, which derives from the standard economic model that assumes a rational assessment of the consequence of preferences on personal utility. The paper describes the nature of the citizens’ shared ecological knowledge of wetlands functions, the relation of the shared ecological knowledge with the official/normative knowledge, and the relation between the motivations outlined by the shared ecological knowledge and those expected by the standard economic model. The results demonstrate that economic preferences are driven by multiple motivations well rooted in the social nature of shared ecological knowledge, and not by simply consequential motivations. In this case study, social knowledge of wetlands’ ecological functions is proportionally related to people's living proximity to those wetlands. Unexpectedly, shared ecological knowledge of historically well-known and critically important services, like the hydraulic and hydrologic services, has also been diminishing. Furthermore, there is a partial or clear-cut separation between official/normative knowledge and the shared ecological knowledge on crucial aspects like wetlands’ climate change role. This approach helps to construct a motivational framework to derive values that are useful as long as they allow accounting for a complex socio-cultural capital in the public decision making process.
... For many Indigenous Australians, the damage and loss of traditional landscapes has constituted a 'diminution of self esteem' (Kirmayer 2000, p. 15). It is critical to identify those people who have this cultural knowledge of the land and who have the authority to speak about it, thereby limiting this loss of culture (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Department of Sustainability and Environment 2004). Local Indigenous knowledge contained in environmental narratives is an important land management tool, as it describes a deep connection with the land (Robertson et al. 2000). ...
... Protecting Country is the inherited right and responsibility that Aboriginal people feel (DSE 2004). The management of Country involves the manipulation of the environment to enable an increase in sustainable natural resources (Horstman & Wightman 2001;Atkinson 2005). Not all Aboriginal ecological knowledge is sustainable, increasing the need for collaboration between western and traditional land management practices (Dixon 2005). ...
Article
T his article focuses on three Victorian Aboriginal 1 groups (Bangerang, Boonwurrung and Yorta Yorta) to explore elements that provide or discourage development of land management projects. Results from this small qualitative study show that a number of distinct health, socio-political and economic factors need to be considered when developing Aboriginal land management projects. This study indicates that a greater involvement in Aboriginal land management projects – critical to Aboriginal peoples' health, economic and social structures -will only occur through increased community consultation, respect, training, consistency between all stakeholders involved, resources and the provision of employment opportunities. Further research is required to strengthen this evidence, allowing policy-makers to be progressive when developing land management projects for Aboriginal Victorian people as a health promoting tool. K e y w o r d s : A b o r i g i n a l V i c t o r i a n p e o p l e , l a n d management, social determinants of health, government policy this topic (Parlee et al. 2005). This investigation focuses on health, economic and socio-political factors that need consideration when establishing Victorian Aboriginal land management projects. The following literature review underlines health, economic and socio-political factors that affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people on a day-to-day basis. Although brief, this section underlines some health and social inequalities impacting on some of the Traditional Custodians of Victoria and Australia.
... These reef systems represent a unique opportunity to study nearpristine reef communities in a strongly tidally-forced setting. Although Australia's indigenous Traditional Owners have maintained their own observational knowledge of these reefs for tens of thousands of years (Horstman and Wightman 2001), no studies have previously assessed the in situ productivity of Kimberley reefs. ...
Article
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Benthic dissolved oxygen fluxes were measured on the reef flat of Tallon Island, an intertidal reef platform in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia, for periods of 2 weeks in the wet and dry seasons. This reef flat is strongly tidally forced by semidiurnal tides (spring range > 8 m) and experiences highly asymmet-ric water level variability, with ebb durations lasting $10 h; this results in diel variations in water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (up to $118C and 440 lM, respectively) that are among the most extreme recorded for reefs worldwide. Given the consistent tidal flow patterns, a one-dimensional control volume approach was used to make continuous Eulerian measurements of net production and community respiration from observed changes in DO within two zones: an inner zone dominated by seagrass and an outer zone dominated by macroalgae. Community respiration (R) was controlled primarily by DO concentration ; however, fluxes approached the limits of DO mass transfer at low flow speeds. Estimates of gross primary production (P) suggested that reef communities were able to fix carbon at rates comparable to other tropical seagrass and mixed reef flat communities despite short-term ($hours) extremes in light (up to 1800 lmol m 22 s 21) and temperature (> 358C). Daily net community production fluctuated between net autotro-phy and heterotrophy over a $15 d period depending on the phase difference between the solar and tidal cycles but was nonetheless metabolically balanced on time scales greater than weeks (P : R 5 1.0–1.
... In the past, the intimate relationships between Indigenous people and nature were primarily a focus of anthropologists and social scientists. Over the last few decades, the value of Indigenous ecological knowledge has come to the attention of international land and sea managers and ecologists (Fig. 4.12; Berkes et al. 2000; Horstman and Wightman 2001; Ens et al. 2012a). Indigenous knowledge presents a clear example of how social science can be used to inform or become more integrated with ecological science and environmental management. ...
Chapter
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To inform the management of Australia’s natural and cultural resources, conservation science needs to better engage with the broader public who ultimately have control over what knowledge and priorities are applied in the short-term and the long -term. This chapter explores some of the key cultural drivers and challenges that influence the way that we, as a nation, engage with the environment and how we reconcile environmental investments against social and economic aspirations. By ‘culture’, we refer to the diverse values and subsets of society that generate different knowledge systems and priorities from which decisions are made. These values are shaped by (and characterise) cultural groupings of people based on their nationality (or nationalities), and socio-economic, educational and employment backgrounds. The challenge for conservation is to set priorities and develop coherent policies that respect the diversity of interests held within our society while also maintaining environmental values for future generations. This will require collaboration between ecologists, social scientists, government, industry stakeholders and the community to produce a long-term vision that not only facilitates ecological sustainability but also facilitates inclusive and adaptive approaches to land use and management. In this chapter we explore the main cultural drivers of ecological monitoring and conservation in Australia. We examine the culture of science itself, the influence of different land- use industries, and the cultures inherent to education, Indigenous Australia, economics and policy. We also present an overview of the socio-cultural engagement of researchers undertaking long-term ecological monitoring in Australia, with a focus on the plot networks currently supported by the Long-term Ecological Research Network (LTERN, within Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network – see, Chapter 1 refers) that feature heavily in this book. This survey showed that most researchers have engaged with the conservation and higher education sectors, but hadwith very limited engagement with other dominant land- use sectors such as agriculture and Indigenous land. A brief look at some socio-ecological considerations of similar international initiatives suggests that other countries have started to broaden the focus of research to include social impact and outreach. Finally, we offer recommendations on how ecologists (and ecosystem scientists, land managers and decision -makers) can better engage with and better understand identified key cultural groups in Australia. Greater awareness of these cultural drivers will inform enhanced relevance, uptake, development and sustainability of long-term ecological monitoring to guide more inclusive and holistic management of Australia’s unique natural and cultural resources.
... Bridging institutions applied elsewhere in Australian Indigenous conservation management to promote cross-cultural equity include flexibility at all levels in field work schedules of scientists, to be able to incorporate Indigenous elders' ideas and desires into projects (Horstman and Wightman, 2001); story telling (Howitt and Suchet-Pearson, 2006;Muir et al., 2010); robust hardware and software for entering field data through text, number and picture menus (Ansell and Koenig, 2011); field guides to plant species in local Indigenous languages (Ens et al., 2016); involving Indigenous children with traditional owners and scientists in fauna surveys (Ens et al., 2016); and distinctive funding programs for Indigenous land management . Ranger groups can themselves be institutional bridges between Indigenous and non-Indigenous conceptions of work, which can otherwise be quite incommensurable (Maru and Davies, 2011;McRae-Williams and Gerritson, 2010). ...
Article
Gender equity has been recognized as a guiding principle for conservation management globally. Yet little attention is paid to gender in the design and implementation of many conservation programs including those in the vibrant and expanding arena of Australian Indigenous conservation partnerships. We examined the impact of gender in management of the Northern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) in arid central Australia through qualitative research (interviews and participant observation) with senior Warlpiri women and men and members of the all-male Wulaign community-based ranger group. Senior men and women had many similar perspectives including that customary knowledge, skills and activities were important in managing country and were occurring less through the IPA's management partnerships than they would like. Additional challenges reported by women included lack of vehicles to access country. Senior men specifically called for greater gender equity in allocation of resources including establishment of a women's ranger group. These perspectives indicate that gender equity is a Warlpiri cultural norm for management of country. Differences between Indigenous women's and men's management of country elsewhere in arid Australia suggest that opportunities also exist for gender equity to enhance conservation outcomes.Prevalent belief systems in Australia, and many other developed countries, are gender blind in that they fail to recognize differences between men's and women's needs, interests, knowledges, behaviors and power. Monitoring of Australian Indigenous conservation programs shows that an increasing proportion of Indigenous community-based rangers are women. However factors that might explain and support this trend cannot be readily identified because little or no attention to gender is apparent in program design and project planning. Gender-aware design of conservation management policies, programs and projects is important for challenging and changing gender blindness. Brokers and bridging institutions, or 'two-way' approaches, have been important in progressing cross-cultural equity in the implementation of Australian Indigenous conservation partnerships and can be expected to be also valuable for promoting gender equity.
... Although Australia's indigenous Traditional Owners Location of Tallon Island in the west Kimberley region of northwesternAustralia. have maintained their own observational knowledge of these reefs for tens of thousands of years(Horstman and Wightman 2001), no studies have previously assessed the in situ productivity of Kimberley reefs.The field experiments took place at Tallon Island(Figure 2.1), an intertidal fringing reef located in the western Buccaneer Archipelago(Solihuddin et al. 2016). It is a large reef platform (~1.5 km cross-shore) that sits slightly above mean sea level (+0.25 m AHD) and experiences semidiurnal tidal ranges in excess of 8 m during spring Instrument deployment locations on Tallon reef flat and benthic community zones determined by photographic survey. ...
Thesis
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Tide-dominated reefs experience mean tidal ranges in excess of local mean significant wave heights. Despite being common (~one third of reefs worldwide), almost no studies have focused on how the large tidal forcing of these systems controls the physical and biogeochemical properties of overlying waters and, thus, community ecological processes. This study was conducted in the remote and near-pristine Kimberley region of northwest Australia at Tallon Island. A one-dimensional control volume approach was used to estimate: 1) community production and respiration; 2) chlorophyll a and particulate nutrient fluxes: and 3) dissolved nutrient uptake and release on the reef platform.
... For examples of cross-cultural scientific collaborations see Ens et al. (2012), Brennan et al. (2012), Moorcroft et al. (2012) andWalsh et al. (2013). Cross-cultural monitoring is often used to assess natural and cultural values, and is increasingly being employed in decision making and adaptive management (defined as 'learning by doing'; Walters and Holling 1990;Westgate et al. 2013), particularly in IPAs and co-managed national parks (Horstman and Wightman 2001;Hoffmann et al. 2012;Preuss and Dixon 2012;CSIRO et al. 2019;. These approaches are ideally designed to maintain and build social-ecological resilience through ethical, productive and mutually beneficial relationships (Bohensky and Maru 2011 However, cross-cultural scientific collaboration is not applied as widely as Western science (Adams et al. 2014). ...
Thesis
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Indigenous cultural fire management is being renewed in many parts of the world. This research considered how cross-cultural knowledge can support this renewal. Indigenous rangers and Western scientists worked together to co-produce fire and seasons calendars to inform cultural burning and adaptive management of Indigenous Protected Areas. Quantitative studies compared the impact of cultural burning with hazard reduction and wildfire, on the culturally significant echida, threatened Backwater grevillea and dry sclerophyll forest. We found that Indigenous cultural fire management provides cultural, social, ecological and wildfire management benefits. This study co-produced collective knowledge that is transdisciplinary, dynamic and adaptive, and is well-suited to the increasingly complex, volatile and unpredictable conditions of the Pyrocene.
... T he surge of ecologists embracing work with Indigenous peoples is important for ethical and sustainable approaches to conservation (Berkes 1993;Pierotti 2000;Usher 2000;Horstman & Wightman 2001;Clarke 2008;Walsh et al. 2013;Ens et al. 2015). We have previously found that non-Indigenous ecologists often lack awareness or empathy towards the social dynamics and cultural governance structures that must be followed to work with Indigenous communities in a respectful and collaborative way (Smith 1999;Christie 2008;Kwaymullina 2016). ...
Article
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Collaborations between Indigenous and non‐Indigenous scientific researchers are increasingly mandated by global to local conservation policy and research ethics guidelines. Breakdowns occur due to misunderstandings around expected protocols of engagement and cooperation, which are compounded by lack of broader awareness of differences in cultural values, priorities and knowledge systems. Using first‐hand experiences, we outline eight key protocols and guidelines that researchers should consider when undertaking research with Indigenous peoples, or on Indigenous Country, through exploration of biocultural protocols and guidelines within Australian and Indigenous customary laws. We use the onion as a metaphor to highlight the layers of protocols and guidelines that researchers can peel back to guide their research from international to local scales, with ethics around the research question at the core. This paper draws on the perspectives and experiences of an Indigenous researcher (as ‘insider’/‘outsider’) and non‐Indigenous researcher (‘outsider’), working on a cross‐cultural and multidisciplinary investigation of past Aboriginal dispersal of rainforest trees on the Australian east coast. This paper is part of the special issue ‘Indigenous and cross-cultural ecology - perspectives from Australia’ published in Ecological Management & Restoration.
... Recognition of the knowledge held by the Indigenous people of Australia -often termed 'two-way' or 'right-way' sciencehas improved our ecological understanding of many species (e.g. Horstman and Wightman 2001;Telfer and Garde 2006;Butler et al. 2012;Bohensky et al. 2013). There is significant Indigenous knowledge of the northern quoll across northern Australia (Abbott 2013). ...
Article
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In response to Australia's current extinction crisis, substantial research efforts have been targeted towards some of the most imperilled species. One such species is the northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus), a marsupial predator that has recently suffered substantial declines in range and is now listed as Endangered. We conducted a systematic review of all literature relevant to the conservation and ecology of northern quolls. We reviewed 143 studies, including research articles, government and industry reports, theses, and books, and quantified research effort in terms of topic, location, and publication period. We then summarised research relevant to northern quoll taxonomy, genetics, distribution, habitat associations, diet, reproduction, movement, threats, management, and Indigenous knowledge. Research effort was higher between 2011 and 2020 than the previous four decades combined. Northern quolls in the Northern Territory were the most studied, followed by the Pilbara, the Kimberley, and Queensland populations. Most studies focused on northern quoll distribution and habitat, management, and threats-primarily cane toads, predation, and fire. We conclude with a non-exhaustive list of ten future research directions. If pursued, these future research directions should provide information critical to managing and conserving northern quolls.
... The development of the ecological sciences, particularly in northern Australia, is considered relatively young (Horstman and Wightman 2001). Cultural activities and interactions with plants create dynamic relationships that take place in specific landscapes and environments (Hynes and Chase 1982:38). ...
Article
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During archaeological excavation of Moonggaroonggoo, northwest Western Australia, ethnobotanical survey and botanical collection undertaken in collaboration with Traditional Owners helped to identify which plants were of economic importance, provided information on modern vegetative communities and documented narratives of contemporary Gooniyandi plant use. By extending the project’s focus to include traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in the cultural landscape beyond excavations, we identified distinct ecological areas of economic significance. Excavation in three rockshelters at Moonggaroonggoo revealed late Holocene deposits with limited preservation of plant remains. Therefore, the TEK was applied to another archaeological site located on Gooniyandi ancestral lands: Riwi. Collaborating with local experts to document local botany we contribute narratives on plant use in the present which have important implications for archaeological interpretations of past plant use. By engaging with macrobotanical remains as a form of material culture, we encourage a deeper understanding of plants and their socio-economic role in Aboriginal lifeways.
... The development of the ecological sciences, particularly in northern Australia, is considered relatively young (Horstman and Wightman 2001). Cultural activities and interactions with plants create dynamic relationships that take place in specific landscapes and environments (Hynes and Chase 1982:38). ...
... The fundamental link between biological, cultural and linguistic diversity lies at the root of the term 'biocultural diversity' and underpins documents on ecosystem conservation emerging from the 1992 Rio Summit on Environment and Development and following (UNESCO 1992;United Nations 2010; International Union for Conservation of Nature 2016). Certainly, humans have attempted to maintain, protect, and enhance biocultural diversity through the ages, and developed detailed knowledge and environmental management systems that aim to protect biodiversity for future generations (see, for example, Horstman & Wightman 2001;Ens et al. 2015;Wehi et al. 2018, IPBES 2019. Maintaining connections between biological diversity, language and culture creates a strong pathway for conserving the future wellbeing of people and nature (Maffi 2005;Bond et al. 2019;Cisternas et al. 2019;Walker et al. 2019). ...
... Approaches that link scientists and local Indigenous Australian communities in partnership for sustainable socialecological systems do exist (e.g., Horstman and Wightman 2001;Gratani et al. 2011;Prober et al. 2011;Robinson and Wallington 2012;Bohensky et al. 2013;Holmes and Jampijinpa 2013;Walsh et al. 2013;Ens et al. 2015;Robinson et al. 2016). However, there are few examples of regional approaches to 'knowledge partnerships.' ...
Article
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Scientists, Indigenous peoples, and local communities are increasingly seeking to combine their expertise to support sustainable management of social-ecological systems for diverse values, from local to global scales. In this paper we present an Indigenous-led approach to enable multiple evidence-based research, monitoring, and evaluation of the health of ‘Saltwater Country.’ This highlights the need to ensure knowledge can be shared, used, and co-developed to care for coastal and marine social-ecological systems within and across the Kimberley region of north-western Australia in an ethical and equitable manner. Structured yet fluid knowledge networks need to be negotiated and supported to enable Indigenous communities to implement this approach, which also requires coordinated institutional support and resourcing to produce useable knowledge that is easily translated into programs of action. We here present a process for regional-scale collaboration between Indigenous and local knowledge systems, western science, and other knowledge systems for the purpose of collaborative natural and cultural resource management and sustainable Indigenous futures.
... These reef systems represent a unique opportunity to study pristine reef communities in a strongly tide-dominated setting. Though Australia's indigenous Traditional Owners have maintained ecological knowledge of these reefs for tens of thousands of years (Horstman & Wightman 2001), no studies have previously assessed the reef-scale productivity of these systems or the relationship between productivity and daily extremes in temperature, tide, and light. ...
Technical Report
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Benthic primary producers such as corals, seagrasses and macroalgae, play significant roles in a variety of coastal processes. They provide habitat for numerous fauna, stabilise sediments, and form the basis of coastal food webs. Through photosynthesis, primary producers use sunlight as the energy source to transform dissolved carbon into new plant biomass. Tropical reef systems often display high rates of primary production; however, these rates are closely coupled to local physical (e.g., water motion, light, temperature) and biogeochemical (e.g., nutrient) environmental conditions. For example, previous studies have shown that high temperature and light levels can stress primary producers by negatively impacting photosynthesis. Our present understanding of environmental controls on reef productivity is based primarily on studies from the Caribbean, Hawaii, the southern Great Barrier Reef, and other Indo-Pacific regions, which contain mainly wave-dominated reefs. Tide-dominated reefs occur where the mean tidal range exceeds mean wave height, and constitute approximately 30% of tropical reefs worldwide. Tide-dominated reefs are known to experience much greater ranges in environmental conditions than wave-dominated reefs, yet the interactions between primary producers and environmental drivers that occur in these systems have been largely unstudied. The goals of this project were to quantify the environmental variability across a macrotidal reef system in the Kimberley, and assess how benthic primary producers responded to extremes in water motion, light, and temperature. More specifically, we investigated: 1) how tides interacted with reef morphology to drive extreme daily variability in environmental conditions; 2) how this environmental variability influenced the productivity of benthic communities living in different zones of the reef platform; and 3) how water quality in coastal waters surrounding reefs varied over the wet/dry seasonal cycle.
... Overall, the holistic, active, and integrated nature of IKSs and associated practices must be recognized and respectfully adapted within ecosystem management (Turner et al. 2000, Horstman and Wightman 2001, Bark et al. 2015. Such indigenous knowledge systems offer (at least) the potential for multiple evidence-based approaches to wetland management challenges (as in Tengö et al. 2014), but also the potential for a more fundamental reexamination of the principles that can foster enduring, sustainable human-wetland relationships. ...
Article
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Indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) can, and do, contribute to natural resource management (NRM) in Australia and elsewhere. However, cross-cultural NRM and scientific research usually emphasizes particular components of IKSs, rather than engaging with the value of an integrated complex IKS. Focusing on two case studies of Aboriginal groups in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia, we present a conceptual framework that represents how IKSs can manifest as a system of wetland management. The framework depicts how beliefs, knowledge, and practices are inter-related, forming a meaningful and organized approach in which indigenous Bardi Jawi and Nyul Nyul people historically managed, and aspire to continue managing nearby Customary Law-inherited wetlands. The framework presents a meso-scale representation of IKSs that highlights four management principles: custodianship, respectful use, active maintenance, and learning. We describe how affinities for these principles, vis-à-vis other indigenous groups, can also be discerned. Providing a visual framework tool has the potential to assist the application of IKSs to wetland management, and take account of the view that “wetlands need people,” by emphasizing the active, integrated, and reciprocal nature of these knowledge systems in place (associated with traditional lands). That indigenous people value, as well as shape, wetlands, is also considered. By interpreting the framework to support indigenous wetland management (and services to ecosystems) within active cross-cultural work, IKSs promise benefits for people and ecosystems.
... In specific places there are many unique plants and animals, which are described as endemic by ecologists. Indigenous peoples' often very detailed and intimate knowledge about these species is based in thousands of years of observation, experimentation and teaching ( Horstman and Wightman, 2001: 99). Indigenous peoples' ecological knowledge is sometimes described in western scientific discourses as 'ethnoscience' or 'non-science', and treated as inventory knowledge similar to eighteenth century botany ( Braun, 2002: 307, fn 1). ...
Chapter
The overtly technical process of making a native title application has obscured one of the central reasons why Indigenous people engage with the native title system – to affirm and promote their relationships with country. This chapter has been specifically written to bring clarity to what is meant by 'country', 'native title' and 'ecology', and how these three understandings interact in law and practice. There are three sections: 'Countries and Ecologies'; 'Native Titles' and, 'Native Title as environmental management'.
... espec1almente a traves del trabajo de Ia Cornisi6n de Politica Ambiental, Economica y Social, ha desarrollado documentos guia para facilitar el diseiio de politicas publicas ambientales en concurso c?n pueblos indigenas. ~ease, ~ntre otros, (Berkes, 1999); (Usher, 2000); (Horstman & Wightman, 2001) . . 57 El manejo del mundo esta intimamente relacionado con Ia protecci6n de sitios sagrados y los usos espec1f1cos dados a estes durante las diferentes epocas del aiio; es por ello que el calendario eco16gico y cultural es uno de los puntas fundamentales de Ia manifestacion. ...
Article
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The protection of the aboriginal cultural heritage in Colombia is framed by the right of nations to self-determination and by the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Treaty (Treaty No. 169 of the International Labour Organization). The recent ratification by Colombia for safeguarding the intangible cultural heritage in this country (Unesco 2003), entered into force in 2008 and spread the legislative base for safeguarding this heritage. This instrument strongly highlights that cultural heritage is not a static entity and its manifestations, understood that they have to be protected, should have the possibility to evolve from time to time. This brief will analyze the legislation in Colombia for safeguarding that intangible heritage. First, all impacts that took place in the traditional frame will be discuss, focused toward the protection of intangible heritage (places and monuments) against a contrast that approaches the dynamic nature of intangible heritage that allows a bigger social acceptance. Changing focus towards a holistic legal frame is an argument that recognizes and protects cultural rights and different identities in a multicultural country. Lastly, phenomenon of appropriation of the Intangible Heritage Convention and also its instruments of implementation domestically by indigenous communities historically affected who have utilized them as a legal remedy when firming their cultural rights. As an illustration of this scenario, will be used a case study, the inclusion of manifestation "traditional knowledge of the jaguar chamanes of Yurupari" on the representative list of intangible heritage of mankind by Unesco initiative of the communities of the Great Gard of Vaupes at the Colombian Amazon, and implications of this process will be discussed for sustainable development in the country.
Article
In NSW there is an increasing impetus for Aboriginal cultural interests to be factored into key aspects of environmental planning such as regional vegetation management. This creates many challenges, as long established methods of cultural heritage assessment based on an archaeological analysis of pre-contact sites cannot encompass all of the issues that this change represents. In contrast, creating a link between natural and cultural heritage planning requires consideration of historic and contemporary attachments to land, ongoing cultural practices and the sharing of knowledge. This article explores some of the implications of this shift for land management in NSW Practical research conducted by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service with Aboriginal people is used to illustrate values associated with biodiversity that will need to be considered by planning bodies.
Article
In Australia, redressing past injustices and recognising Indigenous peoples' spiritual and cultural connections to land have resulted in the return of significant amounts of land to Indigenous people. Parallel to this, in attempts to address declining biodiversity, innovative and neo-liberal approaches to conservation under a new paradigm have been promoted. The role and influence of the non-state sector are increasing, and Indigenous peoples’ involvement in conservation is also growing. This paper reviews the history of conservation and Indigenous social justice policy in Australia. It describes how the social justice agenda has been the primary motivator of returning land to Indigenous Australians, and historically has been the driver and catalyst for Indigenous peoples' involvement in conservation, whilst the conservation agenda has increased conservation on private lands and the role and influence of the non-state conservation sector. The paper reveals how the trajectories of conservation and Indigenous social justice have become intrinsically linked with the emergence of new paradigms, providing opportunities for a propitious niche. Yet it also shows how the two trajectories have manifested themselves with a paradox of disparity; achievements secured under an Indigenous social justice agenda are being enjoyed by conservation under the new paradigm, whilst Indigenous social justice is increasingly becoming dependent on a conservation agenda.
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Pariwisata telah menjadi sebuah fenomena sosial dan ekonomi karena melibatkan dan memberi manfaat terhadap banyak stakeholder. Selain itu pariwisata juga telah diratifikasi oleh banyak negara sehingga menjadi bagian dari salah satu kegiatan yang mendukung tujuan pembangunan berkelanjutan / sustainable development goals (SDGs). Pariwisata pada perkembangannya muncul dengan berbagai konsep dan jenis dimana salah satunya adalah pariwisata alam yang dapat diartikan secara sederhana adalah pariwisata yang berbasis alam. Implementasi yang paling mudah untuk melakukan pariwisata alam yaitu dengan memanfaatkan kawasan konservasi seperti taman nasional. Namun demikian, definisi taman nasional yang dimiliki masing-masing negara tidak sama dan tidak ada definisi baku untuk taman nasional yang dapat diterima secara global. Oleh karena itu, pengunjung setiap taman nasional memiliki misi yang berbeda-beda namun semuanya sama-sama memberikan dampak kepada lingkungan di taman nasional dalam tingkatan yang berbeda. Dampak terhadap lingkungan yang pada umumnya diterima secara negatif seperti sampah modern, kepadatan pengunjung dan munculnya bangunan-bangunan baru di lokasi taman nasional disebabkan karena pemahaman yang kurang tentang bagaimana melakukan kegiatan wisata di alam. Selain itu eksploitasi kegiatan pariwisata alam yang berlebihan pada akhirnya membuat pariwisata memunculkan sifat aslinya yaitu untuk rekreasi dan dikonsumsi oleh wisatawan. Situasi ini mendorong para pemerhati pariwisata untuk memikirkan agar pariwisata yang mengandalkan alam juga harus dilakukan secara berkelanjutan. Hadirnya konsep pariwisata berkelanjutan memunculkan sebuah kesempatan bahwa pariwisata harus dapat memberikan manfaat bagi generasi saat ini namun juga masih dapat dinikmati oleh generasi yang akan datang karena dikelola secara berhati-hati dengan meminimalkan dampaknya terhadap lingkungan. Salah satu konsep yang muncul untuk melakukan pariwisata berkelanjutan adalah ekowisata. Konsep ekowisata dipercaya oleh beberapa kalangan dapat memberikan solusi yang adil dan seimbang untuk kegiatan konservasi dan rekreasi di taman nasional. Namun demikian, ekowisata terkadang disalahgunakan sebagai sebuah 'green product' oleh beberapa pihak untuk menawarkan produk wisata yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Oleh karena itu, buku ini memberikan penjelasan tentang perkembangan taman nasional dan ekowisata yang terdiri dari dua bagian yaitu (i) Taman nasional dan dilengkapi dengan ulasan taman nasional di Indonesia, serta (ii) Perkembangan ekowisata dan konsep ekowisata di Indonesia. Buku ini diharapkan dapat menambah literatur pariwisata khususnya tentang taman nasional dan ekowisata di Indonesia serta dapat dijadikan pegangan bagi para akademisi dan praktisi untuk memahami dan menerapkan konsep ekowisata di taman nasional.
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As partnerships between Indigenous peoples and conservation practitioners mature, new methods are being sought to assess their effectiveness. The increasing diversity of income sources mobilised by Indigenous land and sea managers in Australia is intensifying the pressures on them to demonstrate their ‘effectiveness’ through a range of frameworks, tools and criteria. In this review, we use Indigenous land and sea management in Australia as a lens to explore the politics and practicalities of measuring the effectiveness of Indigenous conservation partnerships. We first outline current approaches to measuring effectiveness, followed by an explanation of some of the challenges. Available literature is then supplemented with the collective knowledge and experience of the authors to identify practical and achievable ways forward. We suggest four ways by which Indigenous groups and institutional investors can work together to establish meaningful criteria for ensuring effective conservation outcomes: i) develop new mutually-agreed definitions; ii) embrace the complexity of Indigenous-conservation alliances, iii) reflect regularly and collaboratively, and iv) negotiate which indicators of effectiveness can be aggregated across large scales. Well-executed evaluations of effectiveness can be powerful tools for enhancing conservation that conforms to local Indigenous values, facilitates adaptive management, and strengthens relationships between investors and Indigenous groups. By focusing on principles, process, flexibility and trust, generative ‘good faith’ approaches have the potential to support win-win outcomes for people and the environment and contribute significantly to global conservation and sustainability targets.
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This chapter briefly surveys the history of race relations and the political implications of racism in Australia, highlighting the key moments that shaped the place of race in the country’s collective national identity. This includes a discussion on how racism evolved with colonialism in the context of the capitalist demand for labour, and the way it was used to justify the continuation of the settler colonial project. It explores the two distinct but interconnected aspects of Australian racial history: relations between settler-invaders and Indigenous Peoples, and the White Australia Policy that racially restricted immigration, particularly from Asian countries. The roots of racism are embedded in a history marked by wars, dispossession and colonial expansion that advanced racist violence, conceptualised in the literature as settler colonialism. Such sustained racist and exclusionary colonial projects have ensured the continued dominance of White Anglo-Europeans for more than two centuries with long-term adverse impact on Indigenous Peoples who endured violence and other racist policies that denied their dignity and rights, and forcibly removed Indigenous children. Scholars have argued that segregationist and assimilationist policies institutionalised racism in Australia, and helped maintain Anglo-Celtic hegemony and white domination. Post-War skilled and unskilled labour needs played a key role in affecting immigration policy in Australia, and led to the arrival of non-British migrants from Europe. As Australia’s demography kept changing because of the expanding migration programs, the racially motivated assimilationist project faltered. Since then Australia has gradually moved in the multicultural direction as cultural diversity has increased. Yet, Australian multiculturalism continues to unequally positions different ethnic groups, and privileges Anglo-Celtic heritage within the national framework, including in institutional power and in political leadership. Interpersonal and institutional racism remain entrenched in Australia, as evidenced in everyday racism, anti-migrant sentiments and extreme levels of Indigenous incarceration. This chapter also discusses the social climate of Australian race relations in the context of various policies including the White Australia Policy, the Racial Discrimination Act and Australia’s multicultural policies and their impact on both interpersonal and institutional racism.
Article
Some edible insects are well known in Australia because of their use by Indigenous people. Because of their cultural and economic importance, it follows that their conservation could form part of contemporary natural resource management (NRM) effort. Yet, when considered alongside other better known plant and animal resources, there is relatively little documented knowledge of these species, contemporary pressures and conservation management requirements. A major constraint to understanding the potential role of edible insects in land management is the correct identification of species according to both non-Indigenous and Indigenous classification systems. I suggest that an important first step would be to catalogue the edible species with knowledgeable Indigenous people and to establish a national reference voucher collection to understand and document their importance for Indigenous and broader NRM.
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En el presente capítulo se analiza la situación de los anejos libres desde el acercamiento etnográfico a las comunidades indígenas de Chimborazo, Ecuador. Se pretende destacar el proceso formativo que tuvieron los anejos, las relaciones que sus miembros mantenían con los centros parroquiales y el régimen de hacienda, los conflictos a los que se enfrentaban, la capacidad de agencia que fueron generando y la manera como las radios populares contribuyeron a su consolidación organizativa. El análisis consta de cinco partes: en un inicio se reflexiona sobre la noción de anejo; seguidamente, se describe el proceso histórico de la formación de estas localidades; en la tercera parte se aborda los diversos conflictos a los que se enfrentaban; en la cuarta se reflexiona sobre la capacidad de agencia que los indígenas de estos anejos generaron, y finalmente, se señala el rol de las radios comunitarias en el proceso de fortalecimiento organizativo de estos anejos.
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It could be said that any field of practice which cannot or will not critically examine itself is at the mercy of and limited by its own blind spots. This essay systematically uncovers the mechanisms and implications of this assertion within the field of Indigenous sustainability. As a backdrop, it first quotes instructions from original colonial documents to demonstrate how Eurocentric thinking and land use practices have been unsustainable and in conflict with Indigenous thinking and land use practices from the outset. It then deconstructs the oxymoron of sustainable development and the pleonasm of Indigenous sustainability in order to show how unexamined cultural assumptions, with their imbedded ambiguities, are carried into policy and practice. This deconstruction also supports the thesis that sustainability is as much (if not more) about promoting ontological change, than exterior structural change. Finally, this essay explores how Eurocentric rational objectivity censors the spiritual and is thus pivotal to unsustainable living. It concludes with examples of ‘huge questions’ elicited from such unsustainable dynamics, and consequently proposes a practical focus for new approaches to sustainability that incorporate Indigenous spirituality.
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The potential for combining Aboriginal ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge to enhance understanding of the environment is explored. Results of a fauna survey jointly undertaken at Uluru National Park by Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, CSIRO and Aboriginal members of Mutitjulu Community provide the basis for discussion. Examination of comparative habitat classifications, recognition of faunal habitat preferences and knowledge of the effects of drought and fire suggest that information from Aboriginal people can enhance, and in some instances provide an alternative perspective to, the knowledge currently held by scientists. The scientific community will benefit by accepting Aboriginal ecological knowledge on an equal basis to scientific research. The importance of involving Aboriginal people through all aspects of the research and ensuring that they maintain control over the usage of their traditional knowledge is stressed.
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"European ('scientific') and Aboriginal ('experiential') perspectives on fire management in northern Australia are often contrasted with each other. For Europeans, management is portrayed as a science-based, strategically directed and goal-oriented exercise aimed at achieving specific ecological outcomes. In contrast, landscape burning by Aboriginal people is more of an emergent property, diffusely arising from many uses of fire that serve social, cultural, and spiritual, as well as ecological, needs. Aboriginal knowledge is acquired through tradition and personal experience, rather than through the scientific paradigm of hypothesis testing. Here I argue that, in practice, science plays only a marginal role in European fire management in northern Australia. European managers often lack clearly defined goals in terms of land management outcomes, and rarely monitor the ecological effects of their management actions. Management is based primarily on tradition, intuition, and personal experience rather than on scientific knowledge, and there is often a reluctance to accept new information, particularly when it is provided by 'outsiders.' In these ways, the processes by which European land managers acquire and utilize information are actually similar to those of indigenous Australians, and can be considered characteristic of a management culture. In this context, the conventional European vs. Aboriginal contrast might be more accurately described as a conflict between scientists on one hand and land managers in general, both black and white, on the other. That is not to say that science has all the answers and that researchers always deliver useful research outcomes. Cultural tensions between Australia's colonists and its original inhabitants rank highly on the national agenda, particularly in relation to land access and ownership. For the effective management of such land, another difficult but rewarding challenge lies in reconciling tensions between the cultures of science and management, black and white."
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