Effects of Undergoing Arbitrary Discrimination Upon Subsequent Attitudes Toward a Minority Group1

ArticleinJournal of Applied Social Psychology 3(1):94 - 102 · March 1973with 68 Reads
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Abstract
The purpose of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that having been both the object of prejudice and discrimination and the discriminator, a child will be less likely to hold prejudiced beliefs and exhibit discriminatory behavior toward a minority group. A 3rd-grade class was randomly divided into Orange and Green people. On Day I, Orange children were “superior” and Green children were “inferior”. On Day II, statuses were rcvcrsed. On Day III and again 2 weeks later, the experimental class was significantly more likely to desire a picnic with a group of Black children and held less-prejudiced beliefs when compared to the Control. The manipulation did not affect performance on Days I and II.

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  • Brown eyes-blue eyes
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    Describes in experiment designed to compare the relative effectiveness of two methods of instruction in modifying prejudicial attitudes: (1) utilization of group therapy procedures (non-directive and sociodrama); (2) traditional lecture-discussion method. The course involved was called "Practical Psychology." In general, the first method described above was more effective. Other findings and their implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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    "This study was designed to determine if a 'situational' expectancy may be established for eventual success in a problem solving situation which in turn affects the individual's performance. The findings support the hypothesis that: (a) Differential performance results from establishing a 'situational' expectancy for eventual success or failure which in turn influences an individual's performance in a problem solving situation. (b) Encouragement and no comments (control) are both superior to discouragement and to intermittent encouragement and discouragement. (c) Significantly more Ss in the low expectancy groups than in the high expectancy group attempt to memorize a solution to the problem in contrast to working out a logical solution. (d) There is an inverse relationship between an expectancy for immediate positive reinforcement and the decision time required for making a response." (21 ref.) From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2CO66T. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Investigated the processes by which teachers communicate differential performance expectations to different children through observational study of dyadic contacts between teachers and individual students in 4 1st grade classrooms. Differential teacher expectations for different children were associated with a variety of interaction measures, although many of these relationships are attributable to objective differences. However, other differential teacher behavior was observed which is not attributable to objective differences among the children and which is consistent with the hypothesis that differential teacher expectations function as self-fulfilling prophecies. Teachers demanded better performance from those children for whom they had higher expectations and were more likely to praise such performance when it was elicited. In contrast, they were more likely to accept poor performance from students for whom they held low expectations and were less likely to praise good performance from these students when it occurred, even though it occurred less frequently. Findings support the hypotheses of R. Rosenthal and L. Jacobson concerning teacher-expectation effects and as indicative of the behavioral mechanisms involved when teacher expectations function as self-fulfilling prophecies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    A brief mimeographed questionnaire to determine the students' opinions of the relative inborn ability of different races and nationalities was given at the beginning and at the end of a course in racial sociology. The results showed that men trained in the social sciences academically insist that human beings must be judged on their individual merits and must not be brushed aside as inferior because their skin is dark or their hair kinky, but in their personal relations with members of other races show that their academic preachings are no more than a lip service to logic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Performance expectancy as a determinant of actual performance Social learning and personality development Motivational determinants of academic task persistence
    • E Aronson
    • J Carlsmith
    • A Bandura
    • R H Walters
    Aronson, E., & Carlsmith, J. Performance expectancy as a determinant of actual performance. Journal o f Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1962, 65(3), Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965. Battle, E. Motivational determinants of academic task persistence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1965, 2,209-218.
  • Article
    In 1965 the authors conducted an experiment in a public elementary school, telling teachers that certain children could be expected to be “growth spurters,” based on the students' results on the Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition. In point of fact, the test was nonexistent and those children designated as “spurters” were chosen at random. What Rosenthal and Jacobson hoped to determine by this experiment was the degree (if any) to which changes in teacher expectation produce changes in student achievement.
  • Article
    Investigated the effect of curriculum materials which portray Negroes in a way which is contradictory to prevailing prejudices and stereotypes upon the attitudes toward Negroes of white 2nd-grade school children in a Midwestern city. A pretest-posttest design controlling for the teacher, the classroom, the school, and the reading ability of Ss was used. The 34 children in the experimental groups used a multiethnic reader which included characters from several different racial and ethnic groups for 4 mo., while the 34 children in the control groups used the regular reader which included only whites. Use of the multiethnic reader resulted in marked positive change in Ss' attitudes toward Negroes, supporting the counter-conditioning hypothesis. (23 ref.)
  • Article
    Investigated the behavioral consequences of adaptation to repeatedly presented aversive noise. Exp. I showed that among 34 college females, the work of adapting to unpredictable, in contrast to predictable, noise resulted in lowered tolerance for frustration and in impaired performance efficiency after termination of the noise. These effects were more pronounced when the unpredictable noise was delivered at 110 db. compared to 56 db. The behavior of Ss in both predictable-noise conditions did not differ significantly from no-noise controls. Exp. II showed that the adverse postadaptive effects following loud unpredictable noise were substantially reduced if the S believed he had control over the termination of the noise. The effects of cognitive factors on postadaptive responses to noise are discussed, and several theoretical interpretations of the results are offered. (28 ref.)
  • Article
    In recent years a number of studies have examined the conditions affecting the extent to which a powerful person, at some cost to himself, will help a totally dependent partner. This study was conducted to check the hypothesis that a powerful person who perceives his partner's dependence to be caused by "external" (environmental) factors will help more than a powerful person who perceives his partner's dependence to be caused by "internal" (personal) factors. 48 Ss participated in a laboratory study which verified the hypothesis. The results are discussed in terms of the conditions arousing the norm of social responsibility.
  • Article
    Stress is motivational in character and cannot be described in terms of stimulus or response operations alone. Studies have been concerned with verbal and perceptual-motor performance, components of behavior, personality correlates as affected by stress, qualitative observation of stress-performance, and such performance as a predictor. Explanatory concepts deal with the energizing, directive and emotional aspects of motivation, and the interaction of emotion and motivation as related to kind of stress and task components. 46-item bibliography.
  • Article
    60 male Ss were tested individually for persistence at an insoluble task presented to them as very difficult. They experienced repeated failure at the task but could turn to a similar task described as intermediate in difficulty whenever they wished. Differences in persistence at the initial task were examined between Ss high in n Achievement and low in Test Anxiety (HL) and Ss low in n Achievement and high in Test Anxiety (LH). Results show that: (a) persistence is positively related to initail estimates of probability of success (P^Bs)) at the task for HL Ss (p
  • Article
    This study dealt with the effect on Negro efficiency of variations in degree of stress and in the race of other persons in the task situation. 115 Negro students at Fisk University performed individually a digit-letter substitution task in the presence of an administrator and a confederate posing as another S, both of whom were either white or Negro. In addition, Ss were told to expect either mild or strong nonavoidance electric shocks while working. The main findings, that (a) performance was better in White-Mild Threat than in Negro-Mild Threat, and (b) Strong Threat, as compared with Mild Threat, was more detrimental to performance in the White condition than in the Negro condition, are consistent with the hypothesis of an inverted U shaped relationship between arousal and performance. In addition, there was evidence of an inverted U shaped function between Manifest Anxiety scale scores and 1st trial performance in the White condition. The results have implications for interpreting various types of Negro performance including scores on intellectual tests in racially mixed environments.
  • Article
    A study by Aronson and Carlsmith (1962) indicated that Ss preferred to fail in order to confirm a failure expectancy than to be successful and disconfirm the expectancy. The present study was a partial replication of the Aronson and Carlsmith study. E demands were minimized, and it was expected that the results should have paralleled those of Aronson and Carlsmith if E demands in the latter study had not confounded the dependent variable. 40 1st-year, female nursing students were used. The results indicated that Aronson and Carlsmith's findings might be accounted for by E demands. Ss of the present study behaved as though they preferred to succeed rather than to confirm a failure expectancy.
  • Article
    Task persistence at a difficult mathematics problem was examined among 74 junior high-school students. Minimal goal level, expectancy, and attainment value were the main independent variables. Other predictors were: the discrepancy between minimal goal level and expectancy, the certainty one holds of attaining his minimal goal, "inner-other direction" and social class membership. Expectancy related positively to persistence. Neither minimal goal level nor attainment value was predictive. Minimal goal certainty and the discrepancy scores related positively to persistence. It was impossible, however, to isolate the effect of these scores from the expectancy level since both related to expectancy and to persistence. "Inner-directed" students were more persistent than "other-directed." Social class related to persistence for boys. Neither "social desirability" nor IQ was associated with persistence. (27 ref.)