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Clean restrooms: How important are they to restaurant consumers?

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Abstract

There are many choices to make in restaurant dining, and for experienced consumers, the expectation of safe, quality food has increased. The foodservice industry is in a challenging and competitive environment. Determining what factors of customer satisfaction are important to maintain or increase market share is critical to success. For consumers, there are few opportunities to evaluate food handling, safety and cleanliness practices of a restaurant. Research has shown that consumers are concerned with restroom cleanliness, with a functioning restroom having a positive influence on customers' perception of the restaurant; and has also been shown to impact the choice of where to eat or whether to return to a restaurant. This study tested these assumptions by using a data set from the southwestern US, finding that consumers are concerned with restaurant cleanliness and food safety, with restrooms an important factor to consumers when assessing the cleanliness of an eating establishment.

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... To achieve a high level of market share and remain profitable in the challenge of today's competition, restaurant operators must find ways to attract new patrons and to maintain customer loyalty with existing customers. Primarily, it is essential to enhance customer satisfaction, since the level of customer satisfaction directly or indirectly influences existing customer loyalty and intent to return as well as new consumer acquisition through word-of-mouth promotion (Ariffin, Bibon, & Abdullah, 2012;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Gupta, McLaughlin, & Gomez, 2007;Han & Ryu, 2009). ...
... Failing to fulfill customer expectations and creating dissatisfaction may result in customer loss and negative word-of-mouth. There have been numerous research studies that focused on identifying the factors which can enhance customer satisfaction levels (Ariffin et al., 2012;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Gupta et al., 2007;Han & Ryu, 2009). Han and Ryu (2009) recognized that customers consciously or unconsciously sense their surroundings before, during, and after the meal when dining out in a restaurant, thereby determining overall customer satisfaction. ...
... Therefore, customers consider more than just the quality of the food and service while evaluating their experiences. An important component in the management of foodservice operators is to identify the totality of customers' desires (Barber & Scarcelli, 2009). One non-food aspect that patrons desire as part of their foodservice experience is restroom cleanliness and sanitation. ...
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Competition in the Canadian restaurant industry is unyielding. Restaurant cleanliness is one of the most important aspects when a customer evaluates restaurant quality and return intention. In particular, restaurant restroom cleanliness (RRC) is often considered the central factor that leads to overall perception of cleanliness. This study examined how RRC affects restaurant customers. Restroom appearance had the greatest impact on cleanliness followed by personal hygiene items. In addition, RRC impacted customer satisfaction and did not vary based on customer segmentation. However, older restaurant patrons were more likely to report RRC issues than younger patrons. The research demonstrates that RRC is an essential element to the success and viability of a food service operation and is an important aspect of academic research in foodservice operations. Future directions for both industry and academic research in this area are discussed.
... These indicators often reflect others' opinions about the safety of food-service establishments, perhaps based on their past patronage. Past researchers have frequently suggested different categories of food hygiene indicators contributing to consumers' judgment of restaurant food safety (Aksoydan, 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Henson et al., 2006;Ungku Fatimah et al., 2011;Park et al., 2016). However, the hygiene factors relevant to food, staff, equipment, and restaurant environment remain consistent across almost all of their studies. ...
... Most specifically, the variation in adopting food hygiene cues in their choice of restaurants was sometimes observed to be based on socio-demographic characteristics including age, gender, level of education, and nationality (Aksoydan, 2007;Bai et al., 2019;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Barber et al., 2011;Becker et al., 1999;Henson et al., 2006;Tuzunkan & Albayrak, 2017). For instance, the study conducted by Aksoydan (2007) indicated that men considered the cleanliness of dining utensils in the restaurant selection, whereas this factor was trifling for women. ...
... Likewise, mature consumers' perceptions of waitstaff's appearance and behaviors largely influenced their restaurant selection in Kim's study (2008). However, elderly respondents are more concerned with restaurant cleanliness compared to younger respondents according to Barber and Scarcelli (2009) and Henson et al. (2006). The cross-cultural studies conducted by Becker et al. (1999) in the United States and Hong Kong have revealed how national culture also influenced the customer's assessment and expectations of restaurant service quality. ...
Article
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This study examines international tourists’ protection intentions to utilize food safety cues in the choice of destination local restaurant, reducing the risk of contracting a foodborne illness. A survey was conducted of 398 first-time foreign travellers to Malaysia. The results driven by Exploratory Factor Analysis reveals that food safety indicators comprised three dimensions: visual food safety cues, information food safety cues, and the level of restaurant patronage. Cluster analysis confirmed that protection intention to use different food hygiene cues differs across tourists’ subgroups of gender, age, nationality, level of income, level of education, travel purpose, and trip arrangement.
... Distinct consumer segments tend to assess the importance of customer toilets differently. It seems that females regard toilets more important than males (Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;Dennis et al., 2001;BCSC, 2000). As women also tend to visit retail stores more often than men (Ellis et al., 2012;Pan and Zinkhan, 2006;Dholakia, 1999), it is reasonable that retailers concentrate especially on the females' toilet facilities (Molotch and Noren, 2010;Mui et al., 2009;Wong and Yau, 2005). ...
... In a study on retail stores (Ong and Chuah, 2006), consumers aged 60 and over gave toilets an importance rate of 4.03 (scale from 1 to 5) which exceeded, e.g., the importance of customer service and accessibility by public transportation. Barber and Scarcelli (2009) reported a similar tendency in their study on the effect of toilets on restaurant attractiveness. ...
Article
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The scarce previous literature indicates that the customer toilet facilities influence shopping value and should be a concern for retailers. However, customer toilets are often inadequately capitalised in retail stores. This study aims to provide a scientifically robust argument about the critical role of customer toilets in retail stores. The explanatory survey data (n=655) from a Finnish out-of-town department store is examined to explore (1) the importance that consumers place on the customer toilets and (2) the effect of toilet usage on actual shopping behaviour. The results support the assumptions of previous literature by suggesting that customer toilets are considered as an important store attribute and, more importantly, the use of toilets is associated with prolonged in-store time which, in turn, increases spending. The findings offer both academic and managerial contribution and encourage academics and practitioners to regard customer toilets as more than mere an unwanted property expense and discover their full marketing potential.
... The literature has considered restaurant sanitation from multiple angles through case studies, including the connection between restaurants and foodborne illness (Hedberg, 2013;Gould et al., 2013;Jones and Angulo, 2006), the factors affecting restaurant sanitation inspection results (e.g., Bader et al., 1978;Lynch et al., 2003;Murphy et al., 2011;Phillips et al., 2006;Satow et al., 2009;Schilling et al., 2002), the differences in inspection results (Lee et al., 2009(Lee et al., , 2010Ho, 2012), or consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards restaurant sanitation (e.g., Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;Cullen, 2005;Fatimah et al., 2011;Park, 2015). However, most of the studies were based on a moment in time, which merely produces static results. ...
... ;Barber and Scarcelli (2009); Barber et al. (2011); Cullen (2005); Fatimah et al. (2011); Henson et al. (2006); Leach et al. (2001); Lee et al. (2012); Miles et al. (1999); Park ...
Article
This study investigates the short-and long-term effects of time on restaurant sanitation inspection results in Montgomery County (USA). Restaurants are an important constituent of the hospitality industry and could benefit from a time-based dynamic approach towards preventing foodborne-related crises. This investigation contributes to advancing the literature by providing building blocks for future theory development, and by highlighting the short-and long-term variations in restaurant sanitation inspection results, accentuating both a disseminated and holistic approach to restaurant sanitation risks. The methodology consists of data coding and frequency analysis, followed by logistic regression estimation (Firthlogit), and index calculations based on consumer confidence methodology. The results indicate that each of the critical inspection indicators had a high propensity to influence non-compliance outcomes, but some shortcomings were noted during certain weekdays. Also, overall monthly compliance showed deviating patterns. The findings provide management with new insights into the risk dynamics of restaurant sanitation.
... The cleanliness of the restaurant is dubbed as a very important criterion when a restaurant guest observes the dining area's quality (Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;. Klara (2004) stated that 75% of customers would not come back to a restaurant if the toilet rooms were not clean. ...
... Threevitaya (2003) has ranked the factors of customer importance when dining out, and it seemed that she has put hygiene and cleanliness as number one, or as follows: (1) Hygiene and cleanliness, (2) Quality of the food, (3) Taste of the food, (4) Freshness of the ingredients, (5) Value for the money, (6) Price, (7) Service, and (8) Atmosphere of the restaurants. Luckily, we will only consider the cleanliness of the visible areas, including public areas which consists of dining area, washrooms and the exterior part of the restaurant, as restroom cleanliness was also agreed by customers who evaluate the foodservie quality to be an important criterion (Klara 2004;Barber and Scarcelli 2009). ...
Article
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The rapid emergence of restaurants in the country has leaded the foodservice establishment to grow theme restaurants in competitive market to stay relevant with the trend. Therefore, this study aims to identify the atmospheric factors that influence the young customers’ revisit intention into theme restaurants. Quantitative data taken from 200 young customers were analyzed, then, 146 valid questionnaires were returned and the result indicates a statistical relationship between cleanliness and respondents’ revisit intention. Thus, restaurateurs need to understand the importance of physical interiors and their influence on overall guest’s revisit intentions as a guideline and future references. Keywords: restaurant attributes; restaurateur; theme; young customers eISSN 2514-7528 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
... The precise contribution of destination restaurants to the burden of foodborne illnesses cannot be determined, but consumers mainly consider poor hygiene practices of restaurants to be responsible for food safety-related risks, including cleanliness of the physical environment, equipment, and staff (Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Brewer & Rojas, 2008). These factors direct their restaurant choice (Aksoydan, 2007;Alonso et al., 2013;Barber & Scarcelli, 2010;Choi et al., 2013;Gracia et al., 2011;Park & Almanza, 2014;Park et al., 2016). ...
... A self-administered questionnaire was constructed after an extensive review of the literature on the application of PMT, and other social cognition theories with similar constructs to explain health-related behavior (Choi et al., 2011;Milton & Mullan, 2012;Mullan et al.2016Mullan et al. ,2010. Further, eleven food hygiene attributes have been drawn from past studies (Adam et al., 2014;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009, 2010Choi et al., 2013;Henson et al., 2006;Seo et al., 2015;Ungku Fatimah et al., 2011;Wong et al., 2015;Yeung & Yee, 2013). They were cleanliness of restaurant exterior, restaurant odor/smell, cleanliness of work staff's clothing and appearance, work staff's standard of personal hygiene (e.g., no coughing or sneezing onto food or hands, and then touching food), cleanliness of dining tables, chairs, and utensils, cleanliness of floor, cleanliness of toilets, inspection score, reviews posted on TripAdvisor, reviews posted on other social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Yelp), and tour guide advice. ...
Article
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Restaurants with poor hygiene practices are common sites for exposure to food poisoning. While previous studies have highlighted the influence of restaurant food hygiene indicators on consumer dining decision, research examining those cues in the tourism context is scant. This study aims to identify variables that direct tourists’ protection intention to adopt food hygiene cues in the choice of Malaysian local restaurants, through the conceptual extension of a theoretical model known in the literature as Protection Motivation Theory. Based on what emerged from the analysis, the extended model of the theory is a better representation of protection intention.
... Restaurant cleanliness is an important determinant in physical environment quality, whereas dirty conditions may cause restaurant patrons to have negative reactions towards the restaurant facilities (Wakefield & Blodgett, 1996). The findings of several studies suggest that restaurant cleanliness, whether it is the entrance, building exterior, dining room, washroom, or table setting, may influence the restaurant patrons' perceptions of service quality (Abdelhamied, 2011;Barber, Goodman, & Goh, 2011;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009Ryu & Jang, 2008;Stevens et al., 1995). Restaurant cleanliness exerts a strong influence on restaurant patrons' perceptions of restaurants and services (Akan, 1995;Bartlett & Han, 2007;Wakefield & Blodgett, 1996). ...
... The findings of several studies also reveal that the table setting (Knutson, 2000;Pettijohn et al., 1997;Raajpoot, 2002;Ryu & Han, 2011;Ryu & Jang, 2007;Weiss et al., 2004) and restaurant cleanliness (Aksoydan, 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009Jaafar, Lumbers, & Eves, 2008;Josiam et al., 2007;Threevitaya, 2003) positively influence restaurant patrons' service quality perceptions of the physical environment in the restaurant industry. ...
Thesis
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Research into service quality and related constructs such as customer satisfaction, perceived value, image and behavioural intentions has increased in the last two decades. However, there is controversy about the conceptualisation and measurement of customers’ perceptions of these constructs in the services marketing literature. Additionally, most studies have neglected the comprehensive hierarchical modelling in full service restaurants, one of the most important types of restaurant. Consequently, this study is a comprehensive evaluation of restaurant patrons’ perceptions of the important constructs in moderate upscale restaurants in Malaysia. The constructs are examined using a hierarchical model following the suggestions of researchers in the service industry. Data were collected from the restaurant patrons of several moderate upscale restaurants in the Klang Valley area, Malaysia, during January to March, 2009. The sampling frame included Malaysian and foreign restaurant patrons who were 18 years and above. The research model was tested using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling with a two-step approach employing the confirmatory factor analysis method. The statistical results and the structural model support 16 hypotheses and satisfy the four research objectives. The hierarchical modelling approach used in this study provides useful empirical evidence of the significance of service quality in the service marketing field. In addition, the results confirm that service quality is a multidimensional construct consisting of primary dimensions and sub-dimensions. At the same time, this research provides an analytical framework for understanding the effects of service quality on constructs such as customer satisfaction, perceived value, restaurant image and behavioural intentions. The results of this study contribute to service marketing theory by providing empirical evidence of the relationships between service quality, customer satisfaction, perceived value, restaurant image and behavioural intentions. The findings indicate that service quality, perceived value and restaurant image are important determinants of customer satisfaction in moderate upscale restaurants in Malaysia. Further, service quality, customer satisfaction and restaurant image are important determinants of behavioural intentions. In addition, service quality is an important determinant of perceived value as well as restaurant image.
... Hygienic environment is characterised by the neatness and cleanliness of restaurant workers, the environment, and the materials used as restaurant patrons are more bothered about them whenever they visit a restaurant (Foskett & Gillespie, 2019; Campbell-Smith, 2017; Barber & Scarcelli, 2009). Specifically, toilets are given a higher priority by customers during the appraisal and evaluation of restaurant hygienic conditions. ...
... Findings from table 6 revealed that Health-related factors (Hygienic Environment, Ambiance, and Food Type) significantly determined the choice of eatery among Nonteaching workers of AAUA. This finding agrees with the study of Barber and Scarcelli (2009), whose research revealed that restaurant patrons are giving high priority to neatness and the hygienic conditions of the restaurant environments, specifically the toilets, whenever they visit a restaurant. Furthermore, this finding agrees with Finkelstein (2018), who recommended that in restaurant settings, the importance of Ambiance is equitable to food and drink in restaurant patrons' assessments and appraisal checklists. ...
... Therefore, greater customer loyalty is as a result of higher customer satisfaction which precipitates greater future income [28]; [29]. In this regard, many of the market leaders have turned out to have a high level of customer service. ...
... Apparently, a sense of enjoyment (or frustration) by comparing the performance have been conceptualized as customer satisfaction [30]; [31]. Several authors have found a positive correlation between customer satisfaction and loyalty [27]; [28]; [29]. Numerous studies in the services sector also empirically confirmed the relationship between satisfaction and behavioral intentions, such as customer loyalty and word-of-mouth [32]. ...
Article
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This study evaluated the extent of influence franchising has on franchisees' market performance in Port Harcourt, Rivers State of Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which franchisor's standards, trade names, influences franchisee's attainment of customer satisfaction and sales volume respectively. The study population consisted of 843 staff from the entire staff of 7 registered franchised Fast Food Firms (FFF). The Taro Yamane's formula for sample size determination was used to get the sample size of 272. The primary instrument used for gathering data for this study was the modified five-point Likert scale questionnaire that consisted of 20 items whereas the collected data was analyzed using simple percentages, mean and grand means for the questionnaire items depicted in tables while the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method was used by the application of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to analyze the research hypotheses. It was found that Franchisor's standard to a great extent influence franchisee's achievement of customer satisfaction among selected FFF and that there was significant mean difference in the response of staff of the FFF on the influence of franchisor's standard and trade name on franchisee's achievement of customer satisfaction and the achievement of franchisee's sales volume respectively; it was then recommended amongst others that the FFF should ensure that their services have the needed standard, trade name protected in order to achieve customer's satisfaction and market share.
... There are three key attributes that contribute to overall satisfaction of consumers in restaurants and lead to repeat patronage -food (both quality and safety), setting (external and internal physical environment) and service (Barber et al., 2011). Several authors examined customers' demographic characteristics, mainly in terms of gender and age, and found patterns in behavior, expectation and satisfaction (Brady and Cronin, 2001;Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;. The aim of this study was to analyze consumer perception of service quality in restaurants in four different cultures in Europe (Serbia, UK, Portugal and Greece). ...
... In parallel with food quality, servicing started to be important in relation to prompt and quick service, healthy food options and variety of menu. Servicescape has been defined as an additional quality indicator by several authors (Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;Ha and Jang, 2010;Barber et al., 2011;Rajic and Dado, 2013). Various components of restaurant service quality function differently in terms of improving satisfaction and behavioral intentions (Namkung and Jang, 2007;Liu and Jang, 2009;Ha and Jang, 2010;Scheibehenne et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to present results from a research that analyzed consumer perceptions of service quality in restaurants in four European cities – Belgrade (Serbia), Manchester (UK), Thessaloniki (Greece) and Porto (Portugal). Design/methodology/approach – A total of 802 respondents have been interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The service quality statements covered food quality, building exterior, restaurant interior and layout, seating comfort, restrooms and servicing. Findings – Within all analyzed categories (city, gender and age), servicing of food and taste of food were the most influential factors. However, this study confirmed that there are different patterns in analyzed cities. For each factor analyzed, in at least two cities, results for the items were significantly different. Consumers from different cities showed different perceptions regarding service quality in restaurants. Gender of consumers plays a significant role in the perception of interior, restroom and servicing factors in restaurants. Age of respondents was the category with no significant difference with respect to food quality, layout, restrooms and servicing. Research limitations/implications – Given the great cultural and other differences within the four cities/countries, more research is necessary to determine if similar results would be derived from different samples across various other continental and Mediterranean European cities. Originality/value – In addition to increasing the theoretical understanding of the cultural aspects of the service quality, this paper can be of managerial relevance. Keywords: Cross-culture, Service quality, Restaurants, Europe
... Like Tiwari and Varma (2008), Farhana and Islam (2011) and Tabassum (2012), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and variety of food, food quality, service quality and location. Like Chavadi and Kokatnur (2008), Barber and Scarcelli (2009) and Barber and Scarcelli (2009), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and clean environment of fast food outlets. ...
... Like Tiwari and Varma (2008), Farhana and Islam (2011) and Tabassum (2012), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and variety of food, food quality, service quality and location. Like Chavadi and Kokatnur (2008), Barber and Scarcelli (2009) and Barber and Scarcelli (2009), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and clean environment of fast food outlets. ...
... Like Tiwari and Varma (2008), Farhana and Islam (2011) and Tabassum (2012), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and variety of food, food quality, service quality and location. Like Chavadi and Kokatnur (2008), Barber and Scarcelli (2009) and Barber and Scarcelli (2009), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and clean environment of fast food outlets. ...
... Like Tiwari and Varma (2008), Farhana and Islam (2011) and Tabassum (2012), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and variety of food, food quality, service quality and location. Like Chavadi and Kokatnur (2008), Barber and Scarcelli (2009) and Barber and Scarcelli (2009), there is a strong relationship between consumer satisfaction and clean environment of fast food outlets. ...
... The appearance of an establishment can be the first aspect of the service experience the customer encounters. Consumers find restaurant cleanliness of critical importance (Barber & Scarcelli, 2009), affecting the customer's quality perception of the restaurant. Specifically, it has been shown that customers' perception of the safety of the food is associated with the restaurant's appearance (Macaskill et al., 2000;Scarcelli, 2007). ...
... Similarly, restaurants were perceived as less capable of insuring food safety than food processors and manufacturers, farmers, grocery stores and supermarkets, but a little more capable than federal government agencies by U.S. consumers in Knight, Worosz, and Todd's study (2007). Additionally, an unkempt restaurant restroom has been shown to decrease customers returning to the establishment (Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Scarcelli, 2007). In a study by Blackiston and Evans (2004), Seventy-eight percent of consumers suggested a clean restroom also meant a clean kitchen. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine whether restaurant customer ratings for store appearance and food safety performance are associated with manager gender. Data were collected over a 1-year period utilizing two samples: (1) franchise owners and corporate supervisors and (2) corporate managers. The results of this study showed that female franchise owners and corporate supervisors had higher scores on store appearance than those units owned or supervised by males. Similarly, by utilizing a sample of corporate restaurant managers, and controlling for the leader-member exchange with employees, the results found that female managers had higher store appearance and food safety scores than their male counterparts. This study suggests that hospitality researchers and practitioners should utilize gender differences when identifying ways to improve restaurant cleanliness and food safety dimensions.
... The physical environment or the atmospheric cues plays a substantial part in the service involvements of the hotel consumers and impacts their attitudes and behavioral intentions associated with the hotel consumption (Aksoydan, 2007;Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;Henson et al., 2006;Shah et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2020b). Few studies (Mehrabian and Russell, 1974) have also confirmed that consumer perceptions regarding the sanitation dimensions have a significant influence on guests' behavioral reactions in hotels, and they frequently use atmospheric cues to evaluate the sanitation parameters or dimensions in hotels (Barber et al., 2011;Lee et al., 2012;Tiwari and Sanjeev, 2021;Wang et al., 2020b;Worsfold, 2006). ...
... It includes general guestroom cleanliness, sanitized guest amenities, clean and sanitized toilets, placement of air purifiers and provision of clean guestroom linen, including bed sheets, pillows, mattresses and duvets (Liu and Jang, 2009). According to Barber and Scarcelli (2009), the dimension of restroom sanitation also influences consumers and includes clean and sanitized toilet bowls; rigorous cleaning of floors, walls, countertops, washbasins and mirror; provision of bathroom amenities like soap, sanitizer, toilet paper and towels; bathroom fragrance and supply of hot and cold water. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to evaluate the consumer perceptions related to sanitation in the five-star hotels due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It also identified the most significant sanitation dimensions and their influence on the pertinent emotions experienced by the hotel consumers. Design/methodology/approach It identified seven sanitation dimensions (i.e. exterior of the hotel, guestrooms, washrooms/restrooms, in-house restaurant dining, hotel employees, public areas and handling of food) which were assessed through 10 positive and negative consumer sanitation emotions. A structured online survey was conducted to collect data from the 763 five-star hotel consumers. Exploratory factor analysis was applied on the 35 parameters of the seven identified sanitation dimensions, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the most significant dimensions among the hotel consumers. Findings Results revealed that among the seven sanitation dimensions, “exterior of the hotel” and “public area” dimensions were found to be statistically less significant compared to the other sanitation dimensions. Findings related to consumer emotions showed that a significantly high percentage of consumers revealed strong negative emotions, i.e. disgust and discontent toward the poor standards of sanitation in the hotels. Practical implications The study results may be helpful for the hotel administrators and managers to adequately plan the training sessions for their employees based on the consumer perception and emotions toward the identified sanitation dimensions. Further, it may also help in the implementation of the COVID-19 awareness program based on the consumer inputs and perceptions. Originality/value Although a few studies have been performed to explore the sanitation dimensions in the hospitality sector before, but this will be a first attempt to identify and measure the sanitation dimensions and corresponding consumer emotions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Both cleanliness and customers' cleanliness perceptions have become increasingly important since the COVID-19 outbreak [30,32]. Perceived restaurant cleanliness has a positive effect on customers' satisfaction, which in turn positively impacts revisit intention [32,36,37], whereas cleanliness of restaurants is a key determinant of consumers' decision to select or return to a restaurant [38,39]. By prioritizing cleanliness, food service businesses may not only ensure the health of customers and employees but also attract customers by meeting their cleanliness expectations [30,32]. ...
... As such, it indicates that good compliance with (hygiene) measures appears to be an important strategy for businesses to regain customers when reopening is allowed. These findings are in line with previous studies that indicate the importance of cleanliness and sanitation when selecting and visiting restaurants [38,39] and confirm past studies in this field that identified consumers' attitudes towards hygiene as a determinant of (re)visit intention [36,37]. Moreover, consumers' cleanliness concerns are even heightened in times of global health crises, such as the current pandemic [30,32]. ...
Article
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The food service sector was among the hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine consumers’ attitudes towards and transparency perceptions of COVID-19-related safety measures and to identify determinants of consumers’ intentions and behaviour regarding visiting restaurants and bars once reopened. By also surveying food service businesses, this study allows for comparison between both target groups. A total of 1697 consumers and 780 businesses participated in this study, conducted in Belgium both during and in between waves of infections. The findings demonstrate that consumers evaluated safety measures as important when revisiting restaurants and bars, against business owners’ expectations. Both consumers’ revisit intentions and behaviours are influenced by the perceived importance of hygiene measures (negatively) and past visit frequency (positively). This study highlights the importance of good compliance with safety measures as a strategy to attract customers during the reopening period. Further, our findings emphasize the importance of transparent communication by food service businesses and the government.
... First, dirty restrooms are frequently cited as a source of complaints in many industries. In a 2010 poll, individuals identified dirty restrooms as the top reason to avoid a restaurant with the most common complaints being about clogged toilets, foul odors, out-of-stock supplies, and broken soap or paper dispensers [1,2]. Hospitals are also frequently cited as a source of dirty restrooms; a 2004 survey of 86,000 patients in the United Kingdom showed that only 48% of individuals thought their hospital restrooms were clean [3]. ...
Article
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Background: Restroom cleanliness is an important factor in hospital quality. Due to its dynamic process, it can be difficult to detect the presence of dirty restrooms that need to be cleaned. Using an Internet of Things (IoT) button can permit users to designate restrooms that need cleaning and in turn, allow prompt response from housekeeping to maintain real-time restroom cleanliness.
... Thus, the perception of cleanliness may depend on an inference-based heuristic, where some factors influence the perception more than others. The cleanliness of the washroom and toilet has been shown as a key factor driving the overall perception of cleanliness (Lockyer, 2003;Prayukvong et al., 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Whitehead et al., 2007). If the washroom is dirty, people may infer other areas of the facility are also dirty. ...
Article
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Washroom cleanliness is a key influence on our positive attitude towards public spaces. Recently, interactive technology has been introduced. While the role of physical cleanliness is obvious, interactive technology may affect the perception of cleanliness. This study investigates whether the most recent washroom service time displayed on a touchscreen influences the perception of washroom cleanliness. Participants leaving a washroom were asked to rate the cleanliness of the washroom. The touchscreen that showed the service time was visible for the experimental group and covered for the control group. Results showed that participants who noticed the most recent washroom service time in the experimental group perceived the washroom as cleaner than the control group. In addition, the touchscreen was preferred as an interface for washroom service request, compared with telephone calls and text messaging. The results suggest interactive technology has potential to enhance attitudes towards public space.
... Thus, the perception of cleanliness may depend on an inference-based heuristic, where some factors influence the perception more than others. The cleanliness of the washroom and toilet has been shown as a key factor driving the overall perception of cleanliness (Lockyer, 2003;Prayukvong et al., 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Whitehead et al., 2007). If the washroom is dirty, people may infer other areas of the facility are also dirty. ...
Article
Full-text available
Washroom cleanliness is a key influence on our positive attitude towards public spaces. Recently, interactive technology has been introduced. While the role of physical cleanliness is obvious, interactive technology may affect the perception of cleanliness. This study investigates whether the most recent washroom service time displayed on a touchscreen influences the perception of washroom cleanliness. Participants leaving a washroom were asked to rate the cleanliness of the washroom. The touchscreen that showed the service time was visible for the experimental group and covered for the control group. Results showed that participants who noticed the most recent washroom service time in the experimental group perceived the washroom as cleaner than the control group. In addition, the touchscreen was preferred as an interface for washroom service request, compared with telephone calls and text messaging. The results suggest interactive technology has potential to enhance attitudes towards public space.
... As shown in our findings, restaurant cleanliness is also an important criteria in consumers' purchase behaviors (Pettijohn et.a1.1997). This is not surprising, given that several studies have found a relationship between customer satisfaction, service quality evaluation and restaurant cleanliness (Steven,& Knutson 1995;Becker & Murrmann 1999;Barber & Scarcelli 2009;Barber & Scarcelli 2010). Cleanliness is an essential to restaurant success. ...
Article
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The quick service (aka, fast food) restaurant industry is significant and growing aspect of the overall restaurant industry. For long-term success quick service restaurants must be perceived as offering sufficient value for consumers. To do this, restaurants must first determine what consumers' value in a quick service restaurant experience. As such, this research study explores consumers' service quality preferences in the quick service restaurant industry. Results of this research highlight critical factors which help to determine the expectations that consumers have about the quick service restaurant industry and their perceptions of service quality from a dining experience. Based upon university students' quick service experiences the results found in this study indicated that consumers are highly price sensitive, but also place high importance on speed of service, location, quality of food, and cleanliness. A discussion ls provided for how these results can be used to develop effective marketing strategies for quick service restaurants.
... Bitner (1990) identified the importance of cleanliness in building consumer relationships. Providing a clean dining environment improves a restaurant's sanitation and good sanitation can enhance its consumers' satisfaction which lead to greater consumer retention (Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;Min and Min, 2011). Also, positive aesthetics within the physical surroundings such as an attractive interior design, pleasing music, ambient odors, a spacious layout and appealing table settings, have been shown to directly impact consumers' dining satisfaction levels (Hui et al., 1997;Milliman, 1986;Kotler, 1973;Robson, 1999;Ryu and Jang, 2008;Sabir et al., 2014). ...
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The moderating effect of gender on quick service restaurant (QSR) consumer post-dining behaviors may be significant for a QSR’s success. This study investigates gender behavioral differences in QSR consumer behaviors. Specifically, structured survey of QSR consumers were used to examine gender differences in QSR choice criteria, food selection, post dining satisfaction levels, and dining loyalty. The results indicate that gender is a moderating factor on consumers' restaurant choice criteria, the healthiness of food choices, dining satisfaction levels and future restaurant loyalty intentions. Implications of the findings and QSR success strategies are discussed.
... For example, the overall cleanliness of an operation tends to signal to the guest a level and efficiency of service along with overall efficacy of the operation. Barber and Scarcelli (2009) found that those who visited a restaurant's toiletry facilities tended to have a less than favorable outlook upon the service (that which was about to be received and/or the service which was momentarily rendered). ...
Article
According to Segrave (1998), since the late 1800s, the study of tipping has provoked debate in a range of abstract dimensions such as economics, sociology, and psychology. To date, the research on the topic has been largely qualitative in nature, while addressing motivating themes (service, social norm, and future service considerations) in isolation from one another. Following a thorough examination of the literature, there is a definite lack of research on the development and testing of a more holistic quantitative scale aimed at identifying the motivational Gestalt driving actual consumer tipping behavior. Therein lies the major theoretical contribution of this study, namely the development and testing of a Tipping Motivations Scale, which over two separate analyses, supports a number of drivers of consumer tipping motivation. In this study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the empirical dimensions of consumer tipping motivations. The results obtained indicate a reasonable fit between the data and the proposed model across both analyses. This was repeated on two separate occasions and the results largely remained consistent. The findings point to the key role of service in driving the consumer's decision to tip. Other important factors included social conformity, the issue of future visitation, and server actions. Further research is needed to explore whether these dimensions remain constant among other sample groups and across different tipped professions.
... However, food establishment guests see bathroom cleanliness as an indicator of kitchen cleanliness and thus the safety of the food (8). Many consumers have reported that they will not return to a food establishment that has bathrooms that appear dirty (1,4,33). Thus, many food establishments probably clean and disinfect their bathrooms frequently to ensure customer satisfaction. ...
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Although transmission of human norovirus in food establishments is commonly attributed to consumption of contaminated food, transmission via contaminated environmental surfaces, such as those in bathrooms, may also play a role. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of human norovirus on bathroom surfaces in commercial food establishments in New Jersey, Ohio, and South Carolina under nonoutbreak conditions and to determine characteristics associated with the presence of human norovirus. Food establishments (751) were randomly selected from nine counties in each state. Four surfaces (underside of toilet seat, flush handle of toilet, inner door handle of stall or outer door, and sink faucet handle) were swabbed in male and female bathrooms using premoistened macrofoam swabs. A checklist was used to collect information about the characteristics, materials, and mechanisms of objects in bathrooms. In total, 61 (1.5%) of 4,163 swabs tested were presumptively positive for human norovirus, 9 of which were confirmed by sequencing. Some factors associated with the presence of human norovirus included being from South Carolina (odd ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9; P < 0.05) or New Jersey (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9 to 3.3; 0.05 < P < 0.10), being a chain establishment (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3; P < 0.05), being a unisex bathroom (versus male: OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9 to 4.1; 0.05 < P < 0.10; versus female: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.7; P < 0.05), having a touchless outer door handle (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.79 to 13.63; 0.05 < P < 0.10), and having an automatic flush toilet (OR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.3; 0.05 < P < 0.10). Our findings confirm that the presence of human norovirus on bathroom surfaces in commercial food establishments under nonoutbreak conditions is a rare event. Therefore, routine environmental monitoring for human norovirus contamination during nonoutbreak periods is not an efficient method of monitoring norovirus infection risk.
... • Serve the food within the appropriate temperature range[144,145].• Keep the floor and carpets clean[146].•Keep the restrooms clean[147].•Keep the tables and chairs clean[95]. • Display the certificate from the health and sanitary inspection authority at the entrance of the restaurant[148]. ...
Article
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Restaurant image refers to an immediate perception that pops up in a customer’s mind when the name of a restaurant is mentioned. Therefore, it is crucial for restaurants, including fast-food restaurants (FFRs), to evaluate and sustain a positive restaurant image. However, evaluating and improving a restaurant’s image is challenging, since it counts in multiple service attributes associated with various degrees of unknown priority. Even so, the existing literature is yet to outspread the usage of an appropriate multi-attribute decision-making (MADM)-based approach to specifically evaluate the image of FFRs. Therefore, this research aimed at employing such an approach to evaluate the image of four FFRs on an island in East Malaysia, using various people, processes, and physical evidence attributes. Firstly, an initial list of FFR image attributes was elicited from the available literature. This initial list was then further validated through a two-round Delphi survey involving a panel of ten experts. A questionnaire was then designed based on the finalized attributes, and data collected from a sample of 251 respondents were analyzed using the compromised-analytical hierarchy process (C-AHP) method. The C-AHP results suggest that the strategies to improve an FFR’s image should primarily incorporate the following six attributes: hospitality, employees’ problem-solving skills, employees’ knowledge, food taste, physical cleanliness, and service response time. The FFR at the top of the ranking has the highest performance scores over these same six attributes. Surprisingly, employees’ appearance and restaurant exterior were reported as the two least important image attributes. This research is the first to demonstrate the application of a hybrid MADM-based approach to uncover the weights of FFR image attributes and rank those FFRs by computing their aggregated image scores.
... Many empirical studies have shown how environment influences customer's satisfaction and predicts repurchase behaviour (Knutson & Patton, 1995;Hui et al. 1997;Chang, 2000;Mattila, 2001;Chebat & Michon, 2003;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Liu & Jang, 2009;Lim, 2010). Kwenga (2012) in his study of the hotel choice criteria of customers in church guest houses in Nairobi, Kenya, found out that good physical environment influences the customers in purchase of accommodation in these guest houses. ...
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This paper tested a structural model that examines the proposed relationships between hotel attributes and hotel choice in respect to customers in Port Harcourt, Rivers Nigeria. The study used a structured questionnaire hence, a quantitative research design. Multiple regression analysis was used for analysis of data collected using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 23. The result shows that all the six hotel attributes have positive and significant relationship with customer's hotel choice behavior in respect to the study area. Result further validates the proposed Hotel Choice Indicators (HCI) Model for hotels in Port Harcourt City. This study contributed to the body of knowledge by proposing and validating the HCI Model for hotels in an emerging economy and Port Harcourt City in particular. It authenticates attribute that influence hotel choice behavior among hotel patrons in Port Harcourt. The study also increased the explanatory power of the push-pull theory in explaining hotel choice attribute or attributes in an emerging economy.
... This may be as a result of neatness, display of assorted foods in neat warmers, arrangement of flowers, arrangement of tables, the lighting, the music and color displays on the interior. Barber and Scarcelli (2009), suggested that the decoration, the music, the lighting affect restaurant quality perception among customers and subsequently influence product patronage. Therefore, a hypothesized positive relationship between restaurant's atmosphere and customer loyalty will also be tested in this investigation. ...
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This paper assessed the product and seller factors including menu quality, price fairness, personnel quality, restaurant image, restaurant's atmosphere, customer trust, and customer loyalty that drive customer loyalty and patronage in quick service restaurants in Nigeria, using Awka capital territory of Anambra State as a case. Survey research design was adopted in which 399 patrons were sampled. The questionnaire was used to source the primary data for the study. Frequency tables, percentages correlation were applied in the data analyses. The study found a significant positive relationship between price fairness, food quality, firm's personnel quality, customer trust, restaurant image, and restaurant's atmosphere and customer loyalty. Positive relationship was also found between customer loyalty and customer patronage. The study recommended that managers should constantly re-strategize by re-inventing their firm with novel programs that will excite the beliefs system and emotion of the patrons so as to ensure continued patronage and, firm's profitability.
... A study about passengers' expectations about airplane cabin features (Aksoy et al., 2003) found that passengers who were 61 years old or older had higher expectations of cleanliness than those who were 30-40 years old or 41-50 years old. Similarly, a study of Baby Boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) found that they perceived food safety and restroom cleanliness to be more important than younger generations (Barber & Scarcelli, 2009). Finally, in a study by Barber et al. (2011), it was mentioned that age plays an important role in the importance of cleanliness for restaurant return intention with older customers being more willing to return to a restaurant based on restaurant cleanliness than younger customers. ...
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As the number of air travelers grows, the need for a clean environment has become important during air travel. This study assessed passenger perceptions of cleanliness in airplanes. Using attributes from prior research, this study was able to extract three cleanliness dimensions and found that the most important cleanliness dimensions were food & flight attendants and lavatory. The importance of cleanliness was greater for females, older, and less experienced passengers. Almost one-third of the respondents reported taking active measures during air travel to prevent themselves from becoming sick. Results offer theoretical and practical contributions to the airline industry.
... Cleanliness has long been considered an important aspect of the overall restaurant experience (Barber and Scarcelli, 2010) and consumers' perceptions of restaurant cleanliness has been shown to be a key determinant in service quality, satisfaction and repeat patronage intentions (Barber and Scarcelli, 2009;Barber et al., 2011;Bienstock et al., 2003;Jang and Liu, 2009). A 2008 Center for Science in the Public Interest report indicated that the top five areas of concern for restaurant guests with regard to cleanliness were: (1) employee cleanliness and hygiene, (2) rodents/insects, (3) improper use of wiping cloths, (4) presence of ill restaurant employees, and (5) bare hand contact with raw food (Klein et al., 2008). ...
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In light of the COVID-19 pandemic restaurant operators had to close their dining rooms for dine-in service for a number of weeks; however, once they were allowed to re-open concern still existed over safety and socially distancing many operators had to get creative in ensuring guest and worker safety. The current study sought to assess consumer perceptions and preferences regarding different types of dining room setups that were implemented by restaurants around the U.S. during the re-opening phase to ensure proper social distancing amongst guests. A quasi-experimental design was implemented where respondents were shown images of two different dining-room setups and provided responses to questions based on their perceptions and preferences for these socially distant servicescapes. Overall, respondents indicated that partitions between tables were preferred to mannequins being placed at tables. Academic and practical implications are discussed.
... For example, it is impractical for consumers to determine the reliability of the food markets from where restaurants purchase raw materials or dinner patrons cannot take the temperature of food with a thermometer or use a microbiological diagnostic kit to detect food contaminated with microorganisms. Thus, the most important factors applied by consumers to judge the levels of food hygiene/ safety of eating places in order to decide where to eat are visual cues such as the restaurant's external appearance, the cleanliness of dining area and utensils, staff's appearance and clothing, and the restroom hygiene (Aksoydan, 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009, 2010Leach et al., 2001;Lee et al., 2012;Liu & Lee, 2018;Min, 2016;Park, 2014;Park et al., 2016). However, past studies consider restaurant cleanliness attributes as a part of functional service quality dimension (Gronroos, 1984) or tangible construct of service quality (Bujisic et al., 2014;Parasuraman et al., 1985) and conclude that customer's perception of a restaurant's cleanliness significantly influences customer's judgment of the overall restaurant's service quality (Barber et al., 2011;Barber & Scarcelli, 2010;Truong et al., 2017;Yu et al., 2018). ...
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Travelers’ increasing concern about restaurant-associated foodborne illness makes food safety very important to destination foodservice operators. While previous research has shed light on the impact of destination different restaurant service quality attributes on tourists’ satisfaction, there is a lack of research identifying the dimensions of food safety indicators driving tourist’s restaurant selection and satisfaction solely. This study aims to fill the gaps by developing a scale measuring 433 international tourists’ perceptions about hygiene standards in Phuket small restaurants. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor model that influences tourists’ restaurant selection. These factors were: waitstaff’s appearance and personal hygiene, cleanliness of restaurant, toilet hygiene, and food safety information cues. Cleanliness of restaurant and waitstaff’s appearances and personal hygiene were two key factors influencing tourist satisfaction of small restaurants. The significance of restaurant hygiene quality has received less attention in tourism marketing literature, thus this study adds further importance by underlining its implication to the sustainable management of destination restaurants. However, this study suffered from several limitations, for instance, the study’s framework, the inability to generalize the results due to the research scope and context, and the concurrence of data collection with the COVID-19 pandemic which pave the way for future studies.
Conference Paper
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Destinasyondaki yeme-içme faaliyetlerinin zaruri bir ihtiyacın karşılanmasından öte turistik deneyimin bir parçası haline gelmesi, dikkatleri yeme-içme hizmetinin sunulduğu restoran ve kafelere yöneltmektedir. Bu nedenle, tüketicilerin gidecekleri restoran ve kafeleri tercih etme nedenlerinin ve bu işletmelere ilişkin memnuniyet faktörlerinin belirlemesi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Alanyazındaki çalışmalarda “temizlik” sıklıkla tercih ve memnuniyet üzerinde etkili olan faktörlerden biri olarak ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmada Çanakkale ilindeki restoran ve kafeleri ziyaret eden tüketicilerin tuvalet temizliğine ilişkin algıları ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Çanakkale il merkezinde restoran ve kafeleri kullanan tüketiciler oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada örnekleme tekniği olarak kolayda örnekleme tercih edilmiş ve 01.08.2019-10.08.2019 tarihleri arasında internet üzerinden 401 anket toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda tüketicilerin Çanakkale’deki restoran ve kafelerin tuvaletlerini orta düzeyde temiz olarak algıladıkları ve kadınların erkeklere kıyasla, orta yaş ve üstü olanların gençlere kıyasla, evlilerin ise bekârlara kıyasla tuvaletleri daha az temiz buldukları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
Article
This study investigates the critical dimension of factors driving restaurant choice among 277 consumers, predominantly residents of the South-eastern United States. The food provided (quality, taste) was central to respondents' decision to favor one restaurant over another, though prior positive experience, a clean production/service environment and hospitable service are additional factors that most strongly influenced restaurant choice. Interestingly, despite the rich variety of foods/produce and agricultural background of the region, the use of local food and produce in menu development is among the least considered factors. Several implications are drawn from the findings and directions for future studies are suggested.
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This textbook focuses on hotel marketing. Its chapters include: Chapter 1: Introduction to hotel marketing Chapter 2: Marketing information system of the hotel Chapter 3: Marketing analysis Chapter 4: Consumer behaviour Chapter 5: Business markets Chapter 6: Segmentation, targeting and positioning Chapter 7: Product Chapter 8: Pricing Chapter 9: Distribution Chapter 10: Integrated marketing communications Chapter 11: Relationship marketing Chapter 12: Quality management Chapter 13: Revenue management Chapter 14: Hotel chains
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This textbook focuses on hotel marketing. Its chapters include: Chapter 1: Introduction to hotel marketing Chapter 2: Marketing information system of the hotel Chapter 3: Marketing analysis Chapter 4: Consumer behaviour Chapter 5: Business markets Chapter 6: Segmentation, targeting and positioning Chapter 7: Product Chapter 8: Pricing Chapter 9: Distribution Chapter 10: Integrated marketing communications Chapter 11: Relationship marketing Chapter 12: Quality management Chapter 13: Revenue management Chapter 14: Hotel chains The textbook is in Bulgarian language
Thesis
Bu çalışmanın amacı, Afyonkarahisar ilinde bulunan restoran işletmelerindeki müşterilerin fiziksel kanıt algılarının müşteri memnuniyetine etkisinin önem performans analizi ile belirlenmesidir. Çalışmada ilk olarak çalışmanın değişkenlerini oluşturan kavramlara dair yerli ve yabancı literatür taraması yapılıp kuramsal altyapıya yer verilmiştir. Araştırmanın amacının gerçekleştirilmesi için anket tekniği ile veriler toplanmıştır. Araştırma verileri, kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak 01 Şubat-11 Nisan 2021 tarihleri arasında Afyonkarahisar ili restoran işletmelerini ziyaret eden 635 müşteriden toplanmıştır. Afyonkarahisar ili merkezinde bulunan restoran işletmeleri ile Afyonkarahisar ili merkezindeki termal otel işletmeleri bünyesindeki restoran işletmelerini ziyaret eden müşterilere anket uygulanmıştır. Toplam 450 adet müşteri anketi değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Verilerin analizinde yüzde, frekans, aritmetik ortalama, standart sapma, faktör analizi, güvenirlik analizi, önem-performans analizi (ÖPA), korelasyon analizi ve regresyon analizi yöntemleri kullanılmış, elde edilen veriler araştırmanın amacı doğrultusunda yorumlanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre müşteriler fiziksel kanıt iç ve dış değişkenlerini değerlendirerek üzerinde önemle durması gerektiğini göstermektedir. Ayrıca anket uygulanan restoran işletmeleri müşterilerinin fiziksel kanıtlara ilişkin algıları ile müşteri memnuniyeti arasında yüksek seviyede bir ilişki olduğu sonucuna varılmış olup gerçekleştirilen regresyon analizi ile müşterilerin fiziksel kanıt algılarının müşteri memnuniyetini etkilediği belirlenmiştir. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of physical evidence perceptions of customers in restaurant businesses in Afyonkarahisar province on customer satisfaction by importance performance analysis. In the study, first of all, domestic and foreign literature review about the concepts that constitute the variables of the study was made and the theoretical infrastructure was included. In order to realize the aim of the research, data were collected by questionnaire technique. The research data were collected from 635 customers who visited the restaurant establishments of Afyonkarahisar province between 01 February and 11 April 2021 using the convenience sampling method. A questionnaire was applied to the customers who visited the restaurant businesses located in the city center of Afyonkarahisar and the restaurant businesses within the thermal hotel businesses in the city center of Afyonkarahisar. A total of 450 customer surveys were evaluated. Percentage, frequency, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, reliability analysis, importance-performance analysis (IPA), correlation analysis and regression analysis methods were used in the analysis of the data, and the obtained data were interpreted in line with the purpose of the research. According to the findings, customers show that they should pay attention to the internal and external variables of physical evidence by evaluating them. In addition, it was concluded that there is a high level of relationship between the perceptions of the customers of the restaurant businesses regarding the physical evidence and customer satisfaction, and it was determined that the physical evidence perceptions of the customers affected the customer satisfaction with the regression analysis performed.
Article
This study examines a research framework incorporating relationships among selected campus foodservice attributes, image, customer satisfaction, and effects of these on word-of-mouth (WOM) communication. Mediating roles of image and customer satisfaction in the relationship between the campus food service attributes and WOM are also investigated. Results confirm that students have high expectation and a variety of needs from campus foodservice that go beyond the mere consumption of food. Among the campus foodservice attributes, food quality, price value, service quality, and menu variety had significant and positive effects on WOM. However, the foodservice attributes appear to have different effects on image, satisfaction, and students' intention to recommend, respectively.
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Her endüstride, üretim-tüketim dengesine bağlı olarak değişen bir rekabet durumu söz konusudur. Rekabet, bir yandan insanları hıza, daha fazla tüketime ve kolay erişime sevk ederken bir yandan da ilerlemenin, gelişmenin, hatta teknolojinin ve yaşamsal olanakları geliştirmenin temelinde yer alır. Benzer durum yiyecek içecek endüstrisinde de görülür. Genel üretim-tüketim dengelerine bağlı olarak ortaya çıkan sert rekabet koşulları yiyecek ve içecek endüstrisi için de geçerlidir. İnsanlar, beslenme gereksiniminin yanı sıra dışarıda zaman geçirmek (Türkay ve Atasoy, 2020: 401) ve hazcı isteklerini gidermek (Güripek vd., 2021: 278) gibi motivasyonlarla yiyecek içecek işletmelerine yönelir. Bu bağlamda yiyecek içecek işletmeleri, bu beklentileri karşılayarak ekonomik hedeflerine ulaşmaya çalışır. Her ne kadar belli bir ihtiyacı karşılamak ve buna bağlı olarak müşteri memnuniyeti sağlamak rekabetin anahtarı olarak ifade edilse de işletmelerin ve hatta endüstrilerin rekabet gücünü belirleyen çok farklı ve çeşitli unsurlar söz konusudur.
Article
Advances in tourism research depend on the development and validation of measurement scales using appropriate psychometric techniques. However, scale development practice is dominated by classical test theory, despite its limitations. A Rasch analysis of international travel service performance scales across demographic, customer experience and service provider sub-groups is provided. Scales generally show high reliability, little disordering of the thresholds, and no substantive effects where multidimensionality is present. Some items exhibit limited discriminatory power, local dependence and measurement bias. Measurement invariance violations are prevalent in temporal dimensions where travelers exhibit diverse customer experience profiles. Employee knowledge and safety attributes appear organization-specific. Ethnicity impacts on relational aspects; response behavior regarding personal space is gender specific. Standardized safety-related scales may be inadvisable when comparisons across age and education cohorts are required. Accounting for measurement invariance influences the average location of groups on the latent continuum, and in some cases substantive mean difference results.
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the degree of influence of restroom cleanliness in the choice of restaurant by the Brazilian consumers. More specifically, it was aimed to establish a relationship between restroom cleanliness and consumer behavior, as well as to determine which factors of restroom cleanliness are more influential in restaurant choice. Thus, a quantitative-descritive study involving 100 residents of the urban area of Campo Grande, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul State, who attend commercial restaurants and who belonged to A, B, C, D and E classes, was made during May 2011. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and factor analysis by using the Minitab Software. Main results showed that both, restroom cleanliness as well of the restaurants' cleanliness in general, are important variables influencing the consumer choice and also their return intention. Moreover, the perception of consumers had a positive relationship with age and economic class, showing that the level of requirement is higher among older people and higher income. Four factors linked to the restroom cleanliness were identified: Physical infrastructure (Factor 1), Dirty restroom (Factor 2), Lack of basic materials (Factor 3) and Extreme conditions (Factor 4). Factor 4 was considered the most important to consumers, followed by Factor 2. Factor 3 was the third most important and was significantly correlated with age, gender and income variables, and also proved to be relevant to explain the return intention. Factor 1 was less relevant for consumers in the sample, but it showed a significant relationship with the income.
Purpose This study aims to empirically assess restaurant surfaces’ cleanliness and compare them to customers’ perceptions about the cleanliness of surfaces when dining in a restaurant. Design/methodology/approach This study used two methods to collect data. The first was a survey method to gauge customers’ perceptions and an empirical test to measure cleanliness using an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter. Two data sets were collected to compare customers’ perceptions and actual cleanliness measurements. One data set surveyed respondents as to their perceptions of high- and low-touch restaurant surfaces among 19 areas of the dining room and 15 surfaces from the restroom, and their perceived cleanliness or dirtiness of those same surfaces. The second one conducted empirical measurements of the cleanliness of these surfaces using an ATP meter, which were then compared to customers’ perceptions. Findings Although all surfaces had higher ATP readings than a 30 relative light units’ threshold, there were significant differences in ATP readings among surfaces. Results showed a fair amount of consistency between the consumers’ perceptions of cleanliness and the actual results of ATP readings for the cleanest areas, but very little consistency in customers’ perceptions and experimental measurements for the dirtiest areas. Practical implications This study empirically demonstrated the need for improved cleaning techniques and the importance of proper training for foodservice employees. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, results of this study suggest an additional responsibility on managers and staff to ensure clean environments and the imperative to address the concerns of their customers. Originality/value Based on an extensive literature review, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no prior studies have compared consumers’ cleanliness perceptions with empirical measurements of cleanliness in restaurant settings using an ATP meter. The results of this study provide restaurant managers a better understanding of customers’ perceptions of cleanliness. It also provides restaurant managers and staff information to develop more effective cleaning procedures. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, perceptions of cleanliness and measures of actual cleanliness are more important than they have been in the past.
Article
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The quick-service restaurant industry is a significant and growing aspect of the restaurant industry. For long-term success, quick-service restaurants must generate positive relationships with consumers. More specifically, quick-service restaurants need to produce satisfied consumers that ultimately lead to loyalty behaviors toward the restaurant. This article investigates factors that may enhance quick-service restaurant consumer dining satisfaction and behavior intentions. Based upon the findings, quick-service restaurants can improve consumers’ dining satisfaction and future behavioral intentions if they provide food quality, service quality, and an atmosphere that meets or exceeds consumers’ expectations. Implications for developing effective consumer relationships are provided.
Article
The restaurant industry is one of the most affected businesses during the outbreak of COVID-19. The customer choice regarding whether or not to dine in a restaurant have changed due to this unprecedented global pandemic. Integrated with the affective decision-making framework, meta-theoretic model of motivation (3M), and optimistic bias theory, this conceptual paper proposes a theoretical scheme for understanding constructs that affect consumer motivation while considering the significance of consumers’ risk perceptions of the novel coronavirus disease. This research aims to delineate the role of loyalty, trust, and transparency on resuming in-restaurant dining during and after the pandemic. By identifying the link between each construct and addressing the unparalleled food-/health related risks, this study suggests that restaurants who accumulated more customer trust by fostering transparency are likely to have more business and quickly recover from the shock.
Thesis
My dissertation is grounded in a thick ethnography of restaurants as social and material sites in Prishtina, the capital of Kosova. I argue that Kosovar food culture is characterised by its peasant, Ottoman and socialist past. Yet, in the current phase of state-building, Kosovars are constantly seeking to appropriate different ideas, models and practices to construct, reproduce, negotiate and affirm their social and national identity. My ethnography is phenomenologically rooted and dialogically conducted as an embodied approach to the study of commensality, conviviality, sociality and performance in gastronomic ‘third places.’ I look at both spatial and placial aspects of the foodscape as materialised in restaurants. In chapter one, I focus on the Kosovar society in general and Kosovar food culture in particular. Here, I canvas a general foodview of Kosova with particular focus in its socialist past. Then I move to chapter two to discuss relevant literature in the anthropology of food, and my methodology. In chapter three, I focus on ‘banal gastronationalism’ and ‘culidiversity’ as produced, practiced and consumed in restaurants. I also argue that local tradition is represented in the process of appropriating, negotiating and performing culture. In chapter four, I analyse the ways in which ‘village’ food, ‘fast food’ and ‘our food’ have become objectifications of morality, modernity and ideology. This chapter provides a view of foodways, food ideologies, food movements and local coping strategies. In chapter five, I turn to discuss café culture. I argue that cafés play a crucial role in the formation, production, reproduction and exchange of identification capital, public sphere and community building. In the final chapter, I conclude by summarising my thesis and argue that anthropology of postsocialism may benefit from the study of food and restaurants.
This article has the aim of presenting the basis for a new, clearer classification of restaurant attributes. The research followed an interpretive approach with a systematic review of the literature, compared and contrasted with the findings of six focus group interviews. A new model was devised with seven categories of restaurant attributes. This article presents a model that needs to be tested. Also, follow-up articles with more detail about the attributes under each category will be presented. This article organizes the disparate literature on restaurant attributes and looks into the relationship between attributes, particularly its influence on perceived consumer value.
Conference Paper
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Destinasyondaki yeme-içme faaliyetlerinin zaruri bir ihtiyacın karşılanmasından öte turistik deneyimin bir parçası haline gelmesi, dikkatleri yeme-içme hizmetinin sunulduğu restoran ve kafelere yöneltmektedir. Bu nedenle, tüketicilerin gidecekleri restoran ve kafeleri tercih etme nedenlerinin ve bu işletmelere ilişkin memnuniyet faktörlerinin belirlemesi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Alanyazındaki çalışmalarda “temizlik” sıklıkla tercih ve memnuniyet üzerinde etkili olan faktörlerden biri olarak ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmada Çanakkale ilindeki restoran ve kafeleri ziyaret eden tüketicilerin tuvalet temizliğine ilişkin algıları ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Çanakkale il merkezinde restoran ve kafeleri kullanan tüketiciler oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada örnekleme tekniği olarak kolayda örnekleme tercih edilmiş ve 01.08.2019-10.08.2019 tarihleri arasında internet üzerinden 401 anket toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda tüketicilerin Çanakkale’deki restoran ve kafelerin tuvaletlerini orta düzeyde temiz olarak algıladıkları ve kadınların erkeklere kıyasla, orta yaş ve üstü olanların gençlere kıyasla, evlilerin ise bekârlara kıyasla tuvaletleri daha az temiz buldukları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Thesis
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