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The Validity of the Job Characteristics Model: A Review and Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

The validity of Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model was assessed by conducting a comprehensive review of nearly 200 relevant studies on the model as well as by applying meta-analytic procedures to a large portion of the data. The evidence indicated that the available correlational results are reasonably valid in light of the issues examined. Results tended to support the multidimensionality of job characteristics, but there was less agreement on the exact number of dimensions. The corrected correlational results of the meta-analysis indicated that job characteristics related both to psychological and behavioral outcomes. Concerning psychological states, the results tended to support their mediating (e.g., intervening) role between job characteristics and personal outcomes. The pattern of correlations between the job characteristics and psychological states was less supportive of the model. Meta-analytic results demonstrated that most of the cross-study variance was due to statistical artifacts. True variance across studies was found for the job characteristics-performance relationship, however, and subsequent analyses suggested that growth-need strength moderates this relationship. Implications for potential revisions of the model and for practice are discussed.

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... Qualtrics, an online survey company, was employed because surveys are widely used in quantitative studies for police research on large samples (Keiding et al., 2016). However, limitations in quantitative studies can include methodological issues such as in the research design, variable variability, sample size, validity of self-reported measures, the size of police agencies, and how the relationship between the job characteristics and other variables of the Hackman et al.'s (1975) JCM are interpreted (Aguayo, Vargas, Canadas, & De la Fuente, 2017;Fried & Ferris, 1987;Hackman et al., 1975;Ingram et al., 2015;Renn and Vandenberg, 1995). Kahn and Byosier (1992) identified these limitations as mediating factors that can buffer the effects of strains and motivational variables. ...
... The job characteristics model (JCM) has been widely supported with regard to job satisfaction and its correlates (Ercikti et al., 2011;Fried et al., 1987;Hackman et al., 1975Hackman et al., , 1976Johari et al., 2016;Kao, 2017;Katsikea, Theodosiou, Perdikis, & Kehagias, 2011;Saavedra et al., 2000;Uruthirapathy and Grant, 2015;Wegman et al., 2018). Fried and Ferris (1987) performed a meta-analysis of 200 studies using the JCM. ...
... The job characteristics model (JCM) has been widely supported with regard to job satisfaction and its correlates (Ercikti et al., 2011;Fried et al., 1987;Hackman et al., 1975Hackman et al., , 1976Johari et al., 2016;Kao, 2017;Katsikea, Theodosiou, Perdikis, & Kehagias, 2011;Saavedra et al., 2000;Uruthirapathy and Grant, 2015;Wegman et al., 2018). Fried and Ferris (1987) performed a meta-analysis of 200 studies using the JCM. Fried et al. (1987) asserted that the correlational results revealed that job satisfaction was related to the job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback (.07 and .23) ...
... Job characteristic theory specifies that skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback are all integral to enriching jobs and supporting employee health and wellbeing (see Fried & Ferris, 1987). These five core job characteristics affect work-related outcomes, such as motivation, job satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, and turnover by helping employees find meaning in the work that they do, responsibility for the work that they do, and knowledge of the impact that their work has on important outcomes (Fried & Ferris, 1987). ...
... Job characteristic theory specifies that skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback are all integral to enriching jobs and supporting employee health and wellbeing (see Fried & Ferris, 1987). These five core job characteristics affect work-related outcomes, such as motivation, job satisfaction, performance, absenteeism, and turnover by helping employees find meaning in the work that they do, responsibility for the work that they do, and knowledge of the impact that their work has on important outcomes (Fried & Ferris, 1987). Therefore, employers seeking to improve both employee-level outcomes, such as mental health, as well as organizational outcomes, such as productivity and performance, should aim to incorporate each of these five characteristics into the design of each job. ...
... And workers in general appear to find their work more meaningful when they perceive it has a high prosocial impact (Allan, 2017). These findings are consistent with theories of work design and job engagement, which explain how social information and knowledge of results increase workers' motivation and job engagement (Christian et al., 2011;Fried & Ferris, 1987;Hackman & Oldham, 1976;Parker et al., 2017;Rich et al., 2010;Salancik & Pfeffer, 1978). ...
... Prior research has demonstrated that prosocial impacts mediate the effects of task characteristics on work motivation (Behson et al., 2000;Fried & Ferris, 1987;Grant, 2008aGrant, , 2008bHackman & Oldham, 1976;Johns et al., 1992). ...
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... Rosso et al. (2010), in their review of meaningful employment research, found that employees who characterised their work as meaningful related this to perceptions of enjoyment or interest in work. Indeed, research consistently demonstrates that individuals find employment that involves both task and skill variety meaningful (Fried & Ferris, 1987;Pratt & Ashforth, 2003;Veltman, 2015;Allan, Duffy & Collison, 2018). Interesting work may invoke feelings of meaningfulness because 'interest' is a positive emotion following cognitive appraisal (Silvia, 2006). ...
... In contrast to the research conducted with adult professionals (Fried & Ferris, 1987;Pratt & Ashforth, 2003;Veltman, 2015;Allan, Duffy & Collison, 2018), 'interesting work' did not appear to be amongst participants' criteria for meaningful employment. As Dale described, when asked if having an interesting job was something he desired in the future: 'I don't think it's really important is it? ...
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Experiencing meaningfulness at work is important for employee engagement, individual performance, and personal fulfilment. However, research surrounding meaningful employment has predominantly focused upon the experiences of well-educated, adult professionals. To expand theoretical understanding of this concept, this paper investigates perceptions of meaningful employment among youths from Northern England (aged 16–18) with a history of involvement in crime. Interviews demonstrate that young offenders’ criteria for ‘meaningful work’ differ from existing research and is influenced by their self-concept and inherent values as youths from chaotic and impoverished backgrounds. This highlights the subjectivity of this concept. Nonetheless, the findings also indicate that there are instances where work itself makes a broader contribution in discovering meaning, and therefore, certain organisational practices are experienced as meaningful by both young offenders and adult professionals. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of surveying diverse populations to reach a more comprehensive understanding of meaningful employment.
... The job characteristics model describes five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. These have also been associated with positive job outcomes such as performance, work satisfaction, or wellbeing (Oldham et al., 1976;Fried and Ferris, 1987). We argue that workforce agility enriches job tasks of employees, as agile work behaviors provide constant feedback from customers as well as team members through reflection practices and user inclusion. ...
... Following our argumentation about workforce agility and its relation to self-determination theory, the job characteristics model, and the job demand-control model, we expect agility to be positively related to well-being and job satisfaction. All of these models have been linked to several positive work outcomes including an increased job satisfaction, lower emotional distress, and a lower likelihood to burn out (Karasek, 1979;Spector, 1986;Fried and Ferris, 1987;Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004;Deci and Ryan, 2008). This is also supported by the findings of Tripp et al. (2016), who found that agile methodology positively influences the job design criteria job autonomy, feedback, skill variety, task identity, and task significance. ...
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... While constructing a general model of well-being at work, other than deciding about its more eudaimonic or more hedonic character, it is also necessary to consider employees' personal characteristics in addition to environmental aspects [10][11][12][13]. Classic models such as the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) by Hackman and Oldham [14] or the Job Demands-Control (JD-C) model by Karasek [15,16], taking into account psychosocial and organizational characteristics of work and their impact on the mental state of employees (health, well-being, stress level), assume linear dependencies. They posit the great importance of work and meaningful feedback (the JCM) and a high degree of autonomy in decision-making as well as work autonomy (the JD-C model). ...
... Taking into account the above-mentioned explanations, it can be assumed, however, that to some extent the hypothesis about the non-linear relationship of job characteristics in the AD group with job satisfaction has been confirmed. The obtained results cannot be explained on the basis of classic models such as the JCM by Hackman and Oldham [14] or the JD-C model by Karasek [15,16], which was also mentioned in the first part of the article. It is worth noting, however, that in the modified Job Demand-Control-Support model (JD-C-S) by Karasek and Theo-IJOMEH 2022;35(2) 10 nature of work and the industry, employees' perception of the job characteristics in a specific organization and their well-being. ...
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... Typically, work autonomy is the level of freedom individuals have in their jobs, and it is related to perceived satisfaction as one can act in a self-determined manner. [74,90]. In a crowdsourcing context, specifically, crowdwork autonomy involves freedom in task selection, work location selection, the time for work, and methods to perform tasks. ...
... Task feedback refers to the information provided to workers regarding their performance at work. It is strongly associated with work satisfaction as obtaining the informative evaluation of one's work effort is the basic expectation of individuals in a work setting [74]. According to Jian et al. [115], the feedback in a crowdsourcing context plays an essential role in the participation enthusiasm of crowdworkers. ...
... Hackman & Oldham's Job Characteristics Model (JCM) has identified the role of job enrichment and has stressed the importance of increasing employees' motivation and satisfaction to increase employment retention (Hackman & Oldham, 1975;1976;1980). JCM has been recognized as one of the most influential theories on organizational behavior and has facilitated the development of a large body of research into the meaning of work (Fried & Fems, 1987;Taber & Taylor, 1990;Rungtusanatham & Anderson, 1996;Behson, 2010). 1939-6104-18-5-434 However, JCM and its testing instrument, the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS), are not without limitations. ...
... Knowing that the original JDS has been widely used and its content validity has been assessed by many scholars (e.g., Fried & Fems, 1987;Taber & Taylor, 1990;Lee-Ross, 1998;Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006;Rungtusanatham & Anderson, 1996;Van Saane et al., 2003;Vorster et. al., 2005), the new items in the extended version, MJDS-R, were examined and reviewed by four experts (Academics in related areas). ...
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Fresh graduates' retention is a key ingredient of labor market effectiveness and well-built instruments are necessary to identify its determinants. This study develops an extended version of the widely used Hackman and Oldham's "Job Diagnostic Survey", identifying and aiming to bridge its theoretical gaps. The new, 135-item "Modified Job Diagnostic Survey for Retention" implements an integrated framework, with additional "core job dimensions", "experienced psychological states" and "individual differences", while incorporating a new scale on "labor market conditions", to assess the effect of "personal/work outcomes" on retention. Its psychometric properties are tested, using a sample of 630 respondents. Construct validity is evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with Promax rotation. Face validity is examined through reviews by a panel of experts. Reliability of the instrument is estimated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The significance of the new instrument is highlighted by filling the void in research involving redesigning jobs while taking into consideration, for the first time, the effect of labor market conditions on fresh graduates' affective and personal work outcomes. The construct validity shows that it has a five-factor structure where all items are reliable indicators of their corresponding factors. The reliability of the five scales is satisfactory, with acceptable values of Cronbach's alpha (ranging from 0.656 to 0.901). Thus, the new instrument is a strong, valid and reliable tool for studies on the retention of fresh graduates.
... This aligns with some factors identified in the job characteristics model (JCM), where viewing one's work as important and having personal autonomy are identified as important components of work-related satisfaction. 32 Although one of the aims of this study was to determine potential impact of the credential on compensation, none of the participants in this study cited compensation as a motivating factor for obtaining the credential. Participants who had infrastructure at their place of employment for advancement with the RD-AP credential reported an increase in salary. ...
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This qualitative study explored career impacts of the Advanced Practitioner Certification in Clinical Nutrition (RD-AP) from the perspective of credentialed dietitians. Twelve geographically dispersed RD-APs participated in semistructured interviews ranging from 38 to 67 minutes. Interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with an inductive approach. All reported intrinsic benefits of increased confidence, validation, and personal satisfaction, which drove some extrinsic career benefits, including enhanced quality of patient care. The RD-AP credential is an opportunity for career advancement for advanced-level dietitians; however, increased recognition of the credential by stakeholders is needed for the continued growth of the certification program.
... Some researchers (e.g., Campion, 1988) have also recommended the universal application of job enrichment. Although enriched jobs have proliferated since the 1980s, studies have found it increasingly difficult to generalize universal effects of job design across all situations for all workers (e.g., Fried & Ferris, 1987;Griffin, Welsh, & Moorhead, 1981;Muchinsky, 2003;White, 1978). Such results call into doubt whether job enrichment has really resolved the problems created by "Taylorizing" jobs and raise the question of whether Taylorist principles have become obsolete for current HRM. ...
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When Taylorism was discarded long ago, job enrichment emerged as a good alternative. Recent research, however, has pointed out the ineffectiveness of job enrichment. This study suggests that both approaches could be effective and looks at job nature as the moderator that can affect how the two approaches are applied. The authors' longitudinal quasi-experimental fi eld study in China found a signifi cant interaction between worker type (knowl-edge workers [KWs] versus manual workers [MWs]) and job characteristics on employee outcomes. After enrichment, KWs experienced higher satisfaction and task performance, whereas for MWs, satisfaction and performance declined. This pattern of results suggests that both job enrichment and Tay-lorism are applicable depending on the job nature. In addition to contributing to job design theory, the present study also explored the unique attributes of KWs and provides practical suggestions as to how human resource managers can better motivate KWs.
... Theoretically, the higher the level of one's flow (or optimal experience), it is more likely that one can set a clear goal, the steadier control one has over his task, the stronger immersion and pleasure one can feel (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1990. As an important part of the flow, one's independence or freedom when engaging in activities is repeatedly found to be able to increase positive affect (Saavedra and Kwun, 2000) and motivation (Fried and Ferris, 1987), which in turn promotes academic self-efficacy. As academic self-efficacy is reflected widely in the daily life of university students especially during the challenging time of COVID-19 (Alemany-Arrebola et al., 2020), an individual who has more frequent flow experience may feel increased confidence and a loss of self-awareness during academic activities, in this sense, we predict that: ...
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The present study investigated a conceptual model by testing university students’ flow experience and subjective well-being via considering their underlying mechanisms of academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. A total of 1109 Chinese university students completed a questionnaire containing scales of Subjective Well-being, Flow, Academic Self-efficacy and Self-esteem. Results yielded from the structural equation modelling analysis indicated a significant and positive association between flow experience and subjective well-being, and such an association was sequentially mediated by academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings also provided empirical evidence for the proposed model highlighting the significant role of flow experience at the higher educational context in predicting Chinese university students’ subjective well-being, and how such a relation can be supported by suggested mediating roles academic self-efficacy and self-esteem played.
... Furthermore, the results of this study reveal that psychological ownership is the missing link to explain "why" and "how" challenging jobs cause not only a profound positive change in their performance (Fried & Ferris, 1987) but also an increase in job satisfaction. ...
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Job satisfaction is an important construct in the organizational behavior domain because it affects several organizational variables, such as performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational commitment. This study investigates the effect of innovation and participation as workplace values on job satisfaction and the mediating role of psychological ownership. Participants ( N = 316) were adults working at different hotels in Antalya, Turkey. The results show innovation and participation as workplace values manifest their effects on job satisfaction through psychological ownership. Moreover, psychological ownership, along with participation, is one of the best estimators of job satisfaction, while participation is the best estimator of psychological ownership among studied variables.
... Farh, Podsakoff, & Organ (1990) compared relative effect of task characteristics, leadership behavior and job satisfaction to organizational citizenship. The basic premise of this model is that the objective characteristics of a job will affect job results, such as satisfaction, or performance (Fried & Ferris, 1987). Thus, workers' reports regarding the characteristics of the work should represent the actual characteristics of a job. ...
... But, in the following research history, core and interpersonal job characteristics such as job identity, autonomy, skill variety, feedback, cooperation, and friendship have been separately investigated for the correlations with job performance and job satisfaction in various empirical studies that stemmed from Job Characteristics school. Even though some researchers indicated the need for more empirical research testing the job characteristics' effects on performance perception and the mediating role of job satisfaction is required (Fried & Ferris, 1987;Loher et al., 1985;Wegman et al., 2018), there found only a few studies on job characteristics' direct determination on job satisfaction and job performance and the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between job characteristics and job performance perception in Wegman et al.'s (2018) meta-analysis. ...
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This study aims to reveal the dimensions of job characteristics' causal effects on the dimensions of job performance perception and the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction in this relationship. All the variables are examined for individual-organization interaction at the individual level. Primary research data were gathered by using a structured questionnaire that included valid and reliable scales, namely Job Characteristics Inventory, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, and The Job performance quality scale. The sample of the study consists of 472 employees randomly chosen from five private and public hospitals in Turkey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used for factor validation. Path analysis and bootstrap analyses are used to detect direct and mediating effects on a path model using the structural equation modeling technique. Findings revealed that skill variety and friendship have a positive causal effect on compliance and task performance. Friendship, skill variety, and autonomy have a positive causal effect on job satisfaction. Internal job satisfaction has a positive causal influence on compliance, contextual, and task performance. Friendship, skill variety, and autonomy's causal effects on compliance, contextual, and task performance are mediated by intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction.
... Research has provided evidence for the proposed relationship between the core job characteristics and several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, internal work motivation, job performance; see Fried and Ferris, 1987;Humphrey et al., 2007;Loher et al., 1985, for meta-analyses). Furthermore, research has revealed that of the many aspects of work situation that are associated with job satisfaction (e.g., salary, promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision), the nature of work has the highest correlation with overall job satisfaction (see Judge et al., 2002). ...
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether employee job satisfaction is associated with the congruence between desired and perceived job attributes. The desired and perceived levels of 30 job attributes were measured on employees from a large Information Technology (IT) company based in Romania. Results indicate that employees who experience congruence between desired and perceived job attributes have higher levels of overall job satisfaction, confirming the assumptions of the value congruence theory. In addition, the results of this study show that employee job satisfaction is associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors i.e., job attributes. This indicates that extrinsic factors can also be a source of job satisfaction, the same as intrinsic factors, which is contrary to what Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory assumes.
... According to Hackman and Lawler (1971) and Hackman and Oldham (1976), when employees take on a greater variety of tasks that are also more complex, they experience more meaningfulness, whereas increased autonomy enhances the perception of responsibility among employees, and these experiences then increase motivation and job satisfaction. As perceived job characteristics are related to job satisfaction (Fried & Ferris, 1987;Judge et al., 1998), changes in the perception of these characteristics are likely to result in higher job satisfaction for the promoted employee. However, research has yet to clarify the extent to which the shift in job satisfaction after a promotion to a managerial position (e.g., Lup, 2018) results from changes in job characteristics (e.g., the increased autonomy) and the extent to which it is driven by the financial gratification that accompanies most promotions (e.g., Pergamit & Veum, 1999) and is often not differentiated from the effect of the promotion itself. ...
Article
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Job satisfaction helps create a committed workforce with many positive effects, such as increased organisational citizenship behaviour and reduced absenteeism. In turn, job satisfaction can be increased through gratifications, such as wage increases and promotions. But human satisfaction is prone to being governed by the homeostatic principle and will eventually return to the individual's base level. Thus, we longitudinally examined the effects of promotions to managerial positions and pay raises on job satisfaction across a period of 27 years. Our analyses were based on a large‐scale representative German panel (N = 5978 observations) that allowed us to separate the effect of a promotion from the effect of the corresponding wage increase. We found that promotions positively affected job satisfaction in the short term but diminished after 1 year. Furthermore, the influence of a promotion on job satisfaction was more pronounced for men than for women.
... Yet, the model has also been criticised regarding its dimensionality (e.g. Fried and Ferris 1987;Kauffeld and Grote 1999). Though the model assumes that the five job characteristics are distinct and independent, prior work found intercorrelations between the five job characteristics (e.g. ...
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In the context of blue-collar work, digital technologies and robotic systems are introduced at a rapid speed. However, employees are not always motivated to adopt such new technologies. Thus, it is essential to understand the drivers of employees’ attitudes towards new technology at work (e.g. their enthusiasm about new technology or their insecurity or resistance to change). The present study examines (actual and desired) work characteristics as a predictor of attitudes towards new technology in blue-collar work. Results from a correlational study among blue-collar workers (N = 127) showed that work characteristics among blue-collar workers could be divided into three dimensions, namely, work enrichment, work demands, and task identity. These correlated with attitudes towards a to-be-implemented new technology (here, robotic system): As expected, desired work demands correlated with greater technology enthusiasm, whereas a lack of actual work enrichment predicted technology-based job insecurity. Work characteristics were unrelated to user resistance to change. The findings suggest that how workers evaluate their current work, and how much they are (dis)satisfied with it, predicts attitudes towards new technology. This research adds to the knowledge about attitudes towards new technology in blue-collar work. Practical implications for the implementation of technologies in blue-collar work are discussed.
... Along the same line, meta-analyses of studies in traditional work settings show that task significance is strongly correlated with job satisfaction but only weakly correlated with job performance [22,23]. Part of the reason may be that task significance usually is conceptualized as an objective attribute of the work itself. ...
... Of all the major job satisfaction determinants, the nature of the work itself which includes job challenge, autonomy, variety, and scope-best predicts overall job satisfaction, as well as other important outcomes like employee retention (e.g., Fried & Ferris, 1987;Parisi & Weiner, 1999;Weiner, 2000). Thus, to understand what causes people to be satisfied with their jobs, the nature of the work itself is one of the first places for practitioners to focus on. ...
... Several aspects discussed previously in the literature [13,69] and included in the present study may constitute an advantage or a limitation. For example, the lack of the need to work within fixed hours may, on the one hand, contribute to reducing the stress of an employee and increasing their productivity, and on the other hand, cause extended working time and a loss of work-life balance [1,[70][71][72]. Similarly, the possibility of working from home may foster the integration of professional and caring responsibilities and, as a result, reduce travel costs to work [9,23]. ...
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This paper reports on the experiences of working with new digital tools along with the experience of new remote work. We explore the emotional experiences of working from home during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic and their implications. There were two groups of respondents participating in the study, those who had experience working remotely before the pandemic [digital natives] and those who started working remotely during the pandemic [digital immigrants]. The results show that emotional experiences while working from home do not differ depending on the profession, age, gender, length of experience and from previous remote work. This suggests that the digital natives had to deal with the same emotions as the digital immigrants. The study found that independent external changes determine the growth of competence in employees, in this particular case, to work remotely. Working in conditions that are difficult for everyone obliges employees to cooperate, even across company boundaries, and increases each other’s competencies. In such situations, the management is required to be emotionally involved and closer to the employee.
... In fact, efforts to increase a job's skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback significantly increased the intrinsic motivation of the people employed in that particular job (Orpen, 1979). While the model has been criticized, after much empirical study, the job characteristics model has been shown to be valid (Fried and Ferris, 1987). ...
... Meta-analyses of over 200 JCM studies supported the multi-dimensional structure of the model (Fried and Ferris, 1987). However, Behson et al. (2000) noted that many JCM researchers failed to assess the mediating role of psychological states on job satisfaction and instead modeled job characteristics as direct antecedent of job satisfaction. ...
Article
Purpose In response to the tech skills gap, this research paper aims to examine the influence of occupational characteristics, gender and work-life balance on IT professionals' satisfaction with and commitment to their chosen occupation. In addition, the authors explore occupational differences across these investigated factors. Design/methodology/approach The authors employed a survey research method and partial least squares (PLS) modeling using 293 responses collected from professionals representing five clusters of Information Technology (IT) occupations. Authors further conducted exploratory post-hoc analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to check for significant differences in key constructs across five IT occupational clusters. Findings Occupational characteristics were found to be significantly related to respondents' occupational satisfaction while work-life balance was associated with their level of occupational commitment. Authors also found that that the influence of work-life balance on occupational commitment was more positive for females than for males. Finally, significant differences were found for task significance, task variety, task autonomy, work-life balance and compensation across the five occupational clusters examined. Originality/value A key contribution of this study is the focus on IT professionals' satisfaction with and commitment to their chosen occupation rather than a job, organization or profession. Accordingly, the authors contribute a nuanced understanding of an occupation as a facet of job, professional and career outcomes. Authors also explore how gender moderates the influence of work-life balance on occupational commitment. Finally, rather than treating the IT profession as a unified whole as has been done in most prior studies, authors explore satisfaction and commitment related differences across occupational clusters.
... To begin, Hackman and Oldham have questioned the Business Character Model (JCM), a situational approach, as a process model, despite the fact that it is an advanced form of Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (Hackman and Oldham, 1976;1980). IKM; It has been employed as a content model for work satisfaction in a major part of the literature in circumstances when job dimensions are directly related to job satisfaction (Fried & Ferris, 1987;Loher et al., 1985). Second, there is the interactional literature, which is related to the Theory of Work Adjustment (Dais & Lofquist, 1984), which is based on the natural content model (Tranberg et al., 1993). ...
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“Understanding and managing cybersecurity requires not only investing in technology but also considering its non-technical social and human aspects. Because cybersecurity is now a strategic necessity for digitalizing businesses.” A. Asiltürk You can access this book chapter from this link: https://www.dosyaupload.com/2Mloz/advances_in_social_science.pdf
... Studies (e.g. Fried & Ferris 1987) suggest that five core job dimensions including skill variety, task significance, task identity, autonomy and feedback are moderators of job stress and job investment. On the contrary, the absence of these characteristics leads to the experience of undesirable work outcomes such as decreased job involvement (Evans, Kigundu, & House, 1979) and higher levels of job stress (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001), increased work absenteeism (Hackman & Oldham , 1975). ...
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Considering the theoretical assumptions of the job demand-resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) suggesting that resources are not only necessary to deal with job demands, but they also are important in their own right as earlier supported by Hackman and Oldham (1980) job characteristics model, this cross-sectional survey investigated the moderating roles of job characteristics in the relationship between job stress and job involvement among nurses in Enugu urban. One hundred nurses comprising 94 females and 6 males between the ages of 25 to 60 years (M = 33.42, SD = 9.45) were sampled using multi-stage sampling (cluster and purposive sampling techniques). Hackman and Oldham (1975) 21-item job characteristics scale, Lodahl and Kejner (1965) job involvement scale and kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek and Rosenthal (1965) job tension scale were administered for data collection. The results revealed that skill variety ß-.25, P<.05 level of significance was negatively related to job involvement. However, only task significance with ß-.22, p<.05 level of significance moderated the relationship between job stress and job involvement, though negatively. The findings were discussed in line with previous studies.
... Unlike Herzberg and Maslow's theories, the Job Characteristics Model has greater empirical support. Three key review studies from early literature provide immense support to this model, with all three emphasizing the model's influence and effect on job satisfaction (Loher et al. 1985;Glick and Roberts 1981;Ferris and Fried 1987). A significant social psychology study published years later in 2000 (Behson et al. 2000) further supported the Job Characteristics Model, wherein the researchers presented results of meta-analysis of over a dozen separate research works that investigated the function of critical psychological states. ...
... Work is one of the most important human activities that has been linked to meaningfulness in life generally by previous researchers (Allan, 2017;Rosso et al., 2010). Work meaningfulness research has its roots in seminal studies of issues like job design and work specificities undertaken since the mid-1960s (e.g., Turner and Lawrence, 1965;Fried and Ferris, 1987;Dik et al., 2013). In this research stream, work meaningfulness has been described as the "degree to which the employee experiences the job as one which is generally meaningful, valuable, and worthwhile" (Hackman and Oldham, 1975: 162). ...
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This paper analyzes the influences of generational differences in organizational leaders (founders) on work meaningfulness dynamics in the high-tech sector. Based on a novel interpretative phenomenological analysis of five Finnish case firms, we found that generational differences between leaders concerning work meaningfulness visibly existed. The differences manifested themselves in the form of different views concerning material well-being, house ownership, freedom, teamwork, and the general approach to working life (being a co-owner and being an employee). At the same time, we found that issues like job security, temporary contracts, part-time work, and gig working needed to be seen more in-depth instead of assuming their generic negative influence on well-being and work meaningfulness. Finally, the findings reveal that change is the name of the game for many millennial and post-millennial high-tech workers, and they may not necessarily associate these aspects negatively with work meaningfulness.
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We investigated the effect of job autonomy on engagement at work, focusing on the mediating role of psychological meaningfulness. To test our hypotheses, we analyzed responses to a survey completed by 486 employees of private organizations in the US. The results show that job autonomy had a positive relationship with engagement, and with psychological meaningfulness. The relationship between job autonomy and work engagement was moderated by learning culture. Our results can help corporate managers understand employees' engagement at work, and contribute to an understanding of how job elements and work context promote engagement through perceived psychological meaningfulness.
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Purpose This study aims to investigate whether and how a high turnover rate stimulates employees to engage more in learning behavior. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on self-regulation theory, the authors suggest that the motive for employees to engage in learning behavior is to improve themselves. Such a need can be activated when they reflect on themselves and realize the discrepancy between their current selves and desired future selves. The authors argue that the employees’ perceived poor performance at daily work may induce their desire for self-improvement via making the future work selves salient, and in turn engage more in learning behavior. This is particularly so when turnover rate is high because employees may be alert of and concerned more about their own poor performance. In an experience sampling study, the authors obtained evidence for these hypotheses. Findings When turnover rate was high, employees’ poor performance increased salience of future work selves, which in turn facilitated their learning behavior. This relationship was not significant when turnover rate was low. Originality/value Contrary to the typical view that high turnover rate leads to knowledge loss for the companies, the present study findings suggest that it could also serve as a motivational factor facilitating employees’ learning behavior, which is an important way to increase knowledge pool of the companies.
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As informal workers struggle to survive the current crisis, there is reason to believe that more strain would also be exerted on the already fragile sector in the post-crisis era. The implications of the COVID-19 outbreak for the informal economy will continue. Faced with a long crisis, the global economy would likely shrink demand for informal goods and services. The primary goal of this paper is to study consumer behavior during the pandemic, investigate government-implemented Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the unorganized retail sector, and determine if consumers prefer to have goods delivered to their homes rather than visit retail stores. This paper collected information from a number of Indian customers who made unorganized retail transactions in New Delhi and NCR Region. The sample was taken from 700 citizens of New Delhi, India. The study found that product variety, digital payment, scheduling, free delivery and lower speed have a significant effect on customer behavior. In addition, SOPs do not influence consumer behavior. The main reasons for choosing a specific channel are simple availability, security, less hassle, and compliance with all laws. The pandemic led to a renewed trust in the local Kirana shop, with new clients visiting metro and non-metro shops locally. The system in Kirana has changed from physical sales to digital aviation because of the pandemic.
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Book
The library environment is changing at a very fast rate keeping pace with the development and application of Information Communication Technology in libraries. Users’ inclination has also increased tremendously towards ICT based information resources and services. Accordingly, a new type of library resources in the form of electronic resources has entered into the collection of libraries irrespective of types and sizes. These e-resources have occupied a major portion of library collection and budget of almost all big libraries. Although there are many advantages of electronic resources over their print counterparts, a lot of challenges are there to manage and administer the electronic resources in libraries. At this juncture, Mr. Abinash Dash,Dr. Brundaban Nahak and Mr. Basanta Kumar Das have taken efforts in bringing out an edited volume on “Electronic Library Administration in Scientific Epoch” that focuses on library administration, particularly electronic library administration in scientific information age
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Purpose In today's challenging markets, organizations need to explore new ways to maximize employees' effectiveness and job satisfaction. Within this context, employed fresh graduates are a special group, which requires attention. Recognizing its needs in job design is one of the keys. The aim of the study is to determine the mediating role of experienced psychological states in the relationship between job dimensions and personal/work outcomes (motivation, satisfaction, effectiveness and commitment). Design/methodology/approach The new “modified job characteristics model” (MJCM) was implemented, where the focus was on testing if experienced psychological states play a mediating role. An index for summarizing core job dimensions (modified motivating potential score (MMPS)) was also developed in the study. For the empirical testing of the new modeling framework, a sample of 630 employed fresh graduates in Lebanon was selected. Various statistical analyses were performed, including partial correlation and multiple regression analysis. Findings Results showed that for those core job dimensions that significantly affected fresh graduates' personal/work outcomes, the relation was not direct causal, but was mediated by “experienced meaningfulness of the work”, “experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work”, “knowledge of results”, “self-confidence” and “prestige inside outside”. Further, MMPS was verified as a valid score reflecting the “motivating potential” of a job. Practical implications The findings demonstrate the importance of effectively designing and redesigning jobs: employers should focus on the core job dimensions and adopt an adjusted strategy to enhance fresh graduates' affective and behavioral responses. Originality/value The current study innovatively examines fresh graduates' psychological states and their role as a mediator in the relation between job dimensions and job satisfaction or commitment. A new modeling framework is used and an index for summarizing job dimensions is developed.
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The continuation of work that undermines employee well-being necessitates an investigation into the antecedents of work design. Therefore, we examined how autonomy supportive and controlling leadership—as defined in self-determination theory (SDT)—relate to employees’ job resources, job demands, and well-being. Using a cross-sectional ( N = 501) and a daily diary study ( N = 123), we found that autonomy supportive leadership relates to employees’ work engagement via job resources both at the between- and within-person levels. However, only the cross-sectional study evidenced a relationship between autonomy supportive leadership and exhaustion via job resources. Controlling leadership related to exhaustion via job demands at the between-person level in both studies but not at the within-person level. Alongside implications for the literature on SDT, work design theory, the leadership literature, and workplace re-enchantment, we advance concomitant insights to practitioners. JEL CLASSIFICATION: I31, J81, M12
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De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is het vaststellen van de mate waarin de voorkeuren van groepen jonge baanzoekers overeenkomen met de baan- en organisatiekenmerken van de organisaties waar jongeren baanzoekers terecht kunnen komen. We doen dat op de eerste plaats door een meetinstrument te ontwerpen voor de voorkeuren voor baan- en organisatiekenmerken van jonge baanzoekers om vervolgens daarmee hun voorkeuren op een grootschalige manier vast stellen. Op de tweede plaats ontwikkelen we een meetinstrument waarmee gemeten kan worden hoe medewerkers de aspecten die jongeren belangrijk vinden, ervaren in hun werk. We stellen daarmee vast in hoeverre de voorkeuren van jongeren aanwezig zijn in banen en organisaties waar jonge baanzoekers terecht komen. Hoe meer overeenkomsten er zijn tussen de voorkeuren van jonge baanzoekers en kenmerken van organisaties, hoe groter de kans is dat het werk aantrekkelijk wordt gevonden door jonge baanzoekers.
Conference Paper
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Along with the revolution in the structure of work in organizations, job design research seems to have developed to its peak and gradually lost its attraction. While enriched jobs have proliferated since the 1980’s, more and more studies have found that it is difficult to generalize universal effects of job design across all situations for all workers. It calls into doubt whether job enrichment has really resolved the problems created by “Taylorizing” jobs and raises the question of whether Taylorist principles have really become obsolete for current human resource management (HRM). Responding to these concerns, we aim to extend job design research by examining the distinct effects of job enrichment on satisfaction and performance for two different types of workers. Accordingly, the specific goals of this article and the differences between the past literature and the present study rest with the proposition that worker type (knowledge workers vs. manual workers) may be a potential factor moderating the impact of job enrichment on work outcomes, that is, KWs and MWs will respond differently to comparable job enrichment manipulations. To test the hypotheses, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study with computer programmers and maintenance workers. The research site was the head office of an IT company in Shenzhen, China, and 280 participants were randomly selected with an equal number from Program Development Department (PDD) and the Logistics Department (LD). The study was conducted in three phases. In Phase 1, PDD programmers (KWs) and LD workers (MWs) were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which the tasks were substantially enriched in phase 3 or control condition in which tasks remained the same. Phase 2 lasted for four weeks during which time employees were assigned to perform these baseline tasks. Phase 3 consisted of a six-month period during which the participants in the experimental groups worked on their respective enriched jobs and the participants in the control groups continued to work on the baseline jobs. A 2 ×2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to examine changes in satisfaction and performance, with Work Type and Condition as the between-participants variables, and Experimental Session (pretest vs. posttest) as the within-participants variable. The hypotheses were generally supported by the significant between-participants Work Type × Condition interaction on both satisfaction and performance scores. The significant within-participants simple effect of Experimental Session indicated a difference in response to job enrichment between PDD programmers and LD workers, supporting the general argument that the effects of job enrichment on KWs and MWs are different. The present study may advance HRM theory and practice by enriching our knowledge of the application of both enrichment design theory and Taylorism. Theoretically, although a review of the evidence on the causal relationship between job design and the outcomes of satisfaction and performance show that the relationships are not particularly strong, few researchers have been interested in exploring the reasons. We argued that both theories of job enrichment and Taylorism could potentially be beneficial for current day HRM practice if we were able to understand the circumstances under which they could be more effectively applied, i.e., for KW’s vs. MW’s. In practice, HR managers should therefore note that the enrichment design can not be routinely applied to all employees. MWs may prefer a Taylorist workplace, in which the employer can easily define performance standards and ensure the utility of employees’ productivity, and on the other hand, employees can focus on the completion of narrowly defined tasks with less stress. Yet, an enrichment strategy should be considered for KWs’ tasks as this approach should satisfy their needs in doing knowledge work and increase the motivating potential of their work.
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New generation employees have become a major force in the workplace, and their high turnover rate is a major issue in academia and business. Drawing from the psychology of working theory and the job characteristics model, this study aims to explore the influence of decent work on new generation employees’ turnover intention and the roles of job satisfaction and job autonomy in this relationship. After collecting a sample of 391 new generation employees in China through online questionnaires, we utilized SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 to analyze the data. The results show that decent work has a negative impact on turnover intention and job satisfaction plays a mediating role in the relationship between decent work and turnover intention. Moreover, job autonomy is found to positively moderate the relationship between decent work and job satisfaction, and also moderate the indirect effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between decent work and turnover intention. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and limitations and future directions are highlighted.
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Although organizational psychology has long been researching the concept of job control, there are still gaps and differences in defining job control and closely related concepts (e.g., autonomy). Advances in the development of information and communication technology (ICT) and the accompanying changes in the world of work have brought new aspects of job control into the spotlight, notably in relation to flexible work and similar concepts. While classic theories emphasize the role of job control as a resource, doubts have arisen about whether contemporary forms of high job control within flexible work environments have exclusively beneficial effects for workers. This chapter clarifies and distinguishes the popular terms of “autonomy” and “control” and considers their function within work-related sciences. It then discusses work flexibility and its link to subjectivation and indirect job control, which are mechanisms that directly counteract the beneficial effects of workers’ job control. We discuss implications for the individual, such as self-control demands and self-exploitation, and their connection to technologically enabled work
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The five-factor model has been applied to study and analyze the personality traits such as attitudes, perceptions and personal choices of individuals across multidisciplinary studies. This study examines the influence of personality features on the decision-making process and destination choice for travel planning. A questionnaire survey-based study was carried out based on 127 Indian respondents, and the collected data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study let out the five-factor model of personality has a great influence on the decisions-making process and destination selection of travel planning. Five of the ten hypotheses are significantly and positively linked to the decision-making process and destination choice, while rest five hypotheses are partially supported. The outcomes of this study are not limited. There are numerous travel personalities: Venturers, Pioneers, Voyagers, Journeyers, Sightseers, and Traditional. Future research should be expanded with other variables as the result of different
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Organizations usually have difficulty adjusting to technology-enabled changes. Recent research has examined the interaction between technology and the key job outcomes of employees. But this research stream has done so using a linear lens even though this interplay has been recognized to be dynamic and complex. We challenge here this linearity assumption. We theorized that enterprise system (ES) use influences post-implementation job scope, and the change from pre-to post-implementation job scope perceptions will have a complex effect on job outcomes that are best captured by a polynomial model. Drawing on the anchoring-and-adjustment perspective in decision-making research, our polynomial model highlights the dynamic nature of employee reactions to changes in job scope brought about by an ES implementation that cannot be captured by traditional linear models. We found support for our model using data collected in a longitudinal field study from 2,794 employees at a telecommunications firm over a period of 12 months. Our findings highlight the key role an ES implementation can have in changing the nature of jobs and how those changes can, in turn, drive job performance and job satisfaction. This research also extends classical job characteristics research by arguing for a more complex relationship between the scope and outcomes of technology-supported jobs.
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Purpose This sudden disruption of work in the world due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unravelling situations hitherto unknown to researchers and therefore requires careful and thorough investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between work from home (WFH) isolation, WFH loss of task identity and job insecurity amid COVID-19 pandemic WFH arrangements by focusing on information technology/information technology-enabled services (IT/ITES) sector employees in India. The study also investigated the mediating role of work alienation. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from IT/ITES sector employees who were working from home. The sample size was 312, with 71.8% males and 28.2% females. The study used a descriptive research design. Analysis of the data was carried out using partial least square structural equation modeling. All constructs–independent and dependent–were reflectively measured. The evaluated quality parameters (discriminant validity, reliability, collinearity, common method bias) for all the constructs were found to be within acceptable limits. Findings Findings from the study indicate that WFH-related isolation and loss of task identity have a significant direct impact on job insecurity. These, along with the mediating construct of work alienation, predicted a 35.8% variance in job insecurity. The study found that work alienation provided complementary mediation between the independent constructs evaluated. Originality/value This study attempts to scrape the surface and gain insight into the problems that may arise in the new world of work. This paper presents an attempt to explain some of the psychological pitfalls associated with WFH during the COVID-19 pandemic and to understand their impact on job insecurity.
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Along with the revolution in the structure of work in organizations, job design research seems to have developed to its peak and gradually lost its attraction. While enriched jobs have proliferated since the 1980’s, more and more studies have found that it is difficult to generalize universal effects of job design across all situations for all workers. It calls into doubt whether job enrichment has really resolved the problems created by “Taylorizing” jobs and raises the question of whether Taylorist principles have really become obsolete for current human resource management (HRM). Responding to these concerns, we aim to extend job design research by examining the distinct effects of job enrichment on satisfaction and performance for two different types of workers. Accordingly, the specific goals of this article and the differences between the past literature and the present study rest with the proposition that worker type (knowledge workers vs. manual workers) may be a potential factor moderating the impact of job enrichment on work outcomes, that is, KWs and MWs will respond differently to comparable job enrichment manipulations. To test the hypotheses, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study with computer programmers and maintenance workers. The research site was the head office of an IT company in Shenzhen, China, and 280 participants were randomly selected with an equal number from Program Development Department (PDD) and the Logistics Department (LD). The study was conducted in three phases. In Phase 1, PDD programmers (KWs) and LD workers (MWs) were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which the tasks were substantially enriched in phase 3 or control condition in which tasks remained the same. Phase 2 lasted for four weeks during which time employees were assigned to perform these baseline tasks. Phase 3 consisted of a six-month period during which the participants in the experimental groups worked on their respective enriched jobs and the participants in the control groups continued to work on the baseline jobs. A 2 ×2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to examine changes in satisfaction and performance, with Work Type and Condition as the between-participants variables, and Experimental Session (pretest vs. posttest) as the within-participants variable. The hypotheses were generally supported by the significant between-participants Work Type × Condition interaction on both satisfaction and performance scores. The significant within-participants simple effect of Experimental Session indicated a difference in response to job enrichment between PDD programmers and LD workers, supporting the general argument that the effects of job enrichment on KWs and MWs are different. The present study may advance HRM theory and practice by enriching our knowledge of the application of both enrichment design theory and Taylorism. Theoretically, although a review of the evidence on the causal relationship between job design and the outcomes of satisfaction and performance show that the relationships are not particularly strong, few researchers have been interested in exploring the reasons. We argued that both theories of job enrichment and Taylorism could potentially be beneficial for current day HRM practice if we were able to understand the circumstances under which they could be more effectively applied, i.e., for KW’s vs. MW’s. In practice, HR managers should therefore note that the enrichment design can not be routinely applied to all employees. MWs may prefer a Taylorist workplace, in which the employer can easily define performance standards and ensure the utility of employees’ productivity, and on the other hand, employees can focus on the completion of narrowly defined tasks with less stress. Yet, an enrichment strategy should be considered for KWs’ tasks as this approach should satisfy their needs in doing knowledge work and increase the motivating potential of their work.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the role of task, relational and cognitive job crafting on the relationship between resiliency and meaningfulness in work. Design/methodology/approach This study used path analysis under the framework of structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses using a sample of 374 law enforcement employees. Findings Results from the analysis revealed a direct effect of resiliency on meaningfulness. This study also found that relational and cognitive crafting partially mediate these relationships. Practical implications Understanding the proactive strategies resilient employees can use to build meaning in work will help managers develop better training programs. The findings emphasize the importance of building social relations and positive reframing of work as a mechanism to bounce back from adverse circumstances. Originality/value This paper provides empirical evidence of the proactive actions resilient employees implement to build meaningfulness in work.
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Meta-analysis is a way of synthesizing previous research on a subject in order to assess what has already been learned, and even to derive new conclusions from the mass of already researched data. In the opinion of many social scientists, it offers hope for a truly cumulative social scientific knowledge.
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There is no clear understanding of how jobs influence the level of employee motivation. A conceptual model is needed to guide research and provide greater insight into motivational implications of changes in the nature of jobs. Seven conceptual models of the motivational properties of tasks are reviewed. Each model is examined in terms of its scope and specificity. Suggestions are offered for future research.
Article
Based on the proposition that increasing job scope is appropriate only for certain types of individuals, investigators have attempted to identify individual characteristics that moderate the relationship between job characteristics and employee responses. Three streams of research are examined. Each case found moderating effects to be modest in magnitude. A lack of consistency occurred in spite of the large number of studies and well developed theoretical models. Future research efforts in this area would not be productive.
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As suggested by Lawler and others, the theoretical reason for making jobs stimulating is to enable the job holders to experience satisfaction when they perform well. It was therefore hypothesized that on stimulating jobs, satisfaction would be positively related to performance. To test the hypothesis, the Job Description Index was administered to 167 stage agency employees, and performance ratings were obtained from their supervisors. Job stimulation was determined by having 3 observers rate the jobs using the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS). Analysis of variance and correlational analysis revealed that the relationships between performance and satisfaction were exactly opposite to those hypothesized. Satisfaction with work was correlated with performance only in nonstimulating jobs. It is suggested that the key variable in determining these relationships is the nature and use of feedback.
Article
Tested 3 models of causal relations between job perceptions and job satisfaction: (a) a postcognitive-nonrecursive model in which job satisfaction occurs after job perceptions in the causal order and job perceptions and job satisfaction are reciprocally related; (b) a precognitive-recursive model in which job perceptions occur after job satisfaction in the causal order and are effects but not causes of job satisfaction; and (c) a precognitive-nonrecursive model in which job satisfaction occurs prior to job perceptions, and job satisfaction and job perceptions are reciprocally related. Data from a previous study by the 1st author and A. P. Jones (see record 1981-22760-001 ) were analyzed. These data had been obtained from 642 nonsupervisory workers in 5 occupations. Results of confirmatory analyses indicate disconfirmation of all but the postcognitive-nonrecursive model. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Data on satisfaction with the work itself were obtained from incumbents in 15 jobs. Job-scope scores for the same jobs were determined using data from incumbents, peers, and supervisors. Correlational analyses involving these measures showed that (a) the three sets of job-scope scores were highly related to one another and (b) satisfaction could be predicted as well with job-scope scores of peers of supervisors as it could with scores of incumbents. Implications for research in which ratings of jobs are required, e.g., job enrichment studies, are discussed.
Article
Critics of the job characteristics model argue that job characteristics-job outcome relationships are largely attributable to common method variance. To examine this criticism, observation and interview date from 509 employees were subjected to confirmatory factor analyses. Results showed job characteristics-job outcome relationships to be relatively independent of method factors.
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A contemporary model of increasing employee motivation and satisfaction through job redesign projects is examined through a study of medical technicians. Results indicate that the common use of aggregate measures masks important relationships between the core dimensions and employees' satisfaction and motivation.
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Individuals expressing relatively higher levels of overadaptation to their Jobs, who felt Job activities could be performed habitually and without conscious thought, were found to show stronger Job scope-effective response relationships than individuals with low levels of overadaptation. Results are discussed with respect to diagnosing the appropriate time for Job re-enrichment.
Article
This field experiment utilized internal and external control groups to assess effects of a job enrichment program. The results generally supported the Job Diagnostic Model concerning core job dimensions and satisfaction measures but also provided indications of a negative Hawthorne Effect and that positive effects on productivity are short-lived. Job enrichment programs are currently or have been or will be employed by literally scores of organizations and millions of dollars expanded annually for such programs (Hamner & Organ, 1978)--all on the premise that job redesign or enrichment programs will enhance employee job attitudes and performance (cf., Hackman & Oldham, 1976). One prominent approach to understanding job enrichment is the job characteristics model developed by Hackman and his colleagues (c.f., Hackman & Lawler, 1971; Pierce & Dunham, 1978; Hackman & Oldham, 1975). Their approach has led to the identification of five core job dimensions--skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from the job--which they consider necessary for enrichment. Their data suggest that people who work in jobs that incorporate the five core job dimensions will experience job enrichment and, as a consequence, express greater satisfaction and also produce more and higher quality work. And, there is considerable evidence, provided by others (e.g., Cummings, Molloy, & Glen, 1977; Pierce & Dunham, 1976) which support Hackman and his colleagues' findings, but largely with respect to the predictions about increased satisfaction. Relationships between job enrichment and performance, on the other hand, have been found to be somewhat less encouraging (Pierce & Dunham, 1976 & 1978).
Article
A two phase research project investigated the effects of job enrichment and goal setting on employee productivity and satisfaction in a well controlled, simulated job environment. In the first phase, two conditions of goal setting (assigned goals vs. no goals) and two conditions of job enrichment (enriched vs. unenriched) were established, producing four experimental conditions. The results indicated that job enrichment had a substantial impact on job satisfaction but little effect on productivity. Goal setting, on the other hand, had a major impact on productivity and a less substantial impact on satisfaction. In the second phase (after 2 day's work), people with unenriched jobs worked under the enrichment conditions and people originally without goals were assigned goals. Again, job enrichment had a positive effect on job satisfaction, while goal setting had a positive effect on performance. These results are discussed in terms of the current theoretical approaches for understanding employee motivation on the job.
Article
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of realistic job previews (RJPs) and job enrichment as turnover reduction strategies. A thorough literature search located 20 experiments (N = 6,492) dealing with attempts to reduce turnover in field settings. Several meta-analysis techniques were applied to these experimental studies. Results indicate that variation in the outcomes of job enrichment studies can be attributed to sampling error alone, whereas variation in the outcomes of RJP studies cannot. A search for moderators in the latter case revealed moderate support for the notion that task complexity affects RJP outcomes. Furthermore, the meta-analyses indicate that job enrichment interventions are about twice as effective at reducing turnover as RJPs, the former yielding an average phi coefficient of .17 and an approximate effect size (d) of .35. Based on the calculated effect sizes, estimates of savings from turnover reductions are provided.
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Work role design's impact on four facets of nurse satisfaction and turnover intentions were studied. Nurses' hospital career stages were found to moderate the impact of these variables. Variables critical at one career stage were relatively less important at other stages. Implications for managing nurses were discussed.
Article
A model of the relationship of task and role variables to performance and satisfaction in organizations is developed. It contains three stages: task redefinition, task role linkage, and task output. After the development of the model, the main linkages that are hypothesized are tested. The analysis indicates that tasks have both a direct and an indirect relationship to performance and satisfaction in organizations. The direct effect appears to be a result of the stimulating characteristics of jobs high on the task dimensions. The indirect effect is through the task's relationship to the nature of the role stress present. These results become particularly important when considering the different task vs. role orientations of individuals found in other research. These findings and the usefulness of the revised model for understanding organization behavior are discussed.
Article
This paper examines two extensions to the Hackman and Oldham (1976) job characteristics model of work motivation. One extension described a curvilinear relationship between psychological response and job scope. The second extension viewed the degree of curvature in this relationship to be a function of growth need strength. Only the first extension proved to be a statistically significant improvement over the basic model. Implications of these results for the job characteristics model are discussed.
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Thirty-four women at two different hierarchical levels in a large procurement function were asked to describe characteristics of their own jobs. As expected, organizational level was associated with differences in the degree of motivational potential. Higher positions were perceived to have greater skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback and total motivation potential. The results suggest that hierarchical level affects women's perception of their job in the same way it affects men's perception.
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For the industrial engineering jobs included in the study job characteristics were associated with two of the three outcome variables as predicted by the Hackman-Oldham model. Individual job characteristics had differential impact on outcomes while moderating variables exhibited little or no influence.
Article
This study investigated the effects of organizational climate, drive for achievement, and task characteristics on workers' job performance and job satisfactions. The basic hypothesis of a significant interaction between these variables was accepted with respect to work satisfaction, and nearly accepted for the performance dependent variables. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the examination of interaction and main effects with organizational climate.
Article
This research investigates the role of job characteristics as possible mediating variables in the relationships between the organization's structural context and the attitudes and behaviors of individual employees. The organization is conceptualized as a network of task positions interrelated on the basis of workflow transactions. Three structural relationships of task positions are investigated: (1) the centrality of a task position; (2) the degree to which a task position is critical to the workflow; and (3) the transaction alternatives available to a task position. The results indicate significant relationships between these three relational measures and job characteristics. Further, the findings support the hypothesis that job characteristics mediate the relationship between structure and individual responses.
Article
This research examined the relationships between objective office characteristics (openness, office density, workspace density, accessibility, and office darkness) and several measures of employee reactions (satisfaction, behavior during discretionary periods, and spatial markers). In addition, the research examined the extent to which three sets of intervening variables explained these relationships. The intervening variables were interpersonal experiences (conflict, friendship opportunities, agent feedback), job experiences (task significance, autonomy, task identity), and environmental experiences (crowding, concentration, privacy). Data were collected from 114 clerical employees of 19 offices. Each of the office characteristics related significantly to one or more of the employee reaction measures. Moreover, office characteristics affected several employee reactions through their impact on the intervening variables.
Article
Based on the proposition that increasing job scope is appropriate only for certain types of individuals, investigators have attempted to identify individual characteristics that moderate the relationship between job characteristics and employee responses. Three streams of research are examined. Each case found moderating effects to be modest in magnitude. A lack of consistency occurred in spite of the large number of studies and well developed theoretical models. Future research efforts in this area would not be productive.
Article
This study investigates the relationships of attitudes and behavior to characteristics of departments, positions, and individuals for 271 employees in nineteen departments of two organizations. This study also considers whether job characteristics are potential mediators in these relationships. Once a month for four months, the 271 employees completed identical forms of a questionnaire in which they describe their jobs, their positions within their organizations, their values, and their responses to work. Company records yielded monthly absenteeism data. Measures of department structure and technology were derived from company records and interviews. Results indicate that departmental characteristics, positional characteristics, and individual characteristics predict attitudes and behavior, with individual characteristics being the best predictor. By themselves, job characteristics are related most highly to departmental characteristics. Job characteristics associated with organizational position account entirely for the relation of positional characteristics (such as shift) to attitudes and behavior. Job characteristics also account for a substantial part of the relationship of departmental characteristics to attitudes and behavior, but do not explain the relation of individual characteristics to these responses. Finally, this study discusses the need to assess individual perceptions as well as objective characteristics of contexts.
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A need-satisfaction theoretical model has been ubiquitous in studies and writings on job attitudes and, by extension, motivation, job design, and other organizational performance improvement issues. An examination of such need models indicates that they are frequently formulated so as to be almost impossible to refute, and the research testing them has been beset with consistency and priming artifacts. Furthermore, available empirical data fails to support many of the crucial elements of need-satisfaction theories. An examination of the components of need-satisfaction models-needs, job characteristics, and job attitudes-indicates that all three have been incompletely considered. Need models may have persisted in part because of perceptual biases, their consistency with other theories of rational choice behavior, and because of what they seem to imply about human behavior. The models appear to deny, however, that people have the capacity to provide their own satisfactions by cognitively reconstructing situations.
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There is no clear understanding of how jobs influence the level of employee motivation. A conceptual model is needed to guide research and provide greater insight into motivational implications of changes in the nature of jobs. Seven conceptual models of the motivational properties of tasks are reviewed. Each model is examined in terms of its scope and specificity. Suggestions are offered for future research.
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Previous research investigating the relationships between extrinsic feed-back and employee responses has indicated inconsistent results. On one hand, researchers have reported that extrinsic feedback has a positive rela-tionship with employee feelings of competence and intrinsic motivation (Arnold, 1976), perceived need satisfaction (Ivancevich, Donnelly & Lyon, 1970) and satisfaction with work (Kim, 1975). On the other hand, Harrison (1969) found no relationship between direct formalized feedback and attitude change. Smith and Knight (1959) reported no difference on self-insight between groups receiving feedback and those not receiving feedback, and Kim (1975) found that extrinsic feedback had either no rela-tionship or a negative relationship with satisfaction with fellow employees 'The authors wish to thank Kenneth N. Wexley and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
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