Effect of dietary taurine and lipid contents on conjugated bile acid composition and growth performance of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

Fisheries Science (Impact Factor: 0.88). 07/2008; 74(4):875 - 881. DOI: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2008.01602.x


The effects of dietary taurine levels and lipid contents on the conjugated bile acid composition and growth performance of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated. Six types of diet (three different levels of taurine at two different levels of lipid) were fed to juveniles (average body weight, 0.04 g). Fishmeal that was washed with 70% ethanol to remove taurine was used as the sole protein source. Feeding experiments were carried out at 20°C for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiments, fish were weighed and analyzed for free amino acids in the body and the composition of the conjugated bile acids. The body weight and percent weight gain of the juveniles were improved by the dietary taurine supplementation. The taurine contents of the whole body and tissues increased with the increase of the dietary taurine contents. The conjugated bile acids in the gall bladder consisted of taurocholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, which increased with the increase of the dietary taurine level. Taurocholic acid accounted for more than 95% of the total conjugated bile acids. This indicates that taurine is the sole amino acid to conjugate bile acid in Japanese flounder.

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    • "Taurine supplementation (0.5 and 1.5%) led to the immersion of the fish onto the bottom immediately after feeding, whereas the fish were swimming in the water column in the absence of taurine. The effects of dietary taurine levels and lipid contents on the conjugated bile acid composition of juvenile Japanese flounder were further investigated by Kim et al. (2008b). When fish juveniles (0.04 g) were fed diets containing increasing concentrations of taurine (0.5–1.5%) at two lipid levels (0 and 5%), body taurine contents increased with increasing dietary taurine. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) larvae. Four plant protein-based, isonitrogenous (400 g kg−1 protein), isoenergetic (19 MJ kg−1) diets supplemented with four taurine concentrations (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g kg−1; designated as T0, T0.5, T1 and T1.5, respectively) were prepared. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish larvae (0.024 g average body weight), to apparent satiation, three times per day for 60 days. Larval growth rates and feed utilization efficiency were significantly improved with increasing supplemental taurine up to 10 g kg−1 and decreased with further taurine supplementation. The quadratic regression analyses indicated that the maximum larval performance occurred at about 9.7 g kg−1 of total dietary taurine. Fish survival was significantly lower at 15 g kg−1 dietary taurine than at other taurine levels. Body protein significantly increased, while body moisture and ash decreased, with increasing dietary taurine up to 10 g kg−1 and decreased with further taurine supplementation to 15 g kg−1. Body lipid was not significantly affected by dietary taurine concentration. A number of body amino acids (tryptophan, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, glycine, threonine and taurine) significantly increased with increasing supplemental taurine up to 10 g kg−1 and then decreased with further increase in dietary taurine levels. The rest of body amino acids were not significantly affected by dietary taurine. The present results suggest that about 9.7 g kg−1 dietary taurine is required for optimum performance of Nile tilapia larvae fed soybean meal-based diets.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Aquaculture Nutrition
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    • "Bile salt constituents were consistent with prior analyses of bile from other carnivorous fish (Une et al. 1991) in which the predominant conjugated bile salts were taurocholate and taurochenodeoxycholate, and glycine-conjugated and unconjugated bile salts were absent. The lack of significant differences in Cobia bile salt concentrations as dietary taurine increased is in contrast to that observed with Japanese Flounder (Kim et al. 2008), where bile salt concentration doubled when the flounders were fed diets containing 1.5% taurine. The bile of Japanese Flounder is composed of 95% taurocholate while Cobia has nearly the equivalent levels of taurocholate and taurochenodeoxycholate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-based feeds, which marine carnivores such as Cobia Rachycentron canadum are adapted to in their natural diets. Graded taurine supplementation (0, 0.5, 1.5, and 5.0%) added to a traditional fish-meal-based formulation was examined in two growth trials with Cobia: one initiated with 10-g individuals and the second initiated with 120-g individuals. During the first trial, in which growth as weight gain ranged from 123 to 139 g per fish, there was an increase in dietary taurine and a decrease in the feed conversion ratio from 1.04 to 0.99. During the second trial, in which growth ranged from 227 to 313 g gained per fish, there was no significant difference in performance characteristics between dietary treatments. Messenger RNA transcript expression levels for two of the genes involved in taurine synthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO), as well as the membrane-bound taurine transporter, TauT, were also measured at the conclusion of the second trial. Increasing dietary taurine in a diet containing 34.5% fish meal did not result in significantly different growth or production characteristics in Cobia, but did result in significantly increased taurine levels in fillet, liver, and plasma.Received July 23, 2013; accepted January 20, 2014
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · North American Journal of Aquaculture
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    ABSTRACT: The necessity of dietary taurine supplementation for preventing green liver symptom and improving growth performance of red sea bream Pagrus major fed nonfishmeal (non-FM) diets was investigated. Yearling red sea bream (initial body weight, 580g) were fed for 36weeks on non-FM diets based on soy protein concentrate (SPC) supplemented with taurine at levels of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed the taurine-unsupplemented SPC diet were markedly inferior. In these fish, incidence of green liver was markedly higher and was accompanied by a decrease of tissue taurine concentration and an increase of hepatopancreatic bile pigment content. The green liver symptom was mainly caused by an increase of hemolysis since the erythrocytes became osmotically fragile due to taurine deficiency. Physiological abnormality and growth performance (SGR and FCR) were markedly improved by taurine supplementation to the SPC diets. These results indicate that dietary taurine supplementation is necessary for yearling red sea bream fed non-FM diet based on SPC to maintain normal physiological condition and growth performance.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Fisheries Science
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