Outcomes of Co‐Morbid Alcoholic Men: A 1‐Year Follow‐Up
In this prospective, 1-year study, 360 males admitted to an inpatient alcoholism treatment program were administered a DSM-III compatible structured interview and subtyped by co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Forty percent satisfied diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence while 27% met criteria for alcohol dependence and one additional psychiatric syndrome. The dually diagnosed patients were divided into: alcohol dependence plus drug abuse, alcohol dependence plus antisocial personality and alcohol dependence plus depression. These subtypes were compared on multiple dimensions at intake and at 1-year follow-up. At follow-up, all groups showed significant improvement in drinking and psychosocial functioning. The results suggest that subtyping alcoholics by co-morbid psychiatric disorders may be a good postdictor of clinical history, but a poor predictor of drinking outcome.
Available from: Ann M Manzardo
- "(Knop et al., 2009). The Psychosocial Interview also collected extensive data about the quantity and frequency of the consumption of beer, wine, and distilled spirits in the recent past and included the 32- item Alcoholism Severity Scale used in other studies by our group (Penick et al., 1987; Powell et al., 1992) to evaluate the major symptoms of alcoholic drinking both in the past year and over the subject's lifetime. The second interview administered at the 30-year followup was the PDI-R (Othmer, et al., 1989). "
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ABSTRACT: In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.
The 202 male subjects who completed a 40-year follow-up were originally selected from a Danish birth cohort (N = 9,182). Two thirds of the subjects were high-risk biological sons of treated alcoholics. A large number of measures (361) were obtained at different periods before any subject had developed an alcohol-use disorder. At age 40, a psychiatrist provided mutually exclusive lifetime diagnoses of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence that were characterized as currently active or currently in remission according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, course specifiers.
The majority of subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse were in remission at age 40 compared with those with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (88% vs. 58%). Treatment did not predict remission. Fourteen of the 18 predictors of remission that also predicted dependence were submitted to an exploratory factor analysis (varimax). Two premorbid dimensions were identified: cognitive efficiency and early behavioral dyscontrol in childhood. Both factors predicted the failure to remit (low cognitive efficiency and high behavioral dyscontrol) even when lifetime alcoholism severity was controlled.
This 4-decade study found a striking disconnect between measures that predicted alcohol dependence and measures that predicted remission from alcohol dependence. Reduced cognitive efficiency and increased behavioral dyscontrol may be basic to gaining a fuller understanding of the etiology of alcoholism.
Available from: Per Vaglum
- "We have also used both a well-established structured interview (CIDI) and self-report instruments (MCMI, HSCL-25). The relatively long follow-up period (75 months) is also a strength, minimizing the "baseline effect" . "
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ABSTRACT: A high prevalence of lifetime psychiatric disorders among help-seeking substance abusers has been clearly established. However, the long-term course of psychiatric disorders and mental distress among help-seeking substance abusers is still unclear. The aim of this research was to examine the course of mental distress using a six-year follow-up study of treatment-seeking substance-dependent patients, and to explore whether lifetime Axis I and II disorders measured at admission predict the level of mental distress at follow-up, when age, sex, and substance-use variables measured both at baseline and at follow-up are controlled for.
A consecutive sample of substance dependent in- and outpatients (n = 287) from two counties of Norway were assessed at baseline (T1) with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Axis I), Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Axis II), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25 (mental distress)). At follow-up (T2), 48% (137/287 subjects, 29% women) were assessed with the HSCL-25, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test.
The stability of mental distress is a main finding and the level of mental distress remained high after six years, but was significantly lower among abstainers at T2, especially among female abstainers. Both the number of and specific lifetime Axis I disorders (social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatization disorder), the number of and specific Axis II disorders (anxious and impulsive personality disorders), and the severity of substance-use disorder at the index admission were all independent predictors of a high level of mental distress at follow-up, even when we controlled for age, sex, and substance use at follow-up.
These results underscore the importance of diagnosing and treating both substance-use disorder and non-substance-use disorder Axis I and Axis II disorders in the same programme.
Available from: Clara M Bradizza
- "The length of the post-treatment follow-up period ranged from 6 to 24 months. Two of the studies recruited only men (Powell et al., 1992; Sellman & Joyce, 1996) while the three others recruited mixed gender samples (Hasin et al., 1989; Miller, Hoffman, Ninonuevo, & Astrachan, 1997; Miller, Klamen, Hoffman, & Flaherty, 1996). "
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature investigating relapse to alcohol and drug use among individuals dually diagnosed with a substance use and a co-occurring mood, anxiety, schizophrenia-spectrum, or personality disorder. Prevalence rates for each co-occurring set of disorders are discussed, followed by research studies that examine predictors of relapse to substance use within these groups. Relevant conceptual models well-suited to incorporating relapse as an outcome variable, and psychiatric factors both as predictor and outcome variables, are presented. Suggestions for future studies are provided. A priority area is developing and using consistent and well-articulated definitions of relapse across studies. Several diagnostic issues surfaced such as using structured clinical interviews to determine diagnosis (preferably following detoxification from alcohol and/or drugs), separating individuals with only alcohol use disorders from those with alcohol and drug use disorders in analyses, reporting the rates and types of overlap in mental health diagnoses, and conducting analyses that include and exclude multiply disordered individuals. Finally, future studies that focus on isolating predictors of relapse and abstinence could make substantive contributions to improving treatment for individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders.
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