Article

The New Governance: Governing Without Government

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Abstract

The term 'governance' is popular but imprecise. It has at least six uses, referring to: the minimal state; corporate governance; the new public management; 'good governance'; socio-cybernetic systems; and self-organizing networks. I stipulate that governance refers to 'self-organizing, interorganizational networks' and argue these networks complement markets and hierarchies as governing structures for authoritatively allocating resources and exercising control and co-ordination. I defend this definition, arguing that it throws new light on recent changes in British government, most notably: hollowing out the state, the new public management, and intergovernmental manage-ment. I conclude that networks are now a pervasive feature of service delivery in Britain; that such networks are characterized by trust and mutual adjustment and undermine management reforms rooted in competition: and that they are a challenge to governability because they become autonomous and resist central guidance.

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... From the institutional aspect, governance refers to structures and rules as well as to a variety of stakeholders, such as state-actors, public actors, and private ones. These actors are addressed as equal partners in shaping and implementing public policies and regulations (Rhodes, 1996(Rhodes, , 2007. Furthermore, governance is not distinct from governmental order solely because of its multiactor nature; rather, another key feature is its multilevel nature." ...
... In this thesis, I will switch to the notion of "media governance" when my analysis is carried out on an abstract, or holistic level and signifies what Rhodes (1996;, cited by Ginosar 2013) has indicated above: "Governance refers to structures and rules as well as to a variety of stakeholders, such as state-actors, public actors, and private ones". This applies also to the two-dimensional model on assessment of media governance, provided in Section 4.6. ...
Thesis
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This thesis analyses the implementation mechanisms of media policy in Estonia. The main research problem gradually evolved during the author’s participation in several international media policy research groups and reporting. Compared to many other Central and Eastern European countries, media freedom in Estonia is rigidly upheld, the principle of net-neutrality has never been in doubt and public access to information is not restrained. Still, the research done has exhibited a decline in both the number of journalists and their autonomy. On these contradictions, identifying the actors in media, political and public domains enables the study to ask about the activity of every actor and the values they advocate. The empirical research has been published in nine works (seven articles and two addenda) of which three focus on journalism and journalists, five on various regulation systems and one specifically with the cultural development of one media channel – radio. The thesis’ cover text provides the empirical research outcome with a frame. The author connects the values for media policy – freedom, autonomy, diversity and pluralism – and the applied analysis of media policy with the ‘actor- approach’. Analysis of the results of the empirical research indicate that the decline in journalists’ autonomy derives from business profit opportunities, because Estonia does not have a strong union for journalists and the professional community shows little intent in defending their values. Innovatively, this thesis suggests a two-dimensional assessment model for media governance. This model offers the means to link the legislative framework to monitoring the activities of various actors. This kind of monitoring is relevant to account for contextual changes over time, which impact on particular actors during media governance planning. Also the changes in the context of international regulation would be accounted for under this monitoring.
... Des répondants ont d'ailleurs fait observer que les solutions visant à améliorer l'accès aux services de santé en français étaient « hors du contrôle direct » des réseaux, puisqu'elles étaient relatives, par exemple, à l'immigration francophone et aux programmes d'études d'immersion francophone. Nous avançons l'idée que l'État peut maximiser ses chances d'améliorer les résultats en créant un contexte favorable à l'émergence de liens de confiance (Argyris, 1993 ;Soparnot, 2004) et en jouant son rôle de pilote (« steering ») (Rhodes, 1996). ...
... En effet, la convergence des acteurs clés vers la résolution d'un problème commun est un enjeu considérable pour ce type de gouverne (Denis, Langley et Rouleau, 2007 ;Stoker, 1998). L'État joue un rôle particulier dans le contexte pluraliste, puisqu'il doit coordonner des acteurs interdépendants, qui ne partagent pas les mêmes buts et préférences (améliorer les résultats ; protéger des espaces francophones ; assurer la sécurité et la qualité des soins), autour d'un objectif convergent (Kickert et Koppenjan, 1997 ;Rhodes, 1996). Afin d'y arriver, il ne peut demeurer totalement en retrait, car l'absence de cibles claires et de système de mesure des résultats entrave le développement de liens de confiance. ...
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Au Canada, l’enjeu de l’amélioration de l’accès aux services de santé en français, surtout dans les provinces hors Québec, s’inscrit dans des relations complexes entre différents acteurs qui poursuivent des objectifs variés. En 2008, au Nouveau-Brunswick, l’État a remplacé les huit régies régionales existantes par deux nouvelles régies, soit la Régie régionale de la santé A (Réseau de santé Vitalité) et la Régie régionale de la santé B (Réseau de santé Horizon). Plus tard, il a été établi que Vitalité fonctionnerait en français et Horizon en anglais, et que les réseaux assureraient la prestation des services de santé dans la langue officielle du choix des citoyens. Ainsi, l’objectif général de la recherche était de comprendre l’influence des dynamiques entre les acteurs d’une gouverne en réseau sur le traitement de l’enjeu que représente l’accès aux services de santé en français. Une méthode qualitative comprenant notamment des entretiens semi-directifs (n=26) a été retenue. Les résultats montrent que, d’une part, l’offre de services dans la langue du choix des citoyens, qui est conditionnée par le cadre juridique sur les droits linguistiques, pousse les acteurs à mobiliser des stratégies axées sur la qualité et la sécurité. D’autre part, l’accès révèle une dimension symbolique, puisqu’il est associé aux notions d’équité et de gouvernance. L’accès aux services de santé en français est un sujet délicat pour l’État, qui demeure en retrait par rapport à celui-ci. Afin de mieux répondre aux besoins en santé des citoyens, cet acteur doit faire émerger des liens de confiance et formuler des objectifs clairs.
... De fato, o termo governança, em seu sentido estrito, apresenta-se associado ao problema de agência, pelo fato de existir um distanciamento cada vez maior entre a propriedade e a gestão, inclusive, no setor público (CASTRO; SILVA, 2017; RHODES, 2016;ANDREW; SHORT; JUNG; ARLIKATTI, 2015; SILVA; SENNA; LIMA JR.; SENNA, 2014;MA-TIAS-PEREIRA, 2010;BOVAIRD, 2005;BORGES;SERRÃO, 2005;PETERS, 1997;RHODES, 1996). ...
... No entanto, quando se trata da governança aplicada ao setor público denota-se como um processo de administração (WORLD BANK, 2008;MARINI;MARTINS, 2004;RHODES, 1996) Bem como infere-se que a governança resulta da propositura de reformas administrativas, que tem como objeto a ação conjunta do governo, das empresas e da sociedade civil, visando uma solução dos problemas sociais de forma sustentável (KISSLER; HEIDEMANN, 2006;LÖFFER, 2001). Tal abordagem implicitamente traduz-se em uma mudança do papel do Estado (menos hierárquico e menos monopolista) na solução de problemas públicos (SECCHI, 2009). ...
Article
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O presente estudo teve por objetivo a verificação do grau de aderência das propostas previstas no Referencial Básico de Governança Pública desenvolvido pelo Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU), nos mecanismos de governança do Tribunal de Contas do Estado do Ceará (TCE-CE). O Referencial Básico de Governança pública (RGB) do TCU tem como base para a aplicação prática da governança, por meio de três mecanismos essenciais que devem estar presentes nos órgãos públicos: liderança, estratégia e controle. Utilizou-se da metodologia com uma abordagem qualitativa, de natureza exploratória e descritiva, seguido de um levantamento a partir de uma pesquisa documental, método do estudo de caso. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a Corte de Contas cearense aderiu ao RGB por meio da política institucional de governança, o modelo implantado tem uma estrutura operacionalizada por três instâncias que possuem competências interdependentes e complementares e que conseguiu a participação da sociedade civil nos processos e projetos aplicados pelo TCE-CE, com intuito de aquilatar o desempenho do controle externo estadual, com repercussão na melhoria dos serviços prestados à sociedade.
... This provided an understanding of the concepts of governance and coordination that were inductively established. Network governance theory refers to a set of theories that address decision-making processes of public policy outcomes (Powell, 1990;Rhodes, 1996). ...
... The system, its processes and procedures impact decision-making and implementation of decisions, it can be challenged by boundaries of silos, in which ministries and government agencies are located (Egeberg et al., 2016). Further, different actors interact within governments and government agencies who have different agendas due to the mandates they receive from the ministry they are under (Rhodes, 1996(Rhodes, , 2017. ...
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The aim of this study is to broaden the understanding of how different institutional and political contexts influence the successful implementation of One Health activities. To do this, a comparative case study of Italy and Sweden, based on qualitative interviews was conducted to get an inside perspective of the structural and operational factors that impacted the implementation of the One Health approach. Concretely, the study draws on thirty-one interviews of experts from Italian and Swedish public health, veterinary, food and environmental institutes that were conducted from 2020 to 2021. The study identified important differences and similarities across the two countries with respect to governance and coordination practices. The different governance practices demonstrated that the creation and design of government agencies affected the ability to collaborate within and across sectors. Another distinction among the countries was their different approach to One Health-related procedures and meetings. Non-formalised and irregular approaches lead to challenges for collaboration and more fragmented One Health-related outputs. Similar coordination approaches in the two countries showed that institutional and project-specific One Health strategies enabled an inclusive process of designing the One Health activities. Leaders can contribute to implementing One Health projects and networks, by brokering to different sectors, enabling heterophilious collaborations and promoting knowledge translation. Hence, the comparative analysis provided insights and lessons learned into understanding institutional and government set-ups influencing One Health implementation and can inform about processes and steps that are crucial when planning and designing One Health activities.
... Fra i tanti è emblematico l'esempio degli organismi non profit, che hanno cominciato alla fine del secolo scorso a sedere attorno a diversi tavoli di rappresentanza delle comunità locali. Secondo Rhodes (1996), la loro entrata sulla scena pubblica ha sancito la nascita della governance rispetto al tradizionale government. ...
Article
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The paper addresses the issue of political representation of peripheral rural areas. The key to understanding is represented by corporatism, a doctrine and a socio-institutional practice that has had mixed fortunes in Italy and around the world. In any case, classic or sectoral corporatism has long been considered as the main form of representation of the farmers and by transposition of the rural world. The guiding hypothesis of the paper is that corporatism has stratified itself by adding new forms. Thus the traditional categories that distinguish it (centralization of representation, monopoly of membership, negotiations and agreements between a few large public and private actors) remain valid tools of analysis. Different sources of information are used in the paper to arrive at a prospective typology of forms of rural corporatism in Italy, from the more classic one operated by the municipalities to highly sophisticated forms of uncertain outcome that derive from 'projectification', a procedure shared to varying degrees by local, intermediate and central actors.
... Llegado a este punto, es posible preguntarse qué se entiende por gobernanza. Siguiendo la definición de Rhodes (1996), la gobernanza implica la existencia de redes inter-organizacionales auto-organizadas en cuyo seno se gestan y diseñan las políticas públicas. Estas redes poseen, además, la característica de mixtas, dadas las negociaciones constantes que existen entre el gobierno y la sociedad civil (Rojas y London, 2015). ...
Article
La actividad turística se ha convertido en una oportunidad de promover el desarrollo local de las ciudades, produciendo procesos de patrimonialización y valoración de recursos que pueden suscitar el interés de los turistas y visitantes. El objetivo de la presente investigación consiste en caracterizar los procesos de patrimonialización y valoración turística realizados por los diferentes actores intervinientes, prestando una especial atención a la participación comunitaria respecto a la puesta en valor turístico de los recursos paleontológicos que se encuentran en el ambiente costero de Pehuen Có, que forman parte de la Reserva Geológica, Paleontológica y Arqueológica Pehuen Có - Monte Hermoso. Metodológicamente, se plantea una revisión bibliográfica respecto a los procesos de patrimonialización y valoración turística, así como lo referido a la gobernanza de los recursos comunes. Se ha realizado un análisis del marco teórico con el fin de poder contextualizar, previo a la realización de un trabajo de campo, cómo se han desarrollado estos procesos en el caso de estudio propiamente dicho. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan que en los mencionados procesos han intervenido múltiples actores sociales y se presenta una participación conflictiva respecto a los recursos patrimoniales. Palabras clave: patrimonialización, acción comunitaria, recursos paleontológicos, turismo, Pehuen Có, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
... Yönetişim, temel olarak yönetimin karşılıklı etkileşim ve açık ilkelere dayandığını öne süren yeni bir yaklaşım olarak ortaya çıkmıştır (Rhodes, 1996). Yönetişim ile ilgili gelişmeler incelendiğinde, kavramın ilk kez 1989 yılında Dünya Bankası (World Bank, 1989) tarafından Afrika'daki ekonomik, siyasal ve yönetsel gelişmeleri değerlendirmek için kullanıldığı göze çarpmaktadır. ...
Conference Paper
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The governance approach has significantly aided in the application of principles like accountability, openness, and transparency in public administration, particularly among stakeholders. The tendency toward implementing deliberative and participatory democracy at the global and local levels has greatly increased, particularly under the influence of the understanding of governance. Governance in public administration is basically the multi-dimensional management of the public with multi-stakeholder participation. The existence of multiple stakeholders and their participation in the decision-making process highlights the significance of the governance process. The factors that affect governance in public administration in this context include democratic participation, stakeholder equality, coordination, cooperation, and harmonious processes. In this research, bibliometric analysis, a qualitative research technique, is used to analyze how the governance perspective has affected the literature on national public administration. Studies on the topic of governance in public administration from the electronic databases of the YÖK National Thesis Center and DergiPark are discussed in this direction. Moreover, this study reveals the objectives for which governance in public administration researchs was conducted in Turkey between the years of 2002 and 2021. Furthermore, it is determined how the topic in question varies according to the years, and the prominent trends and findings about governance in public administration are assessed within the context of the literature. According to the results obtained, it has been observed that the studies on governance in public administration have increased in the last three years. Other significant study findings include the predominance of studies in the field of public administration and the frequency of theoretical studies on governance. In addition, governance studies have also been addressed in other disciplines. This demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of the governance topic. The study has the potential to create a holistic perspective on governance for public administration researchers and to be a guide for future research.
... However, scholars have noted that governance is an 'elusive and much debated concept' (Griffin, 2010) and a 'significant expansion, broader than management' of society (Ison et al., 2018). The lowest common denominator characterises governance as a departure from traditional ruling and top-down control, which are associated with government, towards participative forms of policy-making, in which, according to Rhodes (Rhodes, 1996), 'self-organizing, interorganizational networks' […] complement markets and hierarchies as governing structures for authoritatively allocating resources and exercising control and co-ordination'. This characterisation positions governance at the intersection of governmental control, competitive market dynamics and the private sphere of citizens (Offe et al., 2008;Grzeszczak, 2015). ...
Article
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The reliability of infrastructure that is critical to society’s functionality, survival and progression has gained significance for both national security and research because of its large-scale and interdependent nature. However, the theoretical basis of the relatively new research field of critical infrastructure is incomplete and the common parlance about the underlying concepts is ambiguous. This article addresses this issue and presents the results of a substantial review of scientific literature on the concepts of systems, infrastructure and governance. The results demonstrate that the concepts encounter a common challenge in characterising their key elements, structures and processes because of their recursive nature. The multi-level character of critical infrastructure systems provokes governance to systemically address the properties of adaption, emergence and entropy which the complex system-of-systems exhibits. This article contributes with both a conceptual study of the terms system, infrastructure and governance and a detailed review of the state of the art regarding these concepts in the current scientific literature to an enhanced understanding of the theoretical foundations of the associated fields. Subsequent research could interrelate other concepts, such as vulnerability, resilience, sustainability and feedback with the provided state of the art.
... Bu nedenle ekonomik, toplumsal ve siyasal alan parçalı bir yönetsel yapıya dönüşür (Övgün, 2010: 4). Devlet yönetimine yalnız hükümetin değil, siyasal yapının dışındaki aktörlerin de eşit bir statüde katılması amaçlanmıştır (Rhodes, 1996: 652) Stoker'a göre governance tarzı yönetim modelinde, kamu harcamalarının kısıtlanması, personel rejiminin zayıflatılması ve özelleştirme uygulamalarının çoğalması söz konusudur (Stoker, 1998: 17). Yeni bir devlet-toplum ilişkisinin ortaya çıktığı dönemin kendine özgü yanları vardır. ...
... Governance essentially implies a "system of governing" and how societies are governed, ruled, directed and steered [20]. This system of governing involves collective action and cooperation to legitimize the allocation of resources and exercise control and coordination [21]. Governance evolves with the aim of achieving success through the inclusiveness of organizations and the participation of public and private sectors to meet the conditions of good government [22]. ...
Article
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Research on governance of tourism development predominantly focuses on sustainable management of a tourism destination, pinning hopes on the market and individual entrepreneurs. In Indonesia, this mission has been codified in post-reformation era (1998–2014) policies of land-use change promoting tourism and environmental conservation. One of these is the introduction of the UNESCO Geopark charter as a tool to realize the image of a modern state and “modernizing” regional economies. In this, a particular patrimonial governance arrangement appears to govern land use distribution to accrue the potential value of land from different use. This particular clientelist order will be analyzed in this article, namely by examining how finance, state power, and informal interactions between the national and regional structures of governance mesh in arranging land-use conversions for tourism purposes. Based on 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork and 32 interviews with various stakeholders in the Gunungsewu and Ciletuh UNESCO Geoparks, the paper will show how Indonesian post-reformation decentralization policies induced regional clientelism in the production of tourism destinations. This includes hierarchical relations between the local elite, private business owners, and governments representing asymmetric loyalty relations, negotiated subordination, and dominance. The more recent re-centralization attempts from the national government under Joko Widodo’s regime seem only to encourage this clientelism as a form of resistance to the state. This evidences that the Indonesian patrimonial governance and the production of tourism destinations in geoparks run counter to the ideals in governance as promoted for destination development.
... Yönetişim, temel olarak yönetimin karşılıklı etkileşim ve açık ilkelere dayandığını öne süren yeni bir yaklaşım olarak ortaya çıkmıştır (Rhodes, 1996). Yönetişim ile ilgili gelişmeler incelendiğinde, kavramın ilk kez 1989 yılında Dünya Bankası (World Bank, 1989) tarafından Afrika'daki ekonomik, siyasal ve yönetsel gelişmeleri değerlendirmek için kullanıldığı göze çarpmaktadır. ...
... Esta visão, a par de mais alguns princípios, vai parcialmente ao encontro da noção de «boa governança» europeia . Mas, existem, pelo menos, mais cinco sentidos comumente dados ao termo «governança», cujo contexto diferenciadoapesar da partilha de algumas constantes, tais como a importância da capacitação institucional (Carvalho, 2017)é destacado por Carvalho (2017), citando Rhodes (1996), nomeadamente: estado mínimo, governança corporativa, nova gestão pública, sistema socio-cibernético e redes auto-organizadas. 23 Curado (2005) . ...
... Similarly, previous research informs us that micromobility comes with a potential plethora of positive and negative implications (Asensio at al., 2022;Gössling, 2020;Li et al., 2022;Oeschger et al., 2020;Milakis et al., 2020;Petersen, 2019). Moreover, this transition relies on governance of commons (Nogueira et al., 2021;Ostrom, 1990Ostrom, , 2010, as steering and safeguarding done by multi-sector multi-layer actors, through the processes that involve policy, business and technology-related decisions (Docherty et al., 2018;Marsden & Reardon, 2017;Mladenović et al., 2020a;Rhodes, 1996). However, we know that such transformation needs to rely on a modern sustainable mobility paradigm, (Banister, 2008;Nakamura & Hayashi, 2013), where, in order of priority, there is a need to: ...
... As an important term in social sciences, governance has become overwhelmingly popular in the fields of economics, politics, environmental studies, and many other disciplines in recent decades. In fact, governance has already been a fad in which governing-without-government is infatuated with some scholars who interpret governance as a new procedural method of governing, in contrast to the old meaning of government [6,26]. ...
Article
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Governance is essentially a dynamic mechanism to promote collective action for the common good. The Chinese concept of the public/common (gōnggòng) and its political philosophy of Grand Union governance provide an alternative perspective for understanding such dynamics from the unit of family through institutions to the state-embedded society. Three critical arguments with interconnected elements are analysed: governance as a dynamic mechanism; review of the historical, philosophical and political legacy of Chinese governance; and proposal of a framework for governance of the Grand Union. It concludes that ‘Chinese characteristics’, such as diverse adaptations, gradual flexibility, experimental pragmatism, and polycentric balance with a strong central state are all deeply rooted in its pre-revolutionary ancien régime. In order to understand these seemingly different institutions and values, we need to revisit their original functionality of governing for the common good.
... 107). Rhodes (1996) felt that NPM was predicated on the privatization of governmental services that limited input and the capacity of legislation, while promoting superior governance of markets, resources, and fiscal allocations. Spicer (2001) viewed NPM as involving contrasting out, eliminating 'red tape,' holding administrators accountable for measuring results, and empowering employees (p. ...
Article
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New Public Management (NPM) is a business-oriented approach to public administration that has existed for many years. While there are mixed opinions on NPM’s level of effectiveness, I believe that the more pressing question is if it is ethical. This paper seeks to answer said question by utilizing Terry Cooper’s insights on ethics. By discussing various matters and providing multiple illustrations, such as NPM’s relationship to privatization, contrasting out, elites, and everyday citizens, this work concludes that NPM is not an ethical methodology to public administration.
... In 1995, the Public Administration scholar Rhodes remarked that the word had changed in meaning and now referred to at least six new developments in public administration. These ranged from 'New Public Management' (NPM) to 'good governance', and from the minimal state to the way private companies are run (Rhodes 1996). We here use the term in the original sense of the word, to mean 'the act of governing' (Emerson, Nabatchi and Balogh 2011: 2). ...
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... These diverse needs are addressed through effective networks of actors. Thus, the NPG movement is viewed equally as governance networks (Rhodes 1996) associated with various patterns of social interactions between mutually dependent state and non-state actors built up around complex public management and governance issues (Koppenjan and Klijn, 2004:69-70). Emerging from the above quote is that NPG encompasses all various interaction processes within the context of mutually inclusive networking actors. ...
Article
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The recent global experiences of new collaborations, participatory, and liberal governance systems are increasingly demanding a systematic reconfiguration of public expenditure and management (PEM) systems, processes, and praxis. At the moment, there is no consensus regarding the importance, scope, and implications of these prevailing PEM reforms. The New Public Governance (NPG) is widely believed to be the latest development in providing a conceptual pillar and theoretical foundation to explore this transformative nature of PEM. This paper presents NPG as a theoretical construct; and interrogates its value in exploring the nature and context of emerging PEM issues. Revelations of the study point to the growing adoption of the NPG in both theory and practice, albeit with mixed results. Evidence aground reveals that while NPG has been widely applied in exploring the current and growing complex PEM issues, it is not the solution to fully comprehend the emerging government expenditure management issues. An evident knowledge gap calls for a de-mystification of this new theoretical construct and explores its empirical value in studying contemporary fiscal reforms. Consequently, the paper advances the argument that a hybrid theoretical construct can be more effective in providing a solid theoretical base for exploring the extant global complex PEM challenges. The thesis of a hybrid governance theory is anchored on, among others, citizen participation, innovation, inter-organizational linkages, and mutual trust to address the current public administration and governance challenges.
... De acuerdo con Rhodes (1996), la gobernanza se refiere a nuevas formas de gobierno en el que Organizaciones No Gubernamentales (ong), entidades del sector privado y otros actores externos al Estado, que tiene un papel más relevante en las decisiones públicas, la elaboración de políticas públicas y la planeación. Parafraseando a Jessop (1998), la gobernanza implica dirigir de manera organizada distintos entes y empresas que son, dentro de su sistematización, muy independientes entre sí, pero estructuralmente acoplados debido a su interdependencia mutual. ...
... Rhodes establishes that governance is self-organizing and inter-organizational networks. This argument is based on the increasing importance of the role of networks that complement markets and hierarchies so that Rhodes defines 11 https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_91.htm 12 Rhodes, R. A. W., The New Governance: Governing without Government '., 1996., Political Studies (1996 governance as a change in the meaning of government, referring to a new process of governance, or changing conditions of good governance, or a new method used to organize society. ...
Article
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This paper aims to determine the Indonesia Supreme Audit Institution (BPK) strategic planning process which is authorized to carry out audits of governance and state financial responsibility. Through input process output approach, this paper also introduces a strategic thinking framework in strategic audit planning design. The input consists of the basic values of the BPK and the relationship model for management, organization and administration. NPG, SWOT and audit standards compliance are the process approaches used. The resulting output is a quality audit or good strategic planning which ultimately results in the achievement of the accountability organization maturity model and the impact on the achievement of the goals of the state.
... Para Frederickson et al. (2012), a Governação se apresenta num contexto de fragmentação institucional, como as relações laterais e entre instituições na administração pública. Rhodes (1996) interpreta Governação de seis formas distintas, nomeadamente: Governação como Estado mínimo, Governação corporativa, Governação como Nova Gestão Pública, Boa Governação, Governação como sistema sócio cibernético e Governação como rede de autoorganização. Em 2007, o autor refletiu sobre as interpretações mencionadas, e definiu Governação como o modo de governar com e por meio de redes (RHODES, 2007). ...
Article
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This paper aims to relate the literature on Post-Bureaucratic Administration and Governance with a program of public policies in the Portuguese justice sector, namely, the Plan Justiça mais Próxima 20|23. The theoretical framework expands the concept of Governance, approaching its characteristics (networks and structures), and over the stakeholders participation in Public Administration. This paper follows a qualitative approach and uses content analysis as a data analysis technique. We concluded that the plan under analysis presents a vision, objectives, and characteristics in accordance with the principles of the Governance movement.
... The first connotation insists on the involvement of the government in governance as discussed in terms of the rationalistic perspective following the principal-agent theory and game theory (Le Grand & Bartlett, 1993;McQuaid, 2000), at the same time, the second connotation insists on all the stakeholders including the government (Torfing, Pierre, Peters, & Sorensen, 2011) as discussed in the institutionalist perspective (Sørensen & Torfing, 2007;Torfing et al., 2012). It also makes scholars argue that there is a strong feeling that the public administration is a big failure, due to which the involvement of other stakeholders is mandated for a better result of governance (Rhodes, 1996). Here, the governance networks are commonly defined as a relatively stable horizontal articulation of interdependent, but operationally autonomous actors from the public and/or private sector; who interact with one another through ongoing negotiations; which take place within a relative institutionalized framework with regulative, normative, cognitive and imaginary elements; facilitate self-regulation in the shadow of hierarchy (a kind of 'bounded autonomy'); and contribute to the production of public purpose in the broad sense of public values, visions, plans, standards, regulations and concrete decisions (Sørensen & Torfing, 2007). ...
Article
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Academic Governance is a concept of managerial, social, and legal significance. This paper tries to understand the reasons behind the selected malpractices in either the managerial/academic areas or functions of educational institutions. It would help to understand the regulatory mechanisms in academia and their roles in the process and execution of the teaching and learning process. It would help the educationists and activists to come up with areas needing revision and reformation in the academic world. It tries to find the causes/factors leading to certain types of governance issues in academia based on three theories such as governance without government, the new public management/governance, and the network governance theories. It tries to bring out the recent insights as reported articles on the subject from open sources and scholarly publications. Content Analysis using PRISMA Protocol is the research design used in writing the results and discussions. Most of the failure reasons/causes are due to the failures of privatization, and network governance failures. Thus this paper would serve the consolidation of where and why such lapses happen and how to curb them.
... The first connotation insists on the involvement of the government in governance as discussed in terms of the rationalistic perspective following the principal-agent theory and game theory (Le Grand & Bartlett, 1993;McQuaid, 2000), at the same time, the second connotation insists on all the stakeholders including the government (Torfing, Pierre, Peters, & Sorensen, 2011) as discussed in the institutionalist perspective (Sørensen & Torfing, 2007;Torfing et al., 2012). It also makes scholars argue that there is a strong feeling that the public administration is a big failure, due to which the involvement of other stakeholders is mandated for a better result of governance (Rhodes, 1996). Here, the governance networks are commonly defined as a relatively stable horizontal articulation of interdependent, but operationally autonomous actors from the public and/or private sector; who interact with one another through ongoing negotiations; which take place within a relative institutionalized framework with regulative, normative, cognitive and imaginary elements; facilitate self-regulation in the shadow of hierarchy (a kind of 'bounded autonomy'); and contribute to the production of public purpose in the broad sense of public values, visions, plans, standards, regulations and concrete decisions (Sørensen & Torfing, 2007). ...
... Therefore, it is important to highlight that government contracting is, fundamentally, one of the NPM tools, whose principles are tributaries of Business Administration, but predominantly, of New Institutional Economics. The main ideas that substantiate this school of thought are organized around the introduction of market logics in the scope of public administration, based on i) the creation of incentive structures, ii) emphasis on competition encouraged by the use of contracts and by the quasi-market, iii) client choice theory; and iv) division of state bureaucracy between policy designers and enforcers (Hood, 1991;Rhodes, 1996). From the theoretical standpoint, one of its main contributions is the Agency Theory. ...
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... Assim sendo, importa assinalar que a contratualização é, fundamentalmente, uma das ferramentas do NPM, cujos princípios não são só tributários da Administração de Empresas, mas, predominantemente, da Nova Economia Institucional. As principais ideias que sustentam essa escola estão organizadas em torno da introdução da lógica de mercado na esfera da administração pública, a partir de i) criação de estruturas de incentivos, ii) ênfase à competição fomentada pelo uso de contratos e pelo quase-mercado, iii) teoria da escolha do cliente e iv) divisão da burocracia estatal entre formuladores e executores da política (Hood,1991;Rhodes, 1996). Já do ponto de vista teórico, um dos seus principais aportes é a Teoria da Agência. ...
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... De acordo com Rhodes (1996), diferentes visões acerca de redes de políticas públicas com participação da sociedade oferecem diferentes desafios para o gestor público. Sendo assim, os gestores públicos, por sua vez, devem agir como guardiães do interesse público? ...
... As motivações para tanto são diversas e incluem limitações fiscais, ineficiência, em determinados casos, da administração pública, pressões pela democratização dos processos de tomada de decisão e recomendações de organismos internacionais. No cerne dessa mudança, propõe-se a criação de conselhos e de outras formas descentralizadas de governança com a | 49 participação de todos os indivíduos ou grupos que afetam ou são afetados por determinada política pública (Rhodes, 1996). ...
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Rod Rhodes is Professor of Politics and Head of Department at the University of York and editor of Public Administration. He thanks Neil Carter (York) and Janice McMillan (Robert Gordon) for their comments on an early version.
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Current western aid and development policy aims to promote ‘good governance’ in the third world. Few would deny that competent, open and fair administration is both a worthy aim and a self-evident requirement of development. However, the current orthodoxy clearly illustrates the technicist fallacy, which is implicit in the following quotation from Pope, that the effective administration or ‘management’ of development is essentially a technical or practical matter. This article argues that development is fundamentally a political matter and that it is illusory to conceive of good governance as independent of the forms of politics and type of state which alone can generate, sustain and protect it. For Forms of Government, let fools contest; Whate'er is best administered, is best. (Pope, 1734: Bk 3, lines 303-4).