Article

Activities of daily living in persons with mental retardation: Strengths and limitations in specific motor and process skills

Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (Impact Factor: 0.85). 11/2003; 50(4):195 - 204. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1630.2003.00401.x

ABSTRACT

As there is a wide range of abilities among clients with intellectual disability, occupational therapists should use assessments of activities of daily living that specify clients’ strengths and limitations to guide and target interventions. The aim of the present study was to examine if activities of daily living performance skills differ between adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and forty-eight participants with either mild intellectual disability (n = 178) or moderate intellectual disability (n = 170) were assessed using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to examine the quality of their activities of daily living skills. The overall activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process hierarchies of skill item difficulties remained stable between groups. Although participants with moderate intellectual disability had more difficulty overall with activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process skills, they were able to carry out some of these activities equally as well as participants with mild intellectual disability. The findings are discussed in relation to the planning of specific interventions to improve the ability of clients with intellectual disability to carry out activities of daily living.

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    • "The researchers den Ouden et al. (2013) identified predictors of the development of ADL disability at ten-year follow-up; they found that the number of chronic diseases, muscle strength, age, gender and socioeconomic status were predictors of ADL disability . Kottorp et al. (2003) found that people with a moderate ID level had more difficulty overall with ADL motor and processing skills, but they were able to carry out some of those activities as well as the participants with mild ID. There were many limitations to this study. "
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    • "As the sample size impacts on the standard errors of item difficulty estimates, this may result in significant but not meaningful differences between items. Therefore, we also evaluated the size of the discrepancy between item difficulty estimates using an additional approach where the item standard error was set at 0.15 logit, indicating that an item DIF must exceed 0.43 logit to also be clinically meaningful (Petersson et al., 2008; Kottorp et al., 2003; Stauffer et al., 2000). SPSS for Windows Version 14.0 software (SPSS Inc., IL, USA) was also used to analyse demographic data, concurrent validity, and possible differences in sociodemographic and clinical variables between persons with and without misfit. "
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