Increased cell surface expression of C‐terminal truncated erythropoietin receptors in polycythemia

ArticleinEuropean Journal Of Haematology 67(2):88 - 93 · August 2001with12 Reads
DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0609.2001.t01-1-00446.x
Abstract
Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is a disorder characterized by an increased number of erythrocytes despite normal blood oxygen pressure and a normal serum erythropoietin (EPO) level. Recent studies revealed that erythroid progenitor cells from certain individuals with PFCP express various forms of EPO receptor (EPOR) truncated at the terminal carboxyl site (EPOR-TTC(PFCP)). EPOR-TTC(PFCP) can transmit EPO-mediated proliferative signals more efficiently than can full-length EPOR (EPOR-F), at least partly because of defective recruitment of SHP-1 phosphatase to these receptors. In agreement with previous studies, Ba/F3 transfectants expressing EPOR-TTC(PFCP) showed higher proliferative responses to EPO. In those transfectants, we found that EPOR-TTC(PFCP) was expressed more abundantly on the cell surface than was EPOR-F. This tendency was confirmed by a transient-expression experiment using COS7 cells. Since expression levels of EPOR protein were not significantly different among these transfectants, differences in cell surface expression were likely dependent on post-translational mechanism(s). In addition to defective recruitment of SHP-1 to EPOR-TTC(PFCP), more efficient transport and expression on the cell surface appear to serve as mechanisms responsible for increased EPO-responsiveness of erythroid progenitor cells in PFCP.

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    • "Also lacking is a proposed cytoplasmic binding motif for a BTRC E3 ubiquitin ligase [20]. One hypothesis advanced for enhanced functional attributes of EPOR-T alleles has involved a prediction that such truncated receptor forms might be substantially compromised in internalization capacities (and consequently may reside persistently on the surface of erythroid progenitors) [13,14,15,48,49]. Recent studies of mutated EPOR alleles in transfected gamma-2A and BaF3 cells also are consistent with this notion [18,19]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPOR) are essential for erythropoiesis; can modulate non-erythroid target tissues; and have been reported to affect the progression of certain cancers. Basic studies of EPOR expression and trafficking, however, have been hindered by low-level EPOR occurrence, and the limited specificity of anti-EPOR antibodies. Consequently, these aspects of EPOR biology are not well defined, nor are actions of polycythemia- associated mutated EPOR alleles. Using novel rabbit monoclonal antibodies to intracellular, PY- activated and extracellular EPOR domains, the following properties of the endogenous hEPOR in erythroid progenitors first are unambiguously defined. 1) High- Mr EPOR forms become obviously expressed only when EPO is limited. 2) EPOR-68K plus -70K species sequentially accumulate, and EPOR-70K comprises an apparent cell surface EPOR population. 3) Brefeldin A, N-glycanase and associated analyses point to EPOR-68K as a core-glycosylated intracellular EPOR pool (of modest size). 4) In contrast to recent reports, EPOR inward trafficking is shown (in UT7epo cells, and primary proerythroblasts) to be sharply ligand-dependent. Beyond this, when C-terminal truncated hEPOR-T mutant alleles as harbored by polycythemia patients are co-expressed with the wild-type EPOR in EPO-dependent erythroid progenitors, several specific events become altered. First, EPOR-T alleles are persistently activated upon EPO- challenge, yet are also subject to apparent turn-over (to low-Mr EPOR products). Furthermore, during exponential cell growth EPOR-T species become both over-represented, and hyper-activated. Interestingly, EPOR-T expression also results in an EPO dose-dependent loss of endogenous wild-type EPOR's (and, therefore, a squelching of EPOR C-terminal- mediated negative feedback effects). New knowledge concerning regulated EPOR expression and trafficking therefore is provided, together with new insight into mechanisms via which mutated EPOR-T polycythemia alleles dysregulate the erythron. Notably, specific new tools also are characterized for studies of EPOR expression, activation, action and metabolism.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
    • "JAK2 has been documented to play a dual role in EPO-R metabolism; in addition to its crucial part in EPO-R activation, it also facilitates EPO-R trafficking along the secretory pathway [23]. JAK2 binds the ER-associated EPO-R in the box 1 and box 2 regions (Figure 1), which have been thoroughly explored [45]. Two of the five cytosolic lysine residues reside within this area, although their mutation to alanine does not alter JAK2 binding or EPO-R activity [23,46]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysine residues are key residues in many cellular processes, in part due to their ability to accept a wide variety of post-translational modifications. In the present study, we identify the EPO-R [EPO (erythropoietin) receptor] cytosolic lysine residues as enhancers of receptor function. EPO-R drives survival, proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells via binding of its ligand EPO. We mutated the five EPO-R cytosolic lysine residues to arginine residues (5KR EPO-R), eliminating putative lysine-dependent modifications. Overexpressed 5KR EPO-R displayed impaired ubiquitination and improved stability compared with wt (wild-type) EPO-R. Unexpectedly, fusion proteins consisting of VSVGtsO45 (vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein temperature-sensitive folding mutant) with wt or 5KR EPO-R cytosolic domains demonstrated delayed glycan maturation kinetics upon substitution of the lysine residues. Moreover, VSVG-wt EPO-R, but not VSVG-5KR EPO-R, displayed endoplasmic reticulum-associated ubiquitination. Despite similar cell-surface EPO-binding levels of both receptors and the lack of EPO-induced ubiquitination by 5KR EPO-R, the lysine-less mutant produced weaker receptor activation and signalling than the wt receptor. We thus propose that EPO-R cytosolic lysine residues enhance receptor function, most probably through ubiquitination and/or other post-translational modifications.
    Article · Feb 2011
    • "In that respect, JAK2 was shown to bind to the cytosolic domain of EPO-R and to promote cell-surface localization of the receptor [20,32]. Deletion of the EPO-R intracellular cytosolic domain was associated with higher surface levels of the receptor [33,34], further supporting the role of the EPO-R intracellular domain in its surface expression. The NPXY motif is a well-characterized internalization signal responsible for clathrin-mediated endocytosis that is present "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EPO (erythropoietin), the major hormone regulating erythropoiesis, functions via activation of its cell-surface receptor (EPO-R) present on erythroid progenitor cells. One of the most striking properties of EPO-R is its low expression on the cell surface, as opposed to its high intracellular levels. The low cell-surface expression of EPO-R may thus limit the efficacy of EPO that is routinely used to treat primary and secondary anaemia. In a recent study [Nahari, Barzilay, Hirschberg and Neumann (2008) Biochem. J. 410, 409-416] we have shown that insertion of an NPVY sequence into the intracellular domain of EPO-R increases its cell-surface expression. In the present study we demonstrate that this NPVY EPO-R insert has a selective effect on EPO-mediated downstream signalling in Ba/F3 cells expressing this receptor (NPVY-EPO-R). This is monitored by increased phosphorylation of the NPVY-EPO-R (on Tyr479), Akt, JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) and ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2), but not STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5), as compared with cells expressing wild-type EPO-R. This enhanced signalling is reflected in augmented proliferation at low EPO levels (0.05 units/ml) and protection against etoposide-induced apoptosis. Increased cell-surface levels of NPVY-EPO-R are most probably not sufficient to mediate these effects as the A234E-EPO-R mutant that is expressed at high cell-surface levels does not confer an augmented response to EPO. Taken together, we demonstrate that insertion of an NPVY sequence into the cytosolic domain of the EPO-R confers not only improved maturation, but also selectively affects EPO-mediated signalling resulting in an improved responsiveness to EPO reflected in cell proliferation and protection against apoptosis.
    Article · Feb 2010
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