Article

Emotional Intelligence and Dispute Mediation in Escalating and De‐Escalating Situations

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Abstract

A scenario-based laboratory experiment investigated how emotional intelligence (EI) influences informal mediation. A 2 × 2 factorial design varied subjects' EI level (high vs. low) and whether disputant hostility was escalating or de-escalating. Dependent variables included mediation goals and tactics. Results indicated that high EI mediators were more likely than low EI mediators to pursue the goal of achieving an overall mutually satisfactory agreement. High EI mediators were more likely than low EI mediators to report a willingness to use a larger number of mediation tactics to promote a compromise. By contrast, low EI mediators were more likely to endorse using pressing, compensating, and inaction techniques. Results suggest that individual differences in EI should be considered in future mediation research.

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... Recently, studies have been carried out to investigate if EI could influence informal mediation (Boland and Ross, 2010). In our paper, we postulate that EHR disputes may be influenced by the emotional intelligence of the disputants. ...
... Numerous studies have been conducted analysing the relationship between EI and negotiation. Boland and Ross (2010) in their research into leadership, negotiation and EI, state a leader's EI as a good indicator of how well they lead or manage others. Conclusions from their study suggest high EQ disputants were more likely to seek mutually satisfying agreements; while those with a Low EQ would try to put a stop to conflict by not addressing underlying issues (for example by compensating or putting pressure on disputants to settle). ...
... Since the capability of recognising and managing emotions in ourselves and others has already been coined as Emotional Intelligence (EI) by Mayer and Salovey (1997), we infer with other similar consensus in literature that EI has a role to play in negotiations. According to some recent studies (Ogilvie and Carsky, 2002;Mueller and Curhan, 2006;Boland and Ross, 2010), EI not only helps disputants to manage their emotions during the negotiation process, but also in achieving satisfaction of the outcome. Hence, through the inference mechanism of Argumentative Theory of Reasoning, we have established from existing research studies that the EI of disputants has an effect on the outcome of a negotiation. ...
Conference Paper
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Numerous authors have expressed concerns that the introduction of the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR) will lead to an escalation of disputes. Some disputes will concern the accuracy of the record whereas others will arise simply due to greater access to health care records. Online dispute resolution (ODR) programs have been successfully applied to cost-effectively help disputants resolve commercial, insurance and other legal disputes, and can also facilitate the resolution of health care related disputes. However, we expect that health differs from other application domains in ODR because of the emotional engagement patients have with their health and those of loved ones. In this study we will be looking at whether the success of an online negotiation is related to how people recognise and manage emotions, and in particular, their Emotional Intelligence score.
... Since the alternative hypothesis is verified, and supervisory personnel have been shown to have higher emotional intelligence on average compared to their non-supervisory counterparts, it is valuable for law enforcement agencies to know the importance of utilizing their supervisory officers in ways that acknowledge and utilize their higher EI skill-set to benefit the community and police force. A multitude of such benefits include increased cross-cultural communication ability, enhanced ability to de-escalate emotionally intense situations, and a better ability to effectively interview witnesses and victims (Imai & Gelfand, 2010;Boland & Ross, 2010;Risan et al., 2017). ...
... Because research has shown that higher EI individuals are more likely to utilize mediation tactics in their interpersonal interactions in order to promote agreeable behaviors (Boland & Ross, 2010), the value of emotional intelligence to law enforcement officers can be of great value in de-escalating emotionally charged or angry situations. The findings of this study, which tend to show that higher EI levels are found among supervisory law enforcement officers, may indicate the importance of assigning supervisors to employment spaces where emotional escalation is more likely to happen so that they are present or nearby to utilize these emotionally mediating abilities in the field (Oliva et al., 2010). ...
... There is evidence to suggest that adaptive emotional functioning predicts important work-related outcomes (e.g. Boland & Ross, 2010;Kerr, Garvin, Heaton, & Boyle, 2006;Lopes, Grewal, Kadis, Gall, & Salovey, 2006;O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2010), may have an important role to play in relation to academic achievement (MacCann, Fogarty, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2011) and graduate employability (Dacre-Pool & Qualter, under review). ...
... Bastian, Burns, & Nettelbeck, 2005;Brackett & Mayer, 2003;Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, 2004;Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000;Martins, Ramalho, & Morin, 2010;Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), academic achievement (e.g. Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2009;MacCann et al., 2011;Qualter, Gardner, Hutchinson, Pope & Whiteley, 2012) and a number of other important outcomes that specifically relate to the workplace (Boland & Ross, 2010;Kerr et al., 2006;Kidwell, Hardesty, Murtha, & Sheng, 2011;Lopes et al., 2006;Mueller & Curhan, 2006;O'Boyle et al., 2010;Rosete & Ciarrochi, 2005;Vitello-Cicciu, 2001). ...
Article
Emotional intelligence continues to receive a substantial amount of attention from researchers who argue that it is an important predictor of health, wellbeing and in particular, work-related outcomes. Emotional self-efficacy, which is concerned with beliefs in one's emotional functioning capabilities, has recently been shown to be important in relation to graduate employability. However, there are very few empirical studies which demonstrate that emotional functioning ability is something that it is possible to teach and develop. This study investigates whether it is possible to improve levels of emotional intelligence and emotional self-efficacy in university students through a teaching intervention. The findings show that it is possible to increase emotional self-efficacy and some aspects of emotional intelligence ability. These findings are considered within the framework of graduate employability, as improving emotional functioning may be particularly important to young people who will shortly join the graduate working population.
... There is evidence to suggest that adaptive emotional functioning predicts important work-related outcomes (e.g. Boland & Ross, 2010;Kerr, Garvin, Heaton, & Boyle, 2006;Lopes, Grewal, Kadis, Gall, & Salovey, 2006;O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2010), may have an important role to play in relation to academic achievement (MacCann, Fogarty, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2011) and graduate employability (Dacre-Pool & Qualter, under review). ...
... Bastian, Burns, &Learning andIndividual Differences 22 (2012) 306-312 Nettelbeck, 2005;Brackett & Mayer, 2003;Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, 2004;Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000;Martins, Ramalho, & Morin, 2010;Trinidad & Johnson, 2002), academic achievement (e.g. Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2009;MacCann et al., 2011;Qualter, Gardner, Hutchinson, Pope & Whiteley, 2012) and a number of other important outcomes that specifically relate to the workplace (Boland & Ross, 2010;Kerr et al., 2006;Kidwell, Hardesty, Murtha, & Sheng, 2011;Lopes et al., 2006;Mueller & Curhan, 2006;O'Boyle et al., 2010;Rosete & Ciarrochi, 2005;Vitello-Cicciu, 2001). ...
Article
Emotional intelligence continues to receive a substantial amount of attention from researchers who argue that it is an important predictor of health, wellbeing and in particular, work-related outcomes. Emotional self-efficacy, which is concerned with beliefs in one's emotional functioning capabilities, has recently been shown to be important in relation to graduate employability. However, there are very few empirical studies which demonstrate that emotional functioning ability is something that it is possible to teach and develop. This study investigates whether it is possible to improve levels of emotional intelligence and emotional self-efficacy in university students through a teaching intervention. The findings show that it is possible to increase emotional self-efficacy and some aspects of emotional intelligence ability. These findings are considered within the framework of graduate employability, as improving emotional functioning may be particularly important to young people who will shortly join the graduate working population.
... Intelligence has also been linked to emotional and behavioral regulation, allowing for greater inhibitory control and the ability to pursue long-term goals (Meldrum et al., 2016). Intelligence may also enhance school performance or provide problem-solving skills (Widom, DuMont, & Czaja, 2007a), and the ability to communicate effectively as a result of higher intelligence may also decrease the need to resort to violence to solve disputes (Boland & Ross, 2010). ...
Article
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Physical abuse in childhood places individuals at risk for many behavioral and mental health problems in adulthood. Nevertheless, not all abused children will ultimately experience these negative outcomes. Using a subsample of physically abused youth from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined whether protective and risk factors in adolescence (intelligence, family attachments, and neighborhood disadvantage) explained why some victims fared better in early adulthood. Outcomes of violent offending, depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem were examined. Family attachments were found to be protective against depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, while the effects of intelligence were more limited. These findings emphasize that there is marked variability in how physically abused children fare in early adulthood.
... Overall, emotional competences, such as expressing and understanding emotions, have important implications for psychological, social, physical, and professional adjustment. In the professional sphere, emotions have direct and indirect impacts on employability competences and several work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, work stress, work engagement, and burnout (Boland and Ross 2010;Genoud and Brodard 2012;Joseph and Newman 2010;Lopes et al. 2006). Researchers have found that low neuroticism (which is indicative of higher emotional stability) is positively correlated with job satisfaction and job performance (Judge and Bono 2001), and that emotional regulation is positively associated with higher academic achievement and job performance (Joseph and Newman 2010;Leroy and Grégoire 2007). ...
Chapter
p>In this chapter, we will apply theoretical constructs to a case study from our consultation service. We aim to highlight, through the exploration of theory and practice, how career counselors can help clients become more adaptable and build their social, emotional, and cognitive meta-capacities through a brief career counseling intervention.</p
... Emotional intelligence (EI) was defined by Bellucci, Venkatraman, Muecke, Stranieri and Abawajy (2012) as "the ability to recognize and manage one's own emotion and those of others," (p. 6) and seems to be particularly pertinent here. Boland and Ross (2010) found that emotional intelligence shown by mediators can affect agreements mutually accepted by the parties in a conflict. Other variables can also affect the outcome of a conflict. ...
Article
An experiment with 212 students (100 men, 112 women; M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.9) was carried out to compare the effect of four techniques used by mediators on the number of agreements contracted by negotiators. Under experimental conditions, mediators were asked either to rephrase (reformulate) negotiators’ words or to imitate them or to show active listening behavior, or finally, to use a free technique. More agreements were reached in the active listening condition than in both free and rephrase conditions. Furthermore, mediators in the active listening condition were perceived, by the negotiators, as more efficient than mediators using other techniques, although there was no significant difference observed between the active listening and imitation conditions.
... • characteristics of the context-like culture (Callister and Wall, 2004), individual differences within cultures (Davidheiser, 2006), the number of parties in multiparty mediation (Böhmelt, 2011), a highly con ictual context (Grima and Trépo, 2009), time pressure (Grima and Trépo, 2009;Pinkley et al., 1995), shifts and changes in con ict dynamics (Vukovic, 2012) and past mediation outcomes (Bercovitch and Gartner, 2006); • characteristics of the con ict like con ict intensity and resolution status (Alberts et al., 2005;Baitar et al., 2012b;Bercovitch and Gartner, 2006;Pinkley et al., 1995), as well as integrative potential (Maoz and Terris, 2006;Terris and Maoz, 2005); • characteristics of disputants like gender (Herrman et al., 2003) and relationship hostility (Mareschal, 2005); • perceptions of con ict asymmetry between the parties (Jehn et al., 2010) and parties' behavioral style during the mediation (Nelson et al., 2011); • characteristics of the mediator like mediator's experience and skill base (Arnold, 2007;Mareschal, 2005;Poitras, 2009), mediators' ties, knowledge and bias toward the parties (Savun, 2008;Svensson, 2009), mediator's emotional intelligence (Boland and Ross, 2010), the clarity of the mediator's role and their role-conception (Grima andTrépo, 2009,Van Gramberg, 2006), power position of the mediator (Svensson, 2007) and mediator's style (Alberts et al., 2005;Asal et al., 2002, Baitar et al., 2012a, 2012bBeardsley et al., 2006;Goldberg, 2005;Jameson et al., 2010;Martinez-Pecino et al., 2008;Quinn et al., 2006;Wilkenfeld et al., 2003;Wall et al., 2011;Yiu et al., 2006); and • characteristics of disputants' perceptions like trust between mediator and parties (Stimec and Poitras, 2009), perceived mediator credibility (Maoz and Terris, 2006), perceived mediator's acceptability (Mareschal, 2005), parties' perceptions of fair conduct (Goldman et al., 2008), perceptions of procedural justice (Bollen et al., 2012), perceived mediator's partiality and bias (Poitras, 2009;Jehn et al., 2006), perceived mediator's warmth and consideration, as well as chemistry with parties (Poitras, 2009). ...
Article
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Purpose – Research on conflict mediation presents a scattered, piecemeal understanding of what determines mediators’ strategies and tactics and ultimately what constitutes successful mediation. This paper presents research on developing a unifying framework – the situated model of mediation – that identifies and integrates the most basic dimensions of mediation situations. These dimensions combine to determine differences in mediator’s strategies that in turn influence mediation processes and outcomes. Design/methodology/approach – The approach used by this paper was twofold. First, the existing empirical literature was reviewed on factors that influence mediator’s behaviors. Based on the findings of this review, a survey study was conducted with experienced mediators to determine the most fundamental dimensions of mediation situations affecting mediators’ behaviors and mediation processes and outcomes. The data were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis. Findings – The results of the study show that four of the most fundamental dimensions of mediation situations include: low vs high intensity of the conflict, cooperative vs competitive relationship between the parties, tight vs flexible context and overt vs covert processes and issues. Each of these factors was found to independently predict differences in mediators’ behaviors and perceptions of processes and outcomes. These dimensions are then combined to constitute the basic dimensions of the situated model of mediation. Originality/value – The situated model of mediation is both heuristic and generative, and it shows how a minimal number of factors are sufficient to capture the complexity of conflict mediation in a wide range of contexts.
... In management, researchers found the interconnections between emotional intelligence and some work related variables such as decision making and negotiation (Day and Carroll, 2004; Mueller and Curhan, 2006; Boland and Ross, 2010). Likewise, Chabeli (2006) also encountered the bridge between emotional intelligence and clinical decision making. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Clinical governance effectiveness is built on the responsibility of clinical members towards other stakeholders inside and outside the hospital. Through the testing of the hypotheses on the relationships between clinical governance and its antecedents, this paper aims to corroborate that emotional intelligence is the first layer of bricks, ethics and trust the second layer, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) the third layer of the entire architecture of clinical governance. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 409 responses in completed form returned from self-administered structured questionnaires dispatched to 705 clinical staff members underwent the structural equation modeling (SEM)-based analysis. Findings – Emotional intelligence among clinicians, as the data reveals, is the lever for ethics of care and knowledge-based or identity-based trust to thrive in hospitals, which in turn activate ethical CSR in clinical activities. Ethical CSR in clinical deeds will heighten clinical governance effectiveness in hospitals. Originality/value – The journey to test research hypotheses has built layer-by-layer of CSR-based model of clinical governance in which high concentration of emotional intelligence among clinical members in the hospital catalyzes ethics of care and knowledge-based or identity-based trust, without which, CSR initiatives to cultivate ethical values cannot be successfully implemented to optimize clinical governance effectiveness in Vietnam-based hospitals.
... Overall, emotional competences, such as expressing and understanding emotions, have important implications for psychological, social, physical, and professional adjustment. In the professional sphere, emotions have direct and indirect impacts on employability competences and several work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, work stress, work engagement, and burnout (Boland and Ross 2010;Genoud and Brodard 2012;Joseph and Newman 2010;Lopes et al. 2006). Researchers have found that low neuroticism (which is indicative of higher emotional stability) is positively correlated with job satisfaction and job performance (Judge and Bono 2001), and that emotional regulation is positively associated with higher academic achievement and job performance (Joseph and Newman 2010;Leroy and Grégoire 2007). ...
Chapter
Career adaptability encompasses the attitudes, behaviors, and competencies that people use “in fitting themselves into work that suits them” (Savickas, Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work, Hoboken, Wiley, p. 45, 2005). Savickas (The Career Development Quarterly, 45:247–259, 1997) proposed adaptability as a unifying concept to Super’s (The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row, 1957; Career development in the 1980s: Theory and practice, pp. 28–42, Springfield: Thomas, 1981; Career choice and development, pp. 197–261 San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990) life-span, life-space theory, essentially integrating the three major perspectives that Super elaborated: development, self, and context. Career adaptability includes four specific dimensions: concern, control, curiosity, and confidence. Career counselors can use these four dimensions dynamically within the counseling process to help clients better adapt their needs and capacities to different constraints imposed by the work environment (Savickas et al., Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75:239–250, 2009).
Chapter
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Este e-book es un recurso de acceso abierto. Se autoriza la copia, la descarga y la difusión de este e-book, siempre para usos no comerciales y sin alterar los contenidos. Los trabajos que contiene este e-book proceden de un congreso celebrado en la Universidad de Sevilla el 26 de junio de 2014, con contribuciones relativas al tema del proyecto europeo ArleKin. Referencia del libro : © Guichot-Muñoz, Elena; Fernández-Gavira, Jesús; González-Monteagudo, José (Eds.): Formación y mediación para la inclusión social. Contribuciones en investigación e intervención. Sevilla : Proyecto ArleKin / Universidad de Sevilla. Año 2014 Maquetación : Andrea Marabini
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Este e-book es un recurso de acceso abierto. Se autoriza la copia, la descarga y la difusión de este e-book, siempre para usos no comerciales y sin alterar los contenidos. Los trabajos que contiene este e-book proceden de un congreso celebrado en la Universidad de Sevilla el 26 de junio de 2014, con contribuciones relativas al tema del proyecto europeo ArleKin. Referencia del libro : © Guichot-Muñoz, Elena; Fernández-Gavira, Jesús; González-Monteagudo, José (Eds.): Formación y mediación para la inclusión social. Contribuciones en investigación e intervención. Sevilla : Proyecto ArleKin / Universidad de Sevilla. Año 2014 Maquetación : Andrea Marabini
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Compilación de trabajos generados por los profesores del Departamento de Clínicas de Salud Mental de la Universidad de Guadalajara
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The study investigated the relationships of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills of supervisors to subordinates' strategies of handling conflict: problem solving and bargaining. Data (N = 1,395) for this study were collected with questionnaires from MBA students in seven countries (U.S., Greece, China, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and Macau, South Africa, and Portugal). Psychometric properties of the measures were tested and improved with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and analysis of indicator and internal consistency reliabilities, and the hypotheses were tested with a structural equations model for each country. Results in the U.S. and in the combined sample provided support for the model which suggests that self-awareness is positively associated with self-regulation, empathy, and social skills; self regulation is positively associated with empathy and social skills; empathy and social skills are positively associated with motivation; which in turn, is positively associated with problem solving strategy and negatively associated with bargaining strategy. Differences among countries in these relationships are noted and implications for organizations discussed.
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The problem and the solution. In this conceptual article, emotional intelligence (EI) is critiqued, particularly as a resource for leadership development. Ultimately, this article seeks to answer the question: What should human resource development (HRD) professionals know and reflect on as they consider the use of EI instruments and interventions in leadership development? The transmutation of emotions in organizations from negative and irrational to a positive attribute of successful leaders is traced, demonstrating how emotions have traditionally been mobilized in organizations to achieve instrumental goals. The following questions are explored: Is there one accepted model of EI? What are the instruments and measures for EI? Is there a definitive association between EI and leadership effectiveness? What issues are raised by generalizing EI abilities and competencies across cultures or in multicultural contexts? How might EI training enable leaders to abuse power more skillfully to achieve personal or organizational ends? In conclusion, suggested areas of concern for HRD practitioners are raised, and alternative ways to include increased awareness of emotions in leadership development are discussed.
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Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure (Emotional Quotient Inventory [EQ-i]) using a military sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the four-factor model for the MSCEIT, but not the five-factor model for the EQ-i, fit well. MSCEIT and EQ-i scores were modestly intercorrelated. Gender was related only to the MSCEIT’s Emotional Perception scale scores. EQ-i scores, but not MSCEIT scores, tended to be strongly related to scores on measures assessing personality, self-monitoring ability, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. The EQ-i also accounted for incremental variance in job and life satisfaction, after controlling for personality. Overall, cognitive ability scores were unrelated to EQ-i scores and slightly related to two of the MSCEIT scale scores.
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This paper reviews research on the role of anger in conflict. We distinguish between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of anger, the former referring to the impact of parties’ feelings of anger on their own behavior and the latter referring to the impact of one parties’ anger on the other’s behavior. We further compare the effects of anger across a variety of conflict settings, including negotiation, ultimatum bargaining, prisoner’s dilemma, resource dilemma, and coalition formation. At the intrapersonal level, anger is associated with competition in all conflict settings. In contrast, the interpersonal effects of anger differ across situations, with anger sometimes eliciting cooperation, sometimes eliciting competition, and sometimes having no effect. Based on the research reviewed, we conclude that the interpersonal effects of anger in conflict are determined by the level of interdependence of the parties, their information processing tendencies, and the justifiability of the anger expressions.
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Purpose This paper aims to identify whether emotional intelligence relates to counterpart outcome satisfaction in negotiation contexts. Design/methodology/approach A negotiation simulation and a pre‐established measure of emotional intelligence were employed. Findings In Study 1, multi‐level models revealed that a participant's ability to understand emotion positively predicted his or her counterpart's outcome satisfaction. Study 2 replicates and extends this finding by showing the counterpart's outcome satisfaction, assessment of liking, and desire to negotiate again with the participant. Practical implications The mechanisms identifying how participants with high levels of understanding emotion induced their counterparts with positive affect were not examined. Originality/value This is the first empirical article to show a relationship between emotional intelligence and counterpart outcome satisfaction in a negotiation context.
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Sixty-six male Japanese students verbally interacted with a confederate opponent, who expressed unreasonable requests politely or impolitely. Half of the participants was pressed to respond immediately, while the other half was not. Personality variables were found to determine the participants' responses to the conflict in interactions with the situational variables; that is, verbal aggressiveness increased hostile responses only when the confederate behaved in an impolite manner, and self-monitoring increased integrative responses only when the participants were not pressed to respond quickly.
Article
At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states - called core affect - influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.
Book
The volume offers an exploration of methods for analysis of emotion in negotiation, such as cognitive modeling, discourse analysis, all testing, subsequent multidimensional scaling, impression rating, and graph modeling for conflict resolution, reasonable and unreasonable disagreement. It covers activities, such as business negotiation, conflict solving, bargaining, task management meetings, discussions, and elaborates on different kinds of emotions. Some emotions stimulate negotiation (e.g. empathy), others -hinder it (e.g. disgust). However, all emotions open a door to uncertainty in relations and negotiation, which in turn provides an opportunity. The volume views language in negotiation not only as a vehicle for transmission of thought but also as a manifestation of emotion and the ethical.
Article
1. Introduction The study of emotion Types of evidence for theories of emotion Some goals for a cognitive theory of emotion 2. Structure of the theory The organisation of emotion types Basic emotions Some implications of the emotions-as-valenced-reactions claim 3. The cognitive psychology of appraisal The appraisal structure Central intensity variables 4. The intensity of emotions Global variables Local variables Variable-values, variable-weights, and emotion thresholds 5. Reactions to events: I. The well-being emotions Loss emotions and fine-grained analyses The fortunes-of-others emotions Self-pity and related states 6. Reactions to events: II. The prospect-based emotions Shock and pleasant surprise Some interrelationships between prospect-based emotions Suspense, resignation, hopelessness, and other related states 7. Reactions to agents The attribution emotions Gratitude, anger, and some other compound emotions 8. Reactions to objects The attraction emotions Fine-grained analyses and emotion sequences 9. The boundaries of the theory Emotion words and cross-cultural issues Emotion experiences and unconscious emotions Coping and the function of emotions Computational tractability.
Article
Although it is widely recognized that the behavior of mediators in resolving disputes is often contingent on the characteristics of disputes, little systematic research has examined mediators' perceptions of the contingent use or effectiveness of their behavior. We surveyed 255 professional mediators about the features of the disputes they encountered, the tactics they used, and the outcomes they achieved in their most recently completed case. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a hypothesized factor structure for mediator behavior, and exploratory factor analyses provided information about the underlying structures of dispute features and mediation outcomes. The results of the factor analyses served as the basis for an assessment of perceived contingencies among dispute sources, mediator tactics, and outcomes. The results of correlational analyses suggest that the mediators used many tactics contingently. The results of moderated multiple regression analyses indicate that mediators believed some tactics were effective in certain dispute situations and not in others. Tactics viewed as positively related with success in some disputes were viewed as unrelated or even negatively related with success in other disputes.
Article
Two sources of third-party partisanship are: (1) the preexisting affiliation a third party may have with the negotiators and (2) the overt support a third party demonstrates by imposing an outcome. In 2 experiments, subjects involved in a negotiation simulation were told prior to negotiation that the third party was either positively affiliated with their side or with their opponent's side. In both studies, third parties imposed settlements on the disputants, reflecting varying degrees of overt support. The results suggest that negative third-party affiliation reduced disputant outcome expectations (thereby improving the likelihood of an agreement) and led to enhanced ratings of outcome and third-party satisfaction relative to favorable third-party affiliation. The results are consistent with predictions made by both prospect and control theory
Article
I don't know Cynthia Cohen but the article must be a review of a book by Kressel and myself, Negotiation Behavior. --Dean Pruitt
Chapter
In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.
Article
This article presents a framework for emotional intelligence, a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate appraisal and expression of emotion in oneself and in others, the effective regulation of emotion in self and others, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan, and achieve in one's life. We start by reviewing the debate about the adaptive versus maladaptive qualities of emotion. We then explore the literature on intelligence, and especially social intelligence, to examine the place of emotion in traditional intelligence conceptions. A framework for integrating the research on emotion-related skills is then described. Next, we review the components of emotional intelligence. To conclude the review, the role of emotional intelligence in mental health is discussed and avenues for further investigation are suggested.
Article
Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management. This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3 (WEIP-3), which was designed specifically to profile the emotional intelligence of individuals in work teams. We applied the scale in a study of the link between emotional intelligence and two measures of team performance: team process effectiveness and team goal focus. The results suggest that the average level of emotional intelligence of team members, as measured by the WEIP-3, is reflected in the initial performance of teams. In our study, low emotional intelligence teams initially performed at a lower level than the high emotional intelligence teams. Over time, however, teams with low average emotional intelligence raised their performance to match that of teams with high emotional intelligence. Yes Yes
Article
This is a comment on a recent article entitled “Emotional Intelligence and Mediation Training,” by Lori Schreier, in Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 2002, 20 (1).
Article
Scholars recognize that planning is an essential part of negotiation, but research provides limited insight into the nature of effective negotiation planning. This research is focused on the skills necessary for effective negotiation planning. It is argued that the information processing tendencies of high self-monitors make them particularly adept at planning for negotiations. The authors extend existing work in planning by relating self-monitoring to plan generation, plan enactment, and plan consequences. Results indicate that self-monitoring is related to prenegotiation goal commitment, planning of impression management strategies, planning of integrative tactics, and plan complexity. During negotiations, high self-monitors are more likely to engage in argumentation. However, they are not especially inclined to engage in more information seeking or rapport building. High self-monitors are better able to accomplish negotiation goals, and this appears to be the result of their superior planning skills. Results have implications for plan-based theorizing and for practicing negotiators.
Article
This paper develops and tests a model of the labor mediation process using data from a sample of negotiations involving municipal governments and police and firefighter unions in the State of New York. The test of the model also incorporates an estimate of the impact of a change in the statutory impasse procedures governing these groups. The model examines the impact of (1) alternative sources of impasse, (2) situational characteristics, (3) strategies of the mediators, and (4) personal characteristics of the mediators on the probability of settlement, percentage of issues resolved in mediation, movement or compromising behavior, and the tendency to hold back concessions in mediation. The results indicate that the change in the impasse procedure had a marginal affect on the probability of settlement in the small to medium cities in the sample but little or no effect on the larger cities. Furthermore, a number of other measures of the sources of impasse and mediator strategies and characteristics had a stronger impact on the effectiveness of the mediation process than the nature of the impasse procedure.
Article
Over the last decade, ambitious claims have been made in the management literature about the contribution of emotional intelligence to success and performance. Writers in this genre have predicted that individuals with high emotional intelligence perform better in all aspects of management. This paper outlines the development of a new emotional intelligence measure, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile, Version 3 (WEIP-3), which was designed specifically to profile the emotional intelligence of individuals in work teams. We applied the scale in a study of the link between emotional intelligence and two measures of team performance: team process effectiveness and team goal focus. The results suggest that the average level of emotional intelligence of team members, as measured by the WEIP-3, is reflected in the initial performance of teams. In our study, low emotional intelligence teams initially performed at a lower level than the high emotional intelligence teams. Over time, however, teams with low average emotional intelligence raised their performance to match that of teams with high emotional intelligence.
Article
This research examined antecedents of short-term success in mediation. Seventy-three hearings were observed at two community dispute resolution centers in New York State. Measures of short-term success were: reaching agreement, goal achievement, and immediate satisfaction with the agreement and with the conduct of the hearing. Results indicated that the likelihood of short-term success increased with disputant joint problem solving and decreased with disputant hostile and contending behavior and the prominence of intangible issues in the case. Satisfaction with the hearing increased with disputants' involvement in a continuing relationship; and goal achievement and both types of satisfaction decreased with escalation of the conflict prior to hearing. As predicted, joint problem solving increased with involvement in a continuing relationship and decreased with disputants' hostile and contentious behavior, the prominence of intangible issues, and escalation of the conflict prior to the hearing. Five mediator behaviors were either unrelated or negatively related to short-term success: providing reassurance, displaying expertise, keeping order, criticizing, and asking embarrassing questions. Mediator behaviors that were positively related to short-term success were those that demonstrated empathy, structured the discussion, and stimulated thinking. Multiple regression analyses revealed several interactions of mediator behaviors with disputant behaviors and prior conditions in predicting agreement and goal achievement.
Article
This article reviews the mediation literature over the past decade. Initially the literature is organized and integrated in a framework that focuses on the mediator's decision to mediate, the choice of mediation techniques, the outcomes of mediation, and the determinants of these factors. Subsequently, the authors comment on the reviewed literature and offer suggestions for future research.
Article
Although self-disclosure is regarded primarily as an affiliative behavior, it has recently been proposed that disclosure may also function as an interpersonal manipulation strategy for females high in machiavellianism. A study was conducted to test this proposal, existing data being inconclusive. Groups of male (n = 29) and female (n = 27) subjects completed measures of machiavellianism and of willingness to self-disclose to the target of an experimental influence attempt. A significant positive correlation between machiavellianism and disclosure was found for female subjects; no relationship between the variables was evident for males. These findings suggest that machiavellian females may indeed use self-disclosure as a means of manipulating others in interpersonal control attempts. Theoretical and research implications are discussed.
Article
A 2 × 2 × 2 bargaining experiment used Snyder and Gangestad's self-monitoring scale to match negotiators (high versus low) and their opponents (high versus low). The nature of the issues (emotionally laden versus non–emotionally laden) was a third factor. When both negotiators were high in self-monitoring, higher joint outcomes were obtained. Distributive Justice beliefs and satisfaction with outcomes generally followed the pattern of outcomes. Two covariates were used. Machiavellianism was negatively related to the dependent variables. Emotional Intelligence, as measured by the MSCEIT test, was unrelated to the dependent variables. Implications of the findings for the selection of negotiators were discussed.
Article
Saving face is described as an inherently relational concept that can often determine therapeutic outcome in family and couples therapy. The role of the therapist in fostering facesaving interventions is explored. Several clinical examples are presented. Finally, the limitations of saving face as an interpersonal and therapeutic strategy are discussed.
Article
Visual access was manipulated to assess its effect on the ability of high, low, and mixed Machiavellian bargaining pairs to discover mutually advantageous solutions on a bargaining task. Thirty-six dyads, twelve of each type, bargained either face to face or with a visual barrier between them. Visual contact interfered with the discovery of jointly profitable solutions in the high-low Mach pairs, but had no effect on other dyad combinations. It was argued that the personality dynamics of high-low Mach dyads made them particularly vulnerable to low joint bargaining outcomes in face to face negotiation.
Article
Using a sample of 114 MBA students in a Business Policy simulation, relationships among personality, conflict-handling modes of behav ior, and group task effectiveness are hypothesized and tested Empiri cal support was found associating personality with preference for the smoothing forcing and confrontation modes of conflict resolution. These preferences were associated with actual behaviors and the ac tual behaviors were associated with group task effectiveness.
Article
Relevance trees attempt to capture the decisions mediators make at various times, and offer guidance as to which strategies may be particularly appropriate for particular types of disputes. The relevance tree can be useful for helping the mediator take a rigorous and systematic approach to problem solving. A relevance tree can call attention to features of a dispute that a third party-particularly an inexperienced third party-might overlook. Therefore, relevance trees have implications for mediator training. The approach also has implications for the generation of testable research hypotheses. For example, experienced mediators should have more fully developed trees than inexperienced mediators. Researchers can also compare trees from mediators in various professions (e.g., labor mediators vs. environmental mediators) to determine whether different contingencies affect their decision-making processes or whether mediators generally attend to the same situational characteristics. Finally, because they are dynamic models, relevance trees offer promise for theoretical developments. Current models do not explicitly incorporate aspects of the mediation process. Relevance trees offer a fresh approach that may eventually lead to a greater understanding of the dynamics of the mediation process.
Article
The relative contributions of emotional competence and cognitive ability to individual and team performance, team-member attitudes, and leadership perceptions were examined. Focusing on emotional competencies, we predicted that, although both cognitive ability and emotional competence would predict performance, cognitive ability would account for more variance on individual tasks, whereas emotional competence would account for more variance in team performance and attitudes. We also predicted that emotional competence would be positively related to team attitudes and to both leader emergence and effectiveness. Using a sample of undergraduate business majors who completed tasks alone and as members of teams, our results generally supported the hypotheses. Implications for the reach and impact of work relating emotional competencies to performance are offered.
Article
In two experiments on reactions to persistent annoyance from another person, participants employed a very orderly verbal escalation sequence that fit a cascading Guttman scale. This began with requests and moved on to demands, and then to complaints, angry statements, threats, harassment, and abuse, in that order. The more escalated the tactic, the fewer people used it. People seldom skipped a step on the way to their most escalated tactic. Two possible explanations for this pattern seemed plausible in light of the data, that it is due to either a widely snared try-try-again script or a declining hierarchy of thresholds. Verbal escalation was associated with a negative view of the annoyer's character, while physical escalation was associated with blame and feelings of frustration and anger. Escalation was discouraged by membership in the same group as the annoyer. Loud noise did not encourage escalation in general but promoted the use of angry statements.
Article
Negotiators may respond to each other’s offers and demands in different ways. Whereas many negotiation experiments present participants with numerical information about offers and counteroffers (e.g., “I propose 6–8–2”; numerical response mode), real life negotiations often involve affective and evaluative statements (e.g., “I didn’t like your last offer, but I would be happy to explore alternatives”; affective response mode). The present research explores the differential consequences of responding in affective as opposed to numerical terms. Specifically, we predicted and found that affective responses increase the impact of social and contextual cues on negotiation behavior. Three studies demonstrate that the impact of other’s toughness (Experiment 1), other’s respectability (Experiment 2), and other’s appearance (Experiment 3) on a negotiator’s demands and concessions is greater when the other provides affective rather than numerical feedback.
Article
What does it mean to be a “smart” negotiator? Few scholars have paid much attention to this question, a puzzling omission given copious research suggesting that cognitive ability (the type of intelligence commonly measured by psychometric tests) predicts individual performance in many related contexts. In addition to cognitive ability, other definitions of intelligence (e.g., emotional intelligence) have been proposed that theoretically could influence negotiation outcomes. Aiming to stimulate renewed attention to the role of intelligence in negotiation, we develop theoretical propositions linking multiple forms of intelligence to information acquisition, decision making, and tactical choices in bargaining contexts. We outline measurement issues relevant to empirical work on this topic, and discuss implications for negotiation teaching and practice.
Article
Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between managerial emotional intelligence (EI) levels and a rating of leadership effectiveness (subordinate ratings). Design/methodology/approach – The study involved administering the Mayer Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) EI test to 38 supervisors within a large manufacturing organisation. Ratings of supervisory leadership effectiveness were assessed via subordinate ratings on an attitude survey detailing questions relating to supervisor performance. Altogether data were collated from a total of 1,258 survey responses. Findings – The overall results of the data analysis suggest that half of the MSCEIT scores may act as a strong predictor of leadership effectiveness, particularly the branches within the experiential EI domain (r=0.50, p<0.001). Interestingly, the relationship between supervisor ratings and the reasoning EI domain (r=-0.12) was not as expected. Practical implications – These findings endorse the validity of incorporating EI interventions alongside the recruitment and selection process and the training and development process of managerial personnel. However, they also question the conceptual validity of a key branch (managing emotions) of the MSCEIT. Originality/value – Although EI is viewed as a key determinant of effective leadership within leadership literature there is a relative dearth of supporting research that has not used student sample populations or a conceptually suspect model of EI within their research methodology.
Article
In a simulated three-issue organizational dispute, subjects were interrupted by a third party (their supervisor) who recommended—and eventually imposed—one of five different outcomes. Each outcome provided subjects the same overall payoff, though the arrangement of payoffs across each of the three issues varied. The design allowed us to evaluate four different perspectives regarding negotiators' perceptions of their outcomes. In addition, third parties provided justifications, apologies, or excuses for their actions. Fairness judgments and supervisory evaluations were most favorable when negotiators received an outcome reflecting favorable settlements on the majority of the issues, or the midpoint compromise; the least favorable reactions occurred when subjects received favorable outcomes on only their most important issue. Third parties who offered a justification for their actions were seen as fairer than those offering apologies or excuses. The findings reiterate the importance of considering both the symbolic characteristics of outcomes and the interactional justice inherent in different types of explanations.