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The Impact of Competency Statements on Résumés for Short‐listing Decisions

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Sixty-two managers and human resource consultants rated a series of genuine résumés with covering letters. The résumés were manipulated to contain varying amounts of information about the candidate’s knowledge, skills and abilities (competency statements). This information appeared at different locations in the résumé and covering letter. In addition, half the managers were provided with extra job requirement details beyond the job advertisement. Managers rated the candidate résumés for candidate suitability, decision to interview and overall ranking. The inclusion of competency statements resulted in higher manager ratings. However, the location of the competency statements did not influence ratings given to résumés. Further, the extra information provided to managers did not influence their ratings. The results replicate and extend an earlier study by Earl, Bright and Adams (1998) and challenge the idea that selection decisions are largely based on the notion of applicant fit. The results suggest that the inclusion on the résumé of statements that address job competencies even in a general fashion will boost an applicant’s chances of being short-listed.
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The Impact of Competency Statements
on Re
Âsume
Âs for Short-listing Decisions
Jim E.H. Bright* and Sonia Hutton
Sixty-two managers and human resource consultants rated a series of genuine re
Âsume
Âs with
covering letters. The re
Âsume
Âs were manipulated to contain varying amounts of information
about the candidate's knowledge, skills and abilities (competency statements). This
information appeared at different locations in the re
Âsume
Âand covering letter. In addition,
half the managers were provided with extra job requirement details beyond the job
advertisement. Managers rated the candidate re
Âsume
Âs for candidate suitability, decision to
interview and overall ranking. The inclusion of competency statements resulted in higher
manager ratings. However, the location of the competency statements did not influence
ratings given to re
Âsume
Âs. Further, the extra information provided to managers did not
influence their ratings. The results replicate and extend an earlier study by Earl, Bright and
Adams (1998) and challenge the idea that selection decisions are largely based on the notion
of applicant fit. The results suggest that the inclusion on the re
Âsume
Âof statements that address
job competencies even in a general fashion will boost an applicant's chances of being short-
listed.
T
he re
Âsume
Âis widely regarded as a
fundamental component in the job search
process. The use of the re
Âsume
Âis a principal tool
in employment selection from the perspective of
both the candidate and the prospective
employer. It provides a means for employers
to short-list candidates and the opportunity for
applicants to market their skills and abilities, and
impress the reader. Despite this, it is perhaps
surprising that empirical and theoretical research
in this area is lacking in comparison to other
aspects of the selection process such as the job
interview or selection testing (Brown and
Campion 1994; Helwig 1985; Ryland and Rosen
1987; Stephens, Watt and Hobbs 1979).
Furthermore, much of the advice on re
Âsume
Â
writing is anecdotal and based on intuition or
personal experiences (Bright and Davies 1999;
Bright and Earl, forthcoming).
Re
Âsume
Âs often represent the initial point of
contact between an applicant and an
organization. Consequently, the impression
formed on the basis of a re
Âsume
Âmay determine
whether a candidate is short-listed and pro-
gresses to the next stage of the selection process
(Knouse 1994; Welch 1991). In light of this,
theory-driven research is required to ascertain
the extent to which candidates are able to
influence the impression they create on
prospective employers. Impression management
theory may be applied in this context.
According to impression management theory,
people employ tactics to attempt to construct
and convey a particular image by controlling the
information available to others (Kacmar and
Carlson 1994). Specifically, in the job search
process these are employed by candidates to
control the perceived impression of their
experience, competence and suitability for a
particular job (Gilmore and Ferris 1989; Knouse
1994).
Impression management in this context
involves the use of a range of tactics that
attempt to control the images a candidate
portrays to the prospective employer. Typically,
these behaviours have been studied in dynamic
interactions such as employment interviews,
however, a central theme in our re
Âsume
Âresearch
is that many of the concepts developed in
research into the selection interview have
application in the domain of re
Âsume
Âs. These
tactics include attempts by the candidate to
concentrate the conversation towards areas of
personal strength in the interview (self-focusing).
The use of verbal strategies such as self-
promotion and embellishment, which aim to
make the job seeker appear as qualified for the
job as possible is another popular tactic (Gilmore
and Ferris 1989; Kacmar, Delery and Ferris
1992).
The attractiveness and gender of the
candidate have also been found to influence
recruiters' perceptions of candidates. Marlowe,
Schneider and Nelson (1996) investigated
whether these factors affected ratings and
rankings given to four equivalent re
Âsume
Âdata
* Address for correspondence:
Jim Bright, School of
Psychology, University of
New South Wales, Sydney
2052, Australia. e-mail:
jbright@nsw.bigpond.net.au
ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK and
350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA. Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
ÂSUME
Â41
sheets which included candidate photographs.
Sadly, and predictably, they found that less
attractive candidates and females in particular,
were clearly disadvantaged compared to more
attractive candidates and males. Further, Knouse
(1989) found that letters of recommendation
regarding candidates were susceptible to
impression management techniques. Knouse
(1989) attributed this to the free-form nature of
recommendation letters that facilitated the free
expression of the writer's views in regard to the
applicant. The findings of these studies provide
support for the notion that impression
management techniques play a considerable role
regarding the success of the candidate in the
selection process. Bright, Earl and Adams (1997)
found that re
Âsume
Âs judged to be written by the
candidate were rated more highly when they
were presented in continuous prose rather than
bullet points. This is consistent with Knouse's
contention that free-form prose allows room for
impression management techniques.
The use of impression management on
re
Âsume
Âs in the form of self-descriptive state-
ments have been found to enhance the reader's
perception of an applicant's interpersonal skills
and self-confidence (Knouse 1994). Competency
statements can be likened to impression
management statements as they also refer to
claims made by a candidate to impress or
attempt to control the image others have of
them. A competency statement (Bright et al.
1997; Earl et al. 1998) is a succinct description of
a candidate's knowledge, skills and abilities in
relation to a specific job competency as identi-
fied in the job advertisement, or accompanying
documentation. For example, competency
statements may focus on a candidate's `moti-
vation', `market knowledge', `energy', `com-
munication skills', etc. Gardner and Martinko
(1988) argue that one type of impression
management tactic is self-description, such as a
candidate in an interview saying that they are `a
great communicator'. It would appear that our
definition of competency statements closely fits
this concept of an impression management tactic.
However, it can also be argued that such self-
descriptive statements merely convey job-
relevant information, and therefore cannot really
be considered as true impression management
techniques that are more about creating an
illusion rather than conveying information. The
critical point here is that `illusory' impression
management statements also convey
information, they are purposely designed to
convey a positive image of the candidate. They
are illusory in the sense that the information
provided cannot be substantiated as readily as,
say, academic results or work history. Thus
competency statements of a general nature (e.g.
`Energetic: I am always on the go') are more akin
to impression management techniques, whereas
more specific statements (e.g. `Good
communicator: I won the school's debating prize
in 1994') are closer to more readily verifiable
statements of fact.
Bright et al. (1997) provide support for
Knouse's (1994) findings that the inclusion of
self-descriptive competency or impression
management statements in a re
Âsume
Âsignificantly
improve perceptions of the candidate on a
number of measures including suitability for
the job.
Furthermore, Earl et al. (1998) investigated the
impact of intent and competency statements in
re
Âsume
Âs prior rated as `poor' and `good'. They
found that re
Âsume
Âs that included competency
statements had a significantly better chance of
being short-listed for an interview than those
that did not include them. Specifically, they
found that re
Âsume
Âs prior rated as `poor'
particularly benefited from the inclusion of a
competency statement (30% more candidates
interviewed) compared to re
Âsume
Âs prior judged
as `good' (10% more candidates interviewed). In
addition, the presence of competency statements
relating to energy, sales market knowledge and
motivation improved a re
Âsume
Â's ratings on other
competencies such as initiative and responsibility
and achievement orientation. Earl et al. explain
that these secondary benefits can be attributed
to the fact that `recruiters' interpret the extra
effort by candidates as evidence of other
attributes' (ibid, p. 12).
This finding is consistent with the suggestions
of Knouse (1989), who reviewed the influence of
the attributions of potential employers in regard
to a number of selection instruments, including
re
Âsume
Âs. Knouse (1989) concluded that recruiters
may make attributions or inferences about a
candidate based on the information presented in
their re
Âsume
Â, which may then influence the
decision to interview as well as other aspects of
the selection process.
However, in contrast, an earlier study by
Knouse et al. (1988) found that impression
management tactics resulted in lower ratings of
the cover letter, and particularly the re
Âsume
Â.
These results indicate that using impression
management statements may act to downgrade
rather than improve perceptions of a candidate.
Further, the research by Bright et al. revealed that
the effectiveness of competency statements was
offset by the fact that they were associated with
lower ratings of candidate honesty. They explain
that this may be the result of a mismatch
between the evidence contained in the re
Âsume
Â
and the claims made in the competency
statements.
Impression management techniques do seem
to have a positive impact when applied to
re
Âsume
Âs, however, it is unclear what processes
42 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT
Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000 ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000
underpin this impact. The present study
addresses some of these questions, by extending
the research by Earl et al. Previous studies have
found that including competency statements on
re
Âsume
Âs boosts ratings, but it is not clear
whether this positive impact is due to the
provision of extra information relating to a
particular aspect of the job, or whether the
presence of a competency statement makes a
more global impression on the manager.
Person±environment fit models of selection
predict that the strongest candidates will appear
to fit the job the most closely (e.g. Bretz, Rynes
and Gerhart 1993; Edwards 1991). In a study
examining recruiter's perceptions of applicant fit,
Bretz et al. (1993) concluded that applicants had
much to gain through an understanding of the
way recruiters perceive person±organization fit,
given that they are `the ``gatekeeper'' regulating
organisational entry' (ibid, p. 321).
If competency statements are primarily
examples of impression management tactics,
then the information they convey should be
fairly general and positive. Consequently, one
would not predict there to be a systematic
relationship between the number of competency
statements and the degree of perceived
candidate-job fit (measured by the decision to
short-list). Rather, these statements should serve
to boost candidate ratings by providing a more
general halo effect irrespective of how many are
present.
Alternatively, if competency statements serve
to provide extra information of a more specific
nature to the reader that increases the perceived
fit between the applicant and the job, the more
competency statements included in the re
Âsume
Â,
the more likely that applicant is to be short-
listed.
A caveat to both of the preceding hypotheses
is that these effects may be moderated by the
managers' impression of the candidate's honesty.
If candidates are perceived to be dishonest due in
part to the number of competency statements
included on their re
Âsume
Â, this may result in them
failing to be short-listed. Whilst this argument is
plausible, Bright and Davies (1999) found that
managers' ratings of candidate honesty based
only upon reading candidate re
Âsume
Âs was totally
independent of their short-listing decision based
on the same available information. Conse-
quently, while conceding it is possible, it is
thought improbable that honesty ratings will
influence the short-listing decision.
It is also not clear whether prior exposure to
the required job competencies influences
managers' perceptions of fit to a job for candi-
dates who include competency statements
relating to these in their re
Âsume
Â. That is, whether
competency statements are more effective if they
are seen to match the required job competencies
to some degree, compared to when they are not
recognized as specifically matching the
requirements of the job. For example, Knouse
(1994) found that a candidate is more likely to be
perceived positively and short-listed by a
recruiter when their education and job
experience presented in their re
Âsume
Âare relevant
to the job. This finding is not surprising given
that organizational theorists have consistently
emphasized the importance of producing a high
degree of fit between the individual and the job.
Heilman's (1983) lack of fit model further
clarifies the use and pervasive influence of
person-job fit in the selection process. Given
this, her model represents a strong theoretical
component in the present study. Heilman's
model proposes that the perception of a poor
fit between the perceived attributes of the
candidate and the perceived requirements of
the job leads to expectations of failure in terms
of the candidate's performance in the target job.
Conversely, if a good fit is perceived, this leads
to expectations of success. Heilman notes that
these `performance expectations have critical
consequences' (ibid, p. 279) as they influence a
number of decisions, including whether people
are chosen for employment. Consequently, the
model proposes that the presumed degree of fit
between the perceived attributes of a candidate
and the perceived characteristics of a target job
influences a candidate's success in the selection
process. In the present study it is expected that
candidate re
Âsume
Âs which are a better perceived
fit in terms of competency statements to a
specific job would be rated higher than re
Âsume
Âs
which do not clearly match the requirements of
the job.
This can be tested by providing half of the
managers reading the re
Âsume
Âs with a set of
explicit job competencies. This should encourage
the manager to compare the list of required
competencies with those listed on the re
Âsume
Â.If
any systematic relationship exists between the
number of competency statements on a re
Âsume
Â
and the likelihood of short-listing, this should be
seen most clearly in the group of managers
given the list of job competencies.
Finally, we test the hypothesis that the
location of these impression management state-
ments will have an effect on ratings of the
candidates. In particular, it has been found in
employment interview research that the impact
of positive information is greatest when it comes
at the beginning of an interview. Dipboye (1982)
has found evidence for a self-fulfilling prophecy
model in the employment interview which
supports the notion that initial impressions have
a greater impact compared to those which are
formed later. The model asserts that the
behavioural biases (interviewers behaving in a
manner that confirms their initial impression of
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
ÂSUME
Â43
ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000 Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000
an applicant) and cognitive biases (interviewers
distorting information in such a way that their
initial impressions of a candidate are confirmed)
act to influence a recruiter's final evaluation of a
candidate. Dougherty, Turban and Callender
(1994) tested Dipboye's model and concluded
that there is some support for the notion that
positive first impressions of applicants are
followed by interviewers displaying more
positive regard for applicants. We produce the
analogue of this by putting the competency
statements alternatively, in the cover letter, the
first and the second pages of the re
Âsume
Â. In this
way information that is presented in the cover
letter, which is read first by a recruiter, compared
to the same information being presented in the
re
Âsume
Â, may be more influential in the decision
to interview a candidate. In fact, Langerud (1996)
emphasizes that the decision to interview an
applicant is often based entirely on the impact of
the cover letter. Furthermore, Biggs and Beutell
(1986) and Liden and Parsons (1989) advocate
that the initial impression formed when reading a
re
Âsume
Âmay be a key influencer regarding the
decision to interview an applicant.
It is hypothesized that re
Âsume
Âs will be rated
higher that have competency statements located
in the cover letter than re
Âsume
Âs that have
competency statements appearing in the body of
the re
Âsume
Â.
Method
Subjects
Sixty-two recruitment consultants, human
resource managers/personnel, and line managers
participated voluntarily in this study.
Participants who were employed in these
positions were selected from the client base of
a national organization of human resource
professionals. People in these positions were
selected as subjects as they are usually the first
point of contact for a graduate when applying
for a job. Subjects ranged in age from 21 to 60
years, with the average age of the sample being
38 years. Subjects had been involved in
recruitment for an average of nine years, and
were drawn from across four Australian capital
cities. Ninety-nine packs of experimental
materials were distributed to subjects. Sixty-
two packs were returned resulting in a response
rate of 63%.
Experimental Materials
The experimental materials used in this study
were the same as those used in an earlier study
conducted by Earl et al. (1998). A real-life job
advertisement, position description and
competency profile for the position of Sales
Analyst in a large pharmaceutical company,
along with genuine re
Âsume
Âs submitted for the
position were used in the study. The use of
genuine materials was regarded as an important
part of the study to maximize ecological validity.
The target job was initially chosen by Earl et al.
because it is a position which considers
graduates from a variety of academic back-
grounds. In the study by Earl et al. 15 actual
re
Âsume
Âs that had been submitted for the position
of Sales Analyst were viewed by human resource
managers and psychologists in training. This was
conducted to identify those re
Âsume
Âs regarded as
universally `good' and `poor'. The results of this
study identified four re
Âsume
Âs regarded as `good',
and four as `poor'. The four re
Âsume
Âs which had
been identified as `good' were used in the
present study. These re
Âsume
Âs were selected to
minimize the extent to which there were
perceived differences between the experimental
re
Âsume
Âs.
The four re
Âsume
Âs selected for the present
study were presented to subjects in the identical
form in which they were originally submitted for
the job. However, the candidate's name, age,
address and gender were removed to maintain
their anonymity, and ensure that these factors
did not influence participants' selection decisions.
Each re
Âsume
Âwas assigned a candidate number
for identification purposes. Further, the original
cover letters were removed, and a standard brief
cover letter was constructed and attached to
each re
Âsume
Â. None, two, four or six competency
statements were added to either the re
Âsume
Âor
cover letter. The competency statements used
were drawn from the study by Earl et al., and
additional ones were also developed. The
competency statements drawn from, or based
on those used in the study by Earl et al. were:
Highly motivated: I have a proven track
record of achievement, both within university
and outside university through extra
curricular activities. I have won numerous
awards throughout my academic career, but
have still managed to maintain a balance with
social activities.
Sales Market Knowledge: I keep in touch with
the market by reading sales journals and
magazines, as well as visiting supermarkets
and other points of sale where products are
sold. Last year I completed a research project
entitled `What makes a Supermarket tick: Best
placement or best product?' which looked at
the dynamics of product placement in stores
and the impact on sales.
Organization Skills: As a person who is
involved in many different activities, I have
developed excellent organization skills to
44 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT
Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000 ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000
ensure that I plan my time effectively. This
enables me to achieve maximum output in
minimum time, as well as handle a number of
activities simultaneously.
Energetic: I am a person who is always on the
go, as I am involved in a number of activities.
These range from academic to work related to
sporting, particularly team sports. I am an
outgoing person and enjoy being an active
member of numerous clubs and associations.
Competency statements constructed for the
purpose of this study were:
Communication Skills: My diverse range of
experiences at university, work and in
extracurricular activities have enabled me to
acquire strong verbal and written communi-
cation skills. As an outgoing person I have
also had numerous opportunities to develop
my interpersonal skills to a high level.
Responsible: As a person who has always
been involved in a range of activities, I have
developed a responsible and mature approach
to any task that I undertake, or situation that I
am presented with. I believe that these assets
will stand me in good stead for any future
positions that I undertake.
Experimental Design
All subjects received the job advertisement,
position description, and the same four
experimental re
Âsume
Âs. Re
Âsume
Âs were presented
to subjects in a random order to eliminate
possible order effects. Of the four re
Âsume
Âs that
each subject received, one contained no
competency statements, one contained two,
one contained four, and one contained six
competency statements. The number of
competency statements appearing in each
re
Âsume
Âwere completely counterbalanced, so
that each re
Âsume
Âappeared with zero, two, four
and six competency statements the same number
of times as every other re
Âsume
Â. Counter-
balancing was used to eliminate the influence
of individual aspects of particular re
Âsume
Âs (e.g.,
work history, education, design, etc.).
Half of the subjects received a brief
description of four required job competencies
derived from the job competency profile. These
subjects were asked to read this description prior
to rating the experimental re
Âsume
Âs. The four
brief statements related exactly to the first four
competency statements that appeared in some of
the re
Âsume
Âs. That is, re
Âsume
Âs that had four
competency statements exactly fitted the job in
terms of competencies. Re
Âsume
Âs that had two
competency statements matched only half the
required job competencies, while re
Âsume
Âs that
had six competency statements matched the
required job competencies, as well as including
two more job competency statements. Given
this, where a re
Âsume
Âonly included two
competency statements, these were always the
same two (highly motivated and organization
skills), where four were included these were
always the same four (highly motivated,
organization skills, communication skills and
sales market knowledge), and where six were
included these were always the same six (highly
motivated, organization skills, communication
skills, sales market knowledge, energetic and
responsible). Re
Âsume
Âs that did not include any
competency statements failed to match any of
the stated required job competencies in terms of
competency statements.
Finally, half of the subjects were given
re
Âsume
Âs with the competency statements located
in the body of the re
Âsume
Â, while the other half
read the same re
Âsume
Âs with the competency
statements located in the cover letter. All
re
Âsume
Âs regardless of the location of the
competency statements included an attached
cover letter. The design resulted in 16 different
re
Âsume
Âcombination packs, that each appeared
four times. At the completion of data collection,
62 of the 64 required packs had been returned, to
produce a near perfectly counterbalanced study.
The within subjects factor was the number of
competency statements in the cover letter or
re
Âsume
Â. The between subjects factors were the
location of the competency statements, and
exposure to a description of the required job
competencies. Therefore, the study was a four
(six versus four versus two versus no com-
petency statements) two (exposure to the
required job competencies versus no exposure to
the required job competencies) two
(competency statements located in the re
Âsume
Â
versus competency statement located in the
cover letter) experimental design.
The dependent variables are the participants'
ratings of suitability for the position, the
decision to interview the applicant, and the
overall ranking of the re
Âsume
Âs.
Procedure
The materials were mailed to the participants
who completed them in their own time, and
returned them in the enclosed reply paid
envelope. Each participant was requested to read
the provided job advertisement and the position
description. Half the participants were provided
with a description of the required job
competencies to read. They were then asked to
read the re
Âsume
Âs and attached cover letters and
evaluate the candidate information on the
attached evaluation form.
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
ÂSUME
Â45
ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000 Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000
An individual evaluation form was attached to
each re
Âsume
Âthat required participants to make a
number of judgements based on the candidate
information provided in each re
Âsume
Â. Subjects
were requested to: indicate if they would
interview the candidate, provide a rating of
suitability (where five is `excellent', and one is
`poor') of the candidate for the position of sales
analyst, and provide ratings for ten competencies
derived from the job competency profile.
Participants were requested to complete a
global evaluation form once they had completed
the individual evaluation form attached to each
re
Âsume
Â. This requested that they make a number
of judgements comparing the four re
Âsume
Âs they
saw. Specifically, they were asked to: rank order
the four re
Âsume
Âs (where one is the best, and four
is the worst candidate), and to indicate what
they most liked about the candidate they ranked
highest, and the concerns they had with their
least preferred candidate, rank the ten
competencies from the previous section
according to their importance for the job, and
indicate what they most liked about the two
ranked highest, and their concerns with the two
competencies ranked lowest.
Results
Quantitative Analysis
The effect of zero, two, four and six competency
statements were compared for the four different
re
Âsume
Âs. Ratings given to re
Âsume
Âs were
compared for subjects who had prior exposure
to the required job competencies, and those who
did not. The effect of the location of competency
statements (cover letter versus re
Âsume
Â)on
ratings given to re
Âsume
Âs was also analysed.
The data was analysed using a polynomial
repeated measures analysis of variance. An alpha
level of .05 was used for all statistical tests.
The ANOVA compared the participants'
ratings of the suitability of the candidate, the
decision to interview and the overall rankings for
the four experimental re
Âsume
Âs. The means for
each of these measures are shown in Table 1.
The means in Table 1 indicate that there are
differences in the ratings given to re
Âsume
Âs when
competency statements are included. The
ANOVA revealed that there was a significant
main effect of competency statements on
suitability ratings, F(3, 174) 4.72, p<.01,
decision to interview, F(3, 174) 3.65, p<.05,
and overall ranking, F(3, 174) 6.72, p<.001.
Six paired samples t-tests compared each level
of competency statements that were included
(zero, two, four and six) with every other level.
These t-tests were performed to attempt to
ascertain the number of competency statements
required to improve significantly the ratings
given to re
Âsume
Âs. A Bonferroni adjustment was
also performed to counteract the family-wise
error rate resulting from multiple analyses on the
same data. Given this adjustment the new
significance level for the results of the t-tests is
.008.
The results of the t-test indicate that there was
a significant difference between re
Âsume
Âs without
competency statements and those with six
competency statements, for suitability, t(61)
-3.43, p<.001, decision to interview, t(61)
3.42, p<.001 and ranking, t(61) 4.15, p<.001.
Every other comparison, including the difference
between re
Âsume
Âs with two, four and six
competency statements was non-significant at
the p<.008 level of significance. Prior to the
Bonferroni adjustment there was a significant
difference between re
Âsume
Âs with zero and
re
Âsume
Âs with two or four competency
statements, for suitability (p<.05) and ranking
(p<.01), and between re
Âsume
Âs with none and
two competency statements for decision to
interview (p<.05).
The Effect of Prior Exposure to the Required Job
Competencies on Re
Âsume
ÂRatings
The ANOVA revealed that prior exposure to
the required job competencies did not have a
significant main effect on suitability of the
candidate, F(1, 58) .54, p>.05, decision to
interview, F(1, 58) 1.43, p>.05, and overall
ranking, F(1, 58) .00, p>.05.
Suitability* Interview** Ranking***
Competency Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
statements
None 2.79 .96 1.45 .51 3.08 1.06
Two 3.16 .91 1.29 .46 2.45 1.10
Four 3.19 .97 1.27 .45 2.34 1.01
Six 3.40 .91 1.18 .39 2.13 1.11
Notes: * where 1 is the least suitable, and 5 is the most suitable
** where 1 yes, and 2 no
*** where 1 is the highest ranking and 4 is the lowest ranking
Table 1: Means and standard deviations (SD): none, two, four and six competency statements in re
Âsume
Âs
46 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT
Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000 ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000
Table 2 shows the mean ratings given to
re
Âsume
Âs by participants who had prior exposure
to the required job competencies and those that
did not. There were no significant interactions
between prior exposure to the required job
competencies and suitability of the candidate,
F(3, 174) .71, p>.05, decision to interview,
F(3, 174) .42, p>.05, and overall ranking, F(3,
174) 1.02, p>.05.
The Effect of Location of Competency Statements on
Ratings of Re
Âsume
Âs
The ANOVA revealed that the location (cover
letter versus re
Âsume
Â) of the competency
statements did not have a significant main effect
on suitability of the candidate, F(1, 58) .23,
p>.05, decision to interview, F(1, 58) .11,
p>.05, and overall ranking, F(1, 58) .00, p>.05.
Table 3 shows the mean ratings given to re
Âsume
Âs
where competency statements were located in the
cover letter compared to the re
Âsume
Â.
There were no significant interactions
between location of the competency statements
and suitability of the candidate, F(3, 174) .81,
p>.05, decision to interview, F(3, 174) .40,
p>.05, and overall ranking, F(3, 174) 1.16,
p>.05. Further, there were no significant
interactions between exposure to the required
job competencies and the location of the
competency statements regarding suitability of
the candidate, F(1, 58) 1.71, p>.05, decision to
interview, F(1, 58) .06, p>.05, and overall
ranking, F(1, 58) .00, p>.05.
The Impact of Competency Statements on
Competency Ratings
In addition to providing the above ratings,
participants were requested to rate each re
Âsume
Â
on ten individual competencies, and then to rank
order these competencies from most to least
valued in regard to the position of sales analyst.
Means were generated from these responses to
Table 2: Comparison of mean re
Âsume
Âratings and standard deviations (SD) for participants exposed versus not
exposed to the required job competencies
Suitability* Interview** Ranking***
Competency Exposure Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
statements to job
competencies
None u
È2.68 1.01 1.45 .51 2.97 1.05
2.90 .91 1.45 .51 3.19 1.08
Two u
È3.26 .82 1.29 .46 2.29 1.16
3.06 1.00 1.29 .46 2.61 1.02
Four u
È3.10 .98 1.35 .49 2.52 1.09
3.29 .97 1.19 .40 2.16 .90
Six u
È3.32 .98 1.23 .43 2.23 1.09
3.48 .85 1.13 .34 2.03 1.14
Notes: * where 1 is the least suitable, and 5 is the most suitable
** where 1 yes, and 2 no
*** where 1 is the highest ranking and 4 is the lowest ranking
Notes: * where 1 is the least suitable, and 5 is the most suitable
** where 1 = yes, and 2 = no
*** where 1 is the highest ranking and 4 is the lowest ranking
Suitability* Interview** Ranking***
Competency Location Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
statements
None Cover letter 2.68 .98 1.48 .51 3.29 .82
Re
Âsume
Â2.90 .94 1.42 .50 2.87 1.23
Two Cover letter 3.19 .79 1.32 .48 2.48 1.15
Re
Âsume
Â3.13 1.02 1.26 .44 2.42 1.06
Four Cover letter 3.32 .83 1.23 .43 2.13 .99
Re
Âsume
Â3.06 1.09 1.32 .48 2.55 .99
Six Cover letter 3.48 .85 1.19 .40 2.10 1.11
Re
Âsume
Â3.32 .98 1.16 .37 2.16 1.13
Table 3: Comparison of mean resume
Âratings and standard deviations (SD): cover letter versus re
Âsume
Â
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
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Â47
ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000 Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000
identify the five most important competencies
(see Table 4).
With regard to the five competencies the
most frequently identified reason why each was
highly valued was identified (see Table 5).
With regard to the five competencies that
were ranked as least valued, the most frequently
cited reason for this for each competency was
also identified. Motivation, energy and tenacity
were all considered to be subsumed by the other
competencies, while problem solving and market
knowledge were both identified as being less
important because they are considered to be
skills that can be acquired on the job.
Repeated measures ANOVAs performed on
the top five competencies revealed that there
was a significant main effect of competency
statements on ratings of communication skills,
F(3, 117) 4.54, p<.01, and initiative and
responsibility, F(3, 108) 3.34, p<.05.
However, there were no significant differences
between ratings given to re
Âsume
Âs in terms of
planning and organizing, F(3, 93) 1.72, p>.05,
numerical skills, F(3, 54) 1.64, p>.05, and
achievement orientation, F(3, 126) 1.78,
p>.05. Table 6 provides mean ratings for the
top five competencies with none, two, four and
six competency statements.
Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative analysis was conducted by an
independent rater to determine what was most
liked about the re
Âsume
Âparticipants ranked
highest, and what was liked least regarding the
re
Âsume
Âthey ranked lowest.
The top three factors for re
Âsume
Âs liked most
were:
1. Relevant experience.
2. Easy to read layout, excellent presentation.
3. Appropriate/good qualifications.
The frequencies for each identified factor are
presented in Figure 1.
The top three concerns of re
Âsume
Âs liked least
were:
1. Lacked experience or irrelevant experience.
2. Poor format, difficult to read.
3. Lacked information, too brief.
The frequencies for each identified factor are
presented in Figure 2.
The third concern was closely followed by a
lack of achievement orientation, and a poor cover
letter. Figures 1 and 2 highlight that re
Âsume
Âs with
competency statements were more often
associated with positive than negative factors.
Discussion
The purpose of the study was to examine the
effects of the inclusion of competency
statements, prior exposure to the required job
competencies and the location of the com-
petency statements on re
Âsume
Âratings.
The results of the present research indicate
that the inclusion of competency statements in a
Table 4: Competencies: mean rankings and standard deviations
Competency Mean ranking Standard Deviation
Communication Skills 3.15 2.04
Initiative/Responsibility 4.30 2.25
Planning/Organizing 4.46 2.74
Numerical Skills 4.75 2.97
Achievement Orientation 5.31 2.73
Problem Solving 5.74 2.46
Motivation 5.77 2.63
Market Knowledge 6.79 2.90
Energy 7.05 2.46
Tenacity 7.70 2.38
Note: n=61
Competency Reason valued Frequency
Communication Skills The ability to liaise with internal and external people 16
Initiative/Responsibility The ability to work unsupervised and think for yourself 9
Planning/Organizing The ability to collate and organize information 9
Numerical Skills A requirement of the job (Sales Analyst) 21
Achievement Orientation To achieve results and future success 10
Table 5: The top five identified competencies
48 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT
Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000 ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000
Table 6: Mean ratings for top five competencies
Number of competency statements
Competency None Two Four Six
Communication Skills 3.24 3.53 3.74 3.76
Initiative/Responsibility 3.54 3.71 3.78 3.96
Planning/Organizing 3.53 3.67 3.76 3.76
Numerical Skills 3.72 4.00 3.73 3.72
Achievement Orientation 3.53 3.89 3.79 3.81
Figure 1: Frequencies for the top three factors of re
Âsume
Âs liked most.
Figure 2: Frequencies for the top five concerns of re
Âsume
Âs liked least.
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
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ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000 Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000
re
Âsume
Âsignificantly improved the applicant's
perceived suitability for the job, their overall
ranking compared to other applicants, and the
likelihood that they would be short-listed for an
interview. This finding provides support for the
hypothesis that re
Âsume
Âs with competency
statements would be rated higher than those
without. This finding is also consistent with
previous research by Knouse (1994), Bright et al.
(1997) and Earl et al. (1998) who all found that
impression management or competency
statements in a re
Âsume
Âenhanced the reader's
perception of the candidate. The comparison of
re
Âsume
Âs that included competency statements
(two or four or six) revealed there was a non-
significant difference between these re
Âsume
Âs.
This result suggests that the number of
competency statements in a re
Âsume
Â(between
two and six) is not important, rather, it is their
inclusion to some degree which is necessary to
improve the overall perceptions of a candidate.
This result would seem to indicate that
competency statements have a non-specific
positive impact upon recruiters' perceptions of
the candidate. Moreover, these results indicate
that successively adding more competency
statements to the experimental re
Âsume
Âs did not
at any point begin to negatively affect the
overall perception of the candidate. It does not
appear that these competency statements
improve the degree of perceived fit between
the applicant and the job, despite their being
explicitly targeted at job competencies.
Looking at the content of these competency
statements, all of them included vague gener-
alities that are not easily verifiable (e.g. `I have
developed excellent organization skills . . .'). We
have argued that such vague statements are
consistent with Gardner and Matinko's (1988)
concept of impression management tactics. Two
of the competencies ± highly motivated and
sales market knowledge ± also contained some
unambiguous, more specific and verifiable
information (e.g. `I have won numerous awards
throughout my academic career' and `I
completed a research project entitled . . .'). The
market knowledge statement appeared on all
re
Âsume
Âs that included competency statements
and the motivation statement appeared on all
re
Âsume
Âs containing four or more competency
statements. One might expect this extra
information contained in these statements to
have a specific impact on the ratings. However,
there is no significant difference in ratings given
to re
Âsume
Âs containing two statements (including
one `verifiable' statement) and re
Âsume
Âs con-
taining four statements (including two `verifiable'
statements).
Furthermore, the results suggest that partici-
pants who were exposed to a brief description of
the required job competencies, relating to the
first four competency statements, did not rate
re
Âsume
Âs significantly differently than partici-
pants who were not exposed to this. This result
does not support the hypothesis that alerting
recruiters to the match of competency state-
ments on the re
Âsume
Âto a list of job
competencies will increase the likelihood that
re
Âsume
Âs with good perceived fit will be judged
more positively. It would appear that
competency statements are not used as a
dimension of fit.
This finding is perhaps surprising given the
extensive and consistent nature of previous
research, which purports that applicant fit is
central to the selection process (Bretz et al. 1993;
Caldwell and O'Reilly 1990). In fact, Heilman's
lack of fit model proposes that the greater the
presumed degree of fit between the perceived
attributes of a candidate and the perceived
characteristics of a target job, the greater the
candidate's success in the selection process.
Although re
Âsume
Âs with four competency
statements (which fit the job exactly in terms
of the required job competencies) were rated
higher than those no such statements, this result
was consistent regardless of whether or not the
participant was exposed to a brief description of
the required job competencies.
An explanation for this result may involve the
fact that applicant fit was only manipulated in
terms of the required job competencies, rather
than more pervasive factors which are likely to
be used as a means to judge applicant fit. Knouse
(1994) found that relevant education and
experience listed in the re
Âsume
Âwere key
components in how positively a candidate was
perceived by the reader. Accordingly, it is likely
in the present study that participants
predominantly judged applicant fit according to
these factors, whose requirements were specified
in the position description received by all
participants. Thus, the description of the required
job competencies received by half the
participants may have been regarded as less
important when judging the suitability of the
re
Âsume
Âs, in comparison to education and
experience.
Furthermore, the competency statements used
in the present study may have been regarded as
relevant to the job, regardless of whether the
participant received a description of the required
job competencies that related to these. That is,
statements relating to qualities such as
motivation, organization and communication
skills may be regarded as generic assets for
many jobs.
Manipulating the competency statements
rather than the job information given to the
participants may help us better understand the
role of competency statements tailored to the
job, and competency statements completely
50 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SELECTION AND ASSESSMENT
Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000 ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000
irrelevant to the job. Further research of this
nature may help to clarify whether competency
statements are more effective if they relate to the
specific requirements of the job and contain
easily verifiable facts rather than self-opinions.
The results also provide no strong evidence of
a primacy effect, in that competency statements
are no more effective when they are located in
the cover letter as opposed to the body of the
re
Âsume
Â. This is inconsistent with prior research
that has consistently supported the existence of
the primacy effect. Langerud (1996) noted that
the decision to interview an applicant is often
based entirely on the impact of the cover letter.
According to Anderson and Barrios (1961) and
Rowe (1967), the characteristics of the person
which are presented first will have a greater
impact on the overall impression than those
which are presented later. Given this, one may
have expected that a cover letter with
competency statements would result in a
stronger overall impression of the candidate. A
key difference between our study and previous
work is that our readers had more control over
the order in which the candidate information is
presented to them. Readers could go back and
re-read different sections of the re
Âsume
Âs. and so
on. In face-to-face interviews, it is harder to skip
back and forth presenting and re-presenting the
same information, even for skilled interviewers.
If readers were skipping over material or reading
material out of order, this would weaken our
manipulation of the location of competency
statements, and this relative freedom of the
reader may reduce the impact of ordering effects
generally.
The implication of this finding for candidates
preparing cover letters and re
Âsume
Âs is that
beyond the inclusion of competency statements,
the location of the competency statements
appears not to impact their effectiveness.
Moreover, the results indicate that candidates
who have a brief cover letter and include
competency statements in their re
Âsume
Âare
unlikely to be perceived as significantly more
or less suitable for a job, than candidates who
have a cover letter which includes competency
statements.
The results indicated that competency
statements have a varying influence on ratings
of the various competencies. The inclusion of
competency statements in a re
Âsume
Âsignificantly
improved the reader's perception of the
applicant's communication skills and their ability
to demonstrate initiative and responsibility.
These results provide further support for
hypothesis one, and are consistent with previous
research by Earl et al., who found that the
inclusion of competency statements in a re
Âsume
Â
significantly improved ratings given to the
re
Âsume
Âon a number of individual competencies.
These findings are not surprising given that
these competencies relate to two of the
competency statements (communication skills
and initiative and responsibility) that were
included in some of the re
Âsume
Âs. Furthermore,
the inclusion of competency statements provides
applicants with an opportunity to demonstrate
their ability to write fluently, and communicate
their ideas effectively. This may help explain
why competency statements were associated
with significantly higher ratings for communi-
cation skills. The inclusion of competency
statements also enables applicants to attempt
to sell themselves and impress their reader,
through the inclusion of extra information
beyond standard candidate data such as
education and work history. This extra effort
may be interpreted as the demonstration of
initiative, which may explain why competency
statements were associated with significantly
higher ratings on this measure.
In contrast, the inclusion of competency
statements in the re
Âsume
Âs did not significantly
improve ratings on the competencies, planning
and organizing, numerical skills or achievement
orientation. However, there appears to be a
trend in the general direction. This lends some
support to the notion that competency
statements in a re
Âsume
Âimprove the overall
impression of the candidate.
The results of the qualitative analysis also
support the finding that competency statements
significantly improved the reader's impression of
the re
Âsume
Âs. The top three reasons provided for
the most liked re
Âsume
Âs were related pre-
dominantly to those that included competency
statements. Furthermore, the concerns provided
for re
Âsume
Âs that were least liked were more
frequently associated with those that did not
include competency statements than those that
did. Moreover, the same re
Âsume
Âs were evaluated
differently on the same or similar attributes
depending on whether or not they had
competency statements included. For example,
the format of the same re
Âsume
Âwas regarded
unfavourably when competency statements
were not included, and favourably when they
were.
These results indicate that competency
statements improved the ratings given to
re
Âsume
Âs, because recruiters extrapolated this
extra information as evidence of other attributes,
such as relevant job experience. Further,
competency statements improved the reader's
general impression of the re
Âsume
Â, such that more
superficial factors like layout and design were
also positively influenced. This is consistent with
the findings of Earl et al. (1998) and Knouse
(1994) who note that recruiters make attributions
about a candidate based on the information in
their re
Âsume
Â.
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
ÂSUME
Â51
ßBlackwell Publishers Ltd 2000 Volume 8 Number 2 June 2000
Further empirical, theory-driven research is
required to address a number of remaining
questions in this area. These involve further
examination regarding the point at which the
number of competency statements outweighs
their effectiveness. Investigation is also required
regarding the effectiveness of competency
statements that relate to the requirements of
the job compared to those which do not. Finally,
given that the finding regarding the location of
competency statements is inconsistent with
previous research concerning the primacy effect,
further investigation is required to clarify this.
Overall, the results of the present study
indicate that the inclusion of competency in a
re
Âsume
Âor cover letter significantly improve the
reader's impression of a candidate. However,
whether these statements are located in the
cover letter or the body of the re
Âsume
Âis unlikely
to significantly affect the recruiter's impression
of the candidate. Further, the results suggest that
prior exposure to the required job competencies
relating to the competency statements does not
affect their capacity to influence recruiters. These
findings have practical implications for the
selection decisions of recruiters by alerting them
to the potential influence of impression
management in the re
Âsume
Â, as well as the future
success of job seekers.
Acknowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge the support given to
our re
Âsume
Âresearch by Dr Rob Anderson,
Rachel Kenny, Robert Bright, Kevin McConkey,
Jo Earl, Prue Laurence, Austin Adams and three
anonymous reviewers.
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IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT IN THE RE
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... The literature review mentions a series of indicators of 'measurement' of the effectiveness and attractiveness of a CV, and most surveys highlight the following more specific 'valuations': inviting the candidate to an interview (Watcins and Johnston 2000; Thoms, et al.,1999;Brown & Campion, 1994;Werbel and Looney, 1994). Elsewhere the success of a resume is defined in the sense of candidate suitability for the position (Dipboye, et al 1975;Bright and Hutton, 2000), the decision of the evaluators to invite him for an interview and the overall ranking of the CV (Bright and Hutton, 2000). Another survey describes the efficiency of a CV with the term potential for recruitment (hire ability) of the candidate or the perception of the applicant fit for the job of recruiters. ...
... The literature review mentions a series of indicators of 'measurement' of the effectiveness and attractiveness of a CV, and most surveys highlight the following more specific 'valuations': inviting the candidate to an interview (Watcins and Johnston 2000; Thoms, et al.,1999;Brown & Campion, 1994;Werbel and Looney, 1994). Elsewhere the success of a resume is defined in the sense of candidate suitability for the position (Dipboye, et al 1975;Bright and Hutton, 2000), the decision of the evaluators to invite him for an interview and the overall ranking of the CV (Bright and Hutton, 2000). Another survey describes the efficiency of a CV with the term potential for recruitment (hire ability) of the candidate or the perception of the applicant fit for the job of recruiters. ...
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Many factors can affect recruiters, personnel managers or employers during employee selection process such as degrees and other typical qualifications of candidates the possess of the right transferable skills, the knowledge of job market, their working experience, the combination of personal attributes, self presentation skills, personality. Apart of them and many others factors, there is a consensus in a large extent, that candidates’ physical attractiveness can affect recruiters’ decisions during employment selection process, both in first stage of screening their curriculums’ vitae, as well as in the second stage which is the interview hiring process. This study aims to search the role of employee candidates’ physical attractiveness and its comparative impact between first stage of screening applicants according to their resumes and second stage of hiring decisions during employment interview. For this purpose, an empirical research has been conducted in order to explore the importance and relative impact of candidates’ physical attractiveness in decisions and selection process outcomes. In particular we asked two hundred and sixty recruiters’, personnel managers’ and employers in Greece about the impact of candidates’ physical attractiveness might have in their recruiting and hiring decisions. Results show that physical attractiveness influence recruiters decisions and affect selection outcomes in both selection stages. The impact is higher and statistically more significant in interview process. Physical attractiveness also compared to resume quality in order to explore relative impact among these factors. Results show a greater influence of resume quality than physical attractiveness.
... The latter relationship has already been confirmed in a few prior studies. For example, a study on résumé quality showed that individuals who wrote their résumé with a competency statement were perceived as more suitable for the job, had a higher ranking compared to other interviewees, and had a higher chance of being invited for a job interview (Bright & Hutton, 2000). Furthermore, a study on job interview quality, showed that interview quality and number of job offers were positively related (Crossley & Stanton, 2005). ...
Thesis
Due to the current tightness in several labor markets around the globe there are more jobs available than ever before. This brings about countless employment opportunities, but also uncertainty and higher risks. Limited knowledge about the available job opportunities often results in considerable uncertainty for job seekers, especially for recent graduates. Since the risks of landing a low-quality job are similar to being unemployed and can hinder future career success, it is of utmost importance that job seekers find a fitting job. Although the ability to find a fitting job depends on a variety of factors, a key determinant that is controllable by individuals is job search behavior. Research has generally focused on the quantitative aspects of job search behaviors, operationalized as the time and effort that people spend on a number of job search activities. Research shows that job seekers who spend more time looking for a job receive more job offers, are more likely to find a job, and find a job faster. However, the effects are rather small, and job search quantity seems to be unrelated to employment quality. Thus, spending a lot of time on job search activities does not necessarily mean that the search is done effectively. Along these lines, several leading scholars have called for more research looking at job search quality. Many of these studies start from the idea that job seekers should search smarter, not harder. Although this seems obvious, empirical research is still scarce and fragmented. In this dissertation, we conceptualize job search quality as a multidimensional model consisting of four dimensions: goal establishment, planning, goal striving, and reflection. We set out to investigate the added value of job search quality, the outcomes of job search quality, the antecedents of job search quality, and how job search quality can be facilitated. To address these objectives, four empirical studies were conducted. Our studies show that (a) the four dimensions of job search quality show added value beyond job search intensity and metacognitive activities, (b) job search quality is positively related to several job search outcomes, including employment quality, (c) personality, attitudinal factors, and contextual factors were identified as antecedents for job search quality, and (d) job search quality can be facilitated by conducting a positive psychology intervention.
... Finally, researchers can also test deep-level diversity types such as personality or cultural values (Cole, Field, & Stafford, 2005; see also Casper, Wayne, & Manegold, 2013 for an example about family values). To integrate personality in a resume study, for instance, researchers can modify the cover letter or the section in the beginning of the resume, which often includes statements about an applicants' personality (Bright & Hutton, 2002;Ozen, Hut, Levin, & Boudet, 2020). This can show whether specific personality types are preferred in the recruitment process or if personality changes the dynamics of hiring discrimination. ...
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Resume studies are natural field experiments in which researchers standardize the content of resumes and vary them by individual characteristics. Researchers submit the resumes to job advertisements and compare the employers' responses toward the different resumes to measure labor market discrimination. Despite the robustness of this method, its use has not been fully exploited in human resource management and organizational psychology research. Based on a literature review, we provide an overview of the best practices for resume studies and a step‐by‐step plan to guide researchers. We also explain challenges in the design and implementation of these studies and how they can be addressed. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research and how future studies can contribute to reduce hiring discrimination.
... Moreover, Dulek and Suchan (1988) stated that even highly experienced applicants are unlikely to succeed if their application letters fail to validate their qualifications and competencies. Thus, to take full advantage of an application letter, the applicant must be able to engage in impression management (Bright & Hutton, 2000). In other words, the applicant should employ linguistic or pragmatic tactics to persuade the potential employer of the suitability of the applicant's qualifications to the requirements of the position (Gilsdorf, 1986). ...
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Many scholars agree that cultural differences affect text organization and pragmatic realization of the communicative goal of a genre, and that certain moves within a genre can be accomplished by different strategies. However, there is a dearth of research on job application letters in the context of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and knowledge about cultural differences in terms of politeness strategies in this region is limited.This study investigated move and politeness strategies used in job application letters written by ASEAN applicants. Data were collected from 30 job application letters written by applicants from six different nationalities. Two coding schemes were employed, and the results showed that ASEAN applicants employed slightly different strategies in their moves, including promoting candidature and enclosing documents. The findings also suggested that ASEAN applicants mostly use positive politeness strategies to self-promote and negative politeness strategies to encourage further contact. Interestingly, three positive strategies which were previously found only in spoken communication (i.e., conventional indirectness, impersonal tone, and nominalization) were employed by ASEAN applicants in this study. In sum, ASEAN writers as a whole represent a region that shares a great deal of communicative norms in the genre of job application letters.
... The latter relationship has already been confirmed in a few prior studies. For example, a study on résumé quality showed that individuals who wrote their résumé with a competency statement were perceived as more suitable for the job, had a higher ranking compared to other interviewees, and had a higher chance of being invited for a job interview (Bright & Hutton, 2000). Furthermore, a study on job interview quality, showed that interview quality and number of job offers were positively related (Crossley & Stanton, 2005). ...
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Based on a self‐regulatory approach, we propose that students searching for an internship following a high‐quality process will show greater search success. In a sample of 191 Belgian final year students looking for an internship, the quality of students’ search process was positively related to both self‐reported and objective search outcomes, beyond the mere intensity of their search. Specifically, reflection related positively to students’ satisfaction and perceived fit with their internship, as well as to organizations’ assessment of students’ internship performance. Planning related positively to the speed of finding an internship. Furthermore, the four search process quality dimensions explained incremental variance in these outcomes beyond a unidimensional measure of metacognitive activities, supporting the added value of our multidimensional approach.
... Recruitment and selection process is a key contributor in evaluating the best resource for the organization, recruiters has been shown to be vulnerable to manipulation of the content in resume that can be the candidate's amount of information, skills and abilities. Recruiters therefore try to infer resume from all prospective to make good decisions [18]. It is believe that hiring a candidate not a good fit for the job and does not suits to the organizations culture might create some serious problems in the future for the organization it can be in terms of organizations disciplinary issue of related to performance at workplace and will also effect on the organizational performance in a broader scenario [19]. ...
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