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Palm oil markets and future supply. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol

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Abstract

This article considers the recent trends in the palm oil market balance and the future prospects for palm oil fundamentals. The article finds that there exists potential for the demand for palm oil and its products to increase quite steeply, partly due to emerging demand as a relatively cheap biofuel (whether as palm biodiesel or for direct burning), and partly due to its price advantages in edible applications. In terms of supply, as long as there is willingness to plant more area with oil palm in environmentally sensitive areas, there will be continued growth in the oil palm industry. This development is likely to be led primarily by Indonesia with increasing areas planted with oil palm, notably in Kalimantan, and by continued yield improvements in Malaysia.

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... The research facilitates the improved projection of 27 areas prone to future expansion and the development of strategies to manage the leading drivers 28 of LULC in Indonesia. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 1. Introduction 1 Indonesia is the world's leader in palm oil production. Palm oil is the most widely consumed 15 the rapid oil palm expansion will continue to be a major feature of land use and land cover (LULC) 16 change in Indonesia. 17 However, the rapid expansion of oil palm has occurred and would continue to occur at the Out of consideration of environmental protection, there are growing movements boycotting 29 palm oil (European Union Parliament news, 2018). ...
... 6 The MoFor has used satellite data, particularly Landsat, for land cover mapping of Indonesia since Indonesia consist of 23 classes, including 6 classes of natural forest, 1 class of plantation forest, 14 15 classes of non-forest, and 1 class of no data ( Fig. 1). We removed the class of no data and 15 reclassified the other 22 classes into to seven: primary forest, secondary forest, shrub, dry 16 agriculture, estate crop, bare ground, and others. Table S1 in Supplementary Materials presents the 17 correspondences between the 23 and 7 classes. ...
... Clearance of natural forest to bare ground made up a higher 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t 15 1 2 We first ran pooled regression models on oil palm expansion into the three major land sources 3 in Indonesia during 1996-2015. The regression results, as shown in Table 2, indicated that the oil 4 palm expansion in Indonesia tended to occur in regencies with longer access time to major cities, 5 lower population density, gentler slope, medium level of source land ratio (owing to the inverted 6 U-shape relationship), lower shortwave radiation, higher peatland percentage, and more significant 15 previous period would raise the oil palm expansion by 7.71%, 15.5%, and 20.2% into natural forest, 16 shrub and dry agriculture, respectively. 17 We then ran pooled regression models for each of the two islands, Sumatra and Kalimantan. ...
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Article
Indonesia has been the largest supplier of palm oil since 2007, and now supplies around 56% of the global market. While the existing literature has paid serious attention to the diverse impacts of oil palm plantation on socioeconomic factors and the environment, less is known about the joint role of biophysical and socioeconomic factors in shaping the temporal and spatial dynamics of oil palm expansion. This research investigates how the benefits and costs of converting other land use/ land cover (LULC) types to oil palm plantation affects these expansion patterns. We employ a spatial panel modeling approach to assess the contributions of biophysical and socioeconomic driving factors. Our modeling focuses on Sumatra and Kalimantan, two islands which have accounted for more than 90% of oil palm expansion in Indonesia since 1990, with Sumatra holding the majority of the country's plantations, and Kalimantan having the highest growth rate since 2000. The results show that the expansion in Kalimantan, which has been strongly stimulated by the export value of palm oil products, has occurred in areas with better biophysical suitability and infrastructure accessibility, following the 'pecking order' sequence, whereby more productive areas are already occupied by existing agriculture and plantations, and avoiding areas with high environmental values or socioeconomic costs. As demand for palm oil continues to grow, and land resources become more limited, the expansion in Kalimantan will tend towards the dynamics observed in Sumatra, with plantation expanding into remote and fertile areas with high conversion costs or legal barriers. Bare ground seems to have served as a clearing-up tactic to meet the procedural requirements of oil palm plantation for sustainable development. This research facilitates the improved projection of potential areas liable to future expansion, and the development of strategies to manage the leading drivers of LULC in Indonesia.
... According to Carter et al. (2007), rapeseed oil is the third largest vegetable oil produced and traded on the world market of vegetable oils and in the world market for biofuels. In addition to food sector, the main use of rapeseed oil in producing countries and major importing countries is as an alternative fuel source for petroleum (remarks: biodiesel). ...
... In addition to food sector, the main use of rapeseed oil in producing countries and major importing countries is as an alternative fuel source for petroleum (remarks: biodiesel). As with soybean oil, a distinctive feature in the world trade in rapeseed oil is that the main importing countries are generally the main producer of soybean oil and imports are carried out to cover shortages between the volume of domestic production and consumption (Carter et al., 2007;Parisi and Ronzon, 2016). ...
... The United States, besides acting as a rapeseed oil exporter, also acts as an importer country (Carter et al., 2007). It was previously known that US rapeseed oil exports were preferred over domestic production, while imports were more intended to fulfill domestic consumption. ...
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Article
The increasing as non-food uses of vegetable oils especially as biodiesel and the basis of the oleo-chemical industry, making the formation of vegetable oil prices in world trade has been linked to world prices of crude oil in addition to linkages with the world price of vegetable oils competitor. The objectives of study were to analyze the linkage of the world price of crude and vegetable oil simultaneously, and examine the impact of the changes of the external factors and trade policy by the vegetable oil's exporting countries and importing countries on the world trade of vegetable oils, and particularly the production, domestic supply, domestic consumption and exports volumes of Indonesian palm oil. The study employed an econometric model and parameters were estimated using Two Stage Least Squares methods for the period 1990-2017. The study found that real price projections in the world market of 2012-2025 periods show the price fluctuations of crude oil and vegetable oil tend to have same patterns with slightly trend to increases. Although positively correlated, the percentage increase of vegetable oils price as the effect of the increasing of crude oil price is less than the percentage change of crude oil prices, except for soybean oil prices that vista vies with the percentage change of crude oil prices. The effect on percentage change of price of soybean oils is the highest and then followed by palm oil. Beside the chemical characteristics, the condition related to the limited volumes of vegetable oils world's productions and the food sector needs as a main constraints in the use of vegetable oils as crude oil substitutes. As annual crop commodities and the substitutes of seed oils, however, palm oil price has more responsive to export fluctuation then it. Keywords: price formation, world trade, vegetable oil, petroleum JEL Classifications: D43, F15, Q41, Q42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.7916
... Expansion of oil palm plantations has been suggested as a key cause of deforestation in both Indonesia (Carlson et al., 2012;Stibig et al., 2014) and Malaysia Stibig et al., 2014), although other drivers such as logging also play a major role (Lambin et al., 2001;Laurance, 2007). The increasing demand for palm oil over the coming decades will probably be met both through expansion of the area planted and increased productivity (Carter et al., 2007;Corley, 2009a). Since oil palm expansion may lead to the displacement of biodiverse rainforests (Gaveau et al., 2014a), increased productivity, combined with targeted expansion into degraded areas (Fairhurst and McLaughlin, 2009), are the preferred strategies to meet the growing demand for palm oil. ...
... PKO is not considered, as it is a by-product which is extracted and traded by a limited number of mills. Kernel extraction rate is usually about 5% (Carter et al., 2007). ...
... In South and Latin America, labour is more expensive leading to a competitive disadvantage. Mechanisation options for spreading fertilisers, spraying pesticides, and harvesting are being developed but have not yet been sufficiently successful to resolve labour shortages (Carter et al., 2007;Yahya et al., 2013;Khalid and Shuib, 2014). ...
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Thesis
Palm oil is currently the most important vegetable oil in the world, and Indonesia is the world’s largest producer. Oil palm plantations are an important source of revenue, but rapid expansion has led to deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Forty per cent of the plantation area in Indonesia is owned by smallholders, whose yields are relatively poor. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the yield gaps and agronomic practices in Indonesian smallholder oil palm plantations, with a focus on fertiliser application, and to propose and test better management practices that can contribute to sustainable intensification. The research consisted of an in-depth literature review, several surveys, the collection of samples in smallholder plantations, and a three-year experiment with 14 smallholder farmers. In yield gap analysis, three yield levels are recognised: potential, limited, and actual yield. The potential yield in a plantation is determined by radiation, CO2 concentration, temperature, planting material, culling, planting density, pruning, pollination, and crop recovery (harvesting). The yield-limiting factors are rainfall, irrigation, soil, waterlogging, topography, slope, and nutrition. The yield-reducing factors are weeds, pests, and diseases. In smallholder plantations, the yield gap is mostly explained by poor planting material, poor drainage, sub-optimal planting density, poor culling (leading to large variability and the presence of unproductive palms), infrequent harvesting, soil erosion, poor nutrient management, and rat damage, but the effects of these factors on yield vary depending on local conditions. The survey data showed clear evidence of insufficient and unbalanced fertiliser applications, and visual nutrient deficiency symptoms were observed in many plantations. Leaf sample results showed that 57, 61 and 80% of the plantations in Jambi and Sintang were deficient in N, P and K, respectively. In Riau, 95, 67 and 75% of the plantations were deficient in N, P and K. The implementation of better management practices (including harvesting, weeding, pruning, and nutrient application) in 14 smallholder fields for three years resulted in palms with significantly larger leaves and heavier bunches compared with palms under farmer management, but improvements in yield were small and not statistically significant, and financial returns on better practices were negative. Possible causes of the small yield response were good starting yields, increased inter-palm competition for sunlight, and environmental constraints (particularly the 2015 El Niño event and waterlogging in Jambi). On the basis of our findings on yield gaps, nutrient limitations and better practices, we discuss how Indonesian smallholders may be supported to achieve sustainable intensification at a larger scale, and we reflect on the broader implications of our findings for a future supply of truly sustainable palm oil.
... It is the major source of vegetable oil produced mainly in Indonesia and Malaysia (Villela et al., 2014). Palm oil is also the most widely traded vegetable oil globally accounting for nearly 60% of global oilseed exports (Carter et al., 2007) with demand projected to increase substantially in the future (Vijay et al., 2016). The main advantage of oil palm in comparison to other oil crops is the significantly higher production per hectare leading to higher income (Khatun et al., 2017). ...
... As the trade in palm oil grows due to increasing global demand, there has also been a rapid increase in the amount of oil produced and the total area cultivated in re gions where oil palms are grown (Sayer et al., 2012). For example, between 1974 and 2007, global crude palm oil output increased from less than 3 million tonnes to almost 40 million tonnes, representing an average annual growth rate of more than 8% (Carter et al., 2007). Following this trend, the oil palm area cultivated worldwide also increased from 3.6 million ha in 1961 to 21.4 million ha in 2017. ...
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Article
Palm oil is an important commodity contributing to livelihoods of many communities, GDP of governments and the achievement of several sustainable development goals (SDG) including no poverty, zero hunger and decent work and economic growth. However, its cultivation and continuous expansion due to high and increasing demand has led to many negative effects and subsequent calls to make production sustainable. To this end, information is needed to understand the negative and positive impacts on both the environment and human wellbeing to respond appropriately. Sustainability in palm oil trade entails having a global supply chain based on environmentally friendly and socially acceptable production and sourcing. Much has been done in understanding and responding to impacts on the environment but not so much on social impacts partly due to a lack of information. The direct (socio-economic) and indirect (through ecosystem services) impacts of palm oil trade were reviewed using peer-reviewed literature and the environmental Justice Atlas (EJA). Our results show that most of the 57 case studies were conducted in Indonesia and Malaysia where 85% of global production of palm oil occurs. The results show both negative (109) and positive (99) direct impacts on humans. Indirect impacts through ecosystems services were predominantly negative (116) as were the direct negative impacts. The most frequently studied direct negative impacts were conflicts (25%), housing conditions (18%) and land grabbing (16%) while the most frequently studied direct positive impacts were income generation (33%) and employment (19%). Ongoing initiatives to make the palm oil sector sustainable such as the RSPO are focused on the environment but need to pay more attention to (related) social impacts. To make palm oil production sustainable and to meet SDGs such as ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being as well as responsible consumption and production, negative social impacts of palm oil trade need to be addressed.
... While deep fried cooking creates a welcome flavor, golden brown color, and crispy texture (Tabee, Jaegerstad, & Dutta, 2009), the frying process causes physical and chemical deterioration of the oil (Latha & Nasirullah, 2014). Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) oil is commonly used for deep frying and is often reused to reduce costs (Carter, Finley, Fry, Jackson, & Willis, 2007;Ku et al., 2014). An investigation of frying oil use in restaurants indicated that frying oil remained within safe limits when one batch of oil was cooked at 180°C for 3 hr a day for five consecutive days (Totani, Ohno, & Yamaguchi, 2006). ...
... Palm oil provides nearly 30% of the world's edible vegetable oil and is regularly used for frying food in Southeast Asia (Carter et al., 2007). It becomes thermally oxidized after several rounds of heating at 150°C, which generates oxygen-derived free radicals and hydroxylated products that are harmful to tissues (Frankel, 2014). ...
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Article
Deep frying degrades the oil and generates harmful products. This study evaluated effects of reused palm oil (from frying pork or potato) on expression of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), the transporter (SLCO1B1), and lipid metabolism regulators; proliferator‐activated receptors (PPAR) and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). Human hepatic carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells were incubated with oleic acid (OA), new palm oil, or reused palm oils for 24 hr. Fatty acid accumulation was examined by Nile red staining. Total RNA was extracted, followed by RT/qPCR of the target genes. Fatty acid accumulation was significantly different between the new and the reused oils. Expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP4A11, and SLCO1B1 was induced by reused oils. Expression of PPAR‐α was strongly increased in all treatments while SREBP‐1a and SREBP‐1c were suppressed. Modification of CYPs, PPAR‐α, and SLCO1B1 by palm oil might increase the risk of fatty acid accumulation with associated oxidative stress. Therefore, consumption of palm oil or reused oil should be limited. Practical applications Deep frying degrades the oil and generates harmful products. This study evaluated effects of reused palm oil (from frying pork or potato) on expression of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), the transporter (SLCO1B1), and lipid metabolism regulators; PPAR and SREBP in HepG2 cells. Both of the reused oils‐induced profiles of all CYP and SLCO1B1, but the new oil upregulated CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4A11. PPAR‐α was induced while SREBP‐1a and SREBP‐1c were suppressed by all treatments. Inductions of CYPs with suppression of SREBP‐1a and SREBP‐1c might contribute to an increased risk of fatty acid accumulation. These findings revealed the impacts of reused palm oil on metabolism via CYPs which related to oxidative stress for further study. Hence, consumption of palm oil or reused cooking oil should be of concern.
... Sciencebased evaluations of consequences of the diverse practices on the ground and exploration of options beyond the standard monocultures remain scarce. The direct cost of oil production from palms (less than USD 300 per ton of oil) is lower than that of other vegetable oils such as sun flower, soybean, coconut and rapeseed (USD 300 -600 per ton of oil) (Carter et al., 2007). For plantation owners and farmers, oil palm is a more profitable tree crop than other commodities such as rattan and rubber and positive welfare effects and a high return to land and labour have been well documented (Belcher et al., 2004;Feintrenie et al., 2010a;Rist et al., 2010). ...
... This thesis focuses on palm oil production in Indonesia. For the past 40 years, driven by increased global demand of palm oil and higher yields or profitability, the area of oil palm plantation has significantly increased (up to 2007 by 10% every year on average and beyond 2007 by 6%) (Carter et al., 2007; Directorate general of estate crops, 2016a). At national scale the land area under oil palm is currently 6% of the whole country (190 M ha), challenging interpretations that it is the primary driver of deforestation (Sheil et al., 2009). ...
... Malaysia is currently reaching its physical limit (Carter et al., 2007). It currently occupies a land area of 39 approximately 5.4 million hectares (ha) (Gaveau et al., 2016), which is more than 85% of Malaysia's total 40 agriculture land. ...
... disappearance and destruction of essential environmental facilities ( been growing by just about 0.03 t (practically 30 kg) per annum (Basiron, 2007;Carter et al., 2007). An 17 increase in productivity is posited to shape a more sustainable oil palm industry. ...
Article
Productivity is posited as the key to shape a more sustainable oil palm industry. This study, through a systemic perspective, explores the main drivers of productivity growth and its impacts on its associated factors using a system dynamics model. Of all four simulations, research and development (R&D) intervention is demonstrated to enhance oil palm production albeit at the cost of seemingly unstoppable land loss. This, in turn, leads to lower carbon emissions. Automation and mechanization are found effective in reducing farm operating cost. These findings suggest that R&D is key, and related policy options are discussed for steering the sustainability and growth of oil palm production in Malaysia.
... For such a material, its behavior is like an elastic solid when the stress is below the value of the flow stress (or stress) τ o . For voltages greater than the flow voltage, the mathematical expression for the model is [6][7][8]: ...
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Chapter
Palm oil is dark yellow to red with a sweet taste and violet scent. Under the action of oxygen in the air, palm oil discolors due to the oxidation of carotene. The sample at different temperatures was recorded at different shear rates. Based on the rheograms (graph of the average shear stress versus shear rate), the studied ones proved to be Newtonian fluid. The shear range used did not significantly affect the absolute viscosities of the palm oil at different temperatures. The absolute viscosities of palm oil have decreased with increasing temperature and can be equipped with an Arrhenius-type relationship.
... Palm oil is rich in SFA and monounsaturated oleic acid, and contains low quantities of PUFAs. Due to its low production cost [18] and desired lipid profile for shelf-stable foods, the use of this oil continues to rise to meet global demand [19], and is becoming highly incorporated into the human food supply chain [18]. A recent meta-analysis reported contradicting findings regarding the health effects of increased palm oil consumption, and announced a need for well-designed studies addressing this question [20]. ...
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Article
Polyunsaturated fats are energy substrates and precursors to the biosynthesis of lipid mediators of cellular processes. Adipose tissue not only provides energy storage, but influences whole-body energy metabolism through endocrine functions. How diet influences adipose–lipid mediator balance may have broad impacts on energy metabolism. To determine how dietary lipid sources modulate brown and white adipose tissue and plasma lipid mediators, mice were fed low-fat (15% kcal fat) isocaloric diets, containing either palm oil (POLF) or linoleate-rich safflower oil (SOLF). Baseline and post body weight, adiposity, and 2-week and post fasting blood glucose were measured and lipid mediators were profiled in plasma, and inguinal white and interscapular brown adipose tissues. We identified over 30 species of altered lipid mediators between diets and found that these changes were unique to each tissue. We identified changes to lipid mediators with known functional roles in the regulation of adipose tissue expansion and function, and found that there was a relationship between the average fold difference in lipid mediators between brown adipose tissue and plasma in mice consuming the SOLF diet. Our findings emphasize that even with a low-fat diet, dietary fat quality has a profound effect on lipid mediator profiles in adipose tissues and plasma.
... Crude palm oil (CPO) is the by-product of the palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis) and has many uses including biodiesel, toiletries, cooking oil, medicines, and food. Due to its significance, it is also the most widely traded vegetable oil compared to other sources, accounting for almost 60% of all global oil seeds [3]. In regard to its competitiveness in terms of pricing and compared to other vegetable oil products such as soyabean, rapeseed, sunflower, and ground nut, CPO prices are always the lowest; therefore, this particular commodity is being used as an alternative to conventional fuel; this is currently being implemented [4]. ...
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Article
Continual scrutiny of and attacks on the palm oil industry in Indonesia have been ongoing for decades. The constant arguments against the palm oil industry have always touched on the issues of environmental sustainability, including deforestation and biodiversity loss, human rights issues, and various unsustainable practices. Even though many major palm oil players have voluntarily joined the RSPO, as well as the mandatory ISPO, with both certification bodies covering the environmental sustainability contexts of community development and human rights, constant attacks from stakeholders are mounting. This paper argues that besides fulfilling all of these requirements, there is a need for the industry as a whole to apply the right approach to green marketing or sustainable marketing as a means of strategy and business sustainability. Without a proper green marketing strategy and platform, the message of sustainability will not be delivered efficiently to the intended targets. There needs to be an understanding in regard to the market and also collaborative action between various stakeholders—including competitors and NGOs—to create and execute a fruitful green marketing strategy that can cross boundaries and be well received by the intended market.
... Oil palm in Indonesian socioeconomic improvement: A review of options. The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics Working Paper. 3 Carter, C., Finley, W., Fry, J., Jackson, D., Willis, L. (2007). Palm oil markets and future supply. ...
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Article
Palm oil plantation businesses have always been the subject of heavy scrutiny and are accused of causing the most environmental and social mishaps in Indonesia. Such condemnation comes from within the country and outside as well. Even though the palm oil industry is one of Indonesia’s biggest GDP contributors, the opposition in the past decade outweighs the support, and many attempts at reasoning fall on deaf ears. This article will argue that the need for transformation of the industry in order to support the nations’ sustainability development goals is an effort that involves all constituents. The relationship that is built upon the palm oil companies and its stakeholders must be met with certain legalities and support from the government in order to foster a green growth relationship that will sustain the economy and the environment, which will ultimately support Indonesia’s sustainable development goals.
... This rapid increase in production was catalyzed by the status of palm oil as a "discount oil" (Carter et al., 2007). Today, India and China are the top importers of palm oil, accounting for 22% and 17% of total global imports, respectively (Fig. 4). ...
... The economy enjoys higher foreign revenue by exporting palm oil. The literature argues that demand for palm oil and associated item prices experience a sharp rise because of cheap biofuel and edible use (Carter et al., 2007). The production of crude palm oil has increased sixfold in the last two decades. ...
Article
Given the significant concerns of currency devaluation and level of inflation in Indonesia, we measure their dynamic connectedness and cross-quantile dependence with prominent export items such as crude palm oil price and coal price. To this end, we apply the frequency connectedness approach and Cross-Quantilogram approach to measure volatility spillover utilising daily data from 2002 to 2021. The frequency connectivity analysis coincides with our proposition that exchange rate and inflation substantially respond to coal and crude palm oil prices. Next, we apply the cross-quantilogram framework to examine the cross-quantile dependence between exchange rate and other variables to capture the spillovers between these markets considering a wide range of market conditions. Our empirical analysis demonstrates that exchange and inflation are connected during extreme market volatility when they boom together. The exchange rate responds to palm oil price at the extreme quantile of the exchange rate in long-term horizons. The degree of connectedness between exchange rate and coal price is profound at the higher quantile in the long run horizon while it dissipates in the short run. Our findings provide important policy implications to the energy and monetary authority of Indonesia.
... Palm oil is a beneficial commodity which is consumed globally as part of an enormous numbers of daily consumed products in the agri-food, body care, and bio energy sectors [1] [2]. Palm oil is most widely traded globally as vegetable oil which contributing for approximately 60% of global vegetable oil exports [3] with demand predicted to grow significantly in the future [4]. The main benefit of palm oil in contrast to other vegetable oil is the considerably higher production per hectare generating to larger income [5]. ...
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Conference Paper
This paper's main purpose is to investigate the impact of digital mastery and learning culture on learning agility in the Indonesian private companies of oil palm plantation. This paper is based one-shoot survey or cross-sectional study. This study involved participation of 386 managers as well as supervisors from private oil palm plantation companies in Borneo and Sumatra Island. Partial least square based SEM was applied for calculating the gathered data. The results revealed that learning culture - either in external adaptation or internal integration has affected significantly on digital mastery and learning agility. Learning agility development in oil palm plantation companies should be focused on establishing learning culture and leveraging digital strategic skill.
... In 2004, the total land surface covered by palm oil cultivation globally was estimated at almost 8.99 million hectares. By 2007, this figure had increased to 10.92 million (Carter et al. 2007). Even in the absence of subsidized demand for biofuels, forests in many countries will likely continue to be threatened by oil-palm development, requiring other policy measures to ensure that resulting deforestation is "appropriate". ...
... Increased oil palm cultivation is also linked to biodiversity loss, as plantations support far fewer species than forested areas and lead to habitat fragmentation (Fitzherbert et al., 2008). This poses a significant threat to orangutan populations, especially given that Malaysia and Indonesia (the only countries to which orangutans are native) are the leading exporters of palm oil (Carter et al., 2007). ...
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Article
Among UK-based orangutan conservation supporters, palm oil consumption boycotts are widespread, due to the ecological impacts of oil palm cultivation on orangutan habitat. Yet these boycotts are largely at odds with the stances of orangutan charities. Drawing on interviews with orangutan supporters, this article explores why some Global North consumers are so consumed by palm oil. Palm oil is viewed by orangutan supporters as insidious, invasive and cheap, and forces a bodily complicity with orangutan suffering. It is mobilized as a metonym for human greed and capitalist destruction. This metonymic relationship mirrors broader Anthropocentric framings of human-nature relations, which emphasize humanity as a universal actor. Yet the practices of 'species guilt' associated with these framings largely mitigate against a decolonizing model of conservation, as they have the potential to deny agency to workers and villagers enmeshed within the oil palm economy. Despite these unpromising circumstances, this article explores the unintended value of palm oil boycotts in terms of agency and ecological consciousness and addresses the potential to align such boycotts with a decolonial analysis, through centering the human dimensions of orangutan conservation.
... In 2004, the total land surface covered by palm oil cultivation globally was estimated at almost 8.99 million hectares. By 2007, this figure had increased to 10.92 million (Carter et al. 2007). Even in the absence of subsidized demand for biofuels, forests in many countries will likely continue to be threatened by oil-palm development, requiring other policy measures to ensure that resulting deforestation is "appropriate". ...
... Agricultural expansion and intensification in the tropics are major global environmental concerns as they are connected to forest and biodiversity loss, soil degradation, greenhouse gas emissions and reduced ecosystem functioning (Grass et al. 2020;Lewis et al. 2015;Veldkamp et al. 2020). Palm oil is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics since its the worlds leading vegetable oil owing to its high yield and low production costs (Carter et al. 2007;Clough et al. 2016). Oil palm plantations are widespread across the tropics: their area has increased rapidly in the last decades and this increase is predicted to continue in the future (FAO 2017, Pirker 2016. ...
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Article
Intensive management practices in large-scale oil palm plantations can slow down nutrient cycling and alter other soil functions. Thus, there is a need to reduce management intensity without sacrificing productivity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of management practices on gross rates of soil N cycling and soil fertility. In Jambi province, Indonesia, we established a management experiment in a large-scale oil palm plantation to compare conventional practices (i.e. high fertilization rates and herbicide weeding) with reduced management intensity (i.e. reduced fertilization rates and mechanical weeding). Also, we compared the typical management zones characterizing large-scale plantations: palm circle, inter-row and frond-stacked area. After 1.5 years of this experiment, reduced and conventional management showed comparable gross soil N cycling rates; however, there were stark differences among management zones. The frond-stacked area had higher soil N cycling rates and soil fertility (high microbial biomass, extractable C, soil organic C, extractable organic N, total N and low bulk density) than inter-row and palm circle (all p ≤ 0.05). Microbial biomass was the main driver of the soil N cycle, attested by its high correlation with gross N-cycling rates (r = 0.93–0.95, p < 0.01). The correlations of microbial N with extractable C, extractable organic N, soil organic C and total N (r = 0.76–0.89, p < 0.01) suggest that microbial biomass was mainly regulated by the availability of organic matter. Mulching with senesced fronds enhanced soil microbial biomass, which promoted nutrient recycling and thereby can decrease dependency on chemical fertilizers.
... Palm tree is native in tropical forests in west and central Africa, but it speedily expanded in southeast Asia countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, which are the major palm oil producers nowadays -almost 85% of the world's production. Palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is extracted from the plant's fruit mesocarp and it is mainly used in edible products, contributing to 30% of the world's vegetable oil (Wahid et al. 2005;Sheil et al. 2009;Carter et al. 2007). Triacylglycerols (TAG) from palm oil are mainly composed of palmitic acid, followed by oleic, linoleic and stearic acids. ...
Article
Palm oil production chain generates a greasy residue in the refining stage, the Palm Oil Deodorizer Distillate (PODD), mainly composed of free fatty acids. Palm oil is also used industrially to fry foods, generating a residual frying oil (RFO). In this paper, we aimed to produce lipase from palm agro-industrial wastes using an unconventional yeast. RFO_palm, from a known source, consisted of 0.11% MAG + FFA, 1.5% DAG, and 97.5 TAG, while RFO_commercial, from a commercial restaurant, contained 6.7% of DAG and 93.3% of TAG. All palm oil wastes were useful for extracellular lipase production, especially RFO_commercial that provided the highest activity (4.9 U/mL) and productivity (465 U/L.h) in 75 h of processing time. In 48 h of process, PODD presented 2.3 U/mL of lipase activity and 48.5 U/L.h of productivity. RFO_commercial also showed the highest values for lipase associated to cell debris (843 U/g). This naturally immobilized biocatalyst was tested on hydrolysis reactions to produce Lipolyzed Milk Fat and was quite efficient, with a hydrolysis yield of 13.1% and 3-cycle reuse. Therefore, oily palm residues seem a promising alternative to produce lipases by the non-pathogenic yeast Y. lipolytica and show great potential for industrial applications.
... Oils and fats industry plays a vital role in manufacturing edible vegetable oils for human consumption. Palm oil holds the highest market share, contributing over 30% of the edible fats and oils market (Carter et al., 2007;USDA, 2020). According to USDA (2020), the worldwide production of palm oil has reached 73 million metric tons in 2019. ...
Article
Deep-frying is a popular method for food preparation because it improves the taste and sensory of food. Among the vegetable oils, palm oil is one of the commonly used oils for deep-frying application. During deep-frying, some of the oil would be absorbed by the food and subsequently be consumed together with the food. Hence, the quality and stability of the oil used for deep-frying are of critical food safety considerations. To address this issue, we produced refined palm oil from crude palm oil which has been treated with an aerobic liquor (AL) generated from a palm oil mill. The result shows that the refined palm oil produced from AL-treated CPO (aRPO) has improved quality, in particular the 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol ester (3-MCPDE) and the glycidyl ester (GE) reduced by 58% and 46%, respectively. After 30 cycles of deep-frying, the used aRPO contained 68% lower FFA content, 13% lower polar content, and 43% lower 3-MCPDE content compared to the conventionally produced refined palm oil (RPO). Furthermore, the aRPO has a higher smoke-point and a higher resistance to darkening compared to the RPO. As a result, the fries prepared using aRPO have lower 3-MCPDE content and they have a better appearance and were less greasy when compared to the fries prepared using RPO. Overall, AL-treatment of CPO is a feasible method to improve the quality and deep-frying performance of refined palm oil and it could readily be adopted by the industry because it is simple and sustainable.
... Palm oil is highlighted as the major contribution in the global vegetable oils market share. Palm oil has a wide potential application in the fields of food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, chemical and biofuel [68][69][70]. As one of the most efficient oil crops economically, oil palm exhibits a relatively low cultivation cost, an ability to tolerate climate change and a high crop yield per hectare [71,72]. ...
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Process-based contaminants in food—particularly in vegetable oils—have been a topic of interest due to their potential health risk on humans. Oral consumption above the tolerable daily intake might result in health risks. Therefore, it is critical to correctly address the food contaminant issues with a proper mitigation plan, in order to reduce and subsequently remove the occurrence of the contaminant. 3-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (3-MCPD), an organic chemical compound, is one of the heat- and process-induced food contaminants, belonging to a group called chloropropanols. This review paper discusses the occurrence of the 3-MCPD food contaminant in different types of vegetable oils, possible 3-MCPD formation routes, and also methods of reduction or removal of 3-MCPD in its free and bound esterified forms in vegetable oils, mostly in palm oil due to its highest 3-MCPD content.
... Agricultural expansion is a major driver of tropical deforestation (Geist and Lambin, 2002) which has global impacts on carbon sequestration (Asner et al., 2010;van Straaten et al., 2015;, greenhouse gas regulation (e.g., Murdiyarso et al., 2010;Meijide et al., 2020;, and biodiversity (e.g., . Oil palm is the dominant tree cash crop that replaces tropical forest in Southeast Asia (Gibbs et al., 2010;Carlson et al., 2013) due to its high yields, low production costs, and rising global demand (Carter et al., 2007;Corley, 2009;Grass et al., 2020). Currently, Indonesia contributes 57 % of the global palm oil production (FAO, 2020), which is projected to further expand in the future, threatening the remaining tropical forests (Pirker et al., 2016;Vijay et al., 2016). ...
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Nutrient leaching in intensively managed oil palm plantations can diminish soil fertility and water quality. There is a need to reduce this environmental footprint without sacrificing yield. In a large-scale oil palm plantation in Acrisol soil, we quantified nutrient leaching using a full factorial experiment with two fertilization rates (260 kg N, 50 kg P, and 220 kg K ha−1 yr−1 as conventional practice and 136 kg N, 17 kg P, and 187 kg K ha−1 yr−1, equal to harvest export, as reduced management) and two weeding methods (conventional herbicide application and mechanical weeding as reduced management) replicated in four blocks. Over the course of 1 year, we collected monthly soil pore water at 1.5 m depth in three distinct management zones: palm circle, inter-row, and frond-stacked area. Nutrient leaching in the palm circle was low due to low solute concentrations and small drainage fluxes, probably resulting from large plant uptake. In contrast, nitrate and aluminum leaching losses were high in the inter-row due to the high concentrations and large drainage fluxes, possibly resulting from low plant uptake and low pH. In the frond-stacked area, base cation leaching was high, presumably from frond litter decomposition, but N leaching was low. Mechanical weeding reduced leaching losses of base cations compared to the conventional herbicide weeding probably because herbicides decreased ground vegetation and thus reduced soil nutrient retention. Reduced fertilization rates diminished the nitrate leaching losses. Leaching of total nitrogen in the mechanical weeding with reduced fertilization treatment (32±6 kg N ha−1 yr−1) was less than half of the conventional management (74±20 kg N ha−1 yr−1), whereas yields were not affected by these treatments. Our findings suggest that mechanical weeding and reduced fertilization should be included in the program by the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture for precision farming (e.g., variable rates with plantation age), particularly for large-scale oil palm plantations. We further suggest including mechanical weeding and reduced fertilization in science-based policy recommendations, such as those endorsed by the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil association.
... The recent high growth in palm oil production is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. Because of its high yield (about five to eight times more volume per hectare than the yields of its closest oil-crop competitors) and relatively low labour costs (sometimes due to forced or child labor), oil palm is the most inexpensive vegetable oil on the market today (Carter et al., 2007). In Sulawesi, oil palm is one of the industrial concessions responsible for forest loss although logging concessions are still considered to have the greatest impact (Abood et al., 2015). ...
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Sulawesi is an important island for primates. All 17 species that are found there are endemics. The island also includes contact zones between species of macaques (genus Macaca) where hybrids may arise. Sulawesi continues to be deforested, especially in the lowlands most suitable for estate crops and other agricultural products. We carried out an island-wide review of the current extent and rates of deforestation, and the impact this is having on the habitat available to all primates and within macaque hybrid zones. The provinces of West Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi suffered the highest rate of deforestation. Macaca ochreata in Southeast Sulawesi and Tarsius pelengensis on Peleng island in Central Sulawesi have lost the most habitat at 14%, followed by M. hecki and M. tonkeana. Forest loss also occurred in all macaque contact zones. The greatest losses occurred at contact zones between the western population of M. tonkeana and M. ochreata. Corn, coffee, cocoa, and oil palm are commodities that are spreading throughout the island. The extent of deforestation in the hybrid zones is alarming, particularly as none of them are represented in protected areas. To help address these problems, a careful integration of conservation and development is suggested, including making trade-offs explicit, and conducting transdisciplinary research on social-ecological systems at the interface of policy and management at local scales.
... More than 90% of that area has replaced activities such as the production of cotton, banana, and rice, or cattle ranching (Gómez, Mosquera, and Castilla 2005). Continued increases in oil palm production are expected, due to increased global demands for fats and oils, as well as biofuels (Carter et al. 2007). ...
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A decision-making framework was developed for disease management of perennial crops that addressed significant production aspects. Key factors that distinguish perennial crop systems from those for annual crops include the need for long-term disease control measures, the greater potential for development of pesticide resistance by pathogens, and the management of disease-predisposing factors such as water excess or nutritional stress that may occur over multi-year rotations. Complicating matters further is the fact that diseased trees may still bear fruit. Thus, growers must decide whether to destroy individual trees, replant the entire orchard, or try to maintain productivity of the trees at a profitable level while running the risk of further spread of disease and damage by the pest. Theoretical approaches from the economics discipline on plant disease control are explored. They emphasize the suitability of each approach with respect to analyzing the economics of pest control on perennial crops. It is assumed that the grower had a plan in terms of when to replant under disease-free circumstances, so a theoretical model is developed to determine the optimal replanting period.
... Since its introduction in the early 1900s from West Africa, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis has become the most valuable crop for countries in South East Asia. By 2007, palm oil had become the most consumed oil globally unseating soybean oil [5,6]. Oil palm production has attracted much criticism on environmental grounds, with attention focusing on the prevention of further deforestation. ...
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This investigation explores single-step biodiesel synthesis using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a feedstock. Normally considered a waste product from the extraction process of palm oil, POME treatment is difficult and can cause significant environmental pollution if discharged directly into watercourses. Fatty acids (FAs) present in POME were extracted and subsequently esterified in situ to FA methyl esters (FAME) suitable for use as biodiesel. The process of simultaneous extraction and esterification was performed under microwave irradiation in a sealed vessel, which has been shown to reduce both time of reaction and energy use considerably in other reactions. The simultaneous extraction and esterification result in an 89% yield of biodiesel from the available FAs in the POME solids. The facile separation of biodiesel products from the reaction mixture augments the process and here presented is a potential route to making economic use of this difficult feedstock. The statement of noveltyHere presented is a method optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) to leverage the benefits of microwave processing upon the extraction and synthesis of biodiesel with the purpose of producing biodiesel from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The advantages of the microwave processing technique used in this investigation include the rapid and simultaneous extraction and esterification of fatty acids (FA) from the POME solids, followed by the facile separation of the biodiesel fraction. The RSM investigation undertaken was used to maximize the yield of biodiesel whilst minimizing the amount of catalyst and methanol required for the reaction. This unique application of microwave processing for both the high pressure and temperature extraction and subsequent in situ acid catalysed esterification in a single-vessel acts as pilot study to a method that could make use of this most difficult of biodiesel feedstocks.
... Better constraints on oil palm CO 2 have been addressed through common field CO 2 emission measurements on plantation soil (peat), while there is limited information on emissions from the drain, trunk, and leaf of the oil palm tree. Indonesia and Malaysia have been the main target areas of CO 2 emissions measurements, as they aim to dedicate millions of metric tons of palm oil to meet global demand in producing biofuels [101]. ...
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Palm oil production is a key industry in tropical regions, driven by the demand for affordable vegetable oil. Palm oil production has been increasing by 9% every year, mostly due to expanding biofuel markets. However, the oil palm industry has been associated with key environmental issues, such as deforestation, peatland exploitation and biomass burning that release carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, leading to climate change. This review therefore aims to discuss the characteristics of oil palm plantations and their impacts, especially CO2 emissions in the Southeast Asian region. The tropical climate and soil in Southeast Asian countries, such as Malaysia and Indonesia, are very suitable for growing oil palm trees. However, due to the scarcity of available plantation areas deforestation occurs, especially in peat swamp areas. Total carbon losses from both biomass and peat due to the conversion of tropical virgin peat swamp forest into oil palm plantations are estimated to be around 427.2 ± 90.7 t C ha−1 and 17.1 ± 3.6 t C ha−1 year−1, respectively. Even though measured CO2 fluxes have shown that overall, oil palm plantation CO2 emissions are about one to two times higher than other major crops, the ability of oil palms to absorb CO2 (a net of 64 tons of CO2 per hectare each year) and produce around 18 tons of oxygen per hectare per year is one of the main advantages of this crop. Since the oil palm industry plays a crucial role in the socio-economic development of Southeast Asian countries, sustainable and environmentally friendly practices would provide economic benefits while minimizing environmental impacts. A comprehensive review of all existing oil plantation procedures is needed to ensure that this high yielding crop has highly competitive environmental benefits.
... Recently, bio-energy plantations have become 1 These terms are defined in the Definition Section. increasingly attractive as an alternative source of fuel (Carter et al., 2007). Lastly, although less covered in the media, economic stakes related to timber exploitation have been particularly high in a global context of growing demand for timber, paper and other industrial products (Lang, 1996;Rudel, 2008 (Weyerhaeuser et al., 2005), 1.4 million ha in the Philippines (Chokkalingam et al., 2006), and 5.0 million ha in Vietnam (De Jong et al., 2006a). ...
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The dissertation presents a thorough analysis of forest policies in Northern Vietnam which simultaneously apprehends the biophysical conditions, institutions, discourses and socio-politico-economic context in which actors are embedded. The analysis is based on the case study of two sets of policies: the Five Million Hectares Reforestation Programme (5MHRP), a state-led afforestation campaign, and forestry land allocation (FLA) to households. The study is innovative in several respects. Firstly, it focuses on the impact of these policies on land use and management, which has not so far deserved much attention. Secondly, it develops and uses an enriched version of Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework aiming at “politicising” it, i.e. making it better suited to policy process analysis. Thirdly, it applies this original framework at multiple levels, bringing fresh insights on cross-scale linkages, and uses an historical perspective to develop a dynamic understanding of policy outcomes. Fourthly, it collates several qualitative and quantitative methodologies to investigate the topic from a variety of angles. Results indicate that from a regional outlook, the 5MHRP has not succeeded in involving households in forestry and FLA has had little impact on afforestation. Rather, the individual-property regime has been observed to be ill-adapted to the socioecological settings of Northern Vietnam. Underlying drivers for these poor achievements result from a complex combination of the upland biophysical conditions, socio-political-economic setting, institutions and discourses. One of the most important contributions of the study is to disclose the co-production and co-action of these variables at multiple institutional and geographical levels. Policy recommendations include: (1) increasing the accountability of state administration to higher governance levels and to the population; (2) improving policymakers’ mental representation of the mountainous socio-ecological systems; and (3) adapting institutions to the complexity and diversity of upland systems by devolving greater responsibilities to local people.
... Director General, Cenipalma Introducción Elaeis es un género de palmas tropicales pertenecientes a la familia Arecaceae, compuesto únicamente por dos especies; Elaeis guineensis Jacq y Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés (Corley y Tinker, 2003). E. guineensis es originaria de África pero se encuentra distribuida a nivel global en los países tropicales, debido a su importancia comercial para la producción de aceite de palma y productos derivados (Carter et al., 2007). Mientras que E. oleifera, originaria de América, presenta una distribución restringida en el continente, dado que no tiene altas tasas de producción de aceite, por lo que no es cultivada con fines comerciales (Arias et al., 2015;Chaves et al., 2018). ...
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El modelamiento de la distribución geográfica de las espe-cies constituye un área de conocimiento de gran interés para estrategias de conservación y más si se estudian aquellas que tienen una fuerte presión por la supervivencia en los espacios y nichos en los cuales coexisten en su forma silves-tre. Este tipo de estudios también se utilizan para identificar espacios geográficos con potenciales de prospección, con capacidad de reubicación de la especie y para la medición del riesgo en la introducción de especies nuevas o invasoras. La especie Elaeis oleifera, catalogada en peligro de extin-ción, con poblaciones naturales amenazadas principalmente por fragmentación y pérdida del hábitat, tiene un impor-tante lugar en los programas de mejoramiento genético por su capacidad para generar híbridos interespecíficos con la especie Elaeis guineensis y transferir características de interés agronómico. Adicionalmente, los efectos de cambio climático tendrán un impacto negativo en diversos ecosistemas y la mi-tigación de estos efectos se logra a través del conocimiento de su hábitat natural de desarrollo y su georreferenciación.
... Sustainability of such industry requires searching for alternatives and renewable resources. Wastes from palm trees and palm oil milling process are increasing in many countries as a result to the increasing demands of oil generated from these plants [1][2][3]. These wastes pollute the earth and thereby lead to environmental risks and also compete with the available land resources which can be valuable for alternative uses. ...
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This study presents the results of the experimental program conducted on concrete containing natural and the Palm Oil Clinker (POC) aggregates. Palm oil industries produce a huge amount of wastes which are unremarkably cast away in landfills. Such wastes and disposing method negatively impact the environment and consume land resources. Managing such wastes for use in concrete manufacturing will be beneficial for both the environment and economy. In this study, the ACI 211 procedures for mix proportioning were followed. Concrete specimens were cast, cured and tested for their densities, compressive strength and water absorption. Test results reveal an enhancement in the compressive strength and water absorption at a replacement level of 25%. A decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in the water absorption were noticed for all other percentage replacements. Compressive strength and density in the ranges 26.2 N/mm 2 to 41.6 N/mm 2 and 1821 kg/m 3 to 2214 kg/m 3 at 28 days, respectively were obtained. This indicates that POC concrete can be used as structural lightweight concrete at full replacement level. Partial replacement of POC not exceeding 25% can be used to increase strength and improve durability in normal and high-performance concrete.
... Branching of alkyl chain of vegetable oils is one of the modifications used for the production of lubricant additives for fuel and lubricant rolling and drawing oils and also as solvents for painting inks [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. Branching fatty acids have advantages like low melting point, distinctly reduced pour points in biodiesel and lubricants, formulation, good oxidation stability due to reduced C-C double bonds. ...
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Castor (Ricinus communis) oil containing ricinoleic acid 89% was self-metathesized in the presence of Grubbs’ second generation catalyst (0.025 mmol), followed by epoxidation and insitu hydroxylation using Prilezhaev dihydroxylation method to obtain hydroxylated derivatives in 93% yields. MALDI study has shown that the metathesized products comprised of a mixture of monomer, dimer and trimer metathesized products. The hydroxylated derivatives were acylated using acetic, propionic, butyric and hexanoic anhydrides in 85–90% yields. The acylated base stocks being highly branched and of high molecular weights exhibited very low pour points (− 30 to − 40 °C) and broad viscosity ranges 45.5 cSt to 60.0 cSt at 40 °C, high viscosity indices (165–191), excellent anti-wear properties (0.52–0.69 mm), good thermal and oxidative stabilities along with high load carrying capacities (165–184 kg) suitable for multi-range industrial applications. These base stocks can be used with the addition of minimum additives during the formulation.
... In addition, Rhodnius prolixus, the main vector in the region, and a true palm specialist [38,39], is capable of invading oil palm crowns, potentially introducing T. cruzi [40]. Thus, T. cruzi transmission is an interesting system for studying the role of dietary generalist versus specialist mammal host species in vectorborne disease transmission in agricultural landscapes, such as oil palm plantations, which are leading producers of biodiesel worldwide [41]. The rapid expansion of the oil palm industry in Colombia [42] could therefore have a significant impact on vector-host-T.cruzi ...
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Background: Oil palm plantation establishment in Colombia has the potential to impact Chagas disease transmis-sion by increasing the distribution range of Rhodnius prolixus. In fact, previous studies have reported Trypanosoma cruzi natural infection in R. prolixus captured in oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) in the Orinoco region, Colombia. The aim of this study is to understand T. cruzi infection in vectors in oil palm plantations relative to community composition and host dietary specialization by analyzing vector blood meals and comparing these results to vectors captured in a native palm tree species, Attalea butyracea. Methods: Rhodnius prolixus nymphs (n=316) were collected from A. butyracea and E. guineensis palms in Taura-mena, Casanare, Colombia. Vector blood meals from these nymphs were determined by amplifying and sequencing a vertebrate-specific 12S rRNA gene fragment. Results: Eighteen vertebrate species were identified and pigs (Sus scrofa) made up the highest proportion of blood meals in both habitats, followed by house mouse (Mus musculus) and opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Individual bugs feeding only from generalist mammal species had the highest predicted vector infection rate, suggesting that gener-alist mammalian species are more competent hosts for T. cruzi infection . Conclusions: Oil palm plantations and A. butyracea palms found in altered areas provide a similar quality habitat for R. prolixus populations in terms of blood meal availability. Both habitats showed similarities in vector infection rate and potential host species, representing a single T. cruzi transmission scenario at the introduced oil palm plantation and native Attalea palm interface.
... The global importance of palm oil has risen to new levels since the beginning of the 21 st century; by 2007, palm oil constituted 30% of global production of vegetable oils while palm oil exports accounted for 60% of global exports in oils and fats by volume [21]. Malaysia is currently the second largest producer [22] and one of the largest exporters of palm oil products accounting for 44% of global palm oil exports (Malaysian Palm Oil Council) [23]. ...
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Agricultural expansion is one of the leading causes of deforestation in the tropics and in Southeast Asia it is predominantly driven by large-scale production for international trade. Peninsular Malaysia has a long history of plantation agriculture and has been a predominantly resource-based economy where expanding plantations like those of oil palm continue to replace natural forests. Habitat loss from deforestation and expanding plantations threatens Malaysian biodiversity. Expanding industrial plantations have also been responsible for drainage and conversions of peatland forests resulting in release of large amounts of carbon dioxide. The demand for palm oil is expected to increase further and result in greater pressures on tropical forests. Given Malaysia’s high biophysical suitability for oil palm cultivation, it is important to understand patterns of oil palm expansion to better predict forest areas that are vulnerable to future expansion. We study natural forest conversion to industrial oil palm in Peninsular Malaysia between 1988 and 2012 to identify determinants of recent oil palm expansion using logistic regression and hierarchical partitioning. Using maps of recent conversions and remaining forests, we characterize agro-environmental suitability and accessibility for the past and future conversions. We find that accessibility to previously existing plantations is the strongest determinant of oil palm expansion and is significant throughout the study period. Almost all (> 99%) of the forest loss between 1988 and 2012 that has been converted to industrial oil palm plantations is within 1 km from oil palm plantations that have been established earlier. Although most forest conversions to industrial oil palm have been in areas of high biophysical suitability, there has been an increase in converted area in regions with low oil palm suitability since 2006. We find that reduced suitability does not necessarily restrict conversions to industrial oil palm in the region; however, lack of access to established plantations does.
... Lauric oils, are produced by only two industrially important species being coconut palm and Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm), both being limited to growth in tropical and subtropical climates. The large investment required and the long wait before the palms yield a return of profit is discouraging the establishment of new plantations (Arkcoll 1988, Basiron 2007, Carter et al. 2007, Murphy 2007, and is also a major driver for the development of new MCFA-producing crops that can be grown in more temperate climates. ...
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Cocos nucifera (coconut), a member of the Arecaceae family, is an economically important woody palm that is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. The coconut palm is well known for its ability to accumulate large amounts of oil, approximately 63% of the seed weight. Coconut oil varies significantly from other vegetable oils as it contains a high proportion of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 85%). The unique composition of coconut oil raises interest in understanding how the coconut palm produces oil of a high saturated MCFA content, and if such an oil profile could be replicated via biotechnology interventions. Although some gene discovery work has been performed there is still a significant gap in the knowledge associated with coconut’s oil production pathways. In this study, a de novo transcriptome was assembled for developing coconut endosperm to identify genes involved in the synthesis of lipids, particularly triacylglycerol. Of particular interest were thioesterases, acyltransferases and oleosins because of their involvement in the processes of releasing fatty acids for assembly, esterification of fatty acids into glycerolipids and protecting oils from degradation, respectively. It is hypothesized that some of these genes may exhibit a strong substrate preference for MCFA and hence may assist the future development of vegetable oils with an enriched MCFA composition. In this study, we identified and confirmed functionality of five candidate genes from the gene families of interest. This study will benefit future work in areas of increasing vegetable oil production and the tailoring of oil fatty acid compositions.
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Background Oil palm is a key driver of deforestation, but increasing yields in existing plantations could help meet rising global demands, while avoiding further conversion of natural habitat. Current oil palm plantations present substantial opportunities for sustainable intensification, but the potential for local yield improvements depends partly on the role of climate in determining yield. Methods We determine the importance of local climatic conditions for oil palm yields in 12 commercial plantations in Peninsular and East Malaysia (Borneo), during 2006–2017. We quantify relationships between climatic conditions (raw and anomalised monthly temperature and rainfall data) and yield for lag times up to 36 months prior to harvest, corresponding to key stages in oil palm fruit development. Results Overall, climatic conditions explained < 1% of the total variation in yield. In contrast, variation in yield among plantations accounted for > 50% of the explained variation in yield (of total R ² = 0.38; median annual fresh fruit bunch yield 16.4–31.6 t/ha). The main climatic driver of yield was a positive effect of maximum monthly temperature during inflorescence development (Spearman’s Rho = 0.30), suggesting that insufficient solar radiation is the main climatic constraint to yield in our study sites. We also found positive impacts of rainfall during key stages of fruit development (infloresence abortion and sex determination: Spearman’s Rho 0.06 and 0.08 respectively, for rainfall anomalies), suggesting minor effects of water-limitation on yield; and a negative impact of maximum temperature during the month of harvest (Spearman’s Rho – 0.14 for temperature anomalies), suggesting possible heat stress impacts on plantation workers. Conclusions Our findings imply a relatively minor role of climate in determining yield, and potentially substantial yield gaps in some commercial plantations in Malaysia (possibly up to ~ 50%). Thus, there appear to be substantial opportunities for improving oil palm yield in existing plantations in Malaysia, with further research needed to identify the drivers of such yield gaps.
Article
This article analyzes the Indonesia's interest in winning in a series of biodiesel disputes against the EU. These disputes formally entered the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) of the World Trade Organization in 2014 (DS480) and in 2019 (DS593). This article explores how Indonesia could defend its political-economic interest by providing the necessary evidence to the Panel. The logic of the neoliberal institutionalist framework, which does not believe in the harmony of interests, allows for an in-depth analysis of why Indonesia pursues institutional mechanisms within its litigation approach. This research argues that the WTO is perceived as the enabling factor to defend Indonesia's interest, where resource nationalism justifies the state's ability to play an increasingly complex and pervasive role that the private sectors could not otherwise have done. The legal procedures provided for in the WTO system are in line with Indonesia's interest in cooperation and conflict management.
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Fatal yellowing disease (FY) is a bud rot-type disease that severely affects oil palm plantations in Latin America. Since 1974, when it was first reported in Brazil, this disorder has been responsible for severe economic losses in the oil palm industry; and, for nearly 50 years, several studies have tried to identify its causal agent, without success. The etiological studies regarding FY in oil palm explored either biotic and abiotic stress scenarios, in a single or combined manner. Most recently, the hypothesis in favor of one biotic cause has lost some grounds to the abiotic one, mainly due to new insights regarding deficient aeration in the soil, which reduces the potential for oxy-reduction, causing changes in the ionic composition of the soil solution. This review presents an overview of the history of this disease and the several efforts done to fulfill Koch’s postulates over the last 40 years, besides discussing recent studies that revisited this subject using some omics technics. We conclude by discussing further uses of omics via a multi-omics integration (MOI) strategy to help finally find out what is really behind the genesis of FY. Finding this elusive causal agent of FY out will allow either the development of a more efficient diagnostic tool and the advance in studies trying to find out the source of the genetic resistance hidden in the genome of the American oil palm.
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Palm oil today is consumed not only for health, cooking, and other daily product but also converted into biodiesel. The EU has included the use of biodiesel as part of their clean energy for transportation and one of its sources is palm oil. However, with the release of the EU RED II, the food and feedstock used for biodiesel are selected more stringent today. The EU requires the food and feedstock sourced for biodiesel to be categorized as low indirect land-use change (ILUC) risk and those categorized as high ILUC-risk shall be gradually phased out to 0% by 2030. This provision applies to Indonesia’s palm oil making the two countries come to file a dispute to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This paper aims to analyze the lacking of Indonesia’s palm oil sustainable cultivation measures that make Indonesia’s palm oil usage in the EU threatened to be phased out to 0% by 2030. With an extensive literature review and analysis of the two law products, this paper is analyzing the gap between the EU regulation and the ISPO certification system. It is found that there are 16 main points of difference highly concentrated on carbon emission calculation mismatch. In the end, this paper is proposing a new SCOR to be implemented in Indonesia palm oil cultivation while adjusting to its condition to ensure the low ILUC-risk and pursue the trade with the EU as the second biggest market for palm oil in the world.
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The research described in this document is focused on the utilization of vegetable and animal non-edible triacylglycerols to prepare value added products. Triacylglycerols appeared to be an excellent source to substitute petroleum since they come from distinct renewable sources and have various interesting chemical and physical properties. Nevertheless, although they are renewable, their utilization as starting materials to produce chemicals can cause some concerns. On the one hand, edible triacylglycerols compete directly with food and feed. To overpass these concerns, two distinct sources of non-edible triacylglycerols were used such as non-edible animal fat from slaughterhouses and vegetable oil from a Chinese three crop (Vernicia fordii) known as tung oil. On the other hand, some of the chemistal procedures involved in the preparation of bio-based products have negative effects on the environment since high amount of wastes are generated and high temperatures and hazardous reagents are commonly employed. To overcome these issues, the present work takes advantage of the milder conditions and reusability of biocatalyst such as immobilized lipases and resting cells. Additionally, non-hazardous chemicals, low generating waste practices and cheap reagents were a priority to complete the transformation of non-edible animal fat and tung oil.
Chapter
Palm oil is consumed in over 150 countries worldwide. It plays a pivotal role in the socioeconomic development of Asian, Latin American, and African regions. Of all the palm oil and palm kernel oil entering global trade, Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than half the market share, dominating the international trade in palm oil. The increasing importance of palm oil has naturally led to a steady buildup of scientific, technical, and trade data and information. The success of the palm oil industry in Malaysia and Indonesia, in particular, has never been easy. It has been wrought with obstacles and has gotten harder in recent years. The industry has been inundated with issues of mistrusts and misconceptions about the oil, its composition, and its nutritional benefits. Other issues that have garnered attention include its trade and traceability, new process contaminants, environmental management, and other issues relating to the sustainable development of the palm oil industry. This article overviews the role of palm oil industry in the international oils and fats market, the technology involved in oil extracting and processing, palm oil quality parameters, and the applications of palm oil in food and nonfood products. The issues that are becoming relevant, namely the existence of process contaminants such as 3‐monochloropropane‐1,2‐diol (3‐MCPD) esters and glycidol esters, trade and traceability, together with other issues related to a sustainable development of the palm oil industry, have also been included.
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