A study of apolipoproteins E and A–I in cutaneous amyloids
Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, TaiwanBritish Journal of Dermatology (Impact Factor: 4.28). 08/2001; 145(3):422 - 427. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2001.04402.x
Background Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is present in a variety of biochemically different amyloid deposits, including Alzheimer's disease, systemic amyloidosis and primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA). Among the three closely related alleleic forms of apoE, the ε4 allele is linked to Alzheimer's disease. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), another apolipoprotein, is also found in senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease and in amyloid of aortic atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, apoA-I has recently been found to be associated with hereditary cutaneous and cardiac amyloidosis.Objectives To determine whether the apoE ε4 allele is associated with increased risk of PCA and whether apoE and apoA-I are present in PCA and common secondary cutaneous amyloidosis (SCA) (i.e. basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and seborrhoeic keratosis).Methods We examined the apoE genotype in 57 Chinese patients with PCA and 58 normal healthy control subjects of similar age. In addition, immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the localization of apoE and apoA-I in skin tissues from 15 patients with SCA and 15 with PCA.Results The frequency of the ε4 allele in the PCA group was not significantly higher than that in the control group (8·8% vs. 6·9%, P > 0·05). ApoE was present in amyloid deposits in both PCA and SCA, but apoA-I was not detected in these cutaneous amyloid deposits.Conclusions ApoE is also a component of amyloid deposits in SCA. Although the genetic susceptibility of certain apoE isoforms may not be a crucial factor in the development of PCA and, although apoA-I is not associated with amyloid deposits of PCA and SCA, the role of apolipoproteins in amyloidogenesis deserves further scrutiny.
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ABSTRACT: The major component of localized cutaneous amyloids may be derived from cytokeratin (CK). However, the CK profiles of primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) and secondary cutaneous amyloidosis (SCA) remain obscure. Paraffin-embedded sections of skin tissue from 64 patients with PCA, 111 with SCA and 3 with systemic amyloidosis were analyzed immunohistochemically using 12 different polyclonal or monoclonal anti-CK antibodies (34betaE12, MNF116, LP34, AE1/AE3, anti-CK1, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK10, CK14, CK16 and CK17). In addition, frozen skin tissues from 12 patients with PCA were analyzed for comparison with the paraffin-embedded tissue. In all 64 PCA paraffin sections, the amyloid deposits were immunopositive for anti-CK5 antibody and 34betaE12. In all 12 frozen sections of PCA, the amyloid deposits were immunopositive for anti-CK5 antibody, 34betaE12, MNF116 and LP34, and seven (58.3%), three (25%) and one (8.3%) were immunopositive for anti-CK1, CK14, and CK10 antibodies, respectively. In all SCA sections, the amyloid deposits were immunopositive for CK5 and 34betaE12. In addition, MNF116 immunolabeled amyloids of all sections from patients with basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma, and MNF116 and LP34 immunolabeled amyloids of sections from patients with porokeratosis. Our results indicate that CK5 is the major CK present in the amyloid deposits of PCA and SCA, and "amyloid-K" is mainly derived from basal keratinocytes.
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