A case of long-term survival after pulmonary resection for metachronous pulmonary metastasis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mucogawa-machi, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan.
International Journal of Surgery Case Reports 06/2012; 3(9):451-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.05.013
Source: PubMed


Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCE) is a rare malignancy among esophageal cancers. We reported a case of 63-year-old woman with metachronous pulmonary metastasis of BSCE, successfully treated by metastasectomy of the left lung.
Biopsy specimens of upper gastrointestinal fiberscopy led to diagnosis of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Computed tomography revealed metastatic lymph nodes surrounding the bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and no evidence of metastasis to distant organs. Curative esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection was performed through thoracoscopic approach. Pathological examination of the resected specimens led to diagnosis of BSCE with invasion into the submucosal layer of the esophageal wall. Two years later, a solitary oval-shaped pulmonary lesion of approximately 10mm was detected in the left lung. Wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed via thoracoscopic approach. The postoperative course was uneventful. Histologically, the pulmonary lesion was diagnosed as metastatic BSCE. Follow-up indicated no recurrence 9 years after the initial surgery.
Surgical intervention was acceptable on this case of solitary pulmonary metastasis. However, data are lacking about the efficacy of pulmonary resection for metachronous pulmonary metastasis of BSCE because the postoperative outcome is usually poor. The efficacy of surgical intervention for metastatic lesions of BSCE is debatable and requires further examination.
Although the usefulness of surgical intervention for metastatic lesions from BSCE is controversial, the patients with metachronous solitary metastasis to the lung and without extrapulmonary metastasis would be good candidate for pulmonary resection.

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Available from: Masashi Takemura, Apr 15, 2014
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    • "The prognosis of patients treated non-operatively for pulmonary metastasis is also unclear as data on the benefit of surgical resection of BSCCE pulmonary metastases is currently lacking. To the best of our knowledge, three successful cases of resected pulmonary BSCCE metastases without involvement of distant organs have been reported[4,10,11]. Surgical intervention may be considered in patients likely to tolerate operative therapy with solitary metachronous pulmonary BSCCE metastases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (BSCCE) is a relatively rare variant of oesophageal malignancy. There are no established treatment strategies for pulmonary metastases of BSCCE. Presentation of case: A 72-year-old man underwent oesophagectomy and subsequently received a pathological diagnosis of stage IIIA (T3N1M0) BSCCE according to Union for International Cancer Control. One year and 5 months later, he underwent partial resection of the right lung because of metastasis of the BSCCE. One year and 6 months after the pulmonary resection, recurrence in the right lung was observed. The patient was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and the lesion completely disappeared. The patient is doing well without recurrence 5 years after chemoradiotherapy. Discussion: In our case, the recurrent lesion in the right lung was observed after the pulmonary resection. It is difficult to determine whether the recurrent lesion is solitary or multiple and whether it is a local or pleural metastasis. Therefore, surgical indication must be decided carefully. Systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy is useful to treat BSCCE metastasis, however, appropriate, but which agents and their regimens are appropriate is not clear. Concurrent chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy for pulmonary BSCCE metastases may provide curative therapy and should be considered. Conclusion: This report describes a case of recurrent pulmonary metastasis after pulmonary resection of BSCCE metastasis, successfully treated by concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Further studies are required to establish the indications and efficacy of these therapeutic approaches.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCCE) is a rare and distinctive tumor with no standard treatment. This study aimed to explore treatment in relation to prognosis of the disease. Methods: A total of 142 patients with BSCCE that underwent treatment in our hospital from March 1999 to July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received surgery, 42 postoperative radiotherapy and 28 patients chemotherapy. Results: There were 26 patients included in stage I, 60 in stage II, 53 in stage III and 3 in stage IV. The clinical symptoms and macroscopic performances of BSCCE did not differ from those of typical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Among 118 patients receiving endoscopic biopsy, only 12 were diagnosed with BSCCE. The median survival time (MST) of the entire group was 32 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) of 81.4%, 46.8% and 31.0%, respectively. The 5-year OS of stage I and II patients was significantly longer than that of stages III/IV, at 60.3%, 36.1% and 10.9%, respectively (p<0.001, p=0.001). The MST and 5-year OS were 59.0 months and 47.4% in patients with tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus, and 27.0 months and 18.1% in those with lesions in the upper/middle esophagus (p=0.002). However, the survival was not significantly improved in patients undegoing adjunctive therapy. Multivariate analysis showed TNM stage and tumor location to be independent prognostic factors. Furthermore, distant metastasis was the most frequent failure pattern, with a median recurrence time of 10 months. Conclusion: BSCCE is an aggressive disease with rapid progression and a propensity for distant metastasis. It is difficult to make a definitive diagnosis via preoperative biopsy. Multidisciplinary therapy including radical esophagectomy with extended lymphadenectomy should be recommended, while the effectiveness of radiochemotherapy requires further validation for BSCCE.
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