The relationship among insight, cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia and their relatives’ perception

Institute of Behavior Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (Impact Factor: 1.63). 11/2005; 59(6):657 - 660. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01433.x


Abstract Medically, insight is a multidimensional concept. Results of previous studies are inconclusive regarding the relationship between insight and global and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among insight, patients’ global function, cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia and their key caregivers’ perception about this disorder. Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia were recruited. Cognitive function such as memory index proved to be a significant predictor for patients’ insight; environmental factors such as caregivers’ perception was not. In addition to cognitive deficit, whether the other factors such as genetic variability, medication use, environmental factors, and illness severity, etc., could influence insight of patients will still be a controversial issue. Further multidimensional survey of the relationship with insight in a larger and comprehensive design is necessary.

Download full-text


Available from: Po See Chen, Jun 17, 2015
  • Source
    • "The computerized version of the 128-card WCST requires the participants to match a response card to four stimulus cards based on color, form, or shape; participants are only told whether each response is correct or incorrect. The WCST is sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction and has been reported to have good reliability and validity when used for a population of Han Chinese in Taiwan (Chen et al., 2005). This study uses four main indices of WCST for analysis: (a) total errors: the total number of incorrect responses; (b) perseverative errors: the number of incorrect responses in the same category as the immediately preceding incorrect response; (c) nonperseverative errors: number of errors that were not perseverative;(d) conceptual level response: proportion of consecutive correct responses occurring in runs of three or more, which suggests insight into the correct sorting principles. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Methamphetamine (MAMP) and ketamine are neurotoxic drugs whose chronic use has been linked with a cognitive decline in some users. This paper aims to assess the possible effect of concomitant ketamine use on the neurocognitive performance of MAMP users. Methods: This study divides 42 MAMP users into MAMP users who use ketamine (MAMP+K, n = 16) and MAMP users who do not use ketamine (MAMP-K, n = 26). The performance of these two groups was compared using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), Conners' Continuous Performance Tests (CPT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Results: In comparison to the MAMP-K group, the MAMP+K group showed worse performances in verbal fluency, executive function and composite score in BACS; worse performances in total errors, perseverative errors, nonperseverative errors and conceptual level response in WCST; and greater levels of total scores and novelty-seeking in BIS. Neither the attention function evaluated with CPT nor the decision-making behavior evaluated with IGT was associated with previous ketamine use. Conclusion: This study detected worse executive function and higher impulsivity level among MAMP users with additional ketamine use versus their counterparts without ketamine use. Further studies with a longitudinal design and a large sample size are necessary to clarify the connection between cognitive deficits and concomitant use of MAMP and ketamine.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Substance Use & Misuse
  • Source
    • "and test-retest reliability after 3 months is 0.55-0.84 [35]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to determine the time course of improvements in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinical symptoms and neurocognitive function in a realistic clinical setting, and the differences in ADHD symptom improvement using different classifications of ADHD subtypes. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of ADHD children at the initial visit. The computerized Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, and Version IV Scale for ADHD (SNAP-IV), and ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) were performed at baseline, one month, three months, and six months later, respectively. Patient care including drug therapy was performed at the discretion of the psychiatrist. The ADHD patients were divided into DSM-IV subtypes (Inattentive, Hyperactive-impulsive and Combined type), and were additionally categorized into aggressive and non-aggressive subtypes by aggression scale in CBCL for comparisons. There were 50 ADHD patients with a mean age of 7.84 ± 1.64 years; 15 of them were inattentive type, 11 were hyperactive-impulsive type, and 24 were combined type. In addition, 28 of the ADHD patients were grouped into aggressive and 22 into non-aggressive subtypes. There were significant improvements in clinical symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention, and impulsivity performance in CPT during the 6-month treatment. The clinical hyperactive symptoms were significantly different between ADHD patients sub-grouping both by DSM-IV and aggression. Non-aggressive patients had significantly greater changes in distraction and impulsivity performances in CPT from baseline to month 6 than aggressive patients. We found that ADHD symptoms, which included impulsive performances in CPT and clinical inattention and hyperactivity dimensions, had improved significantly over 6 months under pragmatic treatments. The non-aggressive ADHD patients might have a higher potential for improving in CPT performance than aggressive ones. However, it warrant further investigation whether the different classifications of ADHD patients could be valid for predicting the improvements in ADHD patients' clinical symptoms and neurocognitive performance.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · BMC Psychiatry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lack of insight into their illness continues to be a significant barrier to treatment for people with schizophrenia. However, some people with the illness do develop insight which then results in stability and recovery from their condition. Having met the criteria of good insight, nineteen participants participated in semi-structured interviews exploring the concept of insight and recovery in the context of their personal experiences. Research design used grounded theory methodology layered with a further narrative analysis. The literature review and theoretical perspectives of care provide the context for the research, thus illuminating the known and determining what mysteries in insight development remain. Study findings revealed a Paradox of Insight within a 3-stage process of insight development: The Period of Chaos, the Dynamic Period, and the Period of Wisdom. An overarching Theory of Dangerousness explains the turning point from illness to recovery. This turning point occurs with a Trinity of Crisis. Within this theory, Four Constructions of Dangerousness explain how the meaning making of dangerousness affects recovery. Additionally, Four Types of Insight support this recovery. The importance, meaning, and relevance of study findings for recovery are the focus of the discussion. Six inter-rator focus groups affirmed the findings. Policy and practice implications are discussed, along with recommendations for further research and the acknowledgement of study limitations.
    Preview · Article ·
Show more