Phenotypic spectrum and sex effects in eleven myoclonus‐dystonia families with ε‐sarcoglycan mutations
Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New YorkMovement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.68). 03/2008; 23(4):588 - 592. DOI: 10.1002/mds.21785
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) due to SGCE mutations is characterized by early onset myoclonic jerks, often associated with dystonia. Penetrance is influenced by parental sex, but other sex effects have not been established. In 42 affected individuals from 11 families with identified mutations, we found that sex was highly associated with age at onset regardless of mutation type; the median age onset for girls was 5 years versus 8 years for boys (P < 0.0097). We found no association between mutation type and phenotype. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society
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ABSTRACT: Hyperkinetic dystonia is characterized by phasic, tremulous, and “jerky” movements in addition to twisting postures. We studied longitudinally 23 index patients with hyperkinetic dystonia from a quaternary pediatric movement disorder clinic in Ireland. Four clinical categories emerged: (1) Eight patients were diagnosed with myoclonus-dystonia, of whom seven carried heterozygous epsilon sarcoglycan (SGCE) mutations, including a novel deletion of exon 10. Gait disorder, unsteadiness, or frequent falls before 18 months were detected in all SGCE mutation carriers, whereas the typical neck-predominant presentation developed only years later. (2) One patient classified as benign hereditary chorea, because jerks were choreiform and continuous rather than action-induced, carried a heterozygous stop mutation of the TITF-1 gene (Y114X, exon 2). (3) Three mutation-negative patients were grouped as “myoclonic dystonia” with jerks only in the body regions affected by dystonia. (4) Eleven patients presented with a novel combination of dystonia and low amplitude poly-mini myoclonus of the upper limbs and pectoral muscles (D-PMM). In early childhood up to 3 years of age, an initial presentation with predominant gait impairment with only subtle jerks should prompt consideration of SGCE mutation analysis in addition to testing for DYT1 mutations. A causative gene for D-PMM remains to be identified. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society
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ABSTRACT: Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is characterized by early-onset myoclonus and dystonia, and is often due to mutations in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SCGE) at locus 7q21. The pathogenesis of M-D is poorly understood, and in a murine knockout model, dopaminergic hyperactivity has been postulated as a mechanism. We present two unrelated individuals with M-D due to SCGE deletions who displayed a robust and sustained response to levodopa (L-dopa) treatment. In contrast to using dopamine blocking agents suggested by the hyperdopaminergic knockout model, we propose that a trial of L-dopa may be considered in patients with myoclonus-dystonia.
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