Article

Expression of CR2 (C3d receptor) on the cell membranes of adult T cell leukemia

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Abstract

MT - 2 cells, which produce human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), are known to have a complement receptor. We have established that the complement receptor is CR2 which binds C3d on immune complexes but not CR1. CR2 was also detected on ATL-3I cells but no complement receptor was detected on ATL-1K cells which lack ATL antigen (ATLA). Since CR2 is not detectable on normal T lymphocytes, the presence of CR2 on some ATL cells might suggest that ATL cells were derived from a particular minor lineage of T cells, or HTLV-I has a capacity to induce CR2, which has been demonstrated to be an α-type growth factor for B lymphocytes and to be a receptor for Epstein-Barr virus.

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... In contrast to observations linking CR2 with B lymphocyte function and activation, information regarding expression and, ultimately, the physiologic role of CR2 on T lymphocytes is limited. CR2 has been reported to be expressed by T cell-derived tumour lines such as Molt-4 [18,19], on adult T cell leukaemia lines such as ATL-3 1 and MT-2 [20], and on T cell tumours [21-23], but initially not on normal peripheral T lymphocytes [24]. An EBV genome had also been detected in peripheral T lymphocytes in a patient with Kawasaki syndrome [25]. ...
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Complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21), the receptor for both the C3d,g portion of human complement component C3 and the Epstein-Barr virus, has been recently described on peripheral T cells. By using dual stain flow cytometric analysis, we have also observed that a peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulation of normal healthy donors bears CR2 in a range varying from 1.1 to 23.2% (mean 12.6%) of total CD3+ cells. T lymphocytes from nine patients with inactive SLE expressed CR2 in a similar range. Three patients with active SLE were also studied. One of them, having neuropathy and glomerulonephritis, displayed an expansion of the CR2 T cell subpopulation which reached as much as 89% of total CD3+ cells. To examine potential functional roles of T cell CR2, cells from a Jurkat-derived CR2 expressing T cell line were found to bind in vitro to human CR2-, complement-coated K562 cell targets in a CR2- and complement-dependent fashion. Based on these studies, we hypothesize that CR2 might act to increase adherence of T cells to nucleated target cells bearing C3d,g, a function which may be relevant to cytotoxicity or other T cell activities requiring cell-cell interaction.
... Cells of the human T cell lymphotropic virus type Iinfected cell line (HTLV-I), MT-2, express CR2 molecules (13) gel under non-reducing conditions. The dried gel was exposed to X-ray film with an intensifying screen at for 48 hr. ...
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We studied the physiological role of complement receptor type II (CR2, C3d/EBV receptor) expressed on T cells using MT-2 cells. First, we confirmed CR2 expression on MT-2 cells by flow cytometry and found that the MW of CR2 molecules on these cells and Raji B cells were the same by SDS-PAGE analysis. When MT-2 lysates were incubated with anti-CR2 mAb HB5 and thereafter with 32P-labeled ATP, 52- and 74-kDa proteins were phosphorylated, suggesting the activation of MT-2 cells through the complex of CR2 with these proteins. In this respect, we measured lymphotoxin production by MT-2 cells when incubated with C3d or EBV. The cytotoxicity of the MT-2 supernatant against L929 cells was elevated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Next, we confirmed EBNA expression on EBV-infected MT-2 cells and attempted to establish an EBV-positive MT-2 clone by in vitro EBV infection. However, these clones disappeared during cloning. To clarify this mechanism, we examined the EBV genome in MT-2 cells. By Southern blot analysis, BamHI digestion of DNA extracts from MT-2 cells 3 days after EBV treatment gave a 3.0-kb signal which comigrated with the EBV BamHI-W probe. The 3.0-kb signal of genomic EBV-DNA was detected at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after EBV treatment, but could not be detected at 14 days. Thus, natural ligands of CR2 stimulate CR2-positive MT-2 cells through their functionally active CR2 molecules and in vitro EBV infection of MT-2 cells might be transient.
... There is also a report to detect the C3d receptor expression on the cell membrane of adult T-cell leukemia. 28 It is hypothesized that both of these two viruses may infect the same T cells in early life and may play possible roles in the oncogenesis of ATLL. From the standpoint of multistep oncogenesis of ATLL,29 EBV may play one of the key roles in the development of ATLL following HTLV-1 infection in T cells. ...
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A retrovirus (ATLV) was unequivocally demonstrated in human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines by density (1.152-1.155 g/cm3) in a sucrose gradient, reverse transcriptase activity insensitive to actinomycin D, RNA labeled with [3H]uridine, and specific proteins with molecular weights of 11,000, 14,000, 17,000, 24,000, and 45,000. Furthermore, cDNA prepared by endogenous reaction with detergent-treated virions hybridized to 35S RNA containing poly(A), which was inducible by IdUrd treatment of a T-cell line derived from leukemic cells of the ATL, and the integrated form of ATLV proviral DNA was detected in T-cell lines derived from ATL. The ATLV proviral DNA was also detected in fresh peripheral lymphocytes from all five patients with ATL tested so far but not in those from healthy adults. On the other hand, ATLV protein of Mr 42,000 was found to be at least one of the ATL-associated antigen(s) that were previously detected in ATL-leukemic cells by all sera from patients with ATL. These findings on the close association of ATLV protein and proviral DNA with ATL are direct evidence for the possible involvement of the retrovirus ATLV in leukemogenesis of human ATL.
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The specificity, distribution, and structure of 8 different types of leukocytes membrane complement (C) receptors (CR1, CR2, CR3, and receptors for C1q, beta 1H, C3e, C3a, and C5a) are discussed. Recent data are reviewed on the synthesis of C components by macrophages and B lymphocytes, and how these components may function in the activation of these two cell type by the C system. Commonly used C receptor assay procedures are evaluated in terms of both specificity and sensitivity. Specific assay procedures are recommended for measuring CR1 (C4b-C3b receptor), CR2 (C3d receptor), CR3 (C3bi receptor), and the beta 1H receptor. Assays include both rosette and fluorescence procedures for detection of C receptors on either mouse or human leukocytes. Primary systems have been selected for optimal sensitivity and specificity, and where possible, acceptable alternative systems that are less sensitive or specific are suggested for laboratories lacking facilities for C purification.
Article
Indirect immunofluorescence of certain human sera demonstrated an antigen(s) in the cytoplasm of 1--5% of the cells of a T-cell line, MT-1, from a patient with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), which is endemic in southwestern Japan. The antigen was not detected in other human lymphoid cell lines, including six T-cell lines, seven B-cell lines, and four non-T non-B cell lines. The antigen did not show cross antigenicity with that of herpesviruses, including Epstein--Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, herpesvirus saimiri, and Marek disease virus. The proportion of antigen-bearing cells was increased by a factor of approximately 5 on culture in the presence of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Antibodies against the antigen in MT-1 cells were found in all 44 patients with ATL examined and in 32 of 40 patients with malignant T-cell lymphomas (most of them had diseases similar to ATL except that leukemic cells were not found in the peripheral blood). The antibodies were also detected in 26% of the healthy adults examined from ATL-endemic areas but in only a few of those examined from ATL-non-endemic areas. On electron microscopy, extracellular type C virus particles were detected in pelleted MT-1 cells cultured in the presence of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine.
Genomic structure of HTLV and its involvement in the development of adult T-cell leukemiaHuman T-cell Leukemia Lymphoma Viruses
  • M Yoshida
  • M Seiki
  • S Hattori
  • T Watanabe
Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • B J Poiesz
  • F W Ruscetti
  • A F Gazdar
  • P A Bunn
  • J D Minna
  • R C Gallo
Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Poiesz