Efficiency of anacardic acid as preservative in tomato products

ArticleinJournal of Food Processing and Preservation 32(4):600 - 609 · August 2008with48 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2008.00201.x
Abstract
Anacardic acid, 6[8′(Z), 11′(Z),14′-pentadecatrienyl] salicylic acid is the main active principle of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiceae), the cashew. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) contains approximately 70% anacardic acids, 18% cardol, 5% cardanol, and some other phenols and less polar substances. Because of the presence of anacardic acids, the CNSL exhibits potent antimicrobial activity. In view of this and the potent antimicrobial activity of anacardic acid observed in our previous study, the present study was planned to evaluate the anacardic acid isolated by us in our previous study as a food preservative. The effect of anacardic acid at 0.014% (w/w) was studied in tomato paste and tomato ketchup inoculated with 2 × 104 cfu/g of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and stored at room temperature. Good activity was observed, as no viable growth after 28 days in both the products. Results showed that anacardic acid was active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Results of the study indicated that anacardic acid can act as a potential preservative in tomato products and can be considered as an alternative natural preservative over the synthetic preservatives. When safeties of synthetic preservatives are questioned, natural substances of plant origin may appeal to the public. The anacardic acid isolated form cashew nut shell is present in cashew nut, which is being consumed by a number of people as a food material. So it is relatively safe to use as an alternate to the existing synthetic preservatives.
    • "). Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is used in industrial applications such as food preservatives, paints, cements and for gasoline stabilization; as such, it is an important commercial product in several tropical countries (Paramashivappa et al., 2001; Trevisan et al., 2006; Narasimhan et al., 2008). In addition, this plant has been widely used in folk medicine in Brazil, India and Africa to treat inflammation, gastrointestinal diseases and hypertension (Mota et al., 1985; Cavalcante et al., 2003; Konan and Bacchi, 2007b ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) is a Brazilian plant that is usually consumed in natura and is used in folk medicine. Anacardic acids (AAs) in the cashew nut shell liquid are biologically active as gastroprotectors, inhibitors of the activity of various deleterious enzymes, antitumor agents and antioxidants. Yet, there are no reports of toxicity testing to guarantee their use in vivo models. We evaluated AAs biosafety by measuring the acute, subacute and mutagenic effects of AAs administration in BALB/c mice. In acute tests, BALB/c mice received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg, whereas animals in subacute tests received 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg for 30 days. Hematological, biochemical and histological analyses were performed in all animals. Mutagenicity was measured with the acute micronucleus test 24h after oral administration of 250 mg/kg AAs. Our results showed that the AAs acute minimum lethal dose in BALB/c mice is higher than 2000 mg/kg since this concentration did not produce any symptoms. In subacute tests, females which received the highest doses (600 or 1000 mg/kg) were more susceptible, which was seen by slightly decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels coupled with a moderate increase in urea. Anacardic acids did not produce any mutagenic effects. The data indicate that doses less than 300 mg/kg did not produce biochemical and hematological alterations in BALB/c mice. Additional studies must be conducted to investigate the pharmacological potential of this natural substance in order to ensure their safe use in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011
    • "Studies on the efficiency of anacardic acid as a preservative in tomato products showed that this compound was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, and Escherichia coli were tested). This indicates that anacardic acid can be considered an alternative natural preservative to synthetic preservatives [135]. Anacardic acids from the cashew apple exhibited antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenolic lipids are a very diversified group of compounds derived from mono and dihydroxyphenols, i.e., phenol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone. Due to their strong amphiphilic character, these compounds can incorporate into erythrocytes and liposomal membranes. In this review, the antioxidant, antigenotoxic, and cytostatic activities of resorcinolic and other phenolic lipids are described. The ability of these compounds to inhibit bacterial, fungal, protozoan and parasite growth seems to depend on their interaction with proteins and/or on their membrane-disturbing properties.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010
    • "The antibacterial and antifungal properties of fatty acids have been studied extensively and the development and use of safe antimicrobial preservatives in pharmaceutical preparations continue to be of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry [2, 4, 5]. In continuation of our ongoing research work on development of preservatives, the present study was designed to evaluate the preservative effectiveness of caprylic acid derivatives against three representative bacterial strains and comparing it with the standard preservatives (methyl and propyl paraben) [2, 5]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential derivatives of caprylic acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in Aluminium Hydroxide Gel – USP using Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2901, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2063, and Escherichia coli MTCC 1652 as representative challenging microorganisms for antimicrobial effectiveness testing as per USP 2004. The caprylic acid derivative, capryl hydrazide exhibited better preservative efficacy than caprylic acid as well as the standard preservatives, methyl paraben and propyl paraben.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008
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