Article

Self‐reports of short‐ and long‐term effects of bullying on children who stammer

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Abstract

Background: Victimisation at school may result in long-term social, emotional and psychological effects (Parker & Asher, 1987; Sharp, 1995), particularly for children with special educational needs (Whitney et al., 1994). Children who stammer may be at risk of being bullied due to their peer-relationship and verbal difficulties. Aim: This study aimed to explore the nature, frequency and causes of bullying amongst children who stammer as well as the short- and long-term effects of their victimisation. Sample: The sample consisted of 276 respondents from the British Stammering Association, a national association for dysfluent people. Method: A retrospective analysis of school experiences related to bullying, and its effects, was conducted through both semi-structured interviews and postal questionnaires. Results: A majority of respondents had experienced bullying at school, and the likelihood of being bullied was related to the reported difficulties in friendship-making. Nearly one-half of teachers and families were reported as not being aware of this bullying. A majority reported immediate negative personal effects of this bullying, and 46% reported some long-term effects. Conclusion: Logistic regression analyses suggested that the severity of bullying, together with other factors such as difficulty with friendships, predicted these effects. Comment: In response to the high incidence of bullying experienced by children who stammer, a pack has been developed which aims to create a more empathetic school climate where differences are tolerated rather than assaulted.

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... A majority of people who stutter experienced bullying at school, leading to both immediate and long-term effects. Moreover, the likelihood of being bullied is related to reported difficulties in terms of making friends (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). ...
... Generally, teachers demonstrate insight into the causes and characteristics associated with stuttering, but little awareness of or misperceptions about ways to manage it (Plexico et al., 2013). Nearly one-half of teachers report being unaware of the bullying of CWS (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). However, studies on the student-teacher relationship and CWS are scarce. ...
... This means that teachers need an increased knowledge of stuttering, as well as information about how to best accommodate students who stutter in the classroom. Given the high incidence of bullying episodes concerning CWS (Berchiatti et al., 2020;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999) and the association between bullying and the student-teacher relationship (Camodeca & Coppola, 2019) and peer status (Elledge et al., 2016), it seems that it is necessary to investigate the bullying of CWS. This will help parents, teachers, educators, and clinicians make decisions regarding when to take action to protect CWS against the negative effects of bullying. ...
Article
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Children who stutter are at risk of being excluded, rejected, or bullied at school because of their impairment. The aim of the current research is to assess the relationship between students and teachers and students’ social status in their peer group and bullying dimensions in children who stutter. A total of 536 children – 62 affected by stuttering and 474 in the control group – participated in the study, with a mean age of 11.42 (SD = 1.55), and 50.2% of whom were male. Among the tested models, model 2 showed better fit with statistically significant relations: χ2 = 109.02, df = 38, p <.01; CFI = .94; RMSEA = .06 [90% CI = .05, .07]; and, thus, it was retained as the best representation of the data. This study offers preliminary evidence about the role of the presence of stuttering in students as a predictor of bullying.
... Although people who stutter are subject to negative perceptions and stereotypes by school educators, research suggests they also encounter such perceptions from peers (Davis et al., 2002;Franck et al., 2003;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). Frank et al. (2003) explored the perceptions of four groups of fourth-and fifth-grade students toward peers who stuttered. ...
... The participants held more negative views of the person who stuttered, as evidenced in the lower mean ratings on an administered adjective scale and the observed participants' informal behaviors (e.g., laughing, insensitive comments) when viewing the videotape. These negative perceptions are also evidenced in the bullying by peers that people who stutter experience (Davis et al., 2002;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). ...
... Stutterers experience difficulties with friendships, bullying, and theft of personal things (e.g., books) (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). While some teachers and parents take actions to prevent bullying of people who stutter, unfortunately, many times teachers and parents are never aware of the bullying and situations where they are aware often they do not take measures to prevent it. ...
... They found 11% of adults who stutter said they had been bullied at school and that this had a negative effect on the fluency of their speech. The most recent retrospective report was by Hugh- Jones and Smith (1999). In this study 74% of 276 adults who stutter who took part in the survey reported that they had been bullied during their time at school. ...
... The authors also concede that the sample may be limited by the fact that the respondents were a volunteer sample from the British Stammering Association that may have resulted in a cohort that were particularly aware of the issues surrounding their dysfluency and its effects. Hugh- Jones and Smith (1999) concluded that there is little evidence to suggest that bullying, peer rejection or low social status causes stuttering. This is also supported by the fact that onset of stuttering usually occurs between the ages of 3 and 5 (Dalton and Hardcastle, 1977) whereas peer rejection and bullying are prevalent at later ages. ...
... This is also supported by the fact that onset of stuttering usually occurs between the ages of 3 and 5 (Dalton and Hardcastle, 1977) whereas peer rejection and bullying are prevalent at later ages. Hugh- Jones and Smith (1999) give the age at onset of bullying as between 11 and 13 years in CWS). The usefulness of data from retrospective studies is limited by the inherent problems with the methods as well as by the contradictory findings. ...
Thesis
A large number of children with a diagnosis of stuttering will recover, often without formal treatment. This recovery pattern highlights the importance of a clear, early diagnosis and has implications for therapeutic practice. This thesis investigated three factors that could assist speech and language therapists in their diagnosis and treatment of children who stutter (CWS). Those factors were social, motor and speech skills. A pilot study investigating a fourth factor, communication attitude, is reported as an appendix. All factors were investigated from the perspective of the EXPLAN model of fluency failure. EXPLAN suggests that a combination of speech timing and phonological difficulty is an important source of fluency failures. The investigation into the social skills of CWS indicated that there is a trend for CWS to hold a lower social position to that of age matched controls. CWS were more likely to be bullied at school than their peers. The relationship between stuttering severity and social status was not significant. The motor skills study, using a battery of tests of cerebellar function (Dow & Moruzzi, 1958), indicated that CWS showed a deficit in performance on balance/posture tests at a young age and on complex movement tasks at teenage when compared to age matched controls. These differences are discussed with relation to auditory and cerebellar function. The fluency of a group of CWS was examined using phonological word analysis (Au-Yeung & Howell, 1998). Five children were producing predominantly part- word repetitions at initial assessment. Four of these children had persisted in their stutter when followed up three years later. Results suggest that information regarding motor skills and linguistic analysis of speech may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of CWS. The results of the experimental work are discussed with relation to their theoretical and clinical significance.
... There is evidence to suggest that adults who stutter may focus their attention toward negative thoughts about stuttering and the negative consequences of stuttering (Boyle, 2013b;Boyle & Fearon, 2018;Cream et al., 2003;Jackson et al., 2015;Lowe et al., 2015;St Clare et al., 2009;Tudor et al., 2013) and, more specifically, to the physiological arousal associated with moments of stuttering (Lowe et al., 2015). This is not surprising because negative emotions associated with stuttering have been well documented and include feelings of guilt, shame, embarrassment, fear, helplessness, isolation, and frustration (Bloodstein & Bernstein Ratner, 2008;Corcoran & Stewart, 1998;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Sheehan et al., 1962;Yaruss & Reardon, 2002). Negative thoughts about stuttering have been comprehensively documented in the context of developing the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering scale (Iverach et al., 2011;St Clare et al., 2009). ...
... Many who stutter recall that, as children, they avoided situations such as participating in class discussions, answering questions, reading aloud, and seeking help from teachers (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999; Klompas & Ross, 2004;Plexico et al., 2005;Silverman & Zimmer, 1982). Furthermore, extreme types of avoidance include truanting, and withdrawing from school and not undertaking further education in order to avoid talking are commonly reported (Crichton-Smith, 2002;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;O'Brian et al., 2011). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the current evidence base for the behavioral management of stuttering and associated social anxiety. Method We overview recent research about stuttering and social anxiety in the context of contemporary cognitive models of social anxiety disorder. That emerging evidence for self-focused attention and safety behavior use with those who stutter is considered in relation to current treatment approaches for stuttering: speech restructuring and social anxiety management. Results The emerging information about social anxiety and stuttering suggests a conflict between the two clinical approaches. For those clients who wish to control their stuttering and where speech restructuring is deemed the most suitable approach, it is possible that speech restructuring may (a) induce or increase self-focused attention, (b) promote the use of safety behaviors, and (c) become a safety behavior itself. This conflict needs to be explored further within clinical and research contexts. Conclusions The issues raised in this review article are complex. It appears that evidence-based speech treatment procedures are in conflict with current best-practice treatment procedures that deal with social anxiety. In this review article, we propose directions for future research to inform the development of improved treatments for those who stutter and recommendations for interim clinical management of stuttering.
... Factors such as sight, speech and hearing problems, physical weakness, odd mannerisms and physical disabilities have been found to increase the risk of being bullied (e.g. Besag, 1989;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Lowenstein, 1978;Olweus, 1978). However, in a much larger study than these others, it appears that physical features play less of a part in whether an individual is bullied than would be expected . ...
... A vicious circle is perhaps embarked upon in which the increased symptoms of depression, low self-esteem and avoidance, reinforce the victim "qualities", increasing the air of vulnerability and thus increasing the power differential between the victim and the bully (e.g. Craig, 1998, Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999. ...
Thesis
p>The dissertation explores post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in bullied adolescents. The initial part of the literature review discusses prevalence, gender differences and developmental aspects of bullying. The risk factors of being bullied are explored as well as the subsequent sequelae. The second part of the review discusses the adolescent trauma literature, particularly focusing on the developmental issues and sequelae. Because only a small proportion of individuals experience PTS symptoms, the moderating and mediating factors of developing PTS symptoms are discussed. The final section of the review brings the two bodies of literature together and argues that some bullied adolescents may actually be experiencing PTS reactions. The empirical study tests the argument proposed in the literature review that bullied adolescents experience symptoms associated with PTS symptoms, exploring the moderating role of social support and mediating role of dissociation. The participants were members of a secondary school (n = 689) who filled in four questionnaires exploring bullying experiences, levels of dissociation and support, and PTS symptoms. The results indicated that those who reported being bullied experienced significantly more PTS and dissociation symptoms that those who reported not being bullied. Over half of those bullied more than once or twice had scores for the Impact of Events Scale which fell in the clinically significant range for PTS symptoms. Dissociation was found to be a mediator between bullying and PTS symptoms but social support was not identified as a moderator. The implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.</p
... Þar á meðal á andlega og líkamlega heilsu, svo sem með auknu þunglyndi, kvíða og depurð. Þá getur það haft neikvaeð áhrif á sjálfmynd, sjálfsmat og sjálfstraust, ásamt því að hafa neikvaeð áhrif á lífsgleði og vellíðan almennt (Gini og Pozzolli, 2009; Hugh-Jones og Smith, 1999;Klomek, Marrocco, Kleinman, Schonfeld og Gould, 2007;Nansel o.f l., 2001;Stassen-Berger, 2007;Ttofi og Farrington, 2011). Það kemur því ekki á óvart að skýr tengsl eru á milli eineltis og sjálfsvígshugsana og -tilrauna (Kim, Leventhal, Koh og Boyce, 2009;Klomeck o.f l., 2007). ...
... Einnig getur einelti haft neikvaeð áhrif á skólagöngu og námsárangur (Ballard, Argus og Remley, 1999;Gini og Pozzolli, 2009). Rannsóknir sýna að af leiðingar eineltis geta fylgt þolendum fram eftir aevi (Due o.f l., 2005;Nansel o.f l., 2001;Vanderbilt og Augustyn, 2010) og dregið úr sjálfstrausti og spillt andlegri heilsu og samböndum á fullorðinsárum (Hugh-Jones og Smith, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Einelti er algengt og alvarlegt vandamál í skólastarfi. Þó að skólayfirvöld hér á landi hafi gripið til ýmissa aðgerða til að sporna við einelti hefur árangurinn ekki verið eins góður og vonast var til. Í þessari rannsókn var skoðuð reynsla íslenskra grunnskólanema af einelti og jafnframt könnuð viðhorf þeirra til ýmissa þátta, eins og inngripa kennara, ábyrgðar nemenda, viðbragða áhorfenda og eineltisáætlana skóla. Rannsóknarspurningar voru eftirfarandi: Eru viðhorf nemenda til eineltis ólík eftir reynslu þeirra af einelti? Eru viðhorf nemenda til eineltisáætlana og viðbragða við einelti ólík eftir reynslu þeirra af einelti? Svarendur voru 10.651 nemandi í 6., 8. og 10. bekk á Íslandi veturinn 2013–14 eða 84% af heildarfjölda nemenda í þessum árgöngum. Niðurstöður sýna að hægt er að skipta þátttakendum í fjóra hópa eftir tengslum þeirra við einelti. Hóparnir eru þolendur, gerendur, hvoru tveggja þolendur og gerendur og svo þau börn sem ekki tengjast einelti með beinum hætti. Í rannsókninni voru svör þátttakenda við níu spurningum um einelti skoðuð út frá þessum fjórum hópum. Í ljós kom að viðhorf nemendanna lituðust af reynslu þeirra af einelti. Gerendur og þolendur/gerendur höfðu til að mynda neikvæðari viðhorf til ýmissa þátta. Einnig kom í ljós að aðeins um helmingur þátttakenda taldi sig þekkja eineltisáætlun skóla síns. Þá vakti athygli að um tíu prósent nemenda töldu að einelti væri þolendum að kenna. Auk þess óttaðist nokkur hluti nemenda að mæta í skólann vegna eineltis. Niðurstöður rannsóknarinnar benda til þess að vinna þurfi með viðhorf nemenda og auka umræður og fræðslu um eineltisáætlanir og inngrip í eineltismál.
... It is also suggested that the vulnerable temperament of CWS makes them more susceptible to stuttering and diminishes their chances of recovery (Conture, 1991(Conture, , 2001Guitar, 1998;Zebrowski and Conture, 1998). Some of the other effects of stuttering on CWS include teasing and bullying by peers Blood, 2004, 2007;Davis, Howell, and Cooke, 2002;Hugh-Jones and Smith, 1999;Onslow et al., 2003;Packman, Onslow, and Attanasio, 2003), reduced social acceptance (Davis et al., 2002), difficulty "fitting-in" at school (Evans, Healey, Kawai, and Rowland, 2008) and making friends (Hartford and Leahy, 2007). These further reinforce the feeling of shame and embarrassment (Iverach and Rapee, 2014), loss of self-confidence, depression and low self-esteem in CWS (Hawker and Bolton, 2000;Hugh-Jones and Smith, 1999;Mooney and Smith, 1995). ...
... Some of the other effects of stuttering on CWS include teasing and bullying by peers Blood, 2004, 2007;Davis, Howell, and Cooke, 2002;Hugh-Jones and Smith, 1999;Onslow et al., 2003;Packman, Onslow, and Attanasio, 2003), reduced social acceptance (Davis et al., 2002), difficulty "fitting-in" at school (Evans, Healey, Kawai, and Rowland, 2008) and making friends (Hartford and Leahy, 2007). These further reinforce the feeling of shame and embarrassment (Iverach and Rapee, 2014), loss of self-confidence, depression and low self-esteem in CWS (Hawker and Bolton, 2000;Hugh-Jones and Smith, 1999;Mooney and Smith, 1995). CWS are also reported to have behavioural, emotional and social difficulties to a greater extent than CWNS and these can occur as early as 3 years of age (McAllister, 2016). ...
... 14,21 Many adults who stutter report that the negative consequences of stuttering began during their early school-age years, and were not dependent on the frequency and/or severity of stuttering. [22][23][24][25] These latter data suggest that any treatment approach should extend beyond the core behavior to include the affective and cognitive correlates of stuttering, and that these factors should be addressed in childhood. ...
... As discussed by Byrd and colleagues, 29,30 minimizing the cognitive and affective consequences of stuttering is particularly impactful for schoolaged children, as they navigate new peer relationships. [23][24][25] Results from the extension analysis in the present study provide insight into additional appropriate treatment goals for children who stutter. ...
Article
School-based guidelines often require that treatment focuses on minimizing or eliminating stuttered speech. The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of explicit training in communication competencies to children who stutter without targeting stuttered speech. Thirty-seven children (ages 4–16) completed Camp Dream. Speak. Live., an intensive group treatment program which targets the psychosocial needs and communication of children who stutter. Outcome measures included the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (KiddyCAT), and the Patient Reported Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Peer Relationships Short Form (PROMIS Peer Relationships) and Parent Proxy Peer Relationships Short Form (PROMIS Parent Proxy). Pre- and posttreatment public presentations were rated on nine core verbal and nonverbal communication competencies by a neutral observer. Similar to previous studies, participants demonstrated significant improvements in communication attitudes (OASES) and perceived ability to establish peer relationships (PROMIS Peer Relationships), particularly school-aged participants (ages 7–16). Participants also demonstrated significant improvement in eight of the nine communication competencies. Findings suggest that, in addition to the psychosocial gains of programs such as Camp Dream. Speak. Live., children who stutter benefit from explicit training in communication skills, and these gains are not dependent on the presence of stuttered speech.
... Given the findings regarding the contributing factors of resiliency in adults [8], and the influence of group support [10], it is necessary for speech-language pathologists to assess and develop these protective factors in adolescents who stutter. It is well-documented that adolescents who stutter often exhibit a loss of self-confidence and, in comparison to normally fluent peers, exhibit lower levels of self-esteem, increased social anxiety and greater feelings of shame [11,12]. These adverse experiences and subsequent emotional responses put these adolescents at risk for poor social emotional development. ...
... As reviewed above, over the years, the notion of negative affectivity in people who stutter has been widely supported in research [11,12] and is most often examined by researchers and clinicians through the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES) [51]. However, as has been outlined above, there is a paucity of information on resilience in adolescents who stutter. ...
... Nevertheless, there is consensus in the literature that children may react negatively to their speaking difficulties, experience challenges with social interaction, and be subject to bullying and other negative experiences that can adversely affect their quality of life. Such experiences may negatively impact children's full participation in educational, future vocational, and recreational opportunities (Blood & Blood, 2004;Davis et al., 2002;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Murphy et al., 2007;Murphy & Quesal, 2002). ...
... For example, speaking in small groups was rated as easier than speaking in large groups. This is in agreement with other studies (Blood & Blood, 2004;Davis et al., 2002;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Murphy et al., 2007;Murphy & Quesal, 2002). Comparing to other countries, Portuguese children showed a minor impact of stuttering in this section. ...
Article
Stuttering is a multifaceted disorder that can affect children’s psychological state, academic performance, social relationships, and quality of life. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the impact of stuttering in children, based on their own perspectives and experiences. The purposes of this study were to: (a) investigate the impact of stuttering in Portuguese school-age children and (b) evaluate the reliability and validity of the European Portuguese translation of Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES-S-PT). Participants were 50 Portuguese children who stutter, aged 7–12 years (M = 9.10, SD = 1.7). Overall, participants exhibited a mild to moderate overall impact from stuttering. Results suggest that the OASES-S-PT is a suitable measure for assessing the impact of stuttering on Portuguese children. A comparison of adverse impact with OASES data in other countries highlighted the need to include different cultural perceptions in the research about stuttering experiences.
... Additionally, data suggest a correlation with overt stuttering frequency and the number of negative qualitative comments made about the CWS (Panico et al., 2015). In line with these data, CWS are documented as being more vulnerable to bullying (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Langevin et al., 1998;Mooney & Smith, 2007) and are less likely to be viewed as leaders by their peers (Blood & Blood, 2004;Davis et al., 2002). CWS also have greater difficulty integrating into social and academic environments (Evans et al., 2008) and may have fewer friends or meaningful social relationships when compared to children who do not stutter (Hartford & Leahy, 2007), which has been correlated with reductions in psychological well-being as these children develop into adulthood (Sakyi et al., 2015). ...
Conference Paper
While research reveals benefits of stuttering disclosure in adults, there is far less data documenting the effects of pediatric stuttering self-disclosure, or the effects of stuttering disclosure by third-party advocates. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of stuttering disclosure relative to the perceptions of a child who stutters, particularly when the source of stuttering disclosure is from the child who stutters or adults serving as child advocates. This study measures the perception of speech skills and personality characteristics of a 12-year-old boy who stutters as a function of the source of stuttering disclosure. Sources of stuttering disclosure conditions included a: non-disclosure control condition, child self-disclosure, “parent” disclosure, and “teacher” disclosure experimental conditions. Initial results support the documented benefits of stuttering disclosure when provided by the child who stutters, and also his “teacher”. Stuttering disclosure from the “mother” generally provided no substantial benefit relative to the perceived speech skills or personality characteristics of the 12-year-old boy who stutters.
... Additionally, data suggest a correlation with overt stuttering frequency and the number of negative qualitative comments made about the CWS (Panico et al., 2015). In line with these data, CWS are documented as being more vulnerable to bullying (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Langevin et al., 1998;Mooney & Smith, 2007) and are less likely to be viewed as leaders by their peers (Blood & Blood, 2004;Davis et al., 2002). CWS also have greater difficulty integrating into social and academic environments (Evans et al., 2008) and may have fewer friends or meaningful social relationships when compared to children who do not stutter (Hartford & Leahy, 2007), which has been correlated with reductions in psychological well-being as these children develop into adulthood (Sakyi et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose This study measured between-group differences in perceived speech skills and personality characteristics of a 12-year-old boy who stutters as a function of a factual stuttering disclosure statement, delivered by the boy who stutters, his “mother,” or his “teacher.” Method Two hundred seventeen college-aged adults were randomly assigned to one of four groups, including a control group (no stuttering disclosure) and three experimental groups (child disclosure, mother disclosure, and teacher disclosure). Participants in the control condition viewed a brief video of a 12-year-old boy who stutters. For the experimental conditions, participants viewed a brief factual stuttering disclosure video (delivered by the child, mother, or teacher), followed by the same minute-long video of a boy who stutters used in the control condition. Following the videos, participants completed surveys relative to their perception of the boy's speech skills and personality characteristics. Results Results support previous research citing benefits of stuttering disclosure. Significant between-group differences in both perceived speech skills and personality characteristics were observed when stuttering was disclosed by not only the child who stutters but also his teacher. When stuttering was disclosed by the mother, limited positive attitudinal differences were observed in speech skills; as a matter of fact, a number of personality characteristics were perceived more negatively as a function of stuttering disclosure by the mother. Conclusions While results were generally most positive when the boy disclosed his own stuttering, data from this study support the efficacy of verbal stuttering disclosure provided by a teacher as a means of improving perceptions associated with stuttering. Accordingly, data support the notion that children who stutter will experience an improved quality of life when taught effective self-disclosure strategies by both parents and professionals, and that professionals (but not necessarily parents) can effectively disclose their clients' stuttering during this mentorship and self-advocacy process.
... Emotional and behavioral problems experienced by victims, bullies, and bully-victims may continue into adulthood and produce long-term negative outcomes, including low self-esteem and self-worth, depression, antisocial behavior, vandalism, drug use and abuse, criminal behavior, gang membership, and suicidal ideation (Gladstone et al., 2006; Hugh-Jones and Smith, 1999). Re-search suggests that boys are more likely to engage in physical aggression, while verbal aggression, often called relational aggression, is more common among girls (Baldry et al, 2000). ...
Article
The present study focuses on teacher bullying behavior on a sample of 200 students in India. "Statistically about 1 to 2 percent of teachers are actually involved in bullying students," says Dr. Haber. The research aims to explore this area to give a snapshot of teacher bullying and get the answer of questions, which are as follows; whether even today, students are victimized by teacher's bullying behavior in Indian classroom, and whether teacher bullying behavior affect both male and female students equally. The effect of bullying behaviour on students' academic stress is studied. The paper ends with conclusion and discussion.
... Psychological resources possessed by individuals such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, as well as workplace resources such as surrounding support and job demands, are important factors that have been found to affect the psychological health of workers (Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). Psychological resources are known to be affected by earlylife adversities (Felitti et al. 1998), with bullying during school-years being one of adversities that has been shown to have a long-term impact on health (Hugh-Jones and Smith 1999). Thus, there might be a relation between bullying experience at school and later psychological distress during adulthood. ...
Article
Full-text available
Early-life adversities are considered to have long-term impact on health. There have been many studies regarding the experience of being bullied and its harmful psychological influence, but such influence on workers remains to be investigated in Japan. We therefore aimed to examine the prevalence of workers with experiences of being bullied or bullying others during childhood and adolescence and to clarify the relation between those experiences and current psychological distress. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous self-report web questionnaire was conducted in November 2017. The study population was 19,481 workers belonging to the Tsukuba Science City Network, and we analyzed the data of 6,015 participants (3,715 men and 2,300 women, aged between 20 years and 59 years). The percentages of participants with experiences of being bullied were 51.5% for men and 56.2% for women; those with experiences of bullying others were 36.5% of men and 29.4% of women. Relations between experiences of bullying and psychological distress were assessed using Chi-squared tests. Logistic regression analyses with psychological distress as an objective variable and experiences of bulling as explanatory variables were performed using those who had no bulling experiences as control. In both men and women, experiences of being bullied were significantly associated with psychological distress after adjustment socioeconomic factors (the odds ratios were 1.26 for men (95% CI = 1.05-1.52) and 1.72 for women (95% CI = 1.39-2.13)). Consideration of past social experiences, such as being bullied, is useful for mental health management among workers reporting psychological distress.
... Seseorang yang memiliki kesadaran diri rendah tidak dapat mengatur emosi dan perilakunya dengan tepat; serta menyadari bagaimana dampak yang ditimbulkannya terhadap orang lain (Pyszczynski & Greenberg, 1987;Silvia & Duval, 2001). Hal ini membuat seseorang mengalami kesulitan dalam merespon apa yang diberikan oleh orang lain sehingga mereka terlibat dalam masalah-masalah baru (Kondrat, 1999); termasuk bullying yang merupakan salah satu jenis konflik yang erat kaitannya dengan hubungan antar individu (Domino, 2013;Gillies-Rezo & Bosacki, 2003;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). ...
Article
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Bullying is one of the events that repeatedly arises in schools and associated to varies between individuals. One of the sources of bullying is the poor self-awareness held by students. Self-awareness is one of the students skill must acquire. However, in reality there are still many students who have poor self-awareness. This study tries to investigate the effectiveness of the Karpman Drama Triangle to build up students self-awareness using Quasi Experiment Design. The research subjects consisted of 15 junior high school students who had poor self-awareness. The results of the study indicated that the Karpman Drama Triangle was useful in enhancing students self-awareness to reduce bullying behavior. It also informs us that the Karpman Drama Triangle can be an option to develop students self-awareness in reducing conflicts and bullying behavior that exists between students. The difference in the status of self-awareness between students before and after treatment is expressed is also illustrated. The Karpman Drama Triangle can be an alternative solution for handling and facilitating students who have poor social interaction and growing conflict situations towards peacefully.
... It is often a lifelong challenge for many people, affecting over 3 million people in the United States. For people who stutter, stuttering can lead to bullying and teasing in school (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). Evidence suggests that children who stutter may be at greater risk of being bullied than children who do not stutter (Blood & Blood, 2004). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which adolescent students who stutter perceive their school experiences. Method This study used a qualitative, phenomenological research design. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 7 adolescent students who stutter (3 in middle school and 4 in high school). Participants were interviewed about their school experiences, including the effects of stuttering on academics, learning, teacher relationships, peer relationships, speech therapy experiences, and self-image. Data analysis consisted of transcribing interviews and analyzing them for emerging themes. Results Findings revealed that participants described a variety of experiences around the school setting. Participants reported less favorable middle school experiences. Middle school participants reflected more on teasing, bullying, and feelings of embarrassment, whereas high school participants revealed that teachers, staff, and peers were receptive and accepting of them and their stuttering. All participants reported that their speech therapy helped with classroom participation. Conclusions As a result of the participants' varied experiences, it is important to listen to and incorporate the voices of students who stutter into school, classroom, and therapy decision-making practices.
... Blood and Blood [4] examined adults who stuttered, using 46 items of the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire (RBQ); their findings showed that 30.6% of participants were bullied in primary school, 27.8% in secondary school, and 11.1% in university. Furthermore, Hugh-Jones and Smith [12] reported that 75% of adults who stuttered believed that the bullying they experienced in school had affected their academic performance. There were many strategies of addressing bullying [3,13] and Yaruss et al [14] summarized six key steps to prevent and minimize bullying: (1) Educating children about stuttering; (2) Educating children about bullying; ...
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This study explores the experiences of children who stutter (CWS) in terms of others imitating or questioning them, or laughing at their speech patterns. Participants were 120 CWS, aged 3-12 years, who were patients at our hospital. Each child was asked the following three questions: Has anyone asked you why you speak in that way? (questioned); has anyone imitated the way you speak? (imitated); and has anyone laughed at your speech? (laughed). We also asked if the CWS felt unhappy or happy about these responses. The total proportion of children who were questioned, imitated, and laughed at was 66.6%. Most of the CWS in the study over 4-years-old felt unhappy with any of these responses to stuttering. We found that even at age 4, CWS remembered non-friendly exchanges with their peers. It is important to take action against teasing and bullying through asking CWS about their experiences of being questioned, imitated, or laughed at.
... Furthermore, recent research suggests that SWS are 60% more likely to be victimized as compared to their normally fluent peers, who are only 22% likely to experience victimization (Blood & Blood, 2007). Bullied SWS may experience many negative short-term and longterm impacts on their personal development (Blood et al., 2011;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). This is troubling because SLPs typically receive little training on bullying interventions or in counseling theories and strategies (Blood, Boyle, Blood, & Nalesnik, 2010). ...
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Children who stutter may experience challenges in their social and emotional development that can lead to academic struggles in school. School counselors and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are uniquely positioned to collaborate on school-based interventions to help children who stutter. We review common elements of stuttering in children and provide suggestions for enhanced collaboration between school counselors and SLPs.
... Bullying, victimization, and negative social experiences associated with childhood stuttering have all been well documented in the literature (Betz, Blood, & Blood, 2008;Blood & Blood, 2004, 2007Blood et al., 2011;Davis, Howell, & Cooke, 2002;Hartford & Leahy, 2007;Langevin, Packman, & Onslow, 2009;Mooney & Smith, 1995;Woods & Williams, 1976). There is also evidence that stuttering affects academic performance (Williams, Melrose, & Woods, 1969), with individuals suffering the difficult consequences of bullying and poor self-esteem, thus confounding their educational experience (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). Such individuals become even less able to communicate effectively (Crichton-Smith, 2002) and have increased difficulties concentrating on learning while also worrying about, and attempting to control, stuttering behaviors (Daniels, 2007). ...
Article
Background In 2014, Kraft et al. assessed the temperament, home environment, and significant life events of 69 North American children who stutter to examine the combined and compounded effects of these individualized factors on mediating overt stuttering severity. The temperament domain of effortful control was singularly found to be significantly predictive of stuttering severity. Purpose Because of the clinical significance of the initial study's findings, a replication study with a different, larger cohort of children who stutter was warranted to validate the reported outcomes. Method The current study assesses 98 children who stutter, ages 2;4 to 12;6 (years; months, M = 6;7), recruited from Perth, Australia. Results The results support the previous findings of Kraft, Ambrose, and Chon (2014) , with effortful control remaining the sole significant contributor to variability in stuttering severity, as rated by both parents and clinicians. Conclusion These cumulative and consistent outcomes support the need to develop targeted intervention strategies that specifically strengthen aspects of effortful control as a means to support positive therapeutic change in children who stutter.
... • Cyberharrasment • Cyber-victimisation 6 The documented impact of offline victimisation includes short and long term consequences. Psychological complications involve low self-esteem, anxiety and depression, social isolation, suicide, and unemployment [12,51]. In addition, health complications include physical health complaints [52], exacerbation of illness [53] and disruption of health management [8]. ...
Chapter
Research shows that people with long term conditions and disabilities are frequently labelled as vulnerable, and commonly victimised online. They require instrumental support to understand their conditions and empower them to manage their own treatment in everyday life. However, additional short and long term consequences related to cyber-victimisation could intensify existing psychological and health complications. For instance, ‘distress’ as a commonly reported impact of cyber-victimisation could theoretically lead to neurohormonal changes in the blood, increasing cortisol, catecholamine and insulin secretion resulting in increased blood glucose, heartbeat, blood pressure, urination and other changes. Therefore, in this study we demonstrate the need and explain the means towards extending support and risk assessment systems and procedures to cover the collection and preservation of incidents reported by individuals. This can be used to support third-party interventions such as taking a legal action in cases where the impact of cyber-victimisation is seen to escalate and worsen. As such, we first define vulnerable groups with long term conditions and provide a review of the impact of various types of cyber-victimisation on their health management. Then, we discuss how Disease Management Programmes (DMP) developed over time to include web-based applications as an example of existing cost-effective approaches to improve the quality of healthcare provided to people with long term conditions. We then demonstrate the added value of incorporating forensics readiness to enable Police intervention, support the victim’s eligibility for extended instrumental support from national health services. Finally, this level of documentation offers an opportunity to implement more accurate methods to assess risk associated with victimisation.
... For instance, Perren and Alsaker (2006) found despite a strong consistent association between behaviour problems and bullying, only 7% of 5-to 6-year-olds were reliably classified as bullies, rising to 19% for 6-to 7-year-olds. The escalation in systematic bullying is also validated in retrospective accounts of childhood bullying (e.g., Seeds, Harkness & Quilty, 2010); for example, amongst individuals who stammer, age of bullying onset rose sharply between 4-5 (6%) and 8-10 (41%) years (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). Children's understanding of bullying also shifts within this development window (Monks & Smith, 2006). ...
Article
Research has focused on the role of theory of mind (ToM) for positive social behaviour, while the association between ToM and negative social behaviours is less well understood. This longitudinal study compares two mediation models examining the role of ToM and peer‐rated social preference at ages 5 and 6 for bullying at age 7. Participants were 114 children (58 boys, Mage = 67 months) at entry to primary school (T1). At Time 2 (T2), 106 children and, at Time 3 (T3), 96 children remained. Teacher‐rated externalizing problems and children’s language ability were controlled at T1. Poor ToM was found to indirectly predict later bullying via poor social preference, while for boys only, greater earlier ToM directly predicted greater bullying 2 years later. These results suggest that there are different pathways to bullying via ToM and social preference, which has implications for interventions to prevent the development of bullying behaviour.
... Nevertheless, the ways in which people in the child's environment cope with and react to the disorder can influence children's emotional reactions, and avoidance behavior. 45,127 The coping patterns and styles of people in the child's environment, such as parents, and teachers, are influenced by the way they see the disorder and by the different ways the stuttering can affect children. ...
Article
Introduction: Stuttering is a fluency disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted. The disorder is frequently misunderstood and to better analyze it is necessary to understand stuttering as more than a speech problem. Recent literature points out that should instead be viewed as a communication disorder with the potential to affect several aspects of children's lives. Different perspectives about stuttering can bring a more diverse analysis and move the field forward in scientific knowledge, however, it can also lead to fragmented and controversial views. Despite some lingering scientific consensus issues, there has been growing agreement among researchers that stuttering is a multifactorial disorder. Aims: To summarize and analyze previously published research considering stuttering as a dynamic disorder influenced by several factors. Materials and methods: A comprehensive review which focuses on the development of stuttering, and the implications for the onset, manifestation, and chronicity of this disorder in school-age children who stutter. Results: Because of the ever-increasing literature in the area of stuttering, the review addresses assessment procedures and the perception of the impact of stuttering on children's daily life. Conclusions: This comprehensive view contributes to an updated understanding of therapeutic and scientific factors to be considered in the evaluation and treatment of stuttering.
... Not surprisingly, most stutterers report that stuttering exerts lots of negative effects on their academic performance during the academic year as well as on their social and emotional performance [74][75][76]. There are many reasons why stuttering people experience a high level of social anxiety, and there are many ways for growing social anxiety [77][78][79] during childhood and adolescence [80,81]. ...
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Article Info Background: Mental disorders in people who stutter are controversial among researchers. This review study aims to probe four common mental disorders, including anxiety, social phobia, depression, and suicide in people who stutter (PWS) as well as in people who do not stutter (PWNS). Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this review study, we searched 5 combined keywords, including stutter and anxiety, stutter and social anxiety, stutter and depression, stutter and mental disorders, as well as stutter and suicide on Science Direct, Springer, Google Scholar, and Scopus from 1985 to 2020. From among 321 papers searched, a total of 34 research papers were related to this study. Results: According to the results, anxiety and social anxiety were the most common mental disorders in the stuttering population. Unfortunately, most studies on stuttering and mental disorders have been conducted on adults, while mental disorders, especially anxiety, most likely occur during adolescence. Findings on depression were very heterogeneous, accordingly, sometimes no difference was observed, and sometimes the rate of depression was found to be higher in the PWS than in the control group. It seems depression in PWS increases with aging. There is no adequate research on the relationship between suicide and stuttering, but a positive association has been established between suicide and anxiety as well as between social anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The rate of anxiety and social anxiety was higher in PWS than in PWNS. We need more research on mental disorders in PWS because various psychological aspects, especially depression, have not yet been fully studied in people who stutter.
... Yapılan çalışmalar, kekemeliği olan çocukların yaklaşık %44-83 aralığında akran zorbalığına maruz kaldıklarını göstermektedir (Blood vd., 2011;Nicholls, 2013). Akran zorbalığının incelendiği bir başka çalışmada ise kekemeliği olan yetişkinlerin çoğu, okul yıllarında akran zorbalığına uğradıklarını ve bu durumun da uzun süreli etkilerini yaşadıklarını belirtmişlerdir (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). Ülkemizde yürütülen bir çalışmada ise kekemeliği olan yetişkinlerin %85'inin, okul yaşamları boyunca zorbalığa maruz kaldığı ve en sık karşılaştıkları zorbalık türlerinin ise 'alay etme ve isim takma' olduğu bulunmuştur (Kara & Karamete, 2018). ...
... Bu doğrultuda, akran zorbalığının ortaya çıkmasında bireysel, ailesel (Örn. ebeveyn tutum ve davranışları) ve okulla ilişkili faktörlerin karmaşık bir etkileşiminin olduğundan bahsetmek uygun olacaktır.Yapılan araştırmalar, kekemeliği olan bireylerin, akran zorbalığı konusunda risk altında olduklarını göstermektedir(Blood & Blood, 2007; Blood ve ark., 2011, Davis ve ark., 2002Hugh Jones & Smith, 1999; Langevin ve ark., 1998). Bazı araştırmalar ise kekemeliği olan bireylerin akran zorbalığı mağduriyetleri ile kaygı özellikleri(Blood & Blood, 2007), benlik saygısı (Blood & Blood, 2004; Blood ve ark., 2011), yaşam memnuniyeti ve yaşam yönelimi (Blood ve ark., 2011) arasındaki muhtemel ilişkilere dikkat çekmektedir. ...
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Amaç: Akran zorbalığı bir ya da birden çok çocuk tarafından daha güçsüz olan çocuğa yönelik amaçlı ve devamlı biçimde gösterilen saldırganlık davranışı olarak tanımlanabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada; akran zorbalığının tanımı, yaygınlığı, nedenleri, olası sonuçları, kekemelik ve akran zorbalığı ilişkisi ile kekemelik terapilerinde uygulanabilecek akran zorbalığına yönelik müdahale stratejileri ile ilgili bilgiler sentezlenmiştir. Böylelikle bu derleme çalışmasının, dil ve konuşma terapistlerinin kekemeliği olan çocuklara yönelik uygulamalarını zenginleştirecek ve kekemeliği olan çocukların maruz kalabildiği akran zorbalığı durumuna dikkat çekecek nitelikte olması amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Çalışmada geleneksel derleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, kekemelikte akran zorbalığı yönetimine ilişkin alan yazın taraması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bulgular: Akran zorbalığının, fiziksel, sözlü, ilişkisel veya siber zorbalık gibi farklı türlerde olabileceği görülmüştür. Ayrıca akran zorbalığının nedenlerine yönelik çeşitli görüşlere rastlanmıştır. Kekemeliği olan çocukların akran zorbalığı açısından risk altında olduklarına yönelik kanıtlara ulaşılmıştır. Dil ve konuşma terapistlerinin kekemeliği olan çocuklar için uygulayabilecekleri akran zorbalığına yönelik müdahale stratejileri saptanmıştır. Bu müdahale stratejilerinin temel olarak kekemelik ve akran zorbalığı hakkında çocuğu ve çevresini bilgilendirme, atılganlık eğitimi, kekemeliğe yönelik olumsuz otomatik düşünceleri olumlu düşünceler ile yer değiştirme ve akran eğitimi gibi başlıkları kapsadığı görülmüştür. Müdahale stratejilerinin bir kısmı klinik içinde (kekemelikte akran zorbalığı eğitimi, atılganlık eğitimi, bilişsel yeniden yapılandırma vb.), bir kısmı ise klinik dışında (akran, ebeveyn ve okul temelli eğitimler) uygulanabilmektedir. Sonuç: Kapsamlı bir kekemelik terapisi, kekemeliğe bütüncül bakış açısı sunan müdahale yaklaşımlarını gerektirmektedir. Kekemelik terapileri sadece konuşma akıcılığına değil, aynı zamanda kekemeliğin çocuğun yaşamı üzerindeki olası olumsuz etkilerini en aza indirmeye de odaklanmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda, akran zorbalığı müdahalesi, kapsamlı kekemelik terapisinin önemli bir parçasını oluşturmaktadır. Ayrıca dil ve konuşma terapistlerinin kekemelik ve akran zorbalığına yönelik bilgilendirici içeriklere terapileri içerisinde yer vermelerinin, kekemeliği olan çocuklar için önleyici hizmet kapsamında ele alınabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu tarz içeriklerin, kekemeliği olan çocuğu karşılaşabileceği olası olumsuzluklara karşı hazırlayacağı öngörülmektedir.
... Craig et al., 2009;Koedoot et al., 2011;Yaruss, 2010). Adults who stutter (AWS) report that stuttering limits their life in terms of their choice of profession, promotion, social participation and friendship (Gabel et al., 2004;Hayhow et al., 2002;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Yaruss et al., 2002). This is due to the complex nature of stuttering and its multifaceted structure that impacts emotional, environmental and physical domains of life (Beilby, 2014;Carter et al., 2017;Smith & Weber, 2016;Yaruss & Quesal, 2004). ...
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Locus of control (LOC) orientation is one of the personality traits that have been found to be important for adults who stutter (AWS) in terms of treatment outcome and its predictive value on maintenance of treatment gains. Due to its culturally sensitive nature, we aimed to compare AWS with adults who do not stutter (AWNS) in Turkey. We also examined LOC score differences in terms of treatment-related conditions and self-help support group (SHSG) participation among AWS. The participants completed Rotter’s Internal–External LOC (I-E LOC) Scale and a participant information form. These forms were combined into a single electronic format and sent to the participants. SHSG participants were reached via their official social media account. Group differences were examined using descriptive and inferential statistics. No statistically significant difference was observed between AWS and AWNS. SHSG participation, treatment involvement and other treatment-related conditions did not yield statistically significant I-E LOC score differences among AWS subgroups, either. General LOC measurement might not be suitable for examining treatment-related group differences in AWS as none of our observations produced statistically significant results. Affective temperament, self-efficacy, self-stigma, hopelessness and depression measurements could be implemented with more specific LOC measurements such as LCB scale to better understand life views of AWS as well as to observe immediate and long-term effects of stuttering interventions. This study has potential clinical implications while working with AWS.
... This issue becomes especially relevant as bullying assessments may not reveal the actual distress children and adolescents are suffering as a function of the victimisation behaviours analysed. Moreover, measuring different victimisation behaviours allows to obtain a bullying severity or poly-victimisation index that has been previously related to higher academic affectation and increased risk of long-term negative effects in children who stutter (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999), and that seems to be higher in students with DLD (Knox & Conti-Ramsden, 2003). ...
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Background: Previous research has consistently evidenced that children with speech and language difficulties suffer more bullying victimisation during middle school years, whereas other educative stages remain less explored. Moreover, there are divergent results in previous evidence about the types of victimisation (physical, verbal, relational) youths may experience. Aims: To examine the retrospective developmental trajectories of bullying vic-timisation in adults with and without self-reported oral language difficulties across seven educational stages (preschool to university). Special attention was given to the prevalence and types of victimisation. Methods & Procedures: A total of 336 participants (ages between 18 and 65, M = 30.3) from a sample of 2259 participants that fully answered an online survey were classified as having experienced oral language difficulties (LD) not associated with a biomedical condition. A comparable control group (n = 336; ages between 18 and 72, M = 30.0) was randomly selected for statistical between-groups contrasts. Responses to the California Bullying Victimization Scale-Retrospective (CBVS-R) were analysed by generalised estimating equations (GEE) including language groups, types of bullying, and educational stages as explanatory variables. Specific language group comparisons in terms of percentages were conducted using chi-square tests. Outcomes & Results: GEE results suggested that experiencing LD was associated with an overall increase in the likelihood of bullying victimisation, Wald's χ 2 (1) = 8.41, p < 0.005 for the main effect of the LD group, along almost all educational stages, Wald's χ 2 (6) = 3.13, p = 0.69 for the LD group × educational stage interaction. Finally, a higher proportion of participants in the LD group reported having suffered teasing behaviours at the second cycle of elementary , the first cycle of secondary, and baccalaureate. They also reported with a higher proportion being physically hurt at preschool and having received sexual comments at the second cycle of elementary, Wald’s χ2 (93) = 259.87, p < 0.001 for the LD group × educational stage × type of bullying interaction. Conclusions & Implications: People with oral language difficulties experience more bullying victimisation behaviours than their typically developing peers. Heightened bullying prevalence in children with language difficulties seems to emerge as early as 6–9 years old and persists along the rest of schooling. Not all victimisation forms seem to show differential increased rates in people with speech/language difficulties, evidencing important implications for bullying assessment. Results highlight the need to provide particular support to individuals with language difficulties against bullying during the entire schooling.
... More to the point, less than 19% of former clients rated treatment approaches that included fluency goals as "very successful" (elimination: 10.7%; minimizing: 18.8%). Previous studies have also found stuttering frequency and severity in adults to be unrelated to self-perceived communication competence (e.g., or quality of life (e.g., Beilby et al., 2012a;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999), calling into question the assumption that targeting fluent speech during treatment will positively impact the lives of those who stutter. To date, no study has examined the potential benefits of targeting communication competencies in adults who stutter to the exclusion of goal(s) that directly target speech fluency. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of a treatment approach for adults who stutter that focuses on core communication competencies rather than attempt to modify speech fluency. Eleven adults who stutter completed a 12-week treatment program at The Arthur M. Blank Center for Stuttering Education and Research. Pre-and posttreatment measures included (a) self-reported cognitive and affective aspects of stuttering (Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering [OASES], Self-Perceived Communication Competence [SPCC], Devereux Adult Resilience Survey [DARS], and Self-Compassion Scale [SCS]) and (b) ratings of 9 core communication competencies by an unfamiliar clinician blind to pre/posttreatment status. Participants reported significant mitigation of the adverse impact of stuttering (OASES) and greater resilience (DARS) after treatment. Participants also demonstrated significant gains in 8 of the 9 clinician-perceived communication competencies. Lower pretreatment stuttering frequencies were not significantly associated with posttreatment gains in clinician-perceived communication competencies. Preliminary findings suggest that, similar to findings for children and adolescents who stutter in previous studies, significant psychosocial and communicative benefit can be obtained for adults who stutter following treatment designed to focus on communication effectiveness rather than fluency, and that these gains are not contingent on the participants' stuttering frequency prior to enrollment.
... Dzieci, które się jąkają, mogą przyswoić sobie to piętno (McAdams, 1993) i mogą czuć się przygnębione . Mogą doświadczać znęcania się i dokuczania ze strony niektórych rówieśników (Davis, Howell, Cooke, 2002;Hugh -Jones, Smith, 1999;Langevin, Bortnick, Hammer, Wiebe, 1998) lub otrzymać akceptację i wsparcie innych rówieśników i ważnych osób (Hearne, Packman, Onslow, Quine, 2008;Langevin, Kully, Ross -Harold, 2007). ...
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Publikacja Dialog bez barier – kompleksowa interwencja w jąkaniu. Wydanie polskie rozszerzone to podręcznik dla logopedów, studentów logopedii i innych specjalistów zajmujących się jąkaniem. Książka składająca się z 21 rozdziałów jest kompendium wiedzy teoretycznej i praktycznej na temat skutecznej interwencji w jąkaniu. W publikacji znalazły się rozdziały przygotowane przez badaczy i praktyków, a także specjalistów z osobistym doświadczeniem jąkania z różnych zakątków świata (z Australii, Belgii, Grecji, Kanady, Libanu, Malty, Niemiec, Norwegii, Polski, Stanów Zjednoczonych i Wielkiej Brytanii). Twórcy poszczególnych rozdziałów prezentują holistyczne podejście do interwencji logopedycznej w jąkaniu, uwzględniając wieloaspektowość zajmującego ich zjawiska i wynikające z tego konsekwencje dla pracy logopedy. Podejmują rozważania dotyczące skutecznej profilaktyki, wielowymiarowej diagnozy, poradnictwa ukierunkowanego na klienta/pacjenta i jego rodzinę oraz metod terapii opartych na dowodach. W tomie szczegółowo zaprezentowano współczesne programy terapeutyczne: Camperdown, KIDS, Lexipontix czy MIST. Omówiono temat pracy z grupą, zapobiegania mobbingowi szkolnemu, autoterapii bądź działalności samopomocowej. Poruszono również kwestie, takie jak: jąkanie a wielojęzyczność, zmiana społecznych postaw wobec jąkania, praktyka logopedyczna oparta na dowodach, stawanie się terapeutą zaburzeń płynności mowy, jąkanie neurogenne, a nawet wykorzystanie humoru, kreatywności i współczesnych technologii w interwencji logopedycznej. Publikacja powstała w ramach wdrażania polsko-norweskiej współpracy podjętej przy projekcie LOGOLab – Dialog bez barier (EOG/19/K1/D1/W/0031; partnerzy: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Norweski Uniwersytet Arktyczny w Tromsø i Fundacja Wiedzy i Dialogu Społecznego Agere Aude w Chorzowie).
... The disorder gradually develops into an advanced form and becomes chronic in nature with all its characteristic speech-related symptoms and secondary behaviors (Bloodstein, 1960). Around teenage years, when children are becoming fully aware of the nature of their own stuttering events, they are also beginning to be teased & bullied by their peers in the school settings (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999) to the extent that to shield themselves from instances of ridicule, teasing, and bullying by speaking out during conversations, CWS begins to avoid speaking situations. Such avoidance strategies of CWS are often misunderstood, and hence, develop into negative stereotypes about CWS by their peers such as nervousness, tense, guarded, shy, reticent, hesitant, afraid, introvert, insecure, anxious, passive, self-derogatory, and sensitive (Doody et al., 1993;Guntupalli et al., 2007). ...
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Research studies in the stuttering literature have reported the significance of considering the listener's reactions to the moments of stuttering events in those who stutter during daily communicational activities. However, such themes of investigation have not found their place in disability studies so far. It is important to address since disability studies cover a wide range of topics for empirical investigation and discussion. The absence of such themes from their forum facilitates people without any communication disorder to be ignorant about the issue of communication disorders. Therefore, this paper attempts to consider stuttering disorder through the perspective of one of the models of disability, i.e., the social model of disability. It emphasizes the role of society in understanding the nature of the disability, and therefore, outlines the shortcomings that need to be corrected at the societal level to make the lives of people with disabilities better. Understanding stuttering disorder through this model will help us to address issues that essentially disregard the outside environment that might have been adversely affecting the functional capabilities of those who stutter.
... Many times, these speech disruptions are also visibly marked with tense and struggle-filled ancillary behaviors such as the production of distracting sounds; gaze aversion; head movements; arm jerking; finger-tapping; lip pressing; nostril-flaring; tongue protruding; eye-blinking; the extraneous movement of the limbs; and facial grimacing, etc. (Bloodstein & Ratner, 2008;Van Riper, 1973). With an increase in severity, the extent of receiving negative feedbacks for children who stutter (CWS) about their stuttered speech from their listeners has also been well-documented throughout the stuttering literature (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Davis, Howell, & Cooke, 2002). This continuous exposure of negative environment for CWS throughout their lives not only led to the development of avoidance strategies in them that extends to specific sounds, persons, or speaking situations (Bloodstein, 1995;Kalinowski, 2006), but they also tend to develop a repertoire of negative attitudes ...
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The current research paper has reported how Completion and Interrupting behaviors, also known as turn-taking behaviors, exhibited by two male adults-with-stuttering disorder (AWS) as Conversational Partners (CPs) were invoked in response to the stuttered speech of another male AWS as their Speaker during face-to-face conversations in Hindi. The paper has discussed the preliminary findings based on two separate conversational speech samples that were drawn from the cohort of forty-four Hindi conversational speech samples collected during the doctoral studies for a larger investigation. The relevance of investigating impaired conversations in Hindi stemmed from the realization that understanding the actual reasons for communication breakdown in AWS would eventually help the speech clinicians in highlighting specific circumstances to AWS clients that invoke their fluent-speaking listeners to exhibit such behaviors during daily conversations, and thus, incorporating therapeutic methods to reduce the negative emotional content of AWS while encountering such behaviors during speaking situations. The larger investigation of the current study was supported in full through the Full-Term Centrally Administered Doctoral Fellowship,
... RDs are a special category of LDs, and as students with non-visible disabilities experience less victimization than students with more observable cognitive or physical disabilities, it is likely that RDs pose a smaller risk to bullying involvement compared with more visible disabilities. For example children with language impairments (Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999), as well as emotional problems (Carran & Kellner, 2009) and ADHD (J. L. Humphrey et al., 2007) seem to have challenges in peer relations and become victims easily, and it seems that students with emotional or behavioral disorders demonstrate the highest levels of perpetration (Carran & Kellner, 2009;Van Cleave & Davis, 2006). ...
Thesis
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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-29-8530-2 Reading difficulties (RDs) constitute the most prevalent type of learning disabilities. They are easily noticed by classmates, may cause frustration, and are often accompanied by emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems. Previous research has paid little attention to bullying involvement among poor readers. RDs are found to co-occur with known risk factors of victimization and bullying, such as internalizing and externalizing problems. Moreover, in interview studies students with RDs have reported frequent bullying experiences, and more general learning disabilities have been associated with victimization and bullying. In this thesis, I study bullying involvement among Finnish elementary and middle school students with RDs. I examine whether students with RDs are more at risk for bullying involvement than their peers without such difficulties and how RDs are longitudinally related to bullying involvement among school beginners and adolescents. Study I revealed that over a third of elementary and middle school students with self-reported RDs were involved in bullying as victims, bullies, or bully/victims. After controlling for self-esteem and difficulties in math, RDs were associated with peers viewing the students as victims and bully/victims. Study II examined how word-reading skills and externalizing/internalizing problems in Grades 1 and 2 predict bullying involvement in Grade 3. It showed that RDs alone do not increase the risk of bullying involvement at school but in tandem with externalizing/internalizing problems they do add to the risk of bullying others (bullies and bully/victims). Study III investigated the longitudinal interplay between reading skills (fluency and comprehension), victimization, and bullying across the transition from elementary to middle school, controlling for externalizing and internalizing problems. Poor reading fluency and comprehension were longitudinally associated with bullying perpetration but not with victimization. Put together, the studies in the thesis draw a novel picture of bullying involvement among students with RDs in elementary and middle school, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in different age groups. In conclusion, self-reported RDs were found to associate most strongly with victimization (being a victim or a bully/victim), whereas poor reading skills measured with reading tests were associated only with bullying perpetration. Reassuringly, the risk RDs posed for bullying involvement was relatively low.
... & Blood, 2004;Blood et al., 2011) in CWS. Being teased or bullied is a significant problem for CWS during their school years (Blood & Blood, 2016;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999;Langevin, 2015;Langevin et al., 1998) and adolescence (Blood & Blood, 2004, 2016Blood et al., 2007Blood et al., , 2011Erickson & Block, 2013;Hearne et al., 2008;Langevin, 2015;Langevin et al., 1998), as children with communication impairments are at an increased risk of being bullied or rejected (Blood et al., 2010;Rice et al., 1991). This, in turn, means that those who are bullied for stuttering are at risk of low self-esteem, as shown by Blood and Blood (2004). ...
Article
Purpose: Children who stutter (CWS) face communication difficulties in school activities and at home. Although the importance of receiving support from their surroundings has been documented, few studies have investigated potential requests of CWS from their surroundings. This study aimed to elucidate such requests. Method: A total of 43 school-age children and 25 adolescents who stutter completed a free-description questionnaire, including questions such as "what you want your classmates/ your classroom teacher/your family to do about your stuttering?" Their descriptions were summarized and categorized based on similarity. Results: The results indicate that 90.6% of the participants had more than one request for their classmates, classroom teacher, or family. A total of 197 items were extracted and categorized into seven themes. In particular, the responses included "listen attentively," "treat us naturally," and "make arrangements." While participants tended to hope for classmates or family to "listen attentively" and "treat us naturally," the request to "make arrangements" was higher for their teacher. Their potential requests varied by age: While school-age CWS wanted people around them to "listen carefully," the hope of adolescents who stutter was "treat us naturally." Conclusions: The various potential requests of CWS were categorized, and the responses shed light on the importance of increasing knowledge of stuttering. The difference between the requests could reflect psychosocial differences between school-age children and adolescents who stutter. In addition, social interaction among peers is more developed in adolescents, and they could harbor fear of being excluded within their community.
... Die Schwere des Stotterns und das Ausmaß der Ängste korrelieren nicht bedeutsam (Blumgart et al. 2010, Gunn et al. 2014, Mulcahy et al. 2008, und erfolgreiche Angstbehandlungen verbessern die Sprechflüssigkeit nicht (Menzies et al. 2008, Helgadottir et al. 2014. Nach Alm (2014) (Lattermann & Neumann 2005), was sich hinderlich auf die psychische Entwicklung des Kindes auswirken kann (Blood et al. 2010, Davis et al. 2002, Hugh-Jones & Smith 1999, Langevin 2009 (Beal et al. 2007, Chang et al. 2008, Civier et al. 2015, Connally et al. 2014, Cykowski et al 2008, Foundas et al. 2001, Kell et al. 2009, Kronfeld-Duenias 2014, Kronfeld-Duenias et al. 2016, Neef et al. 2015, Sommer et al. 2002, Watkins et al. 2008. ...
... For four of them, the interview was the first time that they were disclosing it. It is noteworthy that shame as a serious and longlasting effect which interferes with reporting (while at school) or talking about experiences in adult life has been presented in previous studies (Carlisle & Rofes, 2007;Duffell, 2000;Hugh-Jones & Smith, 1999). ...
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The present study aimed to investigate how those who had been chronic victims of bullying perceive their bullying experience from their initial attacks to their bullying exit, how they understood processes and actions causing a situation to become progressively worse, and how they interpreted their own coping behaviors. Nine individuals who were victimized for at least 6 years were interviewed. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data, which generated a grounded theory of the downward spiral of bullying, demonstrating hidden aspects of bullying—the victim’s inner process as a response to external victimizing and accompanying events. The interdependence of those processes is presented in a timeline to show their cumulative nature as new vicious circles of bullying involving maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., self-blame), which form an overriding pattern of behavior that renders victims unable to break it even if they enter a new peer group. In terms of policy implications, the findings suggest the need to introduce school transition programs supporting school adaptation, identify chronic victims, and take every victimhood narrative seriously.
Article
In the primitive human horde described by Freud, the simplest form of social formation, the father and chief; strong; despot, tyrant and absolute owner of power. As an act of rebelliousness his descendants murder him, felt guilt and through guilt, the father earns control over them. Worshiped and secretly hated, through the figure of Totem: a paternal substitute. Despite of human development since then, it is mean to portray that some features of the primitive horde, continue to exist in present day society, specially through the rising phenomenon of bullying. These features include: 1) Disappearance of the individual will; 2) the idea of a violent, powerful and idealized leader; 3) A homogeneous, obedient and submissive group and 4) the illusion of "equality"; 5) predominance of fear over reason. The underlying feature in all three contexts is the organization according to a rigid hierarchy of power in which homogeneity is required; an enemy to hate and immature people. Maturity means self-knowledge and autonomy, assuming that which is unbearable of ourselves, without referring to projective identification. Projective identification is the tendency to portray in other, what we hate of ourselves. In conclusion, building a strong education based on solidarity is needed.
Article
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Peer victimization can have short and long-term serious consequences on children’s psychosocial adjustment. Several risk factors for peer bullying and victimization in children have been identified. Children with special needs are at an increased risk of being victimized in school. However, little research has addressed to investigate peer victimization and its relation to psychosocial functioning in children with special needs. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to identify the prevalence rates of peer victimization among students with and without special needs in inclusive classrooms; to compare both groups in terms of the levels of peer victimization; and to examine the relationships of peer victimization with self-esteem and loneliness in students with special needs. A total of 422 students (female=186, male=236) aged 7 to 14 participated in this study. Of these participants, 197 were students with special educational needs (SEN) and 225 were students without special educational needs (non- SEN) attending 2nd-4th grades of primary schools and 5th-6th grades of middle schools. Students’ self-reports on peer victimization, self-esteem, and loneliness were collected using the Peer Bullying Scale, the Coopersmith Self- Esteem Inventory, and the Children's Loneliness Scale. In the findings of the study, the overall peer victimization rates were found to be %28 for non-SEN students and %45.6 for SEN students. While the most frequent type of victimization reported by the non-SEN students was verbal victimization, for the SEN students it was being socially isolated. Attack on property was the least common type of peer victimization reported by both groups. The results also revealed that SEN students were more victimized by all types of peer bullying investigated in this study when compared to typically developing students. Additionally, it was found that being socially isolated and physically bullied significantly predicted the self-esteem of SEN students, whereas being isolated and verbally bullied were found to be significant predictors of the feelings of loneliness in these students. The findings of the study were discussed regarding the related literature.
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Bullying is a common annoying scenario that is encountered by children in the recent times. The purpose of this study is to identify some of the coping mechanisms children do when they are bullied in a school setting. This is a phenomenological inquiry on the experiences of ten (10) Leyte Normal University-Integrated Laboratory School pupils who encountered bullying. Colaizzi's method of phenomenological interpretation was utilized to arrive at meaningful themes. The analyses of the researchers on the phenomenological inquiry appeared that children used several strategies/mechanisms to cope with victimization or being bullied in school. These are Self-Defense, Seeking Social Support, Stand Up to the Bully, Distancing, Tension/Reduction/Externalizing, and focus on the positive. Seeking social support in this study was often used by victims that was viewed as one of the more successful approaches. Victims found that seeking social support and advice helped them learn different ways of addressing their bullies as well as providing them with positive feedback and support from peers and adults they trusted. School intervention which involve the students, teachers, school administration and parents might successfully challenge existing social conditions that tolerate and promote bullying. This study could provide ways of understanding how pupils experience bullying in the different forms and providing them and other future cases the necessary assistance or school intervention.
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Se discute el rol de la escuela en la prevención y atención de la tartamudez
Chapter
This chapter reviews the cross‐cultural literature on sexual prejudice and prejudice based on gender identity. It begins with a review of contemporary terminology related to these biases. The chapter then provides an overview of the cross‐cultural laws supporting or denying civil rights to sexual and gender identity minorities. Researchers have identified a set of predictors of individuals' attitudes toward sexual minorities that appear to hold cross‐culturally. The first factor the authors examined was interpersonal contact: individuals who report knowing a gay or lesbian person are generally more accepting of homosexuality. Religion is another factor that differentiates between countries. Cross‐cultural perspectives on the lives and experiences of transgender people are in their infancy. More generally, although the understanding of prejudice toward LGBTs has advanced, further work is needed to fully understand the origins and outcomes of this bias.
Article
Purpose: To conduct long-term follow-up assessment on children who had previously undergone concurrent, direct treatment for co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder. Methods: Four children (6;10–7;7 years) were followed-up approximately 40 months after commencing Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program. The primary outcome for stuttering, percentage of syllables stuttered, was assessed on within – and beyond-clinic samples. Percentage of consonants correct, the primary speech outcome, was gathered on single-word and connected-speech samples. Primary outcomes were analysed for statistically significant change and to assess stability of treatment gains. Additionally, formal assessment of phonological awareness ability was conducted. Results: At long-term follow-up, 2 participants had experienced relapse of stuttering. Three of the four children were within age-expected norms for percentage of consonants correct, while one participant was rated at a mild-moderate severity level on this measure. All four children had assessment scores that were within normal limits for phonological awareness. Conclusion: Children with co-occurring stuttering and speech sound disorder may be treated concurrently using direct therapy approaches in the short-term, however may be more prone to relapse across both disorders. For this caseload of children, a longer maintenance period is recommended, with regular assessments being undertaken to ensure stability of treatment gains in the long-term.
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C.P. Cavafy stands among the great Greek poets of modern times. He was born in Alexandria, Egypt, in 1863, being the last son of a well-off family originating from Constantinople. Alexandria, a city abounding in Greek heritage, formed the “canvas” for Cavafy’s poems, especially for his so-called “historical” poems. Indeed, Cavafy is to be praised, for he managed in a uniquely intricate manner to “adopt” in his poetry the “cosmopolitanism”, which he either experienced (during the 19th and 20th centuries) or studied (i.e. the Hellenistic and the Greco-Roman Antiquity). In this way, the poet succeeded in forming symbolisms and transmitting meanings of timeless value. In the “Thermopylae”, “Waiting for the Barbarians”, and the “Trojans”, one may notice that the inner core, the essence, of those poems is masterfully and superbly concentrated towards the end, reflecting though a sense of pessimism and futility, often expressed with irony.
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يتناول هذا الكتاب أحد أهم أنواع المشكلات السلوكية البارزة، ألا وهي التنمر، بل تمتد هذه الأهمية إلى أن هذا الكتاب تناول أكثر الفئات الخاصة انتشاراً، ألا وهي صعوبات التعلم، يحتوي هذا الكتاب علي خمسة فصول.
Article
The article addresses the situation of school-aged children who stutter. A definition of stuttering is presented, as well as the goals and the principles behind the therapeutic methods most frequently used in Poland. Most of the article is devoted to the idea of the comprehensive assistance for school-aged children who stutter. The article argues that therapeutic teams of speech therapists, parents, teachers, educators, and psychologists need to be established, and defines the scope of their activities. Some strategies are also described to help the people involved in such teams to assist the children who stutter.
Article
This study is the first to examine the effects of age and gender on different forms of peer victimization among local Chinese schoolchildren in Hong Kong. The cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 8604 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 16 from 24 primary (elementary) and secondary (middle) schools in Hong Kong. The Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale was used to measure how often the participants had experienced physical and verbal victimization, social manipulation, and attacks on property during the last school term. The participants were divided into three age groups (8–10, 11–13, 14–16) based on the average ages of senior primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary school students. Two-way MANOVA and subsequent two-way ANOVAs were used to analyze the data. Physical victimization and attacks on property were found to decrease with age. Across the age groups, boys were more likely than girls to experience physical and verbal victimization, but not social manipulation. However, the gender × age group interaction effects were insignificant. The findings suggest that educators and helping professionals should consider providing gender-specific anti-bullying programs in schools.
Chapter
Although bullying has occurred for generations, movement to fully understand the effects of the dangerous behavior has recently been ignited. While much research has focused on the negative effects of bullying on victims, little research has focused on the effects bullying behavior has on the bully. The following is an examination of research regarding the short and long term negative effects bullying has on both bullies and victims. In addition, research regarding the influence of familial, peer and romantic relationships on the engagement of bullying behavior is also addressed, as well as the influence bullying behavior has on the formation and quality of these relationships. The utilization of this research to create anti-bullying programs in schools, homes and informal social situations may help to eradicate bullying behavior.
Article
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Peer victimization can have short and long-term serious consequences on children’s psychosocial adjustment. Several risk factors for peer bullying and victimization in children have been identified. Children with special needs are at an increased risk of being victimized in school. However, little research has addressed to investigate peer victimization and its relation to psychosocial functioning in children with special needs. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to identify the prevalence rates of peer victimization among students with and without special needs in inclusive classrooms; to compare both groups in terms of the levels of peer victimization; and to examine the relationships of peer victimization with self-esteem and loneliness in students with special needs. A total of 422 students (female=186, male=236) aged 7 to 14 participated in this study. Of these participants, 197 were students with special educational needs (SEN) and 225 were students without special educational needs (non-SEN) attending 2nd-4th grades of primary schools and 5th-6th grades of middle schools. Students’ self-reports on peer victimization, self-esteem, and loneliness were collected using the Peer Bullying Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Children's Loneliness Scale. In the findings of the study, the overall peer victimization rates were found to be %28 for non-SEN students and %45.6 for SEN students. While the most frequent type of victimization reported by the non-SEN students was verbal victimization, for the SEN students it was being socially isolated. Attack on property was the least common type of peer victimization reported by both groups. The results also revealed that SEN students were more victimized by all types of peer bullying investigated in this study when compared to typically developing students. Additionally, it was found that being socially isolated and physically bullied significantly predicted the self-esteem of SEN students, whereas being isolated and verbally bullied were found to be significant predictors of the feelings of loneliness in these students. The findings of the study were discussed regarding the related literature.
Article
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Bullying is the most common type of violence in American schools (Swearer & Doll, 2001), and the consequences can persist into adulthood, affecting school achievement, prosocial skills, and psychological well-being for both victims and bullies. The current study examined whether past experience with bullying affects how likely college students are to intervene when someone they know is bullied. 120 college students (50 males, 70 females) completed a questionnaire that assessed their past experience with physical and relational aggression. They then read a scenario that asked them to imagine someone was spreading vicious rumors about a member of their current campus group. Next, they decided whether they would intervene by contacting the aggressor, the victim, or both. Over 95% of participants reported some past experience as both aggressor and victim. Unexpectedly, males reported significantly more past experience as relational aggressors than females. Over half the participants said they would intervene by contacting both victim and bully. However, contrary to the hypothesis, past victimization experience did not increase the likelihood of intervening. In fact, past experience scores tended to be somewhat lower for those who intervened. The only significant past experience predictor was that those who chose not to intervene at all tended to have more experience as a bully and less as a victim. The findings provide additional evidence that exposure to bullying often includes experience as both aggressor and victim, and that this can complicate an understanding of how this experience affects future decisions to intervene.
Article
Stammering is an issue during discourse. Individuals who hesitate generally or experience difficulty getting sound after it has been suspended. In uncommon cases, stammering may start in adulthood, it is known as faltering or stammering too, and is normally brought about by a stroke, which causes cerebrum harm. Objective: To find out levels of anxiety in stammers. Methods: Study design was cross sectional observational survey. Data were collected from children hospital, Mayo hospital, Sehat complex, The University of Lahore Hospital, bases Guldberg, Falah foundation. Sheikh Zaid hospital, Services hospital, Amin Maktab and social media platforms Study duration was 9 months. Sample size was 100 formula used was N=Z2p (1-p) /d2. N for sample technique. Z for confidence interval P=stands for prevalence and D for precision. Sampling technique used was Convenience sampling technique. Sample selection was done on the bases of inclusions criteria BECK anxiety tool was used as equipment tool. Results: 100 people were observed during the process most of the people who stammer during anxiety were 40 to 50 of their age. Mostly people who were affected were from rural areas 51%. 41% of the students were from intermediate level. Mostly males suffer from stammering. Conclusion: The results showed that the level of anxiety is mild which mostly affects the people.
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Provides an overview of recent research concerning children who are habitually abused by peers. Reviews three sets of influences on victimization: (1) family factors, such as family relations that impede a child's autonomy; (2) behavioral attributes of the child, such as submissiveness; and (3) social risk factors, such as the absence of supportive friends. (RJM)
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[classifies] motivations underlying the relative lack of social interaction [into three categories—inhibition, genuine introvertedness or low sociability, lack of acceptance by peers] will the reaction patterns associated with their victim status in school be found . . . in young adulthood / are these individuals still socially withdrawn and isolated, maybe even harassed by their working or student companions / does the painful experience of being victimized over long periods of time leave certain scars on their adult personality even if they seem to function well in most respects / these and related issues are explored herein drawing from a follow-up study of young men at age 23, some of whom had been victims of bullying and harassment by peers for a period of at least three years, from Grade 6 through Grade 9 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this review, we examine the oft-made claim that peer-relationship difficulties in childhood predict serious adjustment problems in later life. The article begins with a framework for conceptualizing and assessing children’s peer difficulties and with a discussion of conceptual and methodological issues in longitudinal risk research. Following this, three indexes of problematic peer relationships (acceptance, aggressiveness, and shyness/withdrawal) are evaluated as predictors of three later outcomes (dropping out of school, criminality, and psychopathology). The relation between peer difficulties and later maladjustment is examined in terms of both the consistency and strength of prediction. A review and analysis of the literature indicates general support for the hypothesis that children with poor peer adjustment are at risk for later life difficulties. Support is clearest for the outcomes of dropping out and criminality. It is also clearest for low acceptance and aggressiveness as predictors, whereas a link between shyness/withdrawal and later maladjustment has not yet been adequately tested. The article concludes with a critical discussion of the implicit models that have guided past research in this area and a set of recommendations for the next generation of research on the risk hypothesis.
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The research literature on stuttering is extensive, spanning etiology, natural history, phenomenology, and treatment. In this review, existing empirical knowledge is distilled by attending only to replicated findings. These are designated as "facts." Facts concerning the natural history of idiopathic stuttering highlight early childhood onset, probability of recovery, and importance of a positive family history of stuttering. Corroborated evidence on stutterer-nonstutterer differences concerns intelligence distribution, speech development, central auditory function, and sensory-motor response. Predictable changes in stuttering frequency, and even total elimination of stuttering, occur under a remarkable variety of conditions. Review of therapies revealed two that satisfied the most stringent criteria for good treatment. Various theoretical positions are examined for their fit with the established facts. A model of stuttering as a genetically determined reduction in central capacity for efficient sensory-motor integration is preferred, provided acquisition of secondary symptoms is attributed to instrumental learning.
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To estimate the prevalence of bullying in primary school children and to examine its association with common symptoms in childhood. Semistructured health interview conducted by school nurses as part of a school medical. Newham, east London. All children in year 4 of school during the academic year 1992-93. Reported bullying and common health symptoms. 2962 children (93.1% of those on the school roll) were interviewed (ages 7.6 to 10.0 years). Information about bullying was not recorded for 114 children, 22.4% (95% confidence interval 20.9 to 24.0) of children for whom information was available reported that they had been bullied. There was an association between children reporting being bullied sometimes or more often and reporting not sleeping well (odds ratio 3.6, 2.5 to 5.2), bed wetting (1.7, 1.3 to 2.4), feeling sad (3.6, 1.9 to 6.8), and experiencing more than occasional headaches (2.4, 1.8 to 3.4) and tummy aches (2.4, 1.8 to 3.3). A significant trend for increasing risk of symptoms with increased frequency of bullying was shown for all reported health symptoms (P < 0.001). Health professionals seeing primary schoolchildren who present with headaches, tummy ache, feeling sad or very sad, bed wetting, and sleeping difficulties should consider bullying as a possible contributory factor.
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For Japanese male university students (N= 13-1) as subjects, self-reported victimization by peers during junior high school was correlated with current scores on self-esteem and depression only for subjects who reported low self-esteem and high depression prior to victimization.
Article
The attitudes of 521 teachers in the Tuscaloosa, Alabama City School (82% of the teacher population) toward stuttering were assessed using the Teachers' Perceptions of Stuttering Inventory (TPSI). The TPSI consists of five teacher identification questions and 10 attitudinal statements about which teachers are asked to indicate their strength of agreement. Results indicated that a significant number of teachers hold unsubstantiated beliefs concerning the etiology of stuttering and the personality characteristics of stutterers. Teachers having experience with stutterers or having had course work in speech disorders indicated more realistic attitudes toward stutterers and expressed more demanding attitudes toward stutterers in the classroom situation. In view of the potential positive role teachers can play in assisting stutterers, the results were interpreted as suggesting a need for teachers to receive either preservice or inservice instruction with respect to the problem of stuttering.
Article
As part of a survey service developed to assess bullying in schools, anonymous questionnaires were given to over 6,000 pupils in 17 junior/middle and seven secondary schools in the Sheffield LEA. The results are analysed in terms of frequencies of being bullied, and bullying others; year differences; gender differences; types of bullying; where bullying occurs; whether teachers and parents are informed; and attitudes to bullying. Rates of reported bullying are disturbingly high; they vary with year, gender and school location, partly as a result of opportunities for bullying. With the addition of data from six other schools, it was found that school size, class size and ethnic mix were not linked with bullying. Social disadvantage is linked with bullying to a small extent, and schools with high bullying rates also tend to have pupils who dislike, or are alone at, playtime. Implications for intervention against bullying are briefly discussed.
Article
On the basis of peer nominations, around 13% of this sample of 158 8- and 9-yr-old children could be defined as bullies, and 17% as victims. Boys were more likely to be nominated as bullies, but not as victims, than girls. Bully/victim status was, in the main, stable over 3 assessment periods in a school year and at the start of the next school year. On the Self-Perception Profile for Children, victims scored significantly lower than non-victims on the athletic competence, social acceptance, and global self-worth dimensions. Bullies, victims, and not-involved children were perceived differently by peers on several behavioral descriptions (starts fights, seeks help, leader, cooperates, disrupts). Sociometrically rejected children received more bully, and more victim, nominations than other groups. Both bullies and victims were less likely to belong to the popular group, and more likely to belong to the rejected group, than other Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effects of bullying on adolescents and the coping strategies adolescents employed when confronted by bullies. 703 secondary school students (aged 13–16 yrs) in England were given a questionnaire concerning self-esteem, sociability, bullying experiences and their response to it, and coping strategies. Ss reported that bullying was stressful, particularly indirect verbal bullying. 44% of Ss merely felt irritable as a result of being bullied, whereas approximately one third of Ss continued to feel panicky or nervous in school, experienced recurring memories of the incident, and reported impaired concentration in school. Coping strategies varied widely and included passive (i.e., walking away), aggressive (i.e., fighting), and assertive (i.e., standing up for themselves without physical aggression) behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Siobhan A. Mooney and Professor Peter K. Smith, of the Department of Psychology at the University of Sheffield, report that dysfluent children are often shy and lacking in confidence and may face a constant stream of difficulties, especially in school. Their studies indicate that children who stammer may experience a high degree of bullying and that the detrimental effects (which may continue into adulthood) require intervention.
Article
Abstract— The sociometric status and behaviour of 179 children aged 8 0–12.0 years, including 36 children with learning disabilities, were examined Compared to non-LD children, more LD children were rejected and fewer were popular LD children were nominated as shy, seeking help and as victims of bullying significantly more than non-LD children, fewer were nominated as cooperative or as a leader. Aggressive behaviours did not distinguish the two groups. Teacher scores of LD children's behaviour were not related to peer nominations, although those of non-LD children were Findings are discussed in relation to the role of social cognitive deficits in LD children's relationships with peers.
Article
This large-scale questionnaire survey (n=2313) has sought teachers' and pupils' perceptions and experiences of peer support systems in challenging bullying in U.K. (mainly English) secondary schools and colleges (n=51). In general, these systems have been found to be effective in reducing the negative effects of bullying for victims. Collectively, the respondents also perceive many important benefits to users of these systems, to peer supporters and to the school as a whole, including helping to create a socio-emotional climate of “care”. The respondents also perceive problems with these systems and, importantly, how they have been overcome and might be further improved.
Article
Comparisons were made between children and teachers in two schools, one a mainstream school with an integrated resource unit for children with mild learning difficulties, the other a special school. Seventeen children with mild learning difficulties from the special school and ten children with mild learning difficulties from the mainstream school, matched with ten mainstream children for age and sex, took part in the study. Observations were made on children in the playground and their social proximity and positive and negative behaviours were categorised. Self-reports on teasing, bullying and friendships were also collected from children in the mainstream school. Teachers from both schools completed a questionnaire on their attitudes to integration. There was no difference in amount of social contact children with mild learning difficulties had in the mainstream and special school nor were there significant differences in total positive and negative behaviours. Mainstream children, however, played significantly less frequently with children with mild learning difficulties and this was more marked in the older than the younger children. Self-reports from children in the integrated school indicated that the children with mild learning difficulties were teased/bullied more and made fewer friends than the mainstream children. Teachers in the mainstream were more positive and teachers in the special school were more negative towards integration. The special school teachers' expectations fitted more with the findings of the study than did those of the mainstream teachers.
Article
Love-shyness is a degree of inhibition and reticence with the opposite sex that is sufficiently severe to preclude participation in courtship, marriage and family roles. Love-shyness is believed to be the result of a genetic-biologically rooted temperament and learning experiences with peers and family. Two love-shy groups (an older one and a younger one) were compared to a nonshy group on several variables pertaining to past peer group history, recreational proclivities, etc. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was also administered to all subjects. The love-shys recalled going through life as social isolates and outcasts and experienced very stressful and nonsupportive relationships with agemate peers. In contrast to the non-shys who recalled suffering very little bullying at the hands of agemate peers, the love-shys' formative years were recalled as having been fraught with victimization by bullies. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations are offered.
Article
The extent and nature of bullying among South Australian primary school children and their self appraisals of peer relations were investigated in a survey of 412 primary school children between the ages of 7 to 13 years. It was found that 10% of boys and 6% of girls were subject to peer group bullying and for 8% of such children the bullying episodes lasted 6 months or more. Factor analysis of styles of interpersonal relating amongst children identified three independent factors including a tendency to bully, to be victimized and to act in a pro-social manner. The tendency to be victimized correlated negatively with self appraisals of the number of friends, popularity, happiness at school and feelings of safety at school. The findings are discussed in relation to research linking negative self appraisals of interpersonal competence with isolation and proneness to depression in later years.
Article
Three potential sources of error in retrospective reports of childhood experiences are documented: low reliability and validity of autobiographical memory in general, the presence of general memory impairment associated with psychopathology, and the presence of specific mood-congruent memory biases associated with psychopathology. The evidence reviewed suggests that claims concerning the general unreliability of retrospective reports are exaggerated and that there is little reason to link psychiatric status with less reliable or less valid recall of early experiences. Nevertheless, it is clear that steps must be taken to overcome the limitations of retrospective reports and enhance their reliability.
Article
Considerable evidence tells us that ¿being liked¿ and ¿being disliked¿ are related to social competence, but evidence concerning friendships and their developmental significance is relatively weak. The argument is advanced that the developmental implications of these relationships cannot be specified without distinguishing between having friends, the identity of one's friends, and friendship quality. Most commonly, children are differentiated from one another in diagnosis and research only according to whether or not they have friends. The evidence shows that friends provide one another with cognitive and social scaffolding that differs from what nonfriends provide, and having friends supports good outcomes across normative transitions. But predicting developmental outcome also requires knowing about the behavioral characteristics and attitudes of children's friends as well as qualitative features of these relationships.
Bullying in Dublin schools
  • O Moore
  • A M Hillery
O'Moore, A. M. & Hillery, B. (1989). Bullying in Dublin schools. Irish Journal of Psychology, 10, 426–441.
Effects on subsequent heterosexual shyness and depression of peer victimisation at school. Paper presented at International Conference on Peer Relations
  • B Dietz
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