Activities of daily living in persons with mental retardation: Strengths and limitations in specific motor and process skills

Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (Impact Factor: 0.85). 11/2003; 50(4):195 - 204. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1630.2003.00401.x


As there is a wide range of abilities among clients with intellectual disability, occupational therapists should use assessments of activities of daily living that specify clients’ strengths and limitations to guide and target interventions. The aim of the present study was to examine if activities of daily living performance skills differ between adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and forty-eight participants with either mild intellectual disability (n = 178) or moderate intellectual disability (n = 170) were assessed using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to examine the quality of their activities of daily living skills. The overall activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process hierarchies of skill item difficulties remained stable between groups. Although participants with moderate intellectual disability had more difficulty overall with activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process skills, they were able to carry out some of these activities equally as well as participants with mild intellectual disability. The findings are discussed in relation to the planning of specific interventions to improve the ability of clients with intellectual disability to carry out activities of daily living.

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    • "The researchers den Ouden et al. (2013) identified predictors of the development of ADL disability at ten-year follow-up; they found that the number of chronic diseases, muscle strength, age, gender and socioeconomic status were predictors of ADL disability . Kottorp et al. (2003) found that people with a moderate ID level had more difficulty overall with ADL motor and processing skills, but they were able to carry out some of those activities as well as the participants with mild ID. There were many limitations to this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to investigate the level of functional independence of adolescents and adults with Down syndrome (DS) and to examine the influence of their demographic characteristics, level of disability, and comorbidities on their functional independence. The study population was obtained from the voluntary registry members of the Republic of China Foundation for Persons with DS in Taiwan. Two hundred and sixteen adolescents and adults with DS (蠇15 years) whose caregivers had completed valid structured questionnaires were recruited for the study. The present study used the Barthel Index (BI) of activities of daily living (ADL) to determine a baseline level of physical functioning in people with DS. The results showed that 1.9% of the cases were severely dependent (BI score 21-60), 20.4% of the cases were moderately dependent (BI score 61-90), 8.3% of the cases were mildly dependent (BI score 91-99), and 69.4% of the cases were totally independent (BI score 100). The multiple logistic regressions indicated that those DS respondents with milder disability level, no comorbidity conditions, and lower risk for dementia were more likely to be functional independence than their counterparts. of the respondents with DS. Regarding the improvement of the quality of life of people with DS, this study highlights the fact that action should be taken to increase the awareness of the functional independence among adults with DS and that specific interventions should be taken to improve the ability of adults with DS to carry out their activities of daily living.
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    • "As the sample size impacts on the standard errors of item difficulty estimates, this may result in significant but not meaningful differences between items. Therefore, we also evaluated the size of the discrepancy between item difficulty estimates using an additional approach where the item standard error was set at 0.15 logit, indicating that an item DIF must exceed 0.43 logit to also be clinically meaningful (Petersson et al., 2008; Kottorp et al., 2003; Stauffer et al., 2000). SPSS for Windows Version 14.0 software (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was also used to analyse demographic data, concurrent validity, and possible differences in sociodemographic and clinical variables between persons with and without misfit. "
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    ABSTRACT: Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility. The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties. An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability. CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79). The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies.
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