Construction of Activity Duration and Time Management Potential
Two experiments examined the estimation of event duration. In Experiment 1 subjects estimated the expected duration of five everyday activities, performed the activities, and then made retrospective estimates of the duration of the activities. Expected and retrospective estimates were positively correlated, even when actual duration was taken into account suggesting both estimates may have been constructed partly from general knowledge of activity duration. Experiment 2 examined the ability to predict activity duration within a time management framework. Results indicated that subjects' accuracy in predicting the duration of a series of events was not related to time management ability as measured by the Time Structure Questionnaire (TSQ). Subjects generally made overestimations, and this tendency may be a strategy that gives a feeling of control over time and helps avoid stress caused by an inability to complete tasks in the allocated time. No relationship was found between expected duration estimation ability and academic performance.
Available from: Maya Daneva
- "However, they did not think of other solutions that we found mentioned in literature (such as e.g. controlling the consciousness of experts  and leveraging the use of consistent information ). Third, our results agree with the findings in the planning fallacy studies of Roy et al. . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) project estimation process often relies on experts of various backgrounds to contribute judgments based on their professional experience. Such expert judgments however may not be bias-free. De-biasing techniques therefore have been proposed in the software estimation literature to counter various problems of expert bias. Yet, most studies on de-biasing focus on systematic bias types such as bias due to interdependence, improper comparisons, presence of irrelevant information, and awareness of clients' expectations. Little has been done to address bias due to experts' memory. This is surprising, knowing that memory bias retrieval and encoding errors are likely to affect the estimation process outcome. This qualitative exploratory study investigates the memory bias situations encountered by ERP professionals, and the possible coping strategies to problems pertaining to those situations. Using interviews with 11 practitioners in a global ERP vendor's organization, we explicate how experts retrieve and encode stored memory, what kind of errors they experience along the way, and what correction techniques they were using. We found that both errors due to memory retrieval and due to memory encoding seemed to lead to project effort underestimation. We also found that the most common memory correction strategy was the use of mnemonics.
Available from: Basri Rashid
- "An analysis of the literature suggests that, psychographic variables such as achievement motivation, self-efficacy, time management, and leisure attitude are important variables in determining students' overall achievement which has gained substantial support from research (Bandura, 1997; Bandura & Locke, 2003; Burt & Kemp, 1994; Helmreich & Spence, 1983; Lim, 2009; Macan, 1994; Ragheb & Beard, 1982; Schwarzer, 1992). In this context, Wells (1975) pointed out that psychographics adds new dimensions that go beyond the scope of demographics into a variety of previously unfamiliar areas. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Even though the discipline of psychology and education had gained its reputation all along, few studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics of the potential first-class undergraduate students. Thus, this study was designed to examine the demographic and psychographic profiles of the potential first-class undergraduates in a Malaysian public university. The selected respondents comprised of 424 undergraduates who obtained at least 3.67 cumulative grade point average (CGPA) in their academic achievement in the period of their study. This study used a self-administered questionnaire that had adapted from the standardized measures. Validity and reliability of the instruments were found to be satisfactory. The results of the study indicate that the potential first-class undergraduates have the highest level on task orientation whereas time management scores the lowest. Also, the results reveal that more than 99% of the students have either moderate or high levels of psychographic attributes. In addition, the MANOVA results indicate that there are significant differences between male and female undergraduate students in their task orientation and leisure attitude. Likewise, significant differences between ethnic groups are found in task orientation, competitiveness, and general self-efficacy. Thus, the findings of this study are able to assist the higher education providers in providing coaching and mentoring to ensure more effective strategies could be developed to improve students’ needs and desires in pursuing their further education.
Available from: HansPub.org
- "未来任务时间估计是指人们凭借记忆和经验对将要进行的任务所需要的时间进行判断的过程。人们对未 来任务的时间估计会产生偏差，对其心理机制的解释主要包括计划谬误理论、记忆偏差理论和解释水平 理论。任务性质(包括任务持续时间的长短、任务的复杂度和任务熟悉度等)会对未来任务的时间估计产 生影响，各理论从不同角度阐释了任务性质对未来任务的时间估计的影响。未来研究需进一步探索任务 性质与人格特质在影响未来任务时间估计背后的关系以及未来任务时间估计的脑机制。 关键词 任务性质，未来任务，时间估计，计划谬误)。然而，人们在对完成将来任务所 需时间进行预测和判断时，往往是不准确的(郑秋强，徐富明，罗寒冰，李彬，张慧，2014)。一开始，研 究发现人们很容易对任务完成时间形成低估，即使多人的群体性决策估计也无法避免(Kahneman & Tversky, 1979; Buehler, Griffin, & Ross, 1994; Buehler, Messervey, & Griffin, 2005)。后来也有研究发现人们 对未来任务完成时间的估计也有高估的现象(Burt & Kemp, 1994; Roy & Christenfeld, 2007)。 前人对未来任 务时间估计出现谬误这一现象及其影响因素进行了大量的研究， 并在此基础上提出了多种理论进行解释， 发现目标任务的性质是影响未来任务时间估计谬误的一大因素(Halkjelsvik & Jørgensen, 2012)。)。计划谬误理论在降低谬误的方法上主要从凸显过去类似经验着手，如使用观察者视角以及 经验提示等。考虑到也有研究发现被试会高估短时任务和新异任务的完成时间(Burt & Kemp, 1994; Roy, 2005)，Burt 和 Kemp (1994)在短时的未来任务完成时间估计发现高估，以及 Roy 等(2005)总结在新异任 务的估计中发现了高估，Griffin 和 Buehler (2005)认为计划谬误理论只适用于时间足够长且有一定相似过 去经验的条件下，这也成为了该理论的局限所在。Burt & Kemp, 1994)，圣诞购物(Buehler & Griffin, 2003)，也有在实验室内进行的任务，如数纸 张()，文档格式修改(Weick & Guinote, 2010)。影响未来任务估计准确性的目标任 务性质的分类有多种，根据任务时间长短的不同分为短时任务和长时任务；根据任务复杂程度的不同可 分为简单任务和复杂任务；以及根据个体对任务的熟悉程度分为熟悉任务与新异任务等。目标任务性质 会影响个体对任务完成时间估计的准确性。Thomas, Newstead, & Handley, 2003)、 折纸任务(Roy & Christenfeld, 2007)中也得到了相同的结果。 然而， 在许多长时任务时间估计研究中都发现了低估完成时的现象，如程序编写任务(Connolly & Dean, 1997)、 论文写作任务(Koole & van't Spijker, 2000)、学校作业任务(Buehler & Griffin, 2003)、阅读任务(Pezzo, Litman, & Pezzo, 2006)和小结写作任务(Siddiqui, May, & Monga, 2014, 1998; Block & Reed, 1978 "
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.