Article

Measurement of self‐concept among Indigenous and non‐Indigenous Australian students

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Abstract

The construct of self-concept has been well documented in Western cultures, but self-concept research is limited in Indigenous communities. This study assessed the equivalence for Australian Indigenous and non Indigenous students of six dimensions of self-concept: Family, Self-Acceptance, General School, Academic Achievement, Peer, and Career. Primary and high school students (N = 625) completed a survey providing data on the six self-concept dimensions, and self-rating of academic achievement. Results provide strong support for the factorial equivalence of the six dimensions of self. Scores on all dimensions increased with age for the Indigenous students but decreased for the non-Indigenous students. Family self-concept contributed significantly more to the prediction of academic achievement for the non-Indigenous students than for the Indigenous students.

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... There have been a number of studies, largely taking place in Australia and the United States, that have explored the self-concept of Aboriginal students and the relationship between this construct and academic achievement (e.g., Bodkin-Andrews, Rourke, & Craven, 2010;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). It has been hypothesized that children belonging to a minority cultural or ethnic group with attributes that may not be viewed positively by the majority cultures may have low self-esteem (e.g., Annis & Corenblum, 1986). ...
... It has been hypothesized that children belonging to a minority cultural or ethnic group with attributes that may not be viewed positively by the majority cultures may have low self-esteem (e.g., Annis & Corenblum, 1986). In research using varied measures, findings reveal that the self-concept or self-esteem of Aboriginal students may be higher (Bodkin-Andrews, Craven & Marsh, 2004;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Purdie, Tripcony, Boulton-Lewis, Fanshawe, & Gunstone, 2000) or lower than non-Aboriginal students (Bodkin-Andrews et al., 2005;Craven et al., 2005;McInerney, 2001). However, this research highlights the importance of drawing on multidimensional perspectives of self-concept. ...
... However, this research highlights the importance of drawing on multidimensional perspectives of self-concept. For example, studies in Australia have found that Aboriginal students reported higher self-concept in physical, art or family domains but lower self-concept in areas of academics including math and reading (Bodkin-Andrews, et al., 2010;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). With respect to relationships between self-concept and academic achievement for Aboriginal students, academic domains of self-concept (e.g., math, verbal, general academic) have been found to explain significant variation in student grades (Bodkin-Andrews, et al., 2010;Brickman, McInerney, & Martin, 2009;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). ...
Article
Les difficultes academiques vecues par plusieurs etudiants autochtones (Premieres Nations, Metis, Inuit) au Canada ont ete bien documentees. Des indicateurs tels que la perseverance scolaire et les inscriptions post-secondaires sont habituellement beaucoup plus faibles pour un groupe d’etudiants d’origine autochtone que pour un groupe d’etudiants non autochtones. Identifier les elements facilitant leur succes est essentiel a l’amelioration de l’experience scolaire des etudiants autochtones. Par consequent, le but de cette recherche etait d’identifier les facteurs favorisant le succes academique des etudiants autochtones en se basant sur les points de vue des etudiants et des enseignants et en utilisant le modele bioecologique de Bronfenbrenner (1995). Les observations formulees par les participants soulignent l’importance des relations, du concept de soi et des attentes academiques, de la pertinence des programmes ainsi que des aspirations scolaires en tant que facteurs influencant la reussite en education.
... In exploring the wide range of inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students, researchers have noted that traditional methodologies have focused too strongly on socioeconomic welfare as an assumed sole-cause (Jonas, 2003; Rowe, 2003). Within more recent educational literature however, a number of researchers have attempted to look beyond the influence of socioeconomic status and instead focused on the impact of a number of psychological factors such as self-concept ( Pedersen & Walker, 2000; Purdie & McCrindle, 2004), motivation (Martin, 2006; McInerney, 2003), and identity (Purdie et al., 2000). With international literature identifying more detailed elements of self-concept as a key facet to student success (Marsh & Yeung, 1997, 1998 Marsh, Hau, & Kong, 2002; Marsh, Trautwein, Lüdtke, Köller, & Baumert, 2005), in addition to some Indigenous Australian educational research ( Craven & Tucker, 2003; Lester, 2000; Swan & Raphael, 1995), the need to understand variation in the self-concepts of Indigenous Australian students when compared with non-Indigenous students is of paramount importance. ...
... While the multidimensional self-concept is becoming understood as an increasingly potent variable for maximizing human potential over the past 15 years ( Craven, Marsh, & Burnett, 2003), research on self-concept within the Indigenous Australian setting has been lacking. Currently, there are only a small number of studies focusing on multiple dimensions of self-concept within the Indigenous Australian context ( Craven et al., 2005; McInerney, 2003; Pedersen & Walker, 2000; Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). To date, the most detailed study examining the self-concepts of Indigenous Australian students can be found in an extensive cross-sectional study by Craven and Marsh (2004; see also Craven et al., 2005). ...
... One important criticism that can be levelled at nearly every quantitative study of Indigenous Australians students' self-concepts (with the exception of Purdie and McCrindle, 2004) is that no study sought to identify the cross-cultural equivalence of the self-concept measures. Blindly pursuing between-construct research across diverse groups may be fraught with unforeseen difficulties; one pertinent criticism of much cross-cultural research is raised by Byrne (2003, p. 298) noted that " a common, albeit incorrect assumption in research that tests for mean differences across groups, is that the measuring instrument is operating in exactly the same way for each group under study. ...
Article
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This investigation reports on the cross-cultural equivalence testing of the Self-Description Questionnaire II (short version; SDQII-S) for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian secondary student samples. A variety of statistical analysis techniques were employed to assess the psychometric properties of the SDQII-S for both the Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine whether the latent means of the self-concepts differed significantly between Indigenous and non-Indigenous male and female students. The results demonstrated that the SDQII-S held strong psychometric properties across the Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that there were significant differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students for 7 of the 13 self-concept facets. Although some question could be raised as to the practical nature of these differences, the measurement equivalence of the SDQII-S for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students may allow researchers to more confidently understand the nature of varying dimensions of self-confidence for minority students from traditionally disadvantaged backgrounds.
... The results of Pedersen and Walker (2000) and McInerney (2003) supported equivalent relations between academic self-concept and achievement outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students, but other studies have provided evidence of differential relations. In this regard, Purdie and McCrindle (2004) found stronger positive correlations between self-acceptance and academic achievement for non-Indigenous than for Indigenous students. Bodkin-Andrews, Rourke, et al. (2010) found that math and verbal selfconcepts significantly predicted math and English grades respectively for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous high school students. ...
... The competence component was found to be more highly related to achievement than the affect component replicating the results of previous studies (Arens et al., 2011; Pinxten et al., 2014). Thus, this study adds to the debate as to whether Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students hold similar (McInerney, 2003;Pedersen & Walker, 2000) or differential (Bodkin-Andrews, Rourke, et al., 2010;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004) relations between academic achievement and self-concept which has, however, not yet considered the separation between competence and affect components. Given that for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students the competence component of academic self-concept was found to be more highly related to achievement compared to the affect component, interventions focused on fostering students' competence self-perceptions might be effective for enhancing students' achievement outcomes for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. ...
... Given that for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students the competence component of academic self-concept was found to be more highly related to achievement compared to the affect component, interventions focused on fostering students' competence self-perceptions might be effective for enhancing students' achievement outcomes for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. It should also be noted that although invariance testing suggested more similarities than differences in the relations between self-concept and achievement for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students, a casual observation of Table 5 reveals that some correlations between self-concept and achievement were stronger for the non-Indigenous students (e.g., math self-concept and math achievement; for similar results see Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Bodkin-Andrews, Dillon et al., 2010;Bodkin-Andrews, Ha, et al., 2010;Bodkin-Andrews, Rourke, et al., 2010). In interpreting these findings, it might be critical to investigate potential mechanisms and cultural differences that may influence how self-concept is related to academic outcomes. ...
... The measurement of self-esteem across cultures can be difficult, particularly when one culture places a higher value on particular issues than others. For example, Western cultures tend to place a higher value on issues of independence and self-reliance, whereas more traditional societies (such as Aboriginal groups) more commonly value collectivism and a strong reliance on social support [15]. School achievement is a good example. ...
... School achievement is a good example. Self-esteem might be more valued in Western society where the emphasis is less on family and community extensions of self but on individualism and competition [15]. A measure of self-esteem developed in Western cultures will not necessarily be valid in other societies. ...
... A measure of self-esteem developed in Western cultures will not necessarily be valid in other societies. Purdie & McCrindle [15] discuss a range of potential sources of error that can occur when using an instrument developed in a different culture. Firstly, concepts may be interpreted differently across cultures. ...
Article
Abstract Introduction: In Australia, there is little empirical research of the racial identity of Indigenous children and youth as the majority of the current literature focuses on adults. Furthermore, there are no instruments developed with cultural appropriateness when exploring the identity and self-esteem of the Australian Aboriginal population, especially children. The IRISE_C (Racial Identity and Self-Esteem of children) inventory was developed to explore the elements of racial identity and self-esteem of urban, rural and regional Aboriginal children. This paper describes the development and validation of the IRISE_C instrument with over 250 Aboriginal children aged 8 to 12 years. Methods: A pilot of the IRISE C instrument was combined with individual interviews and was undertaken with 35 urban Aboriginal children aged 8–12 years. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to refine the survey and reduce redundant items in readiness for the main study. In the main study, the IRISE C was employed to 229 Aboriginal children aged 6–13 years across three sites (rural, regional and urban) in Western Australia. An exploratory factor analysis using Principal axis factoring was used to assess the fit of items and survey structure. A confirmatory factor analysis was then employed using LISREL (diagonally weighted least squares) to assess factor structures across domains. Internal consistency and reliability of subscales were assessed using Cronbach’s co- efficient alpha. Results: The pilot testing identified two key concepts - children’s knowledge of issues related to their racial identity, and the importance, or salience, that they attach to these issues. In the main study, factor analyses showed two clear factors relating to: Aboriginal culture and traditions; and a sense of belonging to an Aboriginal community. Principal Axis Factoring of the Knowledge items supported a 2-factor solution, which explained 38.7 % of variance. Factor One (Aboriginal culture) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.835; Factor 2 (racial identity) had a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.800, thus demonstrating high internal reliability of the scales. Conclusion: The IRISE_C has been shown to be a valid instrument useful of exploring the development of racial identity of Australian Aboriginal children across the 8–12 year old age range and across urban, rural and regional geographical locations.
... The measurement of self-esteem across cultures can be difficult, particularly when one culture places a higher value on particular issues than others. For example, Western cultures tend to place a higher value on issues of independence and self-reliance, whereas more traditional societies (such as Aboriginal groups) more commonly value collectivism and a strong reliance on social support [15]. School achievement is a good example. ...
... School achievement is a good example. Self-esteem might be more valued in Western society where the emphasis is less on family and community extensions of self but on individualism and competition [15]. ...
... A measure of self-esteem developed in Western cultures will not necessarily be valid in other societies. Purdie & McCrindle [15] discuss a range of potential sources of error that can occur when using an instrument developed in a different culture. Firstly, concepts may be interpreted differently across cultures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In Australia, there is little empirical research of the racial identity of Indigenous children and youth as the majority of the current literature focuses on adults. Furthermore, there are no instruments developed with cultural appropriateness when exploring the identity and self-esteem of the Australian Aboriginal population, especially children. The IRISE_C (Racial Identity and Self-Esteem of children) inventory was developed to explore the elements of racial identity and self-esteem of urban, rural and regional Aboriginal children. This paper describes the development and validation of the IRISE_C instrument with over 250 Aboriginal children aged 8 to 12 years. Methods: A pilot of the IRISE C instrument was combined with individual interviews and was undertaken with 35 urban Aboriginal children aged 8-12 years. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to refine the survey and reduce redundant items in readiness for the main study. In the main study, the IRISE C was employed to 229 Aboriginal children aged 6-13 years across three sites (rural, regional and urban) in Western Australia. An exploratory factor analysis using Principal axis factoring was used to assess the fit of items and survey structure. A confirmatory factor analysis was then employed using LISREL (diagonally weighted least squares) to assess factor structures across domains. Internal consistency and reliability of subscales were assessed using Cronbach's co-efficient alpha. Results: The pilot testing identified two key concepts - children's knowledge of issues related to their racial identity, and the importance, or salience, that they attach to these issues. In the main study, factor analyses showed two clear factors relating to: Aboriginal culture and traditions; and a sense of belonging to an Aboriginal community. Principal Axis Factoring of the Knowledge items supported a 2-factor solution, which explained 38.7 % of variance. Factor One (Aboriginal culture) had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.835; Factor 2 (racial identity) had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.800, thus demonstrating high internal reliability of the scales. Conclusion: The IRISE_C has been shown to be a valid instrument useful of exploring the development of racial identity of Australian Aboriginal children across the 8-12 year old age range and across urban, rural and regional geographical locations.
... It is important to note that empirical research supporting the impact of more general levels of self-concept on varying outcomes for Indigenous students is considerably limited, especially within the field of education. For example, although a number of studies examine the relations between objective schooling outcomes (e.g., standardised achievement, student grades, and teachers' ratings of students) and general self-esteem for Indigenous students, none of them reported significant relations between general measures of self-esteem and academic achievement and success (e.g., Bodkin-Andrews, 2008; Bodkin-Andrews, Nelson, Craven, Yeung, & Newey, 2009; Pedersen & Walker, 2000; Purdie & McCrindle, 2004; Zubrick et al., 2006). However, these results do not mean that self-esteem or self-concept should be considered irrelevant for Indigenous students' success at school, but rather they offer indirect support for recent advances towards an emphasis for more domain-specific, multiple dimensions of self-concept (Craven & Marsh, 2008;). ...
... Even though there is only a small number of studies targeting relations between academic selfconcept and varying educational outcomes for Indigenous students ( McInerney, 2003; Pedersen & Walker, 2000; Purdie, 2005; Purdie & McCrindle, 2004), the results of such studies are both consistent and meaningful. The earliest of these studies targeted Indigenous and non-Indigenous primary school children aged between 6-12 years (Pedersen & Walker, 2000). ...
Article
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The notion of academic disengagement, regardless of its specific conceptualisation (e.g., cognitive, affective or behavioural) is one that has received considerable attention within the educational and social psychological literature, especially with regard to disadvantaged minority groups. Implicit within a portion of the disengagement research is the assumption that notions of disengagement are largely a result of one's racial/ethnic identity, thus potentially raising misattributions of the now rightfully maligned deficit models. With regard to this investigation, the validity of such 'deficit' models of disengagement shall be critically and quantitatively tested by utilising SEM causal modelling techniques. Specifically, the causal impact of secondary students' Aboriginality (Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian) and academic self-concept will be tested over self-reports of academic disengagement (once a prior measure of disengagement has been accounted for). The results suggest that although Aboriginality held a significant correlation with disengagement (suggesting that Indigenous students are more likely to disengage from school), the causal impact of this variable is negated when the causal impact of academic self-concept was also considered. The implication of this research suggests that academic self-concept may be a key variable to unlocking trends of school disengagement that have been noted for Indigenous Australian students.
... In general, academic (Caprara et al., 2011;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004) or science self-concept (Greenfield, 1996;Von Secker, 2004) has been shown to decline with age. ...
... One notable exception has been for academic self-concept of indigenous Australian students (Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). ...
Thesis
Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities. I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school characteristics. Treating aspects of science engagement as outcome variables provided tests for approaches for their enhancement; meanwhile, treating science achievement as the outcome variable provided tests for the influence of the aspects of science engagement on science achievement under appropriate controls. When aspects of science engagement were treated as outcome variables, gender and father’s SES had frequent (significant) influences, as did science teaching strategies which focused on applications or models and hands-on activities over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. When science achievement was treated as the outcome variable, each aspect of science engagement was significant, and eight had medium or large effect sizes (future-oriented science motivation was the exception). The science teaching strategy which involved hands-on activities frequently enhanced science achievement over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. Policy recommendations for U.S. science educators included enhancing eight aspects of science engagement and implementing two specific science teaching strategies (focus on applications or models and hands-on activities). Focused implementation of these research findings could enhance both science engagement and science achievement of U.S. students. I identified five key limitations of my research project: the age of the dataset, the lack of racial/ethnic identifiers, the low proportion of student-level variance accounted for by multilevel models with aspects of science engagement as outcome variables, the lack of class-level measures, and the lack of inclusion of students’ epistemological and fixed/flexible beliefs. These limitations provide opportunities for further investigations into these critical issues in science education.
... Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke and Craven (2010a) have noted that research seeking to investigate the relationship between self-concept, academic achievement and cultural identity for Aboriginal youth has so far produced equivocal results. This may, however, be an artefact of differing conceptualisations and assessment methods (see Pedersen & Walker, 2000;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). Working qualitatively from an Aboriginal standpoint, Kickett-Tucker's (2009) research demonstrated the centrality and complexity of young Aboriginal people's racial identity to their sense of self. ...
... Raising the self-esteem of Aboriginal students has frequently been highlighted as necessary to ensure effective engagement in school and to support academic success (NSWAECG & NSWDET, 2004;Sarra, 2003). The relationship between selfconcept and educational success in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students has been investigated by Pedersen and Walker (2000), by Purdie & McCrindle (2004) and by Craven, Tucker, Munns, Hinkley, Marsh & Simpson, (2005). Each of these studies has found a clear relationship between specific academic self-concept and educational achievement. ...
Technical Report
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The Aboriginal Girls’ Circle (AGC) is an intervention targeted to increase social connection, participation and self-confidence amongst Aboriginal girls attending secondary schools. Researchers from the University of Western Sydney (UWS)’s School of Education sought to evaluate the AGC pilot undertaken at Dubbo College and to provide recommendations for the program’s further development. The following specific aims were outlined for this pilot research. 1. To determine the effects of the AGC for participants’ resilience, connectedness, self-concept and cultural identity, 2. To investigate and track the development of culturally appropriate tools and methods for measuring these constructs, and 3. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of various components of the program and implementation processes. Ethical protocols for working with Aboriginal communities were an important aspect of the research design, which was approved by the UWS Human Research Ethics Committee and by the by the NSW Department of Education and Communities. The research was undertaken in two stages, beginning with a consultation process that sought the views of community Elders, the AGC program developers and key school-based personnel. The first stage of the research involved field observations of the AGC in action, together with a series of interviews and focus groups involving participants, group leaders, community Elders and school staff. The second stage used quantitative methods to measure the effects of the program on key variables relating to student connectedness, resilience, cultural identity and self-concept. This research report presents the detailed findings from the research in relation to each of the key aims and presents conclusions and recommendations for the further development of the AGC.
... More recently, studies from the United States and Australia reveal that the self-concept or self-esteem of Aboriginal students may be higher (Bodkin-Andrews, Craven & Marsh, 2004;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Purdie, Tripcony, Boulton-Lewis, Fanshawe, & Gunstone, 2000) or lower than non-Aboriginal students (Bodkin-Andrews et al., 2005;Craven et al., 2005;McInerney, 2001). Such dichotomous research clearly points to the need for multidimensional operationalization of self-concept. ...
... However, the opposite relationship was found for general and physical self-concept as well as self-concept regarding artistic ability with Aboriginal students reporting significantly higher scores than their non-Aboriginal peers. Similar results have been reported both in Australia (Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Purdie et al., 2000) and the United States (Bodkin-Andrews., 2010). Aboriginal students may see themselves as less competent in academic areas such as math and reading but equally or even more competent in a general domain or those related to family, peers, art, or physical competence. ...
Article
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Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non- Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths, and academic achievement among a sample of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Theories of self-perception development proposed by Marsh, Harter and Eccles were drawn upon to both frame the study and interpret the results. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings were explored within the context of existing research and theory and educational implications were presented.
... In Australia, several studies (Arens et al., 2014;Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, Dillon, Craven, & Yeung, 2012;Bodkin-Andrews et al., 2010;Craven & Marsh, 2004;McInerney, Cheng, Mok, & Lam, 2012;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004) have shown that generally the TEACHER EXPECTATIONS, STUDENT BELIEFS, AND ACHIEVEMENT academic self-beliefs and school achievement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are lower than those of their Anglo-Australian peers. However, the studies indicate complex associations between a range of self-beliefs, academic performance, and other factors. ...
... However, the studies indicate complex associations between a range of self-beliefs, academic performance, and other factors. For example, Purdie and McCrindle (2004) compared the self-concept of approximately 300 ...
Article
In the New Zealand context, the indigenous Māori group achieve below their Pākehā (European) peers in most academic subjects. The gap begins early in elementary school and is evident throughout schooling. Historically, this has been of concern to researchers, educators, and policy makers because Māori are disadvantaged socially and economically. Teacher expectations are known to contribute to student achievement and, similarly, some student beliefs have been associated with achievement. The current study explored student beliefs and teacher expectations in relation to Māori (n = 127) and Pākehā (n = 523) middle school students, aged 10–14 years. Teachers were more likely to underestimate Māori and overestimate Pākehā students although this difference disappeared when school socioeconomic status was controlled. Māori students more strongly endorsed performance goals than Pākehā. Greater achievement gains over one year were found in schools in high socioeconomic areas. For Māori students, beginning-of-year achievement, school socioeconomic status, holding a performance orientation, and having low levels of peer support predicted their gains whereas for Pākehā students, only prior achievement, school socioeconomic status and being male were associated with higher end-of-year achievement. The findings are discussed in relation to the implications for Māori and Pākehā students and their schooling. The inclusion of a culturally-based intervention which focuses on improving student–teacher relationships, raising teacher efficacy for teaching Māori, and including culturally appropriate teaching methods is recommended, particularly for teachers teaching in low socioeconomic schools. Such interventions may help to increase Māori achievement and decrease the ethnic achievement gap.
... A classic example can be found in the work on Indigenous Australian student selfperceptions which has emerged within the Australian educational and psychological research settings. Much of this research has centered on issues of prompting Western notions of selfesteem and self-concept within Indigenous Australian students (Bodkin-Andrew, Ha, Craven, & Yeung, 2010;Craven & Marsh, 2004, Pedersen & Walker, 2000Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Yeung, Craven, & Ali, 2013). While there is a considerable research base attesting to the positive effects of self-perceptions (especially academic) on school engagement and achievement for a wide diversity of students (Parker, Marsh, Ciarrochi, Marshall, & Abduljabbar, 2013), Bodkin-Andrews, Dillon, and Craven (2010) note that much of the selfperceptions based research not only suggests that such self-perceptions are less positive for Indigenous students when compared with non-Indigenous (especially academic, e.g., math self-concept), but they also tend to show weaker associations with schooling outcomes. ...
Article
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It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia’s First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism. Additionally, and if not somewhat related to this critique, it can be suggested that the very construction of research from a Western perspective of Indigenous identity (as opposed to identities) and ways of being are deeply entwined within the undertones of epistemological racism still prevalent today. It is the purpose of this article to move beyond the overreliance of outside-based understanding Western epistemologies, and to explore not only the complex nature of both racism and identity from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives, but to also explore the role of education and research in perpetuating varying levels of racism and resistance to Indigenous identity(ies) from a contemporary insider-based standpoint. It is hoped this article will shed some light on the pervasive nature of racism directed at Indigenous Australians, and highlight the need for the continual acceptance, respect, and promotion of Indigenous voices and identities within the educational environment and beyond.
... There is ample evidence that the modes of administration, including the cultural identity, age and identity of the tester and the physical location of the assessment, can have an impact on the assessment outcomes (Padilla, 2001). These are also known as method and item bias (Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). Hunter (1988), cited in Westerman (2004), reports that Aboriginal people assessed in a foreign environment can often present with elevated levels of distress and therefore this contributes to potential misdiagnosis. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter we briefly discuss the various elements that comprise the concept of assessment, as well as the distinction between assessment and testing. We explore the issues related to the lack of fit between Western and Australian Indigenous perspectives on mental illness. We examine the history of assessment and testing with culturally diverse groups, and explore a range of emergent principles and guidelines for practice to improve and govern assessment practices with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. We conclude that assessment and those practitioners conducting assessment must be repositioned (and reposition themselves) to play an important role in the development of procedures and practices in the provision of mental health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. ISBN: 978-1-74241-091-3
... There is support for its use with French Canadian (Bouffard et al., 2002) and Norwegian adolescents (Wichstrøm, 1995), and one study has tested its validity and reliability in Australia (Trent, Russell, & Cooney, 1994). However, it is documented that self-esteem is bound to culture, from within (Purdie & McCrindle, 2004) and between cultures (Hattie, 1992). Furthermore, the components of self-concept can change over time and generations. ...
Article
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In this study, we explored the psychometric properties and factorial validity of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) with an Australian sample drawn from the Raine study 14-year follow-up. Participants, boys (n = 795) and girls (n = 758) from Grades 8, 9, and 10, completed the SPPA. Cronbach's alpha showed good internal reliabilities for seven of the eight subscales and global self-worth. Boys had significantly higher athletic (p < .001), physical appearance (p < .001), and romantic (p < .05) self-perceptions, while the girls perceived significantly higher behavioural conduct (p < .001) and close friendships (p < .001). Exploratory factor analysis yielded similar factors to those reported by Harter with North American adolescents, although cross loadings resulted in one additional factor. Our findings generally supported Harter's conceptualisation of the self as a multidimensional construct, and with minor modifications, the use of the SPPA with Australian adolescents.
... To explain the academic disadvantage of Indigenous students, researchers have gone beyond the previous emphasis on the socio-economic disadvantages these students experience (see Jonas, 2003; Rowe, 2003 ) to examining psychological factors that drive academic success. Researchers have started to investigate the Yeung et al. 407 psychological well-being of Indigenous students (e.g., Pedersen & Walker, 2000; Purdie & McCrindle, 2004), their self-concept (Craven & Marsh, 2004), and their motivation in school work (Martin, 2006). These new research findings have broadened our knowledge about the disadvantage Indigenous students suffer and have enabled researchers to devise appropriate interventions that may counter it. ...
Article
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Indigenous Australians have been known to be disadvantaged in many ways although higher art and physical self-concepts have been reported with Indigenous samples. Given recent research demonstrating the reciprocal effects of achievement and self-concept in academic domains, Indigenous students may experience further disadvantages in both academic performance and self-concept. A sample of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students (N = 1,342) from schools in New South Wales (NSW), Australia were asked to respond to a survey measuring: five domains of self-concept (i.e., school, reading, mathematics, art, and physical abilities), two learning-related factors (enjoyment and participation), and a self-assessment of their school work. Their scores in a NSW state-wide assessment of students’ literacy and numeracy were also obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis established the self-concept and learning-related factors. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) using a 2 (identity: Indigenous vs. Non-Indigenous) × 2 (region: urban vs. rural) design found significant effects of identity for all variables except for art self-concept. That is, non-Indigenous students scored higher than Indigenous students in literacy and numeracy tests, self-concepts, learning-related factors, and self-ratings of school work, irrespective of region. The results did not support previous research demonstrating a relatively higher art self-concept for Indigenous children based on stereotypical perspectives. These results imply that school personnel would be well advised to not assume stereotypic differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students or assume a great difference between Indigenous students from urban and rural school settings. However, there seems to be a need for improving the school environment so as to promote Indigenous students’ performance and enjoyment of school life.
... Research has consistently revealed that relying on general conceptualizations of selfconfidence (e.g., general self-esteem, general self-concept), without understanding its underlying multidimensional structure, has produced null results or inconsistent findings especially regarding more objective schooling outcomes (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003;Hattie, 1992;Marsh & O'Mara, 2008;Shavelson & Marsh, 1986). Such research has also been reflected within the Indigenous Australian educational literature, as several studies have examined the relations between numerous schooling outcomes and general self-esteem/concept measures, only to reveal nonsignificant effects (e.g., Bodkin-Andrews, Seaton, Nelson, Pedersen & Walker, 2000;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Zubrick et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Academic disengagement among disadvantaged minority groups has received considerable attention within the psychological literature, and such research has attempted to identify variables that may reduce the risk of disengagement. With regard to this investigation, longitudinal structural equation modeling techniques were used across a sample of secondary school students to test whether Aboriginality (being Indigenous or non-Indigenous Australian), academic self-concept, and a cademic disengagement were causally related (once the effects of prior measures had been accounted for). The results suggest that although Aboriginality held a significant correlation with disengagement (suggesting that Indigenous students are more likely to disengage from school), the causal impact of this variable seems to be negated when the causal impact of academic self-concept is also considered. These results suggest that enhancing academic self-concept may be a useful strategy for addressing patterns of school disengagement that have been repeatedly noted for Indigenous Australian students.
... These results may be seen as being of some concern, considering calls for self-esteem to be recognised as an important psychological tool in schooling interventions for Indigenous Australian students (Lester, 2000;NSW AECG Inc & NSW DET, 2004). This concern is also highlighted by a number of empirical studies that have identified no significant relations between general measures of self-esteem and educational achievement for Indigenous students (e.g., Craven, et al., 2005;Pedersen & Walker, 2000;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Zubrick et al., 2006). The findings of these studies and the results from this analysis support a growing list of researchers who have questioned the direct impact of general notions of self-esteem over performance outcomes (Baumeister et al., 2005;Craven & Marsh, 2008;Hattie, 1992;Marsh & Craven, 2007;Valentine et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Psychological research and the popular media culture have repeatedly noted that self-esteem positively contributes to life satisfaction and performance indicators across a large variety of domains. However, while varying measures of self-esteem may be argued to have a positive influence on outcome measures, increasing evidence suggests that perceptions of racial discrimination may also have a negative impact across a wide variety of outcomes. The current investigation used structural equation modelling techniques to examine the potential impact of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian students' General Self-Esteem and their perceptions of racial discrimination on spelling and maths achievement. Results indicated that General Self-Esteem displayed little or no significant relations with the performance measures, yet perceived racial discrimination significantly and negatively predicted both spelling and maths achievement for the Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. In addition, no significant latent interaction between General Self-Esteem and perceived discrimination was identified, raising questions for the self-protective properties of General Self-Esteem, at least for achievement outcomes.
... Self-esteem might be protective against psychosomatic symptoms for adolescents (ages 14-19 years; Piko et al., 2016). Self-acceptance was the basis of self-esteem (Nathaniel, 1998), which was integrated into the multidimensional model of selfconcept (Purdie and McCrindle, 2004) and was adopted to measure the level of self-concept (Green et al., 1994). Selfacceptance refers to people taking a positive attitude toward themselves and all their characteristics and reflects the degree of individual acceptance of oneself (Cai et al., 2021). ...
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Objective Self-esteem and self-acceptance are not only basic features but also influential factors of mental health. The present study aimed at assessing the effects of psychoeducational lecture and group intervention on self-esteem and self-acceptance in Chinese college students. Methods A total of 149 Chinese college students who participated in a mental health course were randomly class-based assigned into the psychoeducational lecture group ( n = 62) and the self-focused intervention group ( n = 87). The lecture group received 6-session psychoeducational lectures on overview of mental health, campus adaptation, stress adjustment, self-understanding, emotion management, and interpersonal relationships. The self-focused intervention group was treated with self-related group activities involving aspects of self-knowledge, self-feeling, and self-regulation for six sessions. Pre- and post-intervention measurements were taken with Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Self-Acceptance Questionnaire for both groups. Results Self-esteem significantly increased in both groups after six sessions. However, the enhancement of self-acceptance was more robust for the self-focused intervention group than the psychoeducational lecture group. Conclusion The psychoeducational lecture and self-focused intervention were effective approaches to improve self-esteem for Chinese college students. With respect to self-acceptance, self-focused group intervention might have a more prominent effect.
... En la búsqueda de investigaciones realizadas vinculadas con trayectorias académicas de estudiantes indígenas, experiencias educativas y logro académico, se encontró poco material publicado que indique el abordaje sobre las trayectorias académicas particularmente en contextos inter-étnicos o multiculturales; sin embargo se localizaron algunos casos en los que se hacen estudios desde las trayectorias académicas de estudiantes en contextos no indígenas, se identificaron estudios de manera general en Chile, Argentina y México. (Brady 1997;Semali 1999;Hewit 2000;Monner 2002;Poblete 2003;Boulton-Lewis et al. 2004;Purdie & McCrindle 2004y Maillard, 2008. ...
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Esta investigación documentó la trayectorias académicas de diez estudiantes indígenas y afrodescendientes en referencia a sus experiencias y puntos de vista en el tránsito educativo, donde se ha analizado su incidencia en el nivel de logro académico en el contexto multicultural donde se lleva a cabo el proceso educativo.Entre los factores relevantes que han incidido se destaca la identidad étnica, la lengua, el soporte de la familia y las estrategias implementadas en el proceso educativo son relevantes. La perspectiva teórica para el abordaje de las trayectorias de vida, se planteó como un estudio de corte cualitativo y el abordaje de la misma desde una aproximación fenomenológica que parte de las historias de vida. Se articulan elementos de las teorías de la reproducción cultural, la teoría crítica y el interaccionismo simbólico, de manera que a la luz de los resultados obtenidos y tratando de explicar los acontecimientos evidenciados nos dan cuenta que hay una convergencia epistemológica que permean tales acontecimientos.SummaryThis research documented the academic background of ten indigenous and afrodescendants students, making reference to their experiences and point of views as they go trough the university, paying more attention to the academic achievement in the multicultural context where the educational process is been carried out.Among the relevant factors that have influenced, various aspects are highlighted, such as: the ethnicity, language, family support and the strategies implemented in the educational process. The theoretical perspective in order to address the paths of life was focus as a qualitative study from a phenomenological approach that is based on life stories. Elements of the cultural reproduction theory, critical theory and symbolic interactionism were joint so that based on the results and trying to explain the events it demonstrated that there is an epistemological convergence permeating such events.
... As such, researchers have gone beyond the previous emphasis on the socioeconomic disadvantages these students experience to identify psychological factors that drive academic success. Researchers have started to investigate the psychological well-being of Indigenous students (e.g., Purdie and McCrindle, 2004), their motivation in schoolwork (e.g., McInerney, 2003McInerney, , 2008), and their self-concept (e.g., Craven and Bodkin-Andrews, 2006). Their new findings have broadened our knowledge about the disadvantage Indigenous students suffer and have enabled us to identify potentially potent psychosocial tools to inform intervention. ...
Article
Many Indigenous people worldwide are more disadvantaged compared with their non-Indigenous peers. Australian Indigenous people have been identified as one of the most disadvantaged groups in the world. Consistent with positive psychology approaches, motivational constructs have been identified for non-Indigenous students from diverse cultural backgrounds as critical psychological drivers that facilitate desirable educational outcomes and life opportunities beyond schooling. However, due to limited empirical research with Indigenous populations, less is known about the role of motivational constructs for this population. This article explores the importance of motivational constructs for Indigenous populations with a focus on Indigenous Australian students.
... Several Australian studies have examined the academic self-concept of school-aged children through comparative analyses of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children (Pedersen and Walker, 2000;Purdie and McCrindle, 2004;Yeung et al., 2013). These have shown that Indigenous students may possess weaker self-concepts than non-Indigenous Australian students (Purdie and McCrindle, 2004, pp. ...
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Self-concept is recognised as useful in facilitating understanding of the development of resilience, academic achievement and social and emotional maturity in children. This framework is valuable for studying minorities such as Indigenous children, for who a positive self-concept is a means of bolstering resilience and mitigating the inherited structural disadvantages of colonisation. This paper aims to understand the academic self-concept of Indigenous children in Australia through analysis of univariate, bivariate and multivariate data of Indigenous children aged 9.5–11 years from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children Wave's 7 K Cohort. Results show overall positive levels of Indigenous children's self-perception at school. Further, factors such as level of relative isolation, teacher perception, peer relationships, feedback from mother and contact with community leaders and Elders is positively associated with Indigenous children's schooling mathematic and reading self-concepts. Ensuring that Indigenous students are supported by community, peers and parents, immersed in their culture and are recognised and supported by their teachers can alleviate the undesirable effects that structural inequalities may have on their academic self-concept.
... This is differentiation which, in the case of Australian Indigenous students, might mean an emphasis on collaboration, cooperation and small-group organisation as the basis for forming learning structures within the classroom. Incorporating such pedagogies is important for Australian Indigenous students' achievement as they help advance their selfconcept as learners, a critical factor for their academic engagement (Purdie & McCrindle, 2004;Purdie et al., 2000). Critically too, in order for teachers to make such adjustments to their teaching, they must have an understanding of the way the dominant White culture defines acceptable processes of teaching and learning and their purpose and how it privileges those belonging to it (Acquah, 2015). ...
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Many current economic and social challenges lead to waves of migrating people. The countries where migrants seek refuge can be ethnically homogeneous and monolingual such as Greece, or more frequently, ethnically diverse with local Indigenous populations which have been subjugated and marginalized, such as the US or Australia. In either context, a significant corollary of migration is the absorption of children into the local educational system. Migrant children, much like the local Indigenous marginalized children of the host countries, have language barriers and different customs from those of the host country. Cultural mismatches between the culture of the child and that of its teacher have been empirically shown to result in a range of negative outcomes for the child, including behavioural infractions, low academic outcomes and dropping out of school. This research illustrates findings from the second phase of an extended study. The study aim was to identify what constitutes culturally responsive pedagogy in Australia to support the needs of Indigenous Australian students. Indigenous Australian students, like their counterparts in New Zealand and North America, have the lowest academic attainment of any students in Australia. Through qualitative interviews with Indigenous parents, teachers and students, we identified a range of teacher behaviours deemed by Indigenous people to be indicators of teacher quality as indicated by culturally responsive pedagogy. From these we constructed a teacher survey which was piloted with two waves of practicing teachers. Latent Trait Analyses using the Rasch Model validated the survey and its underlying factors. Findings showed that teachers’ ethic of care strongly predicted their pedagogical expertise. Implications of the research include redefining quality teaching as a pedagogy based on strong ethical standards driven by a vocational disposition which seek to benefit all students including those from ethnically diverse groups such as Indigenous students, refugees and recent migrants.
... There is a plethora of international research positively linking specific domains of Selfconcept (e.g., math Self-concept) to matching achievement outcomes (e.g., math grades/test scores) (see Marsh & Craven, 2006 for an overview) across a variety of cultural settings (e.g., Marsh, Hau, & Kong 2002;Marsh & Köller, 2003). However, it is only recently that Aboriginal Education research has found that academic Self-concepts are significantly and positively associated with higher levels of achievement and enjoyment for Aboriginal students (e.g., Bodkin-Andrews, Dillon, O'Rourke, Craven, & Yeung, 2012;Bodkin-Andrews, O'Rourke, & Craven, 2010;Craven, Tucker, Munns, Hinkley, Marsh, & Simpson, 2005;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). ...
Research
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The Seeding Success for Aboriginal Australian Primary Students research project was funded by the Australian Research Council as a Linkage grant. The research was conducted in partnership with the Centre for Positive Psychology and Education, University of Western Sydney; New South Wales (NSW) Department of Education and Communities (DEC); and NSW Aboriginal Education Consultative Group Inc. Taking a forward-looking and positive perspective, the research aimed to capitalise on recent advances in educational policy, research, and practice to identify what practices may be most conducive for success and engagement in primary school for Aboriginal students.
... Neutralizations, Delinquent Label and Criminal History of Young Offenders 9 empirical literature on delinquent self-concept and neutralizations was thoroughly examined and served as the basis for the initial conceptualisation of the questionnaire. Some of the items were developed specifically for this study, others were drawn from such measures as the Self- Acceptance Scale (Purdie & McCrindle, 2004) and the Criminal Sentiments Scale (Simourd & Olver, 2002), or modified from existing measures to suit the questionnaire style and the population under study (e.g., Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Fitts, 1965; the Neutralization Scale, Minor, 1980; Social Identity as a Criminal Questionnaire, Walters, 2003). Each item in the questionnaire was rated on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). ...
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This study examined the associations between young offenders' justifications for delinquent behavior, their perceptions of being labeled "delinquent," and criminal history. Young offenders (N = 153) serving community orders completed a questionnaire that assessed their use of justifications for offending (neutralizations) and their perceptions of being delinquent. More than half did not believe that others labeled them as delinquent. Those who did believe so self-reported more delinquency and other problem behaviors but did not a have more serious official criminal history than "unlabeled" offenders. Factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure (minimization and rationalization) for the neutralization items. Neutralization factors were weak predictors of official criminal history but were stronger predictors of self-reported delinquency and other problem behaviors. Findings are discussed with reference to the implications for risk and responsivity principles in the treatment of young offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract).
... Within more psycho-socially orientated Indigenous Australian research self-concept has been repeatedly emphasised as being a critical agent in enhancing Indigenous Australians general well-being and educational outcomes (Craven & Tucker, 2003;Lester, 2000;Swan & Rapheal 1995). Research examining Indigenous students' self-confidence/esteem/self-concepts has emerged and consistently shown that higher levels of confidence in academia is beneficial for the performance and engagement of Indigenous students (Craven & Marsh, 2004;Craven et al., 2005;Pedersen & Walker, 2000;Purdie & McCrindle, 2004). Such findings have largely been replicated in this investigation, even after considering the impact of racism on these same outcomes (see Table 7). ...
Chapter
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Within Australian educational and psychological research, a recent emphasis towards the benefits of Positive Psychology has begun to emerge. This is especially apparent within Indigenous Australian research, where too great an emphasis has been placed on the negative aspects of Indigenous students’ education. Although past research targeting Indigenous Australians has often fallen into inappropriate cultural deficit approaches, it cannot be simply assumed that a sole focus on positive constructs will effectively negate the detrimental impact of unique stressors Indigenous Australian students may be forced to endure. This investigation tested the relation of a number of Positive Psychology constructs (e.g., School Self-Concept and Cultural Identity), Home Economic Resources, and perceived Racism as well as their relation to Indigenous Australian students’ educational outcomes. Overall, the results suggested that the negative impact of racism was substantial, and that although some of the positive psychology constructs were associated with higher educational outcomes they did not buffer the Indigenous students from the negative impact of Racism. As a result, researchers should be aware that sprinkling a little fairy dust (e.g., Positive Psychology) over some negative stressors may not see problems associated with such stressors disappear.
... A classic example can be found in the work on Indigenous Australian student self-perceptions which has emerged within the Australian educational and psychological research settings. Much of this research has centered on issues of prompting Western notions of self-esteem and selfconcept within Indigenous Australian students Marsh 2004, Pedersen andPurdie and McCrindle 2004;Yeung, Craven, and Ali 2013). While there is a considerable research base attesting to the positive effects of self-perceptions (especially academic) on school engagement and achievement for a wide diversity of students (Parker et al. 2014), Bodkin-Andrews, Dillon, and Craven (2010) note that much of the self-perceptions based research not only suggests that such self-perceptions are less positive for Indigenous students when compared with non-Indigenous students (especially academic, e.g. ...
Chapter
Positive self-concept is a variable which influences considerably on the well-being and total development of students in general. Thus, this aspect is of particular importance in the special education context as well. This chapter outlines the rationale and purpose of investigating self-concept in students with intellectual disabilities. It also traces the development of students with disabilities in the history of special education in Australia. An overview of the South Australian context is also provided. The aims and research questions designed for this study in relation to students with intellectual disabilities are provided. The limitations and delimitations of this study along with the definition of some key terms are further discussed.
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Psychological research and popular culture have repeatedly noted that general self-esteem is a positive contributor to well-being and performance indicators across a large variety of domains including education. However, whilst increased self-esteem may have a positive influence on educational outcomes, increasing evidence suggests that perceptions of racial discrimination may also have a negative impact on these outcomes. The current investigation used a variety of structural equation modelling techniques to examine the potential impact of Indigenous Australian students' general self-esteem and perceptions of racial discrimination upon performance on standardised spelling and math achievement measures. The results indicated that general self-esteem did not impact on Indigenous students' performance, however, perceived racial discrimination impacted significantly and negatively on performance. In addition, a moderating analysis demonstrated that Indigenous students with a higher general self-esteem were more susceptible to the negative impact of racial discrimination than those with low self-esteem.
Article
Positive self-concept has been identified as the means of facilitating desirable outcomes for all individuals. However, a growing body of research substantiates that adolescents are inclined to the development of a negative self-concept and adolescence is described as a phase of turbulence at its peak. When this convoluted stage is combined with a disability, the child is in a state of complete impediment and likely to develop a very poor self-concept. In the light of this, this review selects a type of disability, ‘vision impairment’ and extensively critiques the self-concept research studies in participants with vision impairment to date.
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This study explored the racial identity of Indigenous children and youth who attended urban, state and private primary and secondary schools in the Noongar region of urban Perth in Western Australia. Thirty five Australian Indigenous children aged 8–12 were interviewed and 120 youth aged 13–17 participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analysed and common themes were identified by extracting relevant responses and their meanings. The components of racial identity for children aged 7–12 and youth were very similar such that culture, family, language and appearance featured. The most reported element of racial identity for young children was culture which comprised of eight sub- elements. Young people however, reported that a strong sense of self was the most important contributor to their racial identity and it comprised of ten sub- elements. Indigenous youth perceived that their racial identity is exposed to others’ attitudes, values and behaviours because according to them ‘identity is about what you look like and how others see you’.
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This chapter begins with an overview of the recent epidemiological trends in suicide and attempted suicide for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and how this compares with the situation in other post-colonial English-speaking nations such as Canada, the USA and New Zealand. We then review qualitative studies exploring the meaning of suicide within the Indigenous community context, how these inform our understandings of suicidal behaviour and their value for informing preventive action. These highlight the individual, community or situational factors which appear to be associated with increased risk for suicide and suicidal behaviour. Life-course studies of individuals who develop suicidal behaviour or complete suicide are also considered to identify the specific situations and processes that trigger or escalate suicidal behaviour. Recent Australian and international data indicate certain social circumstances, particularly contexts of ‘bereavement overload’, where suicidal behaviours may become socially contagious, with ‘copy-cat’ suicidal behaviour. The chapter concludes with a discussion of what works in prevention, early intervention and post-vention including proactive bereavement support, containment of suicide clusters, as well as longer-term strategies for community healing following collectively experienced trauma. ISBN: 978-1-74241-091-3
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It is only relatively recently that empirical research has begun to emerge that has sought to further understand the factors that may contribute to the educational inequities between Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous Australian students. Although it has been argued that research has typically employed small, unrepresentative case studies and weak statistical approaches, a new wave of Indigenous educational research is seeking to understand the impact of psychological constructs on educational outcomes for Indigenous (and non-Indigenous) students. Embedded within this research is a careful consideration as to whether measures used are not only equivalent in meaning for Indigenous and non-Indigenous students but also equivalent in their ability to predict important schooling outcomes. Using this approach, this investigation tests the relation of multiple dimensions of self concept to Indigenous and non-Indigenous students’ educational outcomes. The validity of the quantitative measures was tested through a range of reliability, confirmatory factor analyses and invariance tests with the results demonstrating cross cultural equivalence of the measures investigated. In addition, moderating structural equation modelling path analyses attested to the predictive power of specific dimensions of self-concept in relation to schooling outcomes for Indigenous and non- Indigenous students and some subtle differences were noted. The results imply that targeting domain-specific self-concepts to increase both Indigenous and non-Indigenous educational outcomes can provide potentially potent solutions for contributing to realising equitable educational standards in Australia.
Article
This article reports a study comparing self-concept among 114 immigrant children and adolescents of Ethiopian origin in Israel and among 164 native-born Israelis, including an exploration of how age, gender, and first-language proficiency affect various dimensions of this construct. For the younger children (aged 8—9 years), self-concept was found to be higher among the native-born than among children of Ethiopian origin, while for junior high school children (aged 14—15 years), results were reversed. Findings are interpreted and discussed in light of the complex immigration history and the ongoing integration difficulties faced by members of the Ethiopian community, and related to different coping mechanisms adopted by participants at different ages. Ethiopian adolescents appear to cling more to their peer group, compared with younger children who seem to be more affected by the immediate family circle. Gender differences were found mainly regarding physical self-concept, in favor of boys. Self-rates of language proficiency appeared to be associated with several aspects of self-concept. Finally, and given the unique circumstances of the interaction between Ethiopian immigrants and Israeli society, findings emerge as relevant to the context of refugees, for whom the gap with the host culture is often wider than that encountered by voluntary migrants. Several recommendations related to language, family, and intergroup relations are included.
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Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promising elements of best practice relevant to mainstream mental health service (MHS) delivery of early psychosis intervention (EPI) to Indigenous communities. In a companion paper, a comprehensive literature review identified a promising service model with potential for delivering EPI: an Indigenous sub-team embedded within a mainstream health service. Method: This paper describes a consultation process with Indigenous Mental Health Workers (IMHWs) in south eastern Queensland. A case study of the Sunshine Coast Cultural Healing Program (CHP-SC) was carried out during the consultation process. Results: IMHWs agreed that the Australian clinical guidelines for early psychosis were relevant to improving outcomes for Indigenous patients. IMHWs unanimously identified the CHP-SC as a best practice mainstream MHS for delivering EPI. The CHP-SC, which represented an Indigenous sub-team model, was found to be associated with substantially improved engagement of Indigenous young people. Conclusions: We provisionally conclude that specialist EPI could be delivered by specialist Indigenous sub-teams (rather than specialist EPI teams) embedded in mainstream MHSs that incorporate culturally safe practice and are fully integrated with Indigenous primary care services, and recommend that the model be formally evaluated.
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Through its hegemonic ideologies, colonialism and its constituent underpinnings of religious and racial superiority, necessitates the erasure of the cultural identity of people outside the dominant Euro-Western culture and as non-normative groups, Indigenous Peoples and autistic people disabled per colonized paradigms, experience oppression, and subjugation harmful to self-identity and mental health. This article discusses culturally responsive interventions aimed at supporting strong cultural identity formation and safeguard Indigenous and autistic people from stigmatization, misrepresentation, and erasure of identity. Promising research uses Indigenous knowledges in education and arts programming to disrupt patterns of social injustice, exclusion, and cultural genocide while promote positive identity formation, pride, and resilience for Indigenous autistics. While Indigenous and autistic people exist globally, this article reviews literature from Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.
Book
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This is a new book, published by Cambridge University Press, that deals with how to approach inclusive teaching & learning from a mindfulness, duty-of-care perspective. Unfortunately I am not able to provide a manuscript of it however. The file would be too large to send, plus it is copyright by Cambridge. If you are interested in this book, please go to the Cambridge website for it (https://www.cambridge.org/au/academic/subjects/education/education-history-theory/managing-mindfulness-connecting-students-21st-century?format=AR&isbn=9781108624657) and request an inspection copy. Hope this is helpful.
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This chapter explores what is involved in being a professional practitioner working in the area of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health. It does this with regard to the principles, standards and practice frameworks that contribute to the capacity and empowerment of mental health practitioners and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, families and communities.
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The study tested the effects of priming culture on academic self-concept (ASC) and ethnocentrism, and the relationship between prior intergroup contact (PIC) and familial ethnic socialization (FES) and those two outcomes. The study asked: Does priming culture affect achievement outcomes and manifestations of social identity? Do immigrant generation groups differ in ASC and ethnocentrism? Does the extent someone experiences diversity, and ethnic socialization, affect confidence and interest in academic study and feelings of group superiority? Hispanic and White 8th graders (N = 72) in six middle schools were surveyed on PIC and FES and later engaged in either a cultural priming or neutral priming activity and were surveyed on ASC and ethnocentrism. Significant group differences were found in both ASC and ethnocentrism depending on the type of priming. Both Whites and Hispanics scored higher in ASC and ethnocentrism after Hispanic priming than after American priming. In other words, including Hispanic culture in classrooms benefited indirectly the achievement of both Hispanic and White students through ASC. Increasing acculturation was correlated with higher ASC and lower ethnocentrism. PIC was related to higher ASC and lower ethnocentrism. FES predicted higher ethnocentrism. Results support the bidirectional influence of culture and that diversity affects ethnocentrism.
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This chapter describes cognition as an adjunct to intentional action and cognitive development as involving a process of appropriation of cultural resources. Culture informs the knowledge base, the structural organization of cognition, and the individual's hierarchy of values. These various dimensions of cultural influence combine to focus thought by prioritizing the detection and utilization of cues relevant to the performance of a given task in context. The cultural organization of context includes systematic patterns of social relationships, of recurrent activities, and of meanings. Over the course of their socialization, children gradually appropriate this complex system and become a part of it. The distinctiveness of cultures can be explained in part through a historical analysis of their evolution, including ecological, technological, and philosophical dimensions. Each cultural tradition tends to combine many such features and also organizes them into a coherent interpretive scheme, which variously informs the discourse and associated practices of everyday life, of social theory, of public policy, and of professional activities.
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In this study, the Values Questionnaire developed by Schwartz and Bilsky was used to examine differences in the values held by a group of Aboriginal university students and a group of non-Aboriginal students studying at an Australian university. Results indicated that the Aboriginal group placed greater emphasis on values associated with Tradition, Conformity, and Security and significantly less emphasis on values associated with Achievement, Self-direction, Stimulation, Hedonism, and Benevolence. These data, in conjunction with a separate analysis of the ten highest ranked values for each group, support the view that the main differences between the groups lie in values serving collective (Aboriginal) as opposed to individual (non-Aboriginal) interests. These findings are consistent with previous research on the worldview of traditional Aboriginal people, and they suggest that even among younger, more Westernised representatives of this culture collective values are likely to be strong determinants of behaviour.
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This project concerns the relationship between school outcomes and the self-identities of young indigenous Australians. Evidence from a range of sources indicates that indigenous students have markedly lower school participation, retention, and success rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. As it is generally believed that successful completion of secondary school is necessary for young people to have access to the full range of further education, training, and life chances consistent with their abilities, it becomes essential to find ways to enhance indigenous students' commitment and connection to schooling. Positive self-identity has been suggested as one of the factors that is related to attachment to school and positive school outcomes for indigenous students.
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Interviews in two rural Maori villages in New Zealand examined elements of traditional Maori identity--sacredness, interconnectedness, language, and sense of place--and contrasted these elements with massive generational changes in economic circumstances. Although encouraging cultural and language maintenance, traditional Maori identity has not yet supported economic revival initiatives and may be mistrustful of Maori trained "outside." (Author/SV)
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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the increasing complexity of decision making about structural equation models and comprehensiveness of computer software for estimating them has created a significant burden for researchers in the social and behavioral sciences / researchers who choose to address substantive research questions using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach are faced with the task of sifting through the large amount of output routinely generated by SEM software and deciding how to present information in a way that permits a reasoned evaluation and understanding of their analysis / provide a set of general recommendations that promote effective and complete communication of results from SEM analyses (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The study of identities is an enormous and complex undertaking. Research on identity formation has revealed a clear link between family practices and identity development. In traditional Maori times, the whanau was the place where initial teaching and socialisation of things Maori took place. While there is no single exact measure of what constitutes Maori identity (Durie, 1994), that Maori identity is still being asserted today means that the shaping of Maori identity is still occurring. Rather than attempt to cover all aspects of how Maori shape their identities, I have chosen to focus on the shaping of Maori identity within whanau. Given that this paper is about both Maori identity and whanau identity it seemed logical to review and examine the literature surrounding these two notions. In this paper I also discuss the ecological threats and supports that influenced Maori and whanau identity. Then I review literature on whanau identity from traditional and contemporary works, and explore the concept of whanau identity as a management framework. The literature on whanau does not vary from what Maori authors have expressed regarding their conceptualisations of Maori identity. The tribal structures, descent and cultural practices provide integral pathways through which whanau and Maori identity can be developed and maintained. What is of significance, is that the formation of a secure whanau identity is likely to contribute toward an overall stable Maori identity. Creating an environment where a sense of secure wellbeing among members of a whanau is nurtured, leads to members constructing a whanau and Maori identity that is meaningful to them in their lives.
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The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: CY - Macarthur, New South Wales, Australia PB - University of Western Sydney, Faculty of Education. ID - 579
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This article examines the responses given by 590 kindergarten to 12th-Grade students when they were asked about their conception of heroes. The sequence of questions asked students to define, describe, name, and justify their response about heroes. Students, regardless of age level, appear to use an operational definition of hero, but when asked to identify a hero, most students named a person with whom they have had personal experiences. Responses given over the age spans move from a specific behaviour to that of a sustained behaviour over a period of time. The change in responses demonstrates developmental changes in conceptual, cognitive, and social growth.
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Can children assess their level of knowledge? To answer this question, the authors asked second, fourth, and sixth graders to predict test scores before and after regular classroom examinations in three subjects. A significant Grade × Subject Area interaction was found for predictions just prior to the test. Fourth graders made relatively accurate predictions in all three subject areas. Second graders were similar to fourth graders except for poor predictions in mathematics. Sixth graders made good predictions in mathematics and social studies, but had difficulty in spelling. The pattern of results from posttest (but before feedback) estimates of performance differed only slightly from pretest predictions. Prediction accuracy was strongly correlated with achievement, as measured by classroom tests but not by standardized tests. Some implications of these findings for instruction in self-regulated learning are discussed.
Article
A new instrument, the Chinese Adolescent Self-Esteem Scales (CASES), was developed to measure the self-concepts of the young people in Hong Kong in seven aspects: social, academic, appearance, moral, family, physical/sport, and general selfesteem. LISREL procedures were utilized to test the extent of factorial invariance for age and gender based on the responses to CASES of 551 Hong Kong adolescents. It was found that CASES possesses the necessary invariance properties for between-group measurement in terms of the number and pattern of the underlying factors, item factor loadings, and inter-factor relations, but not in terms of item uniqueness. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the use of CASES and of empirical support for the equivalence of self-concept factor structure for age and gender groups for both Western and non-Western adolescents. Dans cet étude, un nouvel instrument, le CASES (Chinese Adolescent Self-Esteem Scales), est développé pour mesurer sept aspects du concept de soi chez de jeunes personnes de Hong Kong: l'aspect social, l'aspect scolaire, l'apparance, l'aspect moral, la famille, le sport/activité physique et l'estime de soi générale. Des procédures LISREL servent à tester, à partir des réponses données au CASES par 551 adolescents, l'étendue de la variance factorielle pour l'âge et le sexe. Les résultats indiquent qu'en termes de nombre et de patron de facteurs sous-jacents, de poids factoriel des items et des relations entre facteurs mais non en termes d'unicité des items, le CASES possèdent les propriétés d'invariance nécessaires pour la mesure inter-groupe. La discussion examine ces résultats en relation avec l'utilisation du CASES et avec l'appui empirique qu'il fournit à l'équivalence de la structure des facteurs du concept de soi pour l'âge et le sexe, chez les adolescents occidentaux et non occidentaux.
Article
The present investigation supports the gender-invariant model of relations between math, verbal, academic, and general self-concepts. No support was found for the gender-stereotypic model that posits that academic and general self-concepts are more highly related to math self-concept for boys and are more highly related to verbal self-concept for girls. Extending the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach to factorial invariance, the structure of academic self-concept (factor loadings, factor correlations, and factor variances) was invariant across eight groups (2 gender × 4 adolescent ages; total N = 4,000). This strong support for the factorial invariance of responses to the Self-Description Questionnaire II provides good support for the comparison of mean scores over gender and age. The methodological approach has important implications for the study of individual differences in the structure of educational measures.
Article
Scales were developed to measure children's affective and cognitive attitudes toward school. The predictive validities of the scales were examined in relation to children's academic achievement, after considering associations between the children's intellectual ability and measures of their academic achievement. Data were collected from 430 female and 450 male 11-year-old Australians. The results indicated that the scales may provide useful short-form measures of children's attitudes toward school.
Article
Students' reports of their learning anddevelopment play an important role in research andassessment in higher education. Assessment researchfrequently asks students questions about gains madeduring college to identify dimensions of gains andthen examines relationships between college experiencesand gains. A growing body of research suggests thatcorrelations between ratings of gains and college experiences may be an artifact of a constanterror of the halo. The present research examines whetherhalo error underlies students' self reports of gains,the significance of the halo error, and the effect of halo error on relationships between collegeexperiences and educational outcomes. Results confirmthat halo error may be an important component instudents' ratings of their learning and development. Moreover, halo error may obscure relationshipsbetween college experiences and educationaloutcomes.
Article
The factorial invariance of responses by preadolescent males and females to a multidimensional self-concept instrument was examined for responses to the Self Description Questionnaire (SDQ). Sets of responses by 500 males and by 500 females were each randomly divided in half to form four groups (M1, M2, Fl, and F2). The factorial invariance of an a priori structure demonstrated the replicability of the structure across cross-validation groups (M1 and M2, F1 and F2) and the generality of the structure across sex (M1 and Fl, M2 and F2). Additional a posteriori structures that better fit the data were derived on the basis of the initial analyses, but the estimated values of the new parameters were not invariant across cross-validation groups or across sex. This suggests that some of the improved fit was illusory and due to capitalizing on chance. However, factor loadings and factor correlations were invariant across sex for a priori and a posteriori structures. Hence the results support the replicability of SDQ factor structure across cross-validation samples and its generality across responses by preadolescent males and females.
Article
The purpose of the current study was to determine the constructs of self-perception which are most important to children living in Chinese cultures. The theoretical and methodological format used in this study was based on Susan Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children. An importance inventory that included Harter's original domains in addition to other items related to other constructs thought to be important in Chinese culture was given to 144 sixth grade students at an elementary school in Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. The three constructs of behavior conduct, social acceptance and group orientation were of particular significance to Chinese children's self-perception.
Article
This study investigated cultural differences in self-perception of competence and mathematics achievement in Canadian and Chinese elementary school students. The Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) was administered to 125 fourth-grade Canadian children randomly selected from schools in an urban school district. The SPPC was translated into Chinese and administered to a comparative sample of 128 children from Chinese-speaking schools in Hong Kong. Children were also administered a mathematics achievement test constructed by a team of bilingual researchers from Japan, Taiwan, and the United States. Results showed positive correlations between perceived scholastic competence and performance on the math achievement test for both Canadian and Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong Chinese children outperformed their Canadian peers on the math achievement test. An overwhelming similarity in factor pattern was found between the Canadian sample and a similar American sample in a previous study. Canadian children evaluated themselves much higher than Hong Kong Chinese children in scholastic competence, athletic competence, physical appearance, and global self-worth. No significant differences were found in the children's self-evaluation of social acceptance and behavioral conduct. The self-perception profile in English and Chinese is appended. (MM)
Article
This paper examines the self-concept of urban Western Australian Aboriginal school children, aged 11-12, in school sports settings. Most students were from the Nyoongar Aboriginal community of southwestern Western Australia. Data were collected from interviews with Aboriginal students and parents, class teachers, and sports teachers, and from observations in the school sport setting. Overall, school sports contributed favorably to Aboriginal students' self-concept and feelings about their Aboriginality. Sports activities generated enjoyment and provided opportunities for students to demonstrate their sport and physical competencies. Although males and females differed in their sports preferences, basketball was a favorite of all Aboriginal students, regardless of gender or ability. All students reported positive expectations about their ability to perform well in sports in the future. However, the school did not meet student needs to develop their sports competence. The school's potential impact outweighed its actual impact on students' self-concepts and ultimately their self-esteem. Students reported that the competence they displayed in the sports setting and the feelings generated by their participation had a powerful bearing on their confidence to identify as Aboriginals and so produced positive feelings of pride, strength, and passion about themselves. Student self-esteem was boosted by feedback from non-Aboriginal children and teachers, sports awards, demonstrated sports competence, physical competence, and social competence. (Contains 35 references.) (SV)
Article
A new self-report instrument, the Perceived Competence Scale for Children, is described. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of a child's sense of competence across different domains, instead of viewing perceived competence as a unitary construct. 3 domains of competence, each constituting a separate subscale, were identified: (a) cognitive, (b) social, and (c) physical. A fourth subscale, general self-worth, independent of any particular skill domain, was included. A new question format was devised which provides a broader range of responses and reduces the tendency to give socially desirable responses. The psychometric properties of the scale are presented for third through ninth grades. Emphasis is placed on its factorial validity. Each subscale defines a separate factor, indicating that children make clear differentiations among these domains. The factor structure is extremely stable across this grade range. The scale is viewed as an alternative to those existing self-concept measures of questionable validity and reliability.
Article
The study of young people's heroes and heroines is seen as a powerful way to explore the socio-cultural factors that shape the self. One hundred and eleven girls and 113 boys from an English comprehensive school, aged 11-16 years (mean=13.2, SD=1.41) provided responses to questionnaire items designed to allow them to express freely their ideals and most admired adults. Following content analysis, the results were presented according to dominant responses and underlying values, with separate analyses for age and gender. Most of the young people were happy to be themselves and whilst they were able to identify a hero that person did not necessarily represent their ideal self. Heroes were primarily drawn from the sporting world and the media. The results are discussed in terms of personal identity development during adolescence.
Article
This handbook will assist with the planning, implementation, and evaluation of research. It provides summary profiles that will trigger the memories of those who have been trained in such procedures, and it offers clarification for the student. This book synthesizes large quantities of technical information and brings together statistical procedures and their computer applications to meet the practical needs of researchers. Section A presents brief and informative profiles of 22 research designs, 97 statistical procedures, and an assortment of sampling techniques. Section B, using succinct profiles, introduces the reader to computer software spreadsheets, database managers, integrated packages, and statistical packages. Section C is designed to help the educational reader execute selected statistical procedures using computers. . . . Statistical procedures are explained along with the operational commands of these computer programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This analysis of the 12,266 responses to the three Self Description Questionnaires, which measure multiple dimensions of self-concept in preadolescence (H. W. Marsh, 1988), early-to-middle adolescence (H. W. Marsh, in press), and late adolescence and early adulthood (H. W. Marsh, in press), examined (a) age and sex effects during preadolescence to early adulthood and (b) alternative operationalizations of Shavelson, Hubner, and Stanton's (1976) proposal that self-concept becomes more differentiated with age. Responses to all three SDQ instruments were reliable and resulted in well-defined factor structures. Self-concept declined from early preadolescence to middle adolescence, then increased through early adulthood. Sex differences in specific areas of self-concept were generally consistent with sex stereotypes and relatively stable from preadolescence to early adulthood. There was little support for the increased differentiation of dimensions of self-concept beyond early preadolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
discuss a wide variety of theoretical models of the structure of self-concept and self-concept instruments that are based (implicitly or explicitly) on such models / emphasize the multidimensional, hierarchical model of self-concept proposed by R. Shavelson et al (1976) [see PA, Vol 60:10429] and research using the Self Description Questionnaire (SDQ) instruments . . . that were developed to test the Shavelson et al model / distinguish between 6 models of the structure of self-concept that have been discussed in the literature a unidimensional, general factor model / multidimensional independent and correlated factor models / taxonomic models / compensatory model / the internal/external frame of reference model / a multidimensional, hierarchical model / B. Bracken's (1992) multidimensional, hierarchical model (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Demonstrates the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in testing 1st- and higher-order factor models and their invariance across independent groups, using a LISREL (linear structural relations) framework. Data from a study by the 1st author et al (see record 1985-09311-001) gathered from administration of the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ) to 658 Australian children in Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used to examine the factor structure. The original study tested theoretical predications about the structure of self-concept advanced by R. J. Shavelson et al (see record 1978-30429-001) and Shavelson and R. Bolus (see record 1982-22201-001). In the present demonstration, CFA indicated that the basic factor model hypothesized to underlie the SDQ provided a good fit to the data across 4 age groups. Model 5, which proposes that there are 2 academic factors at the 2nd-order level that combine with the nonacademic factor to form a General Self factor at the 3rd-order level, was found to provide the best fit. Means and standard deviations for the 28 subscales of the SDQ are appended. (63 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Academic self-concept, school marks, and teacher ratings of achievement were collected in 3 high-school subjects in each of 3 years ( N = 603). In the structural equation models (SEMs) considered, both school-based performance and academic self-concept were measured with multiple indicators for each school subject. SEMs were used to evaluate the effects of prior academic self-concept on subsequent achievement after controlling for the effects of prior achievement, and the effects of prior achievement on subsequent academic self-concept after controlling for the effects of prior academic self-concept. Although the effects of achievement tended to be larger and more systematic, there was clear support for both academic self-concept and achievement effects. Although there was support for this reciprocal effects model for all 3 school subjects, self-concept effects tended to be larger and more systematic for mathematics than for science and, particularly, English. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study investigated the effects of experimenter (Aboriginal vs. Anglo), school culture, gender, and age on 117 Aboriginal-Australian children's ingroup preference and self-concept. Based on self-categorisation theory, an experimenter effect on ingroup preference but not on self-concept, was predicted. Past research led to a further hypothesis that the children would show outgroup preference. Results confirmed that the children showed greater ingroup preference when interviewed by an Aboriginal experimenter; no experimenter effect was found with self-concept scores. However, they did not uniformly show outgroup preference as was predicted; scores were quite heterogeneous. While age had no significant effect on ingroup preference, a negative correlation existed between age and self-concept. Self-concept scores were unrelated to ingroup preference scores. Implications of the findings and limitations of the present study are discussed.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
A variance-components analysis is presented for paired comparisons in terms of three components:s, the scale value of the stimuli;d, a deviation from the linear model specified by the law of comparative judgment; andb, a binomial error component. Estimates are given for each of the three variances, σ s 2, σ d 2, and σ b 2. Several coefficients, analogous to reliability coefficients, based on these three variances are indicated. The techniques are illustrated in a replicated comparison of handwriting specimens.
Article
Self-concept orientations (individualistic, collectivistic, and moralistic) were examined for 210 Zimbabwe college students of a Shona cultural background. Although the students tended to endorse an individualistic self-concept orientation to a significant extent, the women and the older students were more inclined to perceive of the self-concept as collectivistic and moralistic in orientation. Implications for self-concept models for African cultures and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Article
Examined the contributions of parent and teacher attachment and self-concept to academic motivation in a sample of 150 high-school students (aged 16.3–19.5 yrs) in the 11th and 12th grades. Ss completed demographic questions and measures on parent attachment, teacher attachment, and self-concept, as well as on intrinsic value and self-regulation. Findings indicate that parent attachment and attachment to a teacher were individually and collectively related to academic motivation, and that academic self-concept was a significant predictor of academic motivation.
Article
A large body of research supports the existence of an academic achievement--self-concept relationship. Path analyses mostly show academic achievement to be causally predominant in this relationship. This study aims to replicate these findings among Belgian primary school-age children, controlling for a number of other relevant variables such as school commitment, parental socio-economic status (SES), gender and teacher expectations. The longitudinal design of this study makes it particularly suited for this purpose. Data were analysed using correlation, regressions of time 1 independent variables on time 2 dependent variables, multiple classification analysis and path analysis using LISREL. Academic self-concept and academic achievement were found to be strong predictors of one another, even controlling for other variables and stability of both over time. The only other variable to enter significantly into regressions on time 2 academic achievement and academic self-concept was parental socio-economic status (SES). Both the regression analyses and path analysis undertaken specifically to test causal predominance found achievement to be causally predominant in this sample. The fact that academic achievement was causally predominant over academic self-concept, that global self-esteem was not a significant predictor of achievement, and the significant contribution of parental SES to achievement all suggest that self-esteem enhancement in itself cannot be a solution to the problem of academic failure.
Article
Two samples of sixth-grade students were followed over time to examine relations of number of reciprocated friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership to academic achievement. In both samples, group membership was the most consistent predictor of grades over time. In Study 2, prosocial behavior, antisocial behavior, and emotional distress were examined as processes that might explain these significant links between peer relationships and academic achievement. Results of longitudinal analyses support a conclusion that aspects of peer relationships are related to classroom achievement indirectly, by way of significant relations with prosocial behavior. Future research might benefit from more in-depth analyses of the functions of adolescent peer relationships and the processes by which they influence orientations toward social and academic competence at school.
Article
This project examined the hypothesis that students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, parent attachment, competence, and self-worth would predict motivational orientation and achievement test performance. Participants were 135 sixth-grade and 91 ninth-grade regular education students from a large, ethnically diverse school district. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that autonomy support, parent attachment, scholastic competence, and self-worth predicted the academic criterion variables. Interestingly, scholastic competence was a significant predictor in all of the regression models. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of classroom practices.
Alternative ways of assessing model fit Testing structural equation models (pp. 136 – 162) Measuring self-concept across cultures: Issues, caveats, and practice Aboriginal learning styles and adult education: Is a synthesis possible
  • M W Browne
  • R Cudeck
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen, & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136 – 162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Byrne, B. M. (2000). Measuring self-concept across cultures: Issues, caveats, and practice. In R. Craven, & H. W. Marsh (Eds.), Collected papers of the Inaugural Self-Concept Enhance-ment and Learning Facilitation (SELF) Research Centre International Conference (pp. 30 – 41). Sydney, Australia: SELF Research Centre. Byrnes, J. (1993). Aboriginal learning styles and adult education: Is a synthesis possible? Australian Journal of Adult and Community Education, 33, 157 – 171.