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How Combinations of TRIZ Tools are Used in Companies – Results of a Cluster Analysis

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Abstract

Many engineers and natural scientists in companies are using tools directly or indirectly related to the theory of inventive problem solving (abbreviation derived from the Russian title: TRIZ) by Altshuller (1984, 1996). Some of the TRIZ tools are based on the application of condensed technical knowledge, others are special techniques for directed creativity. The usage of TRIZ and its tools should lead to improvement of efficiency within the innovation process as well as to more and smarter problem solutions.More than 40 reported applications of TRIZ in companies show that usually not the whole set of TRIZ tools is used. This is surprising, because in the original TRIZ literature all the tools are recommended for usage in a classified order named ARIS (Russian acronym for ‘algorithm for inventive problem solving’). A cluster analysis of the applications reveals that there are three subsets: (i) basic TRIZ, (ii) resource and ideality-based TRIZ, and (iii) substance-field based TRIZ. This leads to important consequences: TRIZ training and TRIZ implementation should be structured according to the three subsets.

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... To identify business model types, we used cluster analysis. Cluster analysis is a widely accepted method for such endeavors (Moehrle, 2005). It is a multivariable technique to group objects in a way that, first, objects belonging to the same cluster are very similar to each other and, second, objects belonging to different clusters behave dissimilarly with respect to these variables (D'Alvano & Hidalgo, 2012;Moehrle, 2005). ...
... Cluster analysis is a widely accepted method for such endeavors (Moehrle, 2005). It is a multivariable technique to group objects in a way that, first, objects belonging to the same cluster are very similar to each other and, second, objects belonging to different clusters behave dissimilarly with respect to these variables (D'Alvano & Hidalgo, 2012;Moehrle, 2005). In our study we applied "TwoStep Cluster Analysis" using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. TwoStep Cluster Analysis is an exploratory tool designed to reveal natural clusters within a data set (Ordanini et al., 2004) and discover formally unknown structures (Moehrle, 2005). ...
... It is a multivariable technique to group objects in a way that, first, objects belonging to the same cluster are very similar to each other and, second, objects belonging to different clusters behave dissimilarly with respect to these variables (D'Alvano & Hidalgo, 2012;Moehrle, 2005). In our study we applied "TwoStep Cluster Analysis" using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. TwoStep Cluster Analysis is an exploratory tool designed to reveal natural clusters within a data set (Ordanini et al., 2004) and discover formally unknown structures (Moehrle, 2005). It is suggested to be an appropriate technique in clustering large data sets with mixed attributes (Okazaki, 2006). ...
... The Orloff [48] and Moehrle [49] proposed TRIZ method into the process industry with the contradictions matrix and 40 inventive principles [50,51]. The contradictions matrix is partly shown in Figure 2 [52]. ...
... The contradictions matrix is partly shown in Figure 2 [52]. The Orloff [48] and Moehrle [49] proposed TRIZ method into the process industry with the contradictions matrix and 40 inventive principles [50,51]. The contradictions matrix is partly shown in Figure 2 [52]. ...
... The Maturity Index on Reliability consists of five levels and is shown in Figure 3. The Orloff [48] and Moehrle [49] proposed TRIZ method into the process industry with the contradictions matrix and 40 inventive principles [50,51]. The contradictions matrix is partly shown in Figure 2 [52]. ...
Article
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Customer feedback is used to understand customer requirements. Early design phases require the consideration of items including manufacturing, the environment, and sustainability management. Therefore, it is crucial that eco-efficiency is taken into account in the early design phases. Traditionally, eco-efficiency is considered only in terms of eco-design issues, not customer requirements based on business values such as Recency, Frequency, and Monetary (RFM) value. In the meantime, integrating innovation from eco-design is one important aspect. Here, I propose that customer feedback-based eco-efficiency and TRIZ-based innovation can be considered in early eco-design based on the RFM value for sustainability management. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy-based AHP were integrated to explore the relative weights of RFM variables for business value evaluation. The innovative method of the paper is using a TRIZ contradiction matrix associated with engineering parameters for eco-design. The experimental study has been carried out, and it meets the forecasting business value for green product usage. The business value was used as the decision-making factor in order to evaluate both environmental and marketing performance.
... Since its inception, TRIZ has been continuously developed, and several tools have been added to it for generating innovative ideas and solutions for problem solving, including '40 inventive principles', '76 standard solutions', 'a contradiction matrix', 'evolutionary patterns', and 'ideal final results' (Wang et al., 2010). Some of the TRIZ tools and principles are based on the application of accumulated knowledge of former innovations, whereas others are special techniques for directed creativity (Moehrle, 2005). TRIZ has gathered support for improving innovative problem solving (Knott, 2001;Mann, 2001); Michelin's recently introduced Tweel (a tyre which requires no air but instead uses flexible spokes to absorb impacts) was a direct result of the use of TRIZ techniques (Filmore, 2006). ...
... It might also relate to the focus of the training workshops which emphasized the definition of technical problems and the generation of creative solutions using the TRIZ methodology, with little time on how to engage support to put those solutions into practice. Moehrle's (2005) study of the application of TRIZ in various companies also found that not the whole toolset of TRIZ is used. However, if training is to lead to better implementation, as well as generation, then it makes sense for courses to cover also the operational skills required for developing and putting ideas into practice, that is innovation training rather than just creativity training. ...
Article
Creativity training is used by many organizations in an attempt to improve the innovativeness of their employees, yet there has been relatively little systematic evaluation carried out of the impact of such training. This study reports on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ)-based creativity training program in a major international engineering firm. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and multisource evaluation strategies were used to assess the impact of the training on a sample of design engineers (n = 123) and to make comparisons with nontrainees (n = 96). Results indicate that participation in TRIZ training led to short-term improvements in both the creative problem-solving skills and motivation to innovate of engineers, and these were associated with longer term improvements in their idea suggestion in the workplace. There was variable support for the translation of these ideas into new innovations and improved performance at work as a result of the training. Theoretical and practical implications for enhancing the effectiveness of creativity training interventions are discussed.
... In this sense, the long training required to master TRIZ effectively represents a considerable obstacle [84,9]. Problems are exacerbated by the supposed misalignment between industry expectations about TRIZ support and the structure of traditional training courses [82]. In such a context, University training represents a chance to boost the diffusion of TRIZ knowledge to novel engineers and technicians. ...
... Eventually, two papers of the analysed pool review peculiarities of TRIZ employment and, indeed, they are already recalled in the Introduction. Moehrle [82] presents a study based on over 40 reports about the employment of TRIZ made by practitioners. The statistic shows that the way TRIZ is used unexpectedly differs from the way it is generally taught. ...
Article
The development of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) has not followed the usual patterns of scientific validation required by engineering methods. Consequently, its outreach within engineering design is interpreted differently in the scholarly community. At the same time, the claimed powerful support in tackling technical problems of any degree of difficulty conflicts with TRIZ diffusion in industrial settings, which is relatively low according to insights into product development practices. The mismatch between ambitious goals and moderate spill-over benefits in the industry ranges among the various open issues concerning TRIZ, its way of thinking, its effectiveness, the usability of its tools. In order to provide a general overview of TRIZ in science, the authors have attempted to analyse reliable and influential sources from the literature. The performed survey includes the top 100 indexed publications concerning TRIZ, according to the number of received citations. Variegated and poorly interconnected research directions emerge in the abundant literature that tackles TRIZ-related topics. The outcomes of the investigation highlight the successful implementation of TRIZ within, among the others, biomimetics and information processing. The traditional borders of mechanical and industrial engineering have been frequently crossed, as the use of TRIZ is also witnessed in the domain of business and services. At the same time, computer-aided platforms represent diffused attempts to boost TRIZ diffusion and applicability.
... Although these classic methods can solve some technical problems creatively, it may be time-consuming and not cost-effective (Fey et al., 1994). The solutions are usually suboptimal such that the technical problems are not settled completely (Moehrle, 2005;Savransky, 2000;Terninko et al., 1998). ...
Article
Purpose The quantity of construction technology innovations in patent database grows at a high speed. More challenging technical problems require the knowledge workers to make full use of the huge existing technology innovation knowledge base to propose new innovative solutions. Hence it is critical to deliver the right knowledge to the right people at the right time. In order to improve the innovation efficiency & effectiveness, this research explores the development of a new patent knowledge management system to satisfy the increasing demand of construction innovations. Design/methodology/approach TPKMS development involves the integration of construction patent knowledge management, TRIZ theory, database techniques, and computer programming technology. The contradiction matrix in TRIZ theory serves as the patent knowledge extraction framework while SQL Server 2000 database management system is employed to manage the extracted patent knowledge, TRIZ and user account information. Visual C++ 6.0 is adopted as the development tool. Findings The developed system to manage construction patent knowledge integrates the theory of inventive problem-solving (TRIZ) with the database design enabling the system users to be more problem-focused, systematic and efficient. The system provides a heuristic environment to help improve the innovation effectiveness by motivating knowledge workers' innovative thinking. Further development of the system is proposed in the context of big data age. Originality/value A new TRIZ-based patent knowledge management system for construction technology innovation was developed.
... A long time to learn is sometimes associated to TRIZ (Malmqvist, Axelsson and Johansson, 1996), and the presence of the mentioned new developments may even worsen the problem. Maybe as a consequence of this observation, some scholars have performed investigations on the actual use of TRIZ tools within industry (Moehrle, 2005;Ilevbare, Probert and Phaal, 2013;Spreafico and Russo, 2016), substantially highlighting that only limited sets of the available tools are more frequently used. ...
Conference Paper
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Most acknowledged systematic conceptual design (SCD) methods are based on Functional Decomposition and Morphology (FDM). However, since some of the observed FDM flaws concern a non-comprehensive support to creativity, some scholars attempted to fill this gap by integrating FDM with the TRIZ body of knowledge. Unfortunately, non-negligible issues arise in these cases, hindering a comprehensive exploitation of TRIZ in SCD. This paper proposes an alternative way for exploiting the TRIZ potentialities within SCD, and three academic application examples are reported to show how the proposal works.
... Further, it could eventually provide the basis for an improved understanding and ultimately a more stable and classification of management tools. In fact, if this approach was to be applied systematically to evaluate a large number of instances of tools-in-action, a classification approach could eventually be carried out by cluster analysis (See Fig. 2a) in a similar way to that illustrated by Moherle [42] in his study on TRIZ. This type of analytical classification approach could lead to identify classes of management tools accepted more widely, based on the real dimensions of the tools in application, rather than on dimensions derived from generic descriptions (such as in [24]). ...
Conference Paper
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Academics have long been interested in understanding the nature of management tools such as roadmapping or scenario planning and to derive guidance on how they should be used. A typical approach to this challenge has been proposing rules and classifications to select and configure management tools. However, none of those proposed so far has been universally recognised. This paper argues that the characterisation of instances of tools implementation (tools-in-action) according to five key dimensions allows an easier and more robust approach to theoretically understand tools and to help practitioners with the configuration of toolkits. In order to highlight the advantages and the potential limitations of this characterization approach, a toolkit is examined.
... The company where Birdi et al. (2010) conducted their research had created their own in-house TRIZ programme: this company had a consultancy run in-house programmes. It may be that this company's Level 1 training was less effective in improving creative thinking skills: TRIZ is public domain, and the approaches taken by different companies can vary significantly in the choice of tools (Moerhle, 2004); this company may have been taught different tools. This is also a different industry: Scott et al. (2004a) suggest that population and setting might moderate the effectiveness of training. ...
Article
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Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of TFC 2011, TFC 2012, TFC 2013 and TFC 2014 – GIC.
... Finally, in this review we have to especially acknowledge two papers that are reviews themselves. [60] presents an excellent study based on over 40 reports of actual TRIZ instrument use by practitioners. Statistics shows that the way TRIZ is used unexpectedly differs from the way it is generally taught. ...
Article
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The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a toolkit of methods to support systematic creativity. The latter has been the focus of many studies since late 90s, when innovations became a recognized resource for wealth in modern world. The review is based on SCOPUS papers containing “TRIZ” in abstract, title or among keywords. About 1200 retrieved publications where briefly analyzed by co-appearance of other popular and more known tools or terms. Then the detail analysis of 100 most cited papers takes place. The review reveals the most popular TRIZ application fields (product design, information processing), the most popular TRIZ instruments (contradiction analysis) and the most typical way it is used in the reviewed studies (integration to other tools or application/adaptation for a specific field).
... Thus, we are able to employ QFD1 to pinpoint many such opportunities for breakthrough innovation. Such opportunities can then be exploited by leveraging innovative new methods, such as TRIZ (Moehrle, 2005a(Moehrle, , 2005bHart, 2007). ...
Article
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This paper proposes a four-phase quality function deployment (QFD) involving TRIZ thinking strategy to enhance breakthrough capabilities for preventative and proactive design in product R&D process. Continuously developed 'opportunities for breakthrough innovation' are highlighted. In QFD1, identified customer needs are translated into technical specifications/design requirements. QFD2 is responsible for defining product structure, takes an initial DFA approach that provides a minimalist structure and drafts a rough schematic diagram that demonstrates visually the position of modules and their interactions. Optimal design parameters for the in-house made components are planned in the QFD3. QFD4 considers problems that may result from all manufacturing process parameters and then delivers recommendations for quality control and site supervision that reflect appropriately differing levels of stringency. Leveraging the introduction and execution of this four phase QFD, we can quickly and efficiently certify whether design changes or innovative product concepts meet customer specifications, target quality level and cost. In addition, this paper pinpoints the areas the TRIZ can be used to propose innovative methods for problem solving. As contradictory requirements appeared for the system, TRIZ methodology helps decrease negative effects and improves performance of existing design.
... The method works best in applications where either a physical or chemical environment (field) exists in a system. Even with acceptance and commercial applications on the market, developers in industry have found the method laborious or less applicable in full extent to engineering tasks on the concept or solution level (Moehrle 2005). ...
Thesis
Product development and innovations play an essential role in enabling enterprises to be continually competitive and profitable. However, even though numerous processes and methodologies have been developed for creating new artefacts; there is a paradox with regard to their applicability in industry; business drivers in industry strive to extend the life cycle of products with incremental development, while the main focus in literature strongly emphasizes the introduction of new products. In addition, the context of innovation in the language of business has become more of a marketing slogan than something that really does represent newness or differentiation from what has been before. This may be confusing for a product developer, who struggles with numerous contradictory stakeholder aspects and requirements. Being crucial to the product origination process, developers search for practical methods and tools to evaluate, compare and justify their selections and decisions on various technical issues. The challenge facing developers is daunting as they must have the capability to interpret needs and requirements into a technical format and introduce innovative solutions. Successful opportunity identification, idea creation and innovations form a path whereby an enterprise can keep its position in a marketplace. However, continuous technological development in different disciplines and their implementation into one technical system has challenged generic product development methods because product functions are now often executed with complex sub-system integrations. The increasing number of developers and disciplines in product development teams therefore calls for a better means of communication in order to share information about how total function behaviour can be accomplished. The approach of this study is technical and has been initiated from a product developer’s point of view. The problem and challenges inherent to incremental development are presented and are set against the theories and methods in the relevant literature. A constructive research method is applied to develop an understanding about product value creation, multi-disciplinary concepts and innovation. Based on industrial case studies, a new method has been developed to enable a more systematic method of opportunity identification and idea creation for the incremental development of multi-disciplinary technical concepts. The core of the new method is the identification of the function execution chain, which, in particular in multi-disciplinary products, may involve numerous consecutive events in different sub-systems and disciplines. The opportunity identification explores the possibilities to change the operating principle of the technical transformation processes by utilizing integrations that come from several disciplines. Ideas and innovations are generated by individuals and an explicit idea generating method is implausible. The method presented here deeply acknowledges the necessity of human creativity during the innovation process. However, the intention here is to enable the use and sharing of existing information in a development team to be utilized as a context sensitive stimulus to identify possible seed ideas for innovations. The approach of the study and case studies comes from a manufacturing company, whose products are multi-disciplinary and tailored materials handling equipment at the static concept stage. The applicability of the newly developed method has shown promising results and thus requires further evaluation and development for other types of products and technical systems.
... As reported in Nakagawa (2011), how to think creatively in problem solving, especially in technological fields, has been difficult to explain, teach and train, but TRIZ represents a structured methodology and may be adapted and reorganized for an easier learning. In literature, there are different example of introducing TRIZ theory and its tools in academic courses or workshops, especially using TRIZ Inventive Principles or Contradictions matrixthan Trend of Evolution (Hipple, 2005;Moehrle, 2005;Belski, 2009;Ilevbare et al., 2013;Filippi et al., 2011). Given these premises, the choice of which methods to introduce in our courses, next to the use of traditional ones, has fallen on C-K theory and TRIZ because they represent two different logical approaches for introducing creativity and innovation in a systematic way into product design and development. ...
Article
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This study considers the use of systematic creativity tools for concept generation belonging to C-K theory and TRIZ, in addition to traditional ones used for product development. The aim of this study is twofold. On one hand, it aims to contribute to the improvement of the creative and innovation skills of engineering students and designers in general by the introduction of specific creativity enhancement tools. On the other hand, it proposes a method for evaluating the training and learning outcomes of the students involved in the courses based on Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation and used a questionnaire to collect students' answers and opinions. This way, some practical cases are carried on and two of these are presented in detail: one concerning the ideation of a new kind of gym towel and one concerning the analysis of a knee implant for total knee replacement surgery for possible improvements. The questionnaire results show that students considered the training and learning experiences and the use of the two new methods in a positive way. In particular, TRIZ method represents the most appreciated at all, while C-K theory is revealed as the newest one and very promising for the students' future professional development.
... They have noted a series of challenges such as the method's complexity and some organizational and cultural issues which affect the proper use and understanding of the methods. Moehrle [13] has applied a cluster analysis to TRIZ framework to identify the proper classification that its 40 applications belong to as observed by the study that not all the applications are used in a single problem-solving exercise. Therefore, after clustering, the TRIZ methods were divided into three clusters such as the basic, resource and ideality-based, and substance-field based. ...
Article
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This study focuses on the installation of a stern tube which is one of the tasks in shafting installation. The traditional way to set up a stern tube needs more labor input in terms of manpower, work schedule and cost. Not only that, during processing, it requires large boring machinery which generates noise which is harmful to workers’ physical and mental conditions. This study first utilizes problem hierarchy analysis in redefining the problem before finding out the solutions using technical contradiction to work out the feasible solutions. Then, after refining and analyzing the feasible solutions, the feasible solutions were carried out and then an “integrated Stern Tube” was created, which decreased 49% of the cost and 71% of the work period in a dock. This means that the new technique makes it possible for a shipyard to enhance its capacity of building vessels as well as lower the noise effectively. As a result, these improvements add up to a friendlier working environment and lead to a win-win situation between workers and management.
... For example, Hollenstein (2003) employed a cluster analysis to identify and analyze innovation modes in the service sector, deriving five types of innovation modes: science-based high-tech firms with full network integration, IT-oriented networkintegrated developers, market-oriented incremental innovators with weak external links, cost-oriented process innovators with strong external links along the value chain, and low-profile innovators with hardly any external links. Moehrle (2005) conducted a clustering analysis to identify the types of theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) applications in business, which resulted in three clusters. Based on this, innovation types based on TRIZ were identified. ...
Article
Service innovation involves both technological and nontechnological aspects, which need to be protected as intellectual property. Thus, it is worth analyzing patents and trademarks at the same time to examine innovation-protection mechanisms considering that not only patents but also trademarks can play a significant role in protecting different aspects of innovation. In response, this paper focuses on the usage of trademarks and suggests hybrid intellectual property strategies to integrate patents and trademarks to understand the characteristics of innovation strategy-the patterns of innovation protection. We employed the United States Patent and Trademark Office database and conducted a sector-level and firm-level analysis. As a case study, we focused on the game industry, in which both patents and trademarks are considered the key drivers for innovation.
... Hernandez et al. [28], Borgianni et al. [29]). Moreover, some scholars have performed investigations on the actual use of TRIZ tools within industry (Moherle [30], Ilevbare et al. [10]), substantially observing that only a limited and not univocally defined set of the available TRIZ tools is usually considered by practitioners. Furthermore, a variety of studies exists which propose to exploit TRIZ and/or some of its fundamentals for different design-related purposes (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of most acknowledged approaches for conceptual design is the so-called “Functional Decomposition and Morphology” (FDM), which provides a systematic framework for transforming a set of technical requirements in a product concept. However, as observed by some scholars, this particular procedure acknowledges some flaws, also concerning a non-comprehensive support in generating creative ideas. Accordingly, literature suggests to combine creativity-enhancer tools or methods with the FDM process. The TRIZ base of knowledge appears to be one of the viable options, as shown in the fragmental indications reported in well-acknowledged design textbooks. Accordingly, other contributions can be found in literature, which are focused on more structured ways for enhancing FDM approaches with TRIZ. In such a context, the objectives of this paper is to collect the literature contributions focused on the TRIZ-FDM integration, with the aim of providing a first comprehensive classification and discussing about observable differences and lacks.
... Different proposals to sort TRIZ body of knowledge have emerged in the literature, but the prompts are still insufficient to standardize the employment of TRIZ. Moehrle [4] contributed to the goal by surveying 40 cases of TRIZ implementation in companies. The results showed that the whole set of TRIZ tools was not exploited and only few combinations of techniques were frequently observed. ...
Conference Paper
Many TRIZ critics (but also advocates) challenge its capability to individuate appropriate instruments for specific problems. Although each TRIZ user tends to prefer certain tools over others, Inventive Principles represent the most popular technique according to recent studies. Consequently, a more appropriate guidance to select the most promising ones for a given problem would result in a clear advantage for designers and supposedly for TRIZ popularity. The Contradiction Matrix is classically introduced to support this process, but its reliability is often questioned. In this framework, the authors have analysed a sample of problems solved by means of TRIZ and described in TRIZ-related literature. This choice was dictated by the need to pay attention to case studies really faced with TRIZ instead of being reconstructed from other examples, e.g. patents. The performed analysis has included 42 case studies from acknowledged TRIZ books and sources. Unfortunately, literature about problems solved with TRIZ is highly dispersed and the creation of a greater sample would have required considerable efforts. By the way, the authors believe that such a situation hinders the communication of TRIZ benefits. The analysis has led to the conclusions that follow. The Contradiction Matrix would have supported the determination of the described solutions in very few cases, namely 8, which confirms its limited reliability. A small number of Inventive Principles is capable of addressing the majority of the illustrated solutions; for instance, four of them are sufficient to solve almost 60% of the presented problems. Additional criteria have been used to classify conflicting parameters (more specifically a characterization in terms of Useful Functions, Undesired Effects and Resources), but their relationship with employed Inventive Principles seems quite random. The paper wills to open up a discussion about this presumable randomness of Inventive Principles and the possible measures to tackle the problem.
... After conducting a survey on 43 TRIZ applications in Europe and North America, Moehrle (2005) noticed that (1) the whole toolset of TRIZ is not always necessary to solve inventive problems; ...
Article
Full-text available
Competitive Technical Intelligence (CTI) addresses the landscape of both opportunities and competition for emerging technologies, as the boom of Newly Emerging Science & Technology (NEST) – characterized by a challenging combination of great uncertainty and great potential – has become a significant feature of the globalized world. We have been focusing on the construction of a “NEST Competitive Intelligence” methodology that blends bibliometric and text mining methods to explore key technological system components, current R&D emphases, and key players for a particular NEST. This paper emphasizes the semantic TRIZ approach as a useful tool to process “Term Clumping” results to retrieve “Problem & Solution (P&S)” patterns, and apply them to Technology Roadmapping (TRM). We attempt to extend our approach into NEST Competitive Intelligence studies by using both inductive and purposive bibliometric approaches. Finally, an empirical study for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) is used to demonstrate these analyses.
... Different proposals to sort TRIZ body of knowledge have emerged in the literature, but the prompts are still insufficient to standardize the employment of TRIZ. Moehrle [4] contributed to the goal by surveying 40 cases of TRIZ implementation in companies. The results showed that the whole set of TRIZ tools was not exploited and only few combinations of techniques were frequently observed. ...
Chapter
TRIZ capability of individuating appropriate instruments for specific problems is often challenged. Although each TRIZ user tends to prefer certain tools over others, Inventive Principles undoubtedly represent the most popular technique. Consequently, a more appropriate guidance to select the most promising ones for a given problem would result in a clear advantage for designers. The Contradiction Matrix should support this process, but its reliability is often questioned. In this framework, the authors have analysed problems solved with TRIZ and described in TRIZ-related literature. This choice reflects the need to pay attention to case studies really faced with TRIZ instead of being reconstructed from other examples. The analysis includes 42 case studies from acknowledged TRIZ sources. Unfortunately, literature about problems solved with TRIZ is highly dispersed and the creation of a greater sample would have required considerable efforts. The following results emerged from the analysis. The Contradiction Matrix would have supported the determination of the described solutions in very few cases, namely eight, which confirms its limited reliability. A small number of Inventive Principles addresses the majority of the illustrated solutions; for instance, four of them are sufficient to solve almost 60% of the presented problems. Additional criteria have been used to classify conflicting parameters (more specifically a characterization in terms of Useful Functions, Undesired Effects and Resources), but their relationship with employed Inventive Principles seems quite random. The paper wills to open up a discussion about this presumable randomness of Inventive Principles and the possible measures to tackle the problem.
... After conducting a survey on 43 TRIZ applications in Europe and North America, Moehrle (2005) noticed that (1) the whole toolset of TRIZ is not always necessary to solve inventive problems; (2) a certain combination of several techniques is often applied; (3) different tools do not appear to use techniques with great variance from each other; and (4) constructing TRIZ training and implementation is helpful. ...
Conference Paper
Competitive Technical Intelligence (CTI) addresses the landscape of both opportunities and competition for emerging technologies as the boom of Newly Emerging Science & Technology (NEST) - characterized by a challenging combination of great uncertainty and great potential - has become a significant feature of the globalized world. We have been focusing on the construction of a "NEST Competitive Intelligence" methodology, which blends bibliometric and text mining methods to explore key technological system components, current R&D emphases, and key players for a particular NEST. As an important part of these studies, this paper emphasizes the semantic TRIZ approach as a useful tool to represent "Term Clumping" results and apply them to Technology Roadmapping (TRM), with the help of semantic Problem & Solution (P&S) patterns. A greater challenge lies in the attempt to extend our approach into NEST Competitive Intelligence studies by using both inductive and purposive bibliometric approaches. Finally, an empirical study for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) is used to demonstrate these analyses.
... The potentialities of TRIZ have been also scientifically observed by performing evaluations and tests through academic students (e.g., Hernandez et al. [12], Borgianni et al. [13]). Moreover, scholars have performed investigations on the actual use of TRIZ tools within the industry (Moherle [14], Ilevbare et al. [8]), substantially observing that only a limited and not univocally defined set of TRIZ tools are usually considered by practitioners, among those available. Furthermore, several studies propose to exploit TRIZ, and/or some of its fundamentals for different design-related purposes (e.g., [15][16][17][18]). ...
Article
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The System Operator (SO), also known as Nine Boxes or Multiscreen, is classically used for analysing the undesired situation according to different perspectives. However, its logic can be suitably exploited also for other kinds of tasks. In such a context, this paper shows an alternative application of the SO. In particular, the new proposed SO approach allows us to formulate alternative problems, i.e., different from the central one, although referring to the same problem-solving task. By applying the proposed procedure to a real case study, this paper shows that the tool can be used for problem analysis and formulation purposes, aimed at better clarifying the problem-solving task. The case study concerns a preliminary set of experiments performed to evaluate the possibility of obtaining angular shapes by bending tiles made by a specific compostable composite material. The suggestions obtained using the proposed SO approach allowed us to find potentially valid solutions, thus paving the way for further validation tests. In particular, tests are still needed to validate the actual potentialities of the proposed SO. Additionally, further and more comprehensive tests are required to validate the solutions inferred in this study concerning the compostable tiles.
... However, it is worth noting that the selection of tools is only guided based on the user's experience at present [17]. erefore, not all the TRIZ tools receive the same consideration from practitioners [19]. e tools most frequently used by practitioners in this toolset include 40 Inventive Principles, Ideal Final Result, Contradiction Matrix, Trends, and Functional Analysis Model [18]. ...
Article
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The boundary between tangible and digital products is getting more fused while rapidly evolving systems for interaction require novel processes that allow for rapidly developed designs, evaluations, and interaction strategies to facilitate efficient and unique user interactions with computer systems. Accordingly, the literature suggests combining creativity enhancement tools or methods with human-computer interaction (HCI) design. The TRIZ base of knowledge appears to be one of the viable options, as shown in the fragmental indications reported in well-acknowledged design textbooks. The goal of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature to identify and analyze the published approaches and recommendations to support the synergy between HCI and TRIZ from the perspective of product innovation related to HCI, with the aim of providing a first comprehensive classification and discussing about observable differences and gaps. The method followed is the guidelines related to systematic literature review methods. As results, out of 444 initial results, only 17 studies reported the outcomes of the synergy between HCI and TRIZ. The 7 of these studies explored the feasibility of the combination of HCI and TRIZ. The 10 studies attempted to combine and derive approaches in these two fields, and the outcomes defined 3 different integration strategies between HCI and TRIZ. Some conclusions achieved are that the generic solutions to support the synergy between HCI and TRIZ are still rare in the literature. The extraction and combination of different tools caused the randomization of the evaluation criteria, and the performance of the proposals has not been comprehensively evaluated. However, the findings can help inform future developments and provide valuable information about the benefits and drawbacks of different approaches.
... It is generally believed that TRIZ is not sufficiently effective in solving the tasks of the first and second category; they are very basic and lie entirely within the competence of the engineer. Nevertheless, sometimes, it turns out that TRIZ can be applied also in jobs included in the first category, disciplining the design process and ensuring its solution at the lowest cost with the use of simple and cheap methods [1][2] [3]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper was to present the problem of electronic devices quality control. An object under examination has been a printed circuit board (PCB) intended to control solar collectors. Having equipped the board, the system ought to be subjected to assembly and operational quality assurance process. Up until now, quality control was conducted manually and lasted 290 seconds. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a tool-a chuck that would be used to accelerate the quality check. The problem has been solved with the use of the TRIZ methodology, namely, the ARIZ 64 algorithm. A device has been designed that shortens the duration of quality control to 30 seconds. Consequently, 250 seconds were reduced (approx. 4 minutes).
... When following [4,5] methodologies, there is a great risk of missing and/or canceling consideration of essential features on one side and necessity of implementing of an exhausting search of candidate solution on the other. The largely popularized method of Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ/TIPS) is quite effective for finding solutions of conceptual design and resolving invention tasks [7,8]. A contradiction matrix and set of 40 creative/inventive tools are used for developing special auxiliary structures-VEPOLS (a Russian abbreviation of substance + field)-as a model of future novel product for revealing new and neutralizing the harmful functions. ...
Chapter
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A novel task-based conceptual design method introduced around a decade ago has been presented from its most characteristic points including the general idea, usage and modification of previous art, usage and modification of independent sets of functional and mechanical means for implementation of those functions, creation of intermediate mechanical-functional sets supporting the development of new structures like models, visualization of the design process, and so on. The current paper aims to reveal a non-computerized graphically visualized set of actions covering all the above-mentioned major steps of the suggested methodology. The success of synthesizing action greatly depends on the method of creation submechanisms or virtual mechanisms, which are making possible visualization and consideration intermediate structures helping to identify and implement a necessary function. The method of creating of such subcategories and application of elementary movements or set of links for explaining or satisfying demanded set of functions could be considered the main methodical novelty and strength of proposed conceptual design method. Two examples are included: the first reinvention of a known tool—Locking Pliers from database and second synthesis of a novel hand tool—Adjustable Nut Wrench.
... The tools in TRIZ are Function Analysis, Resource Analysis, the Contradictions, 40 Principles, the Matrix, and the Laws of Evolution, the Substance-Field Analysis Modeling, Standard Solutions, Ideal Final Solution, Scientific Effects, Feature Transfer, Function Oriented Search, ARIZ, and so on. Based on some empirical results obtained from the TRIZ applications in many companies, Martin G. Moehrle [3] pointed out that it is only some toolset of TRIZ tools are often applied. According to the top 100 indexed publications concerning TRIZ surveyed by Literature [4], it is shown that TRIZ tools have been successfully implemented in many domains, including mechanical, and industrial engineering, biomimetics, information processing, business and services. ...
Article
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The Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ) is a very good tool to solve complicated problems. However, it is fussy to get a specific solution under the guides of ARIZ in the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). A novel approach to getting solutions for inventive problem solving in TRIZ is shown in this paper. A model named 5-R model of finding specific solutions was developed. 5-R model has four steps to obtain specific suggested solutions for technical problems. Reason-occurred-analysis is the first step in this new model. Then a clear statement of the Ideal Final Result is used to encourage breakthrough thinking and get solutions to the problem. After that, suggested resolutions can be obtained with the Contradiction Matrix, the Physical Contradiction, the Substance-Field, the Effects, Function Analysis, System Enhancement route, and Substance-Field Analysis. Finally, a reasonable specific solution for innovative problem solving can be gotten using resource analysis. 5-R model is not difficult to learn and remember. 5-R model improves the efficiency of getting solutions with TRIZ. Finally, a practical engineering problem was solved using this now model successfully.
... Nissing, 2007, discussed the role of TRIZ as a method capable of building competitive advantage via product improvement, compared to a parallel approach of patent-oriented strategic inventing. Moehrle, 2005, conducted a quantitative survey of the ways TRIZ methods are actually used in organizations, and e.g. Jafari and Zarghami, 2017, showed that TRIZ training in the aerospace industry significantly improved employee creative thinking. ...
Book
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How to use this book When writing this book I aim to accomplish several goals. First, I would like to show that building a cooperative environment for a diverse workforce is a crucial antecedent to any attempts at building innovativeness. Diversity expresses itself in various forms. It may be the fact that men and women may have different creative sensitivities (Chapter 11), or that the employees differ in their views on the importance of various components of the business model (Chapter 3), or that different employee groups or different companies employ different strategies with respect to innovation management (Chapter 7). Being aware of these sources of diversity may be of practical importance for thoughtful managers. Second, the heuristic methods described in Chapters 4, 10, and 11 are well suited for managerial practice, since they are the tools ready to be implemented in everyday work, when the need arises to stimulate employees’ innovativeness. Several hundred original examples provided in these chapters are meant to serve either as direct triggers of creativity (Appendix to Chapter 11) or potentially useful cases to enrich one’s thinking about their problems to be solved (examples of the TRIZ method in Appendix to Chapter 4 and examples of the SCAMPER method in Appendix to Chapter 10). Third, modeling innovation dynamics using game theory (Chapter 7) and quantifying within-organization diversity with methods that are borrowed from community ecology, open novel opportunities for researchers in the area of management (Chapter 3). The existence of team roles creates a natural organizational setting through which plurality of employee views on the main business model of the organization are expressed. Since each team role has a unique view on the importance of particular components of the business model, an informal but very dynamic diversity of business models co-existing in the organization arises. I adopt quantitative concepts and methods from ecology to show how the diversity of team-role views can be assessed. Furthermore, the same method can be used to capture the diversity of views on business models among individual employees, especially at managerial and executive level. In a turbulent business environment an organization’s flexibility may be improved by internal diversity of the ways its business model is implemented. Finally, several topics may be used in the educational context, with very low barriers to entry for the student users. Reciprocity as a mechanism promoting cooperation and building trust (Chapters 2 and 3) is, in my view, a fundamental concept when teaching about organizational behavior. Game theory is useful in strategic management. The heuristic methods mentioned above are key to implementing a very effective approach in creative thinking and innovation management courses. Chapter 1 – Introduction: Managing in a VUCA world 1.1 VUCA 1.2. The focal points of modern framework of management 1.3. Diversity – cooperation – innovation versus the VUCA world 1.4 The elusive innovativeness 1.5 Academic entrepreneurship 1.6 From industry to academia and back: bidirectional inspirations Part 1 – Business models: their diversity and reinvention Chapter 2 - Business models as objects of reinvention 2.1 Business model as a framework 2.2 Simplify, but first build conceptual bridges 2.3 Procedures of reinventing 2.4 Reinvention in spite of trade-offs 2.5 Reinvention of business models of the cluster and within the cluster 2.6 The essential interplay of R&D and HR 2.7 A good business model should make an organization antifragile Chapter 3 - Within-firm functional diversity of co-existing business models: there is a model for every team role and for every employee 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Detecting qualitative within-firm variation in business model perceptions 3.3 Quantifying business model perceptions among team roles 3.4 Quantifying niche-breadth in business model perceptions 3.5 Quantifying similarity among team roles in business model perceptions 3.6 Quantifying intra-firm diversity in business model perceptions: a team-role perspective 3.7 Quantifying similarity among business model components from team-role perceptions 3.8 Conclusions Chapter 4 - Reinventing business models with TRIZ-based engineering heuristics 4.1 Introduction 4.2. Inventive principles of TRIZ as applied to the reinvention of business model components 4.3 Conclusions 4.4 Appendix – 40 inventive principles of TRIZ as applied to the reinvention of business model components Part 2 – Cooperation: its logic and consequences Chapter 5 - Cooperation among selfish players: the role of reciprocity 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Axelrod’s theory and the Prisoner’s Dilemma 5.3 The payoff matrix 5.4 Repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma 5.5 Difficult beginnings 5.6 Selected strategies considered from the perspective of cooperativeness 5.7 How do the strategies play against each other? What if the shadow of the future is finite and errors happen? 5.8 Conclusions Chapter 6 - Cooperating and managing trust 6.1 The shadow of the future 6.2 How to play the cooperative game 6.3 How to practice trust management 6.4 About individualities 6.5 Developing indicators of a leader’s trustworthiness 6.6 Conclusions Chapter 7 – Evolutionarily stable strategies and their relevance for innovation 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Hawk-Dove game: defining the evolutionarily stable strategy 7.3 ESS for three strategies, with an added asymmetry 7.4 Determining the evolutionarily stable strategy for innovativeness 7.5 The frequency-dependent benefits from innovation and the Braess’s paradox Chapter 8 - Cooperative games within the Triple Helix: research – government - business 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The scale of analysis 8.3 Does cooperation improve innovativeness? 8.4 The Triple Helix of research, government, and business 8.5 Local government as a broker 8.6 Science: quality and reliability of researchers or research labs 8.7 Business: quality and reliability of companies 8.8 Building an incentive system by modifying the payoff matrix 8.9 Cooperation among business organizations 8.10 Conclusions Part 3 – Innovativeness: its requirements and methods Chapter 9 - Creating environment conducive to innovativeness: implementing the fundamental features 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The characteristics of the environment conducive to innovativeness (ECTI) 9.3 Appendix: The case “ECTI in action: a reinvention of the shopping cart at IDEO” Chapter 10 - Methods for stimulating creativity: an overview and an extended example 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Creativity as an art of defining and re-defining a problem: „scampering“ with universal stimulating questions 10.3 Appendix – An extended list of SCAMPER questions, with examples. Chapter 11 – An “idea” is a gender-symmetric concept: a neglected dimension of creative thinking methods 11.1 Introduction 11.2 How to prove that we are not necessarily in control of our own views? 11.3 Gender-symmetric creativity 11.4 The nominal group method: autonomy and anonymity remove bias 11.5 Impersonation (Change Ego) – seeing the product through somebody else’s eyes 11.6 Imaginization 11.7 Are gender differences important in teaching and managing creativity? 11.8 Conclusions 11.9 Appendix - A largely gender-neutral and social status-neutral list of characters for use in the Impersonation method Bibliography
... Medical device development, from technical design to integrated product development (Ocampo & Kaminski, 2019) Integration of creativity enhancement tools in medical device design process (Motyl & Filippi, 2014) Software Design thinking and collaborative learning (Leinonen & Gazulla, 2014) Understanding TRIZ through the review of top cited publications (Chechurin & Borgianni, 2016) Transportation Applying Lean Thinking to new product introduction (Haque & James-moore, 2004) How combinations of TRIZ tools are used in companies -Results of a cluster analysis (Moehrle, 2005b) with experience in TRIZ, and an industry member with 15 years of experience in automotive NPD (and who is the first author of this article). The main objective was to build a unique working approach that incorporates the best of both tools (DT and TRIZ) as well as to set the appropriate time within a typical automotive NPD to insert the unique approach. ...
Article
The objective of this research is to improve innovation effectiveness during new product development (NPD) processes in industry by using problem‐solving techniques during the conceptual development phase. The concept phase of physical NPDs is widely recognized in the literature as the time when the target market is identified, alternative product concepts are created and evaluated for further development and testing, also called the “fuzzy front end” or “discovery stage”. Design Thinking (DT) and TRIZ were the chosen problem‐solving techniques to support this stage because of their complementariness. While DT is most recognized as an approach that drives project teams toward the end‐users, TRIZ has its main strength during idea generation and selection processes where it has a robust set of analytical tools to drive NPD teams to a final product concept. After conducting a literature review to understand the strengths and limitations of both techniques, a framework is proposed by integrating them into the conceptual development phase of an industrial NPD process. The proposed framework is then tested and validated after being applied successfully in an NPD process in the automotive industry. The automotive industry is a good example of an incremental type of industry when designing its components for new vehicle models, and is therefore a very appropriate laboratory for validating the proposed framework.
... Efficiency of such approach is limited because of necessity of consideration of large number of potential solutions with not direct and participation of such functions in search of novel structure, which could be essential for success of conpet design of a new product. Well known and popularized method of TIPS (Theory on inventive problem solving) implies consideration of limited number of functions and construction of so called VEPOL mechanical-functional models and is from this point an effective designer tool [6,7]. Anyhow limitation of standard set of functions on one hand and necessity of running an exhaustive search by means of contradiction matrix on the other narrows application of this method for cases where direct comparison of features of competing products are to be outlined clearly and guidance is needed for setting the carcass of possible solution. ...
Article
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A novel approach of task based conceptual design(TBCD) has been successfully used as direct guider and efficient developer of unique mechanical structures for many cases of mechanical design. Nearly a decade long efforts of elaboration of efficient every day usage formats for this method have been ended in convenient design pages suitable and applicable for revealing, describing, visualizing and managing the data necessary for organizing the design process from task definition to solutions satisfying original design tasks. The aim of current study is to show steps of a solution generation within frames of a single design cycle and extend this action over consecutive design cycles. Those steps are described from standpoint of general concept design method starting from key model and finished with final aggregation matrice as ultimate step of a single design cycle. Unified mathematical expressions are used for introduction and description of all worked out and developed components of conceptual design. The paper is arranged in a way to show gradual steps of conceptual design(CD) of a power transmission system – a pipe wrench life test machine.
... Scholars have discovered that subjects can represent "solutions", actions can represent either the "effect" or the "influence" of the solution, and objects can represent the "invention problem" (Verbitsky 2004;Moehrle 2005;Kim et al. 2009;Zhang et al. 2014). The use of SAO structures to characterize the technological content of patents has significant advantages over traditional patent features (Angeli et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Patents are not only an important aspect of intellectual property rights, but they are also one of the only ways to protect technological inventions. However, in recent years, the number of patents has been increasing dramatically and, as a result, both patent applicants and patent examiners are finding it more difficult to conduct the due diligence step of the patent registration process. Therefore, the lack of a quick and easy way to accurately measure patent similarity has become a significant obstacle to protecting intellectual property. Currently, there are three main ways to measure patent similarity: IPC code analysis, citation analysis, and keyword analysis. None of these approaches are able to fully reflect the semantics in a patent’s content. As an emerging methodology, subject–action–object (SAO) semantic analysis does reflect semantics, but most approaches treat each identified relationship as equally important, which does not necessarily provide an accurate measure of patent similarity. To offer this power to SAO analysis, this article introduces a new indicator called DWSAO as a reflection of the weight of each SAO semantic structure. Further, we present a semantic analysis framework that incorporates the DWSAO index for finding similar patents based on the weight of each SAO structure in the patent. A case study on the similarity of patents in the field of robotics was used to verify the reliability of the method. The results highlight the detailed meanings derived from the method, the accuracy of the outcomes, and the practical significance of using this approach.
... Lower abstraction level limits designer's possibilities for management of mechanical and functional categories. Widely popular method of Theory of Inventive Problem Solving -TIPS [7,8] works for resolving inventive and conceptual design tasks. It implies application of a 40 inventive tools and contradiction matrix of functions for constructing of so called vepols (essence-field) as basic structures of an inventive solution. ...
Chapter
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A task based conceptual design method developed upon long term experience of various mechanical utilities (hand tools, machine tools, testing equipment, utility devices) systemizes key steps of creation of a novel structure instead of intuitive analyzing algorithm of the designer and turns those intuitive efforts into well-organized conceptual design matrix. Recommendations and procedural instructions of this method still being useful and workable need in further detailed description and breakdown of synthesis sub actions leading to creation of novel structures and to decision making about satisfactory design. Further abstraction and generalization of such design tools as decomposition, modelling, database usage and synthesis are firstly based on unified mathematical expressions and are ending in identical per structure resizable matrices assuring proper conditions for decision making and moving to next step of conceptual design. Creative part of each design cycle matrix includes two columns for preliminary and final solutions and two rows for design task and for solution means. Those matrices are including all necessary data for next two design columns referring to visualization and decision making. Current study is a further move in abstraction of solution making step leading to development of premises for construction of a computational algorithm assisting the designer in conceptual design. A conceptual design example shows usage of new operational formats.
... TRIZ is a useful tool for analyzing technology and countless researchers from various disciplines have applied and validated it. Additionally, TRIZ techniques have been used in the case of technology forecasting and R&D planning activities [32][33][34]. ...
Article
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A smart grid employs information and communications technology to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity production and distribution. The convergent and complex nature of a smart grid and the multifarious connection between its individual technology components, as well as competition between private companies, which will exert substantial influences on the future smart grid business, make a strategic approach necessary from the beginning of research and development (R&D) planning with collaborations among various research groups and from national, industry, company, and detailed technological levels. However, the strategic, technological, business environmental, and regulatory barriers between various stakeholders with collaborative or sometimes conflictive interests need to be clarified for a breakthrough in the smart grid field. A strategic R&D planning process was developed in this study to accomplish the complicated tasks, which comprises five steps: (i) background research of smart grid industry; (ii) selection of R&D target; (iii) societal, technological, economical, environmental, and political (STEEP) analysis to obtain a macro-level perspective and insight for achieving the selected R&D target; (iv) patent analysis to explore capabilities of the R&D target and to select the entry direction for smart grid industry; and, (v) nine windows and scenario planning analyses to develop a method and process in establishing a future strategic R&D plan. This R&D planning process was further applied to the case of a Korean company holding technological capabilities in the sustainable smart grid domain, as well as in the sustainable electric vehicle charging system, a global consumer market of smart grid. Four plausible scenarios were produced by varying key change agents for the results of this process, such as technology and growth rates, policies and government subsidies, and system standards of the smart grid charging system: Scenario 1, ‘The Stabilized Settlement of the Smart Grid Industry’; Scenario 2, ‘The Short-lived Blue Ocean of the Smart Grid Industry’; Scenario 3, ‘The Questionable Market of the Smart Grid’; and, Scenario 4, ‘The Stalemate of the Smart Grid Industry’. The R&D plan suggestions were arranged for each scenario and detailed ways to cope with dissonant situations were also implied for the company. In sum, in this case study, a future strategic R&D plan was suggested in regard to the electric vehicle charging technology business, which includes smart grid communication system, battery charging duration, service infrastructure, public charge station system, platform and module, wireless charging, data management system, and electric system solution. The strategic R&D planning process of this study can be applicable in various technologies and business fields, because of no inherent dependency on particular subject, like electric vehicle charging technology based on smart grid.
... Su-Field Analysis has also been used by industry companies to effectively find solutions to real problems (Belski, Belski, Chong, & Kwok, 2013;Dobrusskin, Belski, & Belski, 2014). In a review which evaluated the use of TRIZ tools within industry companies based upon analysis of fourty-five studies published between 1997 and 2003, Moehrle (2005) found that Su-Field Analysis had been used by industry companies in fourteen of the studies. Ilevbare, Probert, and Phaal (2013) conducted a worldwide survey of forty TRIZ enthusiasts through online surveys posted on two select TRIZ groups on the LinkedIn social networking website. ...
... Si ces outils rencontrent un vif succès dans certains secteurs de l'industrie (Moehrle, 2005), et si l'approche générale présente un intérêt éventuel pour l'analyse prospective des usages, notre position est que ces outils s'adapteraient difficilement a priori à c. En effet, comme le montre la Figure A6, ces méthodes se sont appuyées sur un travail titanesque de veille dans divers domaines réalisé par Altshuller. ...
Article
Product use has gained increasing importance in innovative design. A close examination of use analysis practices, however, shows that many tools used in this capacity rely on prior decisions regarding which users and which activities design should target. This is an issue in innovation projects where product use is subject to great uncertainty, e.g. when generating new product concepts based on emerging technologies, or when validating concepts addressing specific use-related stakes, such as safety. How can one anticipate the uses of a product which does not yet exist? What status should one give such anticipation in the design project? We attempt to answer by using the concept of prospective use analysis. Through experimental simulations of design meetings focused on anticipating future use, we examine the benefits of tools from creativity and reliability engineering, to help designers produce prospective scenarios of future use, in order to guide the innovative design process.
Chapter
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Business model (BM) is a universally applicable framework for analyzing an organization’s entire spectrum of activities, from cost structure, revenue streams, to human resources and organizational culture, client networks, collaborators and the essence of what the organization offers, i.e. the customer value proposition. To facilitate an efficient process of re-inventing or re-conceptualizing the BM, we have applied two heuristic tools: Altshuller’s 40 inventive principles and Osborn’s seven SCAMPER questions, which were developed initially for applications in engineering and marketing, respectively. We show examples of how each module of a BM can be modified in a creative and, sometimes, counterintuitive way, thus leading to the improvement of the organization’s functioning in an uncertain and fluctuating business environment.
Conference Paper
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An innovative product may not be successful when launched to the market arena; this paper explores the use of TRIZ tools at early stages of the user centered design approach (UCD) to develop new products. This paper proposes an application of TRIZ tools from the understanding a to the solutions stages through an abstract analysis of the interactions of the customer and its context; this allows a deeper understanding and a comprehensive definition of customer requirements. The authors´ proposal is aimed at identifying innovative commercial successful opportunities. The main contribution of this paper is centered on the integration of the value creation and innovation tools of the UCD approach and TRIZ at early design stages.
Article
Identifying and appropriately resolving system tradeoffs or effectively evaluating alternatives is a key deliverable of systems engineering. Without proper resolution, system performance is hindered, or suboptimal technologies are chosen. TRIZ, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, offers tools and methods to identify and resolve tradeoffs (which it terms contradictions or conflicts). TRIZ recognizes that fundamental performance limits arise when one or more unresolved tradeoffs exist in a system. According to TRIZ, eliminating or reducing the effects of the conflicts is necessary to move to improved system performance. This paper presents a TRIZ Trade Study framework that is useful to identify system conflicts, both across alternatives and within a technology, and at various levels of requirements decomposition, to compare options and optimize how the system performs. The framework was developed to perform a trade study between alternative pharmaceutical production systems, and merges traditional trade study methodologies with classical TRIZ. Specifically, traditional pharmaceutical manufacturing development and manufacturing were traded against an emerging and proposed approach, QbD (Quality by Design). Given TRIZ is scalable and useful to a variety of systems, the application of the TRIZ Trade Study Framework is also broadly applicable across system scale and domains. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Syst Eng
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In der wissenschaftlichen Literatur zum Innovationsmanagement – wie in der betrieblichen Praxis der Neuproduktentwicklung – wird der Einsatz von „innovativen Analogien“ als ein vielversprechender Ansatz gesehen, denn hierdurch kann bereits bestehendes Wissen zur Lösung von Problemstellungen, die in anderen Kontexten situiert sind, eingesetzt werden. Innovative Analogien können somit maßgeblich zur Reduzierung von Technologie- und Marktrisiken beitragen. Insbesondere die Senkung der Entwicklungskosten sowie –risiken lässt den Einsatz von innovativen Analogien auch bei der Entwicklung von sog. „frugalen“, kostengünstigen und effizienzorientierten, Innovationen, als attraktiv erscheinen. Dieser Zusammenhang ist bisher in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur nicht explizit aufgegriffen worden. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag untersuchen wir einige operationale Aspekte frugaler Produktentwicklung anhand ausgewählter Fallstudien und können feststellen, dass gerade frugale Innovationen besonders häufig auf innovative Produktanalogien zurückgreifen. Der Analogieeinsatz bei frugalen Innovationen beinhaltet darüber hinaus auch einige, wichtige Erkenntnisse für die Analogieforschung: (1) Der Einsatz von innovativen Analogien ist nicht unbedingt auf die frühen Innovationsphasen beschränkt; er kann vielmehr alle Phasen des Innovationsprozesses durchdringen, und (2) Die funktionale Fixierung und übermäßiger Verlass auf lokales Wissen ist in frugalen Innovationsprojekten weniger verbreitet und die Akzeptanz externen Wissens deutlich größer. Diese Erkenntnis liefert nützliche Rückschlüsse für die Produktentwicklungsprozesse auch im nicht-frugalen Bereich.
Article
The accuracy descriptions and definitions of requirements and contradictions in the engineering projects and the analysis and modeling of resource conflicting are the common challenges and important issues to us. Aimed to the problems and the contradictions in the process of the software design, this study combined the model of substance-field and the analysis methods related with the traditional methodologies of software design. We tried to find a novel approach of representation and description for the requirements of the software engineering and the strategies of improvement on the design methods and the patterns. In the last section of this study, we analyzed the improvement of design pattern of the CAI software based on the MVC pattern. Finally, we can argue that the methods of problems modeling and the improved strategies of the design pattern combined with the TRIZ are meaningful and valuable for other engineering science and the research domain of system science.
Thesis
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The present economy has been described as being essentially knowledge-based. In fact, most of the major technological challenges of the 21st century like e.g., reduction of greenhouse gas emission and sustainable energy supply, but also the bio- and nano-technological revolutions require intensified collaboration between different disciplines of engineering design as well as of natural science. Unfortunately, today, there is a lack of approaches which are appropriate to help interdisciplinary groups tackle problems which result from an increased technology convergence. The present Ph.D. research tries to provide some insight into the questions of  How to provide methodological support for creative problem solving in interdisciplinary groups composed of engineers and natural scientists?  How to support the process of the integration of a technology originating from a knowledge-intensive domain in order to solve a given design problem? In order to answer those questions, an extensive literature review was carried out. It analyzed relevant aspects on several systemic levels (global, institutional, team-, individual and problemperspective) covering the scientific fields of (engineering) design science, psychology and cognitive science as well as organization science. The literature review shed light on several aspects which are important for creative ideation in multidisciplinary teams, like e.g. shared mental models, some kinds of dialectical reasoning as well as the introduction and management of conflicts. Further, the review also allowed highlighting problems related to both the activity as such as well as to the methods which seem a priori appropriate to support it. In this regard, incoherent interpretive schemes and majority influence are examples for the former and performance drawbacks as well as learning difficulties associated to hierarchical methodologies are instances of the latter. Based on the results of previous research activities, three hypotheses were developed and subsequently tested in an experiment and an industrial case study. Experiment: The performed experiment inquired into the impact of disciplinary group composition (H1) as well as of the applied methodology (H2) on the creative group problem solving process and its outcomes. In a laboratory experiment 60 participants, 45 with a life science background and 15 with a mechanical engineering background were trained either in instances of intuitive approaches (Brainstorming, Mind Mapping) or in analytical, hierarchical methodology (TRIZ/USIT). Then, they had to solve an ill-defined medical problem in either mono- or multidisciplinary teams. The creative process as well as the output was documented using questionnaires and documentation sheets. Further the output was evaluated quantitatively by two domain experts before it was categorized qualitatively. Statistical analyses (ANOVA, Correlation parameters and Attraction rates), to a certain extent, support H1 and H2. More importantly however, the experiment shows differences related to method performance in general and as a function of disciplinary group composition in particular. Industrial case study: In the industrial case study it was investigated whether concepts of TRIZ and its derivatives ((A/U)SIT) are appropriate to provide support for the process of technology integration before the background of an industrial NCD/NPPD process (H3). In order to test this hypothesis, based on the findings of the previously performed experiment, a meta-model was developed which allows the identification and resolution of problems which typically appear during the integration of a specific technology into a given application. The meta model incorporates two of the most important concepts of TRIZ, and is sought to facilitate creative problem solving attempts in both mono- and multidisciplinary teams. However, it is sufficiently open to allow pragmatic problem solving strategies or the integration of well-established methods of several domains. The mentioned meta-model was tested during an industrial NCD study in the roller bearing industry at which a specific customer value should be satisfied using one or several knowledge intensive technologies. After the case study, the involved engineers were asked to compare the applied model and the associated technology integration process with existing approaches used in the company. The results of the experiment point toward somewhat superior performance of the presented metamodel in terms of knowledge transfer-related and idea quality-related criteria. However, required resources for process conduction and necessary effort for the learning of the approach were considered comparable to existing approaches. Unfortunately, the limited number of participants of the industrial application does not all allow to draw statistically valid conclusions with regard to H3. The present Ph.D. work contributes to the understanding of creative problem solving in interdisciplinary groups in general and related to technology integration in particular. Especially the comparison of more pragmatic intuitive methods with more hierarchical analytical approaches depending on disciplinary group composition provided relevant insight for R&D processes. The developed meta-model for the identification and resolution of technology integration problems will be further tested in industrial settings like pharmaceutical industry and in academic approaches like bio-inspired design.
Article
The word "cost" use to describe a wide variety of problems in the development, production and delivery of products and services and cost reduction is a pervasive theme throughout all industry. Many techniques like VE and Six sigma used for solving this problem before. This paper wants to describe, the methodology of solving cost reduction problem with TRIZ. For this purpose some basic concepts like, Ideal Final Result, System Operator and Function Analysis are defined. Finally this note demonstrates the practical suitability by a case study.
Chapter
Die Entwicklung technischer wie nichttechnischer Produkte hat eine lange Tradition. Aus dieser Tradition heraus sind viele Entwicklungsinstrumente, -hilfsmittel und-vorgehensweisen hervorgegangen, kurz gesagt: Werkzeuge, die es erlauben, Teilaufgaben der Entwicklung zu standardisieren und von einem auf den anderen Entwicklungsprozess übertragbar zu machen. Im Folgenden stehen solche Werkzeuge im Mittelpunkt, von denen beispielsweise Lindemann (2005) in einem Glossar nicht weniger als 80 aufführt (vgl auch den noch weitergreifenden Bericht der European Commission 2004). Um dem Leser den Zugriff zu vereinfachen, werden in diesem Beitrag nur umfassendere Werkzeuge mit weltweiter Verbreitung herausgegriffen. Sie werden in vier Gruppen gegliedert, die zum einen aus ihrer Bestimmung, in Verbindung damit zum anderen aus dem kulturellen Zusammenhang abgeleitet wurden, in dem diese Werkzeuge schwerpunktmäßig entstanden sind: Projektmanagementwerkzeuge helfen bei der Strukturierung und Zeitplanung von Entwicklungsprojekten und stammen vor allem aus der nordamerikanischen Kultur. Konstruktionswerkzeuge helfen den Ingenieuren bei der technischen Gestaltung von Produkten und haben ihre Herkunft überwiegend in Deutschland. Mit Qualitätswerkzeugen können Ingenieure in Kombination mit Marketingmitarbeitern die Kundensicht bei der Entwicklung fokussieren; sie kommen aus Japan. Erfindungswerkzeuge erleichtern das Überwinden von gegensätzlichen Anforderungen an ein System und finden ihre Wurzeln in der ehemaligen Sowjetunion.
Chapter
Die TRIZ-Methodik basiert auf der Theorie des erfinderischen Problemlösens. Sie nutzt als systematische Kreativitätstechnik das Wissen früherer Problemlöser und stellt dem heutigen Problemlöser verschiedene Werkzeuge zur Verfügung. Diese TRIZ-Werkzeuge erlauben es, die zu lösenden Probleme auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsebenen zu beschreiben und abstrakte Lösungen zu entwickeln, die dann in spezifische Lösungen überführt werden können. Somit bietet die TRIZ-Methodik technische und naturwissenschaftliche Problem- und Lösungsanalogien auf mehreren Ebenen und zeigt verschiedene Wege vom Problem zur Lösung auf. Welche Wege bei einer Problemlösung beschritten werden sollen, hängt von zweierlei ab: i) der Fähigkeit der Problemlöser, die TRIZ-Werkzeuge geschickt einzusetzen, sowie ii) von der Zufriedenheit mit den bisher erzeugten Lösungen. An dem Fallbeispiel eines „Fahrradrades“ werden zwei ausgewählte Problemlösungswege über verschiedene Problem- und Lösungsanalogien exemplarisch aufgezeigt. Ein Ausblick weist auf weitere Verknüpfungsmöglichkeiten der Analogieforschung und der TRIZ-Methodik.
Chapter
The chapter presents a TRIZ-based algorithm to support idea generation in inventive problems. The method differs to all known algorithms including classical ARIZ, and it requires smaller amount of time to learn it and to apply while retaining the same amount and quality of ideas. Forty years of experience of TRIZ application, teaching, and development resulted in this five-step easy-to-use roadmap. The algorithm is supposed to be used by engineers, researchers, students, inventors, and people solving complex problems in business, government, and social environments, as well as everyday problem solvers.
Conference Paper
The first steps toward innovative technologies in education are often initiated at individual level, especially in small sized universities. Experiencing limitation in resources, teachers hunt for the cost-effective, creative approaches, using open and easy to learn tools, developed and proved models and time-saving methodologies. After implementation of innovative learning designs, they try to justify the benefits for the students. Primarily, learning outcomes and student's satisfaction are evaluated. The paper describes technology-based changes in teaching Theory of Inventive Problem Solving" (TRIZ) course at Lappeenranta University of Technology in a way of roadmap. It aims to reveal changes in learning process, based on student's satisfaction of traditional and flipped courses. The online part of the course is built in a flipped classroom form using open e-learning platform, interactive video hostings and Facebook group for materials delivery. The in-class sessions consists of discussions with originally developed feedback system and problem-solving group works. The data is gathered by the asynchronous surveys provided by the LUT administration and specific surveys, customized by teachers and instructors of the course. The results in blending of TRIZ course demonstrate how systematic creativity tools assist the inventive course design and address the gaps and drawbacks in teaching. Shared student feedback basically shows positive response to the teachers efforts.
Chapter
Design concept selection lacks economic evaluation in the early stages of the design process. This chapter introduces the levelized function cost for express design evaluation, adapted from the power-generation sector. A single indicator represents all concept-related life-cycle costs per a unit of function produced, reflecting also the lifetime and productivity. The indicator allows comparing fundamentally different designs, and handles different sets of function objects. After a brief overview and comparison of potential indicators for economic assessment of design concepts, this chapter introduces the levelized function cost providing its derivation and definition, analyzes its sensitivity to the input variables, depicts the range of problems that can be addressed with the levelized function cost estimate, and finally illustrates its application in a flow meter design case.
Thesis
Full-text available
The focus of this research is to identify guidelines (macro movements) and techniques (micro movements) for the efficient drafting patent claims in Portuguese (framework claim and description because of all patent writing set). Among the reasons, for approaching this topic is the search for accessibility and clarity in the interpretation of rights (focus on language as a means of access) both the claims and the disclosure drafting, characterizing the particularities of the application, clearly and precisely defining the subject matter of scope protection. Its execution and operation according to the law, including case law and interpretation, permits amplifying the comprehensive reading and the adequate production of this type of document. In the context of the drafting patent, attention will be devoted to the study of the Writing Claims Framework and to the Description of Invention, the main costs of writing, and the development of an approach that allows relating the principles of inventive processes in the mechanical area to the concepts and methods of the textual genres theory. In addition to the definitions derived from the textual genre, of the linguistic structure, and of the discourse, the principle the problem-solving “TRIZ" method proposed by Altshuller (2007) will be used as an associated element applied as a basis of the disclosure for the design of products in the mechanical field and as an aid in the identification of the inventive step. In addition, the study of laws, jurisprudence, guidance manuals of patent offices such as INPI (Brazil), USPTO (USA) and EPO (Europe), glossaries, patents, among others, intended as a greater result to favor the granting and effective protection of the innovative intangible asset, generated by the invention during the legal life and after it, avoiding risks of nullity for the investment protection in innovation in it contained, as well as a methodology for drafting a patent manual.
Article
Welche Innovationen sind in zwei, fünf oder auch in zehn Jahren erfolgreich? Das Methodische Erfinden auf Basis der Theorie des erfinderischen Problemlösens (TRIZ) kann Unternehmen auf vielfältige Weise bei Innovationsprozessen unterstützen. Tilo Pannenbäcker präsentiert einen umfassenden Überblick zum Methodischen Erfinden. Er hinterfragt den Bedarf in der Unternehmenspraxis, gibt Anwendungsempfehlungen und zeigt vielfältige Perspektiven auf, wie maßgeschneiderte Konzepte zum Einsatz kommen. In Beispielen und mit der Darstellung von Softwareanwendungen und neuen Betätigungsfeldern wird deutlich, wie TRIZ den Innovationsprozess gestaltet und zu neuartigen Lösungen technischer und technisch-wirtschaftlicher Art kommt. ‚Methodisches Erfinden in Unternehmen' wendet sich an Fach- und Führungskräfte technischer Geschäftsbereiche und Unternehmensberater. Wissenschaftler auf dem Gebiet des Innovations- und Technologiemanagements sowie Dozenten und Studierende der Betriebswirtschaftslehre, des Wirtschaftsingenieurwesens und der Ingenieurwissenschaften erhalten interessante Anregungen. Dr. Tilo Pannenbäcker ist als Project Manager im Bereich Corporate Strategy bei der Infineon Technologies AG in München tätig.
Chapter
Zu Zeiten des „Wettlaufs zum Mond“ entwickelten sowjetische Ingenieure im Rahmen des LUNA-Programms ein Mondlandefahrzeug (vgl. INVENTION MACHINE 1998b, S. 1–7). Das Fahrzeug sollte die Mondoberfläche fotografieren und die Bilder zur Erde senden. Während der Entwicklungsarbeit stellte sich heraus, daß die bei Start und Landung auftretenden Vibrationen die Glaskörper der Projektionsleuchten am Mondlandefahrzeug zerbrechen ließen. Ein Entwicklerteam präsentierte schließlich nach einigen Monaten intensiver Forschung, Entwicklung, Prototypenbaus und Tests einen Dämpfer, mit dem man die Vibrationen zwischen Leuchtensockel und Glaskörper verringern konnte. Wie das Entwicklerteam im nachhinein jedoch feststellte, hatte man die aufgewandten Ressourcen verschwendet. Man hatte das falsche Problem gelöst. Der Glaskörper einer Glühbirne schützt den Glühfaden vor dem Kontakt mit Sauerstoff und damit vor dem Verbrennen, indem er ein Vakuum ermöglicht. Da auf dem Mond aber kein Sauerstoff anzutreffen ist, der den Glühfaden zerstören könnte, hätte die einfachste Lösung für das Problem in der Entfernung des Glaskörpers bestanden (vgl. INVENTION MACHINE 1998b, S. 1–8).
Book
This is the second edition of the Michael Orloff's successful practical introduction to TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) - a strategy and methods for breaking out of rigid thought patterns to achieve truly creative engineering solutions. Written for self-study, the book provides the reader in the most vivid and systematic manner with the key ideas, techniques, and paradigms of the quite complex TRIZ method. The author is experienced in many practical applications of TRIZ in various fields. By enabling the reader to search for and find ideas more efficiently, this book is of extreme practical importance to developing engineers and planners in all areas of modern technology. In particular, young graduates involved in innovative technical projects will benefit a lot, since it gives exact "standard" algorithms and practical templates for problem solutions. TRIZ turns inventing into a controllable and systematic process. Within technology-oriented companies and institutions, these powerful methods can help to foster innovation through an extraordinary efficient and learn management of knowledge and data. In fact, TRIZ makes available all the inside creative knowledge of all the patents world-wide that can be used for the solution of new practical problems.
Book
http://store.systematic-innovation.com/hands-on-systematic-innovation-technical/
Article
Design is key to a project’s profitability and therefore increased PROFIT by DESIGN is the goal of improvements to the design process. Business requirements can be summarised as Better, Faster, Cheaper and considerable investment has been made in technology and methods for the design process to enable this. There is evidence to suggest that these investments have resulted in products themselves getting better but not necessarily produced faster or cheaper. A model of the design process has been developed which makes explicit its key elements. The six key elements or dimensions of the design process are: Analyse; Understand; Decide; Create; Capture; and Know. Investments in design technology may not be reaching their full potential due to a mismatch between the relative importance of the attributes of a good designer and the areas where investments have been made, leading to a potential loss of balance in the design process. This is compounded by failure to take a holistic view of changes to the process including mitigation of any downside. In particular the Create dimension, which is seen as the most important attribute of a good designer, has had the least investment and also is the most vulnerable because it is optional. In recognition of this fact, Rolls-Royce is using the TRIZ methodology to provide designers with an improved capability. However it also is recognised that providing capability alone is not enough. The right motivation and opportunity are also needed, and this requires the appropriate organisational and cultural features to be in place. What is needed is a people centred process that is business driven and product focused.
Article
Different problem solving methodologies drawing on various philosophical and practical approaches are in use all over the world. This paper gives details of the TRIZ method, created by G. A. Altshuller in the former Soviet Union in 1946. TRIZ uses systems thinking concepts to structure problem solving and encourages the user to discover the objective laws of evolution and development in the field of inventive creativity. Examples of the use of the system and reflections on its impact are given by the author.
Article
This paper introduces six aspects of the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ), from conceptual basics to a framework for interdisciplinary research, and explains some of the specific terminology, such as inventive principles, standard solutions, substance-field-systems or contradictions. The conceptual approach of TRIZ comprises the way from a concrete problem over an abstract problem to an abstract solution and from there to a concrete solution. This is supported by a toolkit, which helps the problem-solver analysing and solving problems in different perspectives. The 'power supply for notebook computers' example demonstrates a problem-solving process with TRIZ using contradiction thinking, the contradiction matrix and the inventive principles as tools. The TRIZ tools may be combined within a comprehensive process model such as ARIS or WOIS, which are briefly discussed. A framework for further research suggests five fields: the tools and their combination as the core, inspiration by new knowledge domains, adaptation to new fields of usage, psycho- and sociological contingency and integration with other creativity tools. The paper concludes with an overview of cornerstones in the history of TRIZ and suggests some introductory books and informative websites.
Article
This article presents the Concept of Problem-Driven Inventing. It combines the application of condensed technical knowledge and special techniques for directed creativity and aims at strong solutions to inventive tasks. One core element of this concept is to work out the inherent contradiction of a company’s problem and then take it as a challenge to overcome this contradiction instead of accepting a trade-off of contradictory requirements. To achieve this one should orientate oneself by the area of conflict between the metaphors of the ideal machine on the one hand and the fitting to economical, technological and social trends on the other hand. Several strong tools for overcoming technical and scientific contradictions complete this concept and can be supported by traditional creativity techniques. The Concept of Problem-Driven Inventing combines various approaches: It is inspired by Altshuller’s empirical research work of the last six decades and uses the tools of his ”Theory of Inventive Problem Solving“ as well as other tools and techniques. Those tools are integrated into the modular structure of the ”Five-Field-Analysis“ by Müller-Merbach. Thus, this concept puts findings of different research fields in a form that is easy to understand and which is promising to be applicable to different types of enterprises in today’s economic environment as well as to individuals. The article illustrates the Concept of Problem-Driven Inventing by a continuous example, gives advice for its application and outlines current projects.
Article
Innovative developments in the design of product and manufacturing systems are often marked by simplicity, at least in retrospect, that has previously been shrouded by restrictive mental models or limited knowledge transfer. These innovative developments are often associated with the breaking of long established trade-off compromises, as in the paradigm shift associated with JIT & TQM, or the resolution of design contradictions, as in the case of the dual cyclone vacuum cleaner. The rate of change in technology and the commercial environment suggests the opportunity for innovative developments is accelerating, but what systematic support is there to guide this innovation process. This paper brings together two parallel, but independent theories on inventive problem solving; one in mechanical engineering, namely the Russian Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and the other originating in manufacturing management as the Theory of Constraints (TOC). The term systematic innovation is used to describe the use of common underlying principles within these two approaches. The paper focuses on the significance of trade-off contradictions to innovation in these two fields and explores their relationship with manufacturing strategy development.
Article
Introducción al TRIZ, abreviatura rusa cuya traducción aproximada sería teoría de la resolución inventiva de problemas, y a la aplicación de esta metodología en la ingeniería. Semyon D. Savransky, experto ruso en esta propuesta algorítmica que fuera desarrollada por Genrich Saulovich Altshuller, reúne una guía paso a paso, estudios de caso de una variedad de ramas de la ingeniería y experiencias de primera mano en el uso del TRIZ.
Problem-driven invention. Creativity and Innovation Manage-ment
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Moehrle, M.G. and Pannenba¨, T. (1997) Problem-driven invention. Creativity and Innovation Manage-ment, 6, 4, 234–248.
Systematische Produktentwicklung mit Mikroelektronik: Technische und psychologische Erfolgsstrategien
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Schweizer, P. (1989) Systematische Produktentwicklung mit Mikroelektronik: Technische und psychologische Erfolgsstrategien. Du¨, Germany: VDI-Verlag.
The place of TRIZ in a holistic design methodology. Creativity and Innovation Management
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Knott, D. (2001) The place of TRIZ in a holistic design methodology. Creativity and Innovation Management, 10, 2, 126–133.
And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared: TRIZ, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
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Altshuller, G.S. (1996) And Suddenly the Inventor Appeared: TRIZ, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving. Worcester, MA, USA: Technical Innovation Centre.
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Wenzke, S. (2003) Problemanalyse in Theorie und Industrieller Praxis, Dissertation, Technische Universita¨tversita¨t Cottbus Germany.
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