Guidelines for the Clinical Management and Treatment of HIV Infected Adults in Europe 2008EACS2008

HIV Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.99). 01/2008; 9(2):65 - 71. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00533.x


A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-naïve patients, how to manage virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy.
In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one country to another, especially in Central and Eastern parts of Europe.
These guidelines are intended to help clinicians achieve the best care for their patients. In some countries, particularly where the quality of and access to care are not optimal, these guidelines should help AIDS societies and physicians or patient group organizations to negotiate with their national health authorities with a view to implementing what should be the standard of care for HIV-infected patients all over Europe.

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Available from: Anton L Pozniak, Oct 13, 2014
    • "In addition, 803 GRTs (46.4%) were from cART-naı¨ve patients. Most of the resistance tests were performed after 2008, when GRTs were strongly recommended also in ARTnaı¨ve patients [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies support the idea that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance is declining in developed countries. To help assess the current situation in Italy, the dynamics of drug resistance mutations in pol and integrase genes in plasma samples from HIV-1-positive patients attending Sapienza University Hospital, Rome, from 2003 to 2014 were analysed. In total, 1730 genotype resistance tests (GRTs) were retrospectively analysed. The prevalence of major drug resistance mutations (DRMs) was evaluated over time in the global population and in patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure. Population dynamics, changes in ART administration, and HIV-1 RNA levels were analysed in combination with DRM trends. The global population showed a strong reduction in major DRMs to all drug classes. Over the 2003-2014 decade, resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) declined from 80.0% to 18.7%, from 42.8% to 20.1% and from 74.2% to 8.3%, respectively (P <. 0.005 for all comparisons). However, only PI-associated mutations showed a significant decrease in patients experiencing ART failure. Interestingly, analysis of the integrase gene disclosed an increased resistance to integrase inhibitors, mainly regarding N155H, detected in 32.6% of raltegravir-treated patients in 2012-2014. In conclusion, in line with previous findings, this study shows that drug resistance is declining in Italy. However, the persistence of DRMs to NRTIs and NNRTIs suggests that despite adherence and treatment optimisation, some patients still experience therapy failure, emphasising the need for GRTs both in naïve and ART-failed patients. © 2015 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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    • "All participants were male, treatment naïve, and asymptomatic HIV-infected patients as determined by the presence of antibodies against HIV measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western blot. All patients were at CDC A2 clinical stage and fulfilled the criteria for ART initiation according to the European [36] and International guidelines [37]. The patients were assigned in 2 groups at the discretion of the clinicians. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Persistent immune activation and inflammation are lying behind HIV-infection even in the setting of ART mediated viral suppression. The purpose of this study is to define the in vivo effect of two first-line ART regimens on certain inflammatory mediators in male HIV patients. Methods Male, naive, HIV-infected volunteers were assigned either to tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine/efavirenz (Group_T) or abacavir/lamivudine/efavirenz (Group_A). Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) levels and metabolic enzymes together with HIV-implicated cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNFa) and VEGF were determined for a 12-month period. Differences within each group were determined by non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon test, while the differences between the groups were checked by ANOVA repeated measures. Results Both ART regimens present pronounced effect on inflammatory mediators, resulting in decreased PAF levels and Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity for tenofovir-containing regimen and same as baseline PAF levels with a peak though at the 3rd month as well as elevated Lp-PLA2 activity for abacavir-containing regimen. Conclusions Studies regarding the effect of first-line ART regimens on inflammation may be beneficial in preventing chronic morbidities during HIV-treatment. From this point of view, the present study suggests an anti-inflammatory effect of tenofovir-containing ART, while the temporary increase of PAF levels in abacavir-containing ART may be the link between the reported cardiovascular risk and abacavir administration.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Lipids in Health and Disease
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    • "The primary goal of HIV therapy is to increase disease-free survival and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) by containing viral replication, avoiding drug resistance, and boosting immunologic function by restoring CD4 count [1,2]. The United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has recommended several preferred and alternative initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens which have comparable efficacy, but different pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) may provide valuable information to clinicians and patients when choosing initial antiretroviral therapy. To identify and classify PRO instruments used to measure treatment effects in clinical trials evaluating NNRTIs. We conducted a structured literature review using PubMed to identify NNRTI trials published from March 2003 to February 2013. Studies identified--based on disease, instrument, PRO, and NNRTI medication terms were reviewed--to identify PRO instruments. Domains measured within each instrument were recorded to understand key areas of interest in NNRTIs. Of 189 articles reviewed, 27 validated instruments were administered in 26 unique trials, with a mean of 1.9 instruments (median: 1; range: 1--7) per trial. The Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) was the most commonly used instrument (n = 8 trials). Seventeen trials (65%) included at least one multidimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL) instrument (HIV-targeted, n = 11; general, n = 8). Other validated instruments measured sleep (n = 5), depression (n = 5), anxiety (n = 4), psychiatric symptoms (n = 2), beliefs about HIV medications (n = 2), HIV symptoms (n = 1), and stress (n = 1). Although review of recent NNRTI trials suggests a lack of consensus on the optimal PRO instruments, a typical battery is comprised of a multidimensional HRQL measure coupled with one or more symptom measures. Further work is needed to clarify advantages and disadvantages of using specific PRO instruments to measure relevant constructs and to identify the most useful batteries of instruments for NNRTI trials.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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