Article

Screening Job Applicants: The Impact of Physical Attractiveness and Application Quality

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The present study investigated the impact of physical attractiveness and résuméquality on the evaluation of job applicants in the screening phase of the selection process. One hundred and eighty participants were asked to imagine they were a recruiting officer and to screen an application for the position of graduate trainee manager. Participants read a job advertisement and one of two versions of a curriculum vitae, which differed in quality. Attached to the front page of each curriculum vitae was a passport-sized head-and-shoulders photograph of either an average or an attractive female. A control condition with no attached photograph was also included. Participants judged the likelihood with which they would offer an interview to the applicant, the quality of the application, and the likely starting salary they would offer the applicant. Results indicated that attractiveness had no impact when the quality of the application was high but that attractiveness was an advantage when the application was mediocre. When the résumé quality was average the attractive applicant was evaluated more positively than the control, no photograph, applicant; an attractive photograph boosted the evaluation of a mediocre application. Results are discussed in terms of discrimination and implications for the field of human resource management.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Similarly, industrial psychologists and management researchers have emphasised the need to detect and eliminate biases in personnel selection and recruitment (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). This research was motivated by a desire to investigate the presence of bias in the decision-making process when seemingly rational individuals are exposed to factors such as the physical attractiveness of a job candidate and then faced with a decision on whether to hire them or to hire a less attractive individual who might have better or more suitable qualifications for the available position. ...
... The context for this study was the knowledge economy. Although attractiveness might be more relevant in service jobs involving interpersonal interaction, Watkins and Johnston (2000) argued that attractiveness should be irrelevant in most instances concerning employment. It is proposed that this should be the case particularly for a knowledge worker in a knowledge economy. ...
... Thus, the ability of the applicant to convey gender and attractiveness to the interviewer through resume information may assist in creating an initial impression, which influences the outcome of the face-to-face interview (Dipboye et al., 1975). Watkins and Johnston (2000) found that applicant attractiveness had no impact when the quality of the application was high, but that attractiveness was an advantage when the quality of the application was mediocre. As physical attractiveness is unrelated to job performance in most cases, any bias towards physically attractive applicants represents discrimination (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Orientation: It is a widely held belief that attractive people generally experience an easier life and that the door to success is opened by perfect bone structure and a sparkling smile. However, attractiveness might play a far lesser role in individual’s achieving their objectives than has previously been thought. Is it possible that an individual’s qualifications may have a greater influence on the perceptions of managers who assess the suitability of a candidate of a knowledge worker? Research purpose: The study sets out to examine the relative predictive power of physical attractiveness and qualifications in the decision to hire a knowledge worker. Motivation for the study: The research was motivated by a desire to explore the presence of bias in the decision-making process when seemingly rational individuals are exposed to factors such as physical attractiveness of a job candidate and then faced with a decision on whether to hire them. Research design, approach and method: A two-phased experimental design was applied to investigate the existence and strength of the beauty premium amongst a group of managers who were provided with fictitious resumes coupled with photographs of the applicants. These managers were requested to make a hiring decision based on the information supplied. Main findings: Although results confirm the existence of a beauty premium, it was relatively weak. It indicated that qualifications have a greater influence on a manager’s perception of the suitability of a candidate to fill a position of a knowledge worker. Practical or managerial implications: The research draws attention to the possibility of bias in selection decisions and proposes ways in which such potential bias can be limited. Contribution: This study contributes to knowledge concerning the existence or otherwise of a so-called beauty premium, with particular reference to its impact in the knowledge economy.
... People often judge others and make decisions based on an individual's physical appearance. 7 Clear, healthy skin that is free of acne contributes to our positive perceptions toward them and vice versa. Teenagers with acne were usually perceived as being shy, nerdy, stressed and lonely. ...
... 14,15 Depression was reported two to three times more prevalent in acne patients than in the general population. 7 Several studies have shown that acne is at increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts. [16][17][18][19] Hence, mental health in acne must be greatly emphasized. ...
... 15 Of note, bad skin can reduce the chances of obtaining a job, and attractive applicants were more likely to be employed. 7,25 The unemployment rate is significantly higher among acned patients. 26 Interviewers including experienced managers rated applicants with scars and blemishes lower than applicants with good skin during a face to face interviews. ...
Article
Introduction: People often judge others and make decisions based on the physical appearance of an individual. This study assesses the perception and psychosocial judgment on patients with acne vulgaris compared to those with clear skin. Methods: This survey was conducted in Penang from October 2016 to June 2017. Respondents were those who were ≥18 years. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire which consists of three randomly selected facial pictures, with at least one acne skin and one clear skin picture. Results: A total of 435 respondents were recruited. Two third of the respondents (76%) suffered or had suffered from acne. The skin was the first thing noticed by 76.1% respondents when viewing pictures with acne compared with 24.8% with clear skin (p <0.05). People with acne were perceived as being unattractive, sad, lonely, distant, unhealthy, disheveled and shy as compared to people with clear skin (p<0.05). People with clear skin were perceived to be healthier, confident, happy, attractive, successful and intelligent (p<0.05). Respondents were more willing to engage socially with people with clear skin rather than those with acne skin. A significantly higher proportion of respondents were likely to hire or vote for those with clear skin as compared to acne skin. People with acne were also perceived to have a lower educational level and poorer leadership quality. Conclusion: The results of this survey showed that there were significantly negative perception and psychological judgement toward individuals with acne vulgaris. These negative impacts may affect social life of the acne sufferers, their prospect of employment and career opportunities.
... Since physically attractive people are expected to behave better than unattractive people in social interactions, it is not surprising that attractiveness has a positive return in the labor market. Physical attractiveness can play a significant role in securing interview call backs (Kraft, 2012), determining interviewers' judgments (Watkins and Johnston, 2000), and also has an important effect on wages (Frieze et al., 1991;Hamermesh and Biddle, 1994;Biddle and Hamermesh, 1998). The finding of a positive impact of beauty on labor market outcomes has been shown across all sectors, and holds both in high-visibility (high frequency of personto-person interactions) occupations and in low-visibility occupations. ...
... salespersons or newscasters) are filled by goodlooking people. However, there is evidence supporting that the physical attractiveness bias also exists even for the occupations that require a low degree of public exposure (Cash et al., 1977;Watkins and Johnston, 2000). ...
... Research investigating the beauty bias in employment decisions is important because of the extensive use of subjective appraisals in decision on hiring and promotions. While rules prohibiting employment discrimination based on factors unrelated to performance (e.g., gender, ethnicity, disability or age) are widespread, there are no such rules concerning discrimination based on physical attractiveness (Watkins and Johnston, 2000). Apart from the labor market aspect, physical attractiveness is also correlated with a wide range of outcomes including electoral success in politics (Berggren et al., 2010), in professional associations (Hamermesh, 2006), mating (Fisman et al., 2006), and happiness (Hamermesh and Abrevaya, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We study the impact of physical attractiveness on productivity. Previous literature found a strong impact on wages and career progression, which can be either due to discrimination in favor of good-looking people or can reflect an association between attractiveness and productivity. We utilize a context where there is no or limited face-to-face interaction, academic publishing, so that the scope for beauty-based discrimination should be limited. Using data on around 2,000 authors of journal publications in economics, we find a significantly positive effect of authors’ attractiveness on both journal quality and citations. However, the impact on citations disappears after we control for journal quality.
... Johns, 2006) reveals the conditions under which candidate attractiveness can be an asset as well as a liability. Similarly, past explanations of attractiveness discrimination assumed that INTERDEPENDENCE AND ATTRACTIVENESS DISCRIMINATION 4 decision makers' outcomes were independent from candidates' outcomes (e.g., Cann, Siegfried, & Pearce, 1981;Cash, Gillen, & Burns, 1977;Dipboye, Arvey, & Terpstra, 1977;Dipboye et al., 1975;Heilman & Saruwatari, 1979;Jawahar & Mattsson, 2005;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). We highlight that this assumption is often unrealistic because organizational members frequently select people they have to work with in the future (Edenborough, 2005;Harris, Brewster, & Sparrow, 2003;Hinds, Carley, Krackhardt, & Wholey, 2000). ...
... As we note previously, research showing decision makers discriminate against same-sex candidates as a result of intrasexual competition processes (e.g., Agthe et al., 2010;Luxen & Van De Vijver, 2006) is an exception. Yet, this perspective cannot account for a sizeable body of findings showing that decision makers discriminate in favor of attractive same-sex candidates (e.g., Bardack & McAndrew, 1985;Cann et al., 1981;Dipboye et al., 1977;Dipboye et al., 1975;Marlowe, Schneider, & Nelson, 1996;Quereshi & Kay, 1986;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). Our theory INTERDEPENDENCE AND ATTRACTIVENESS DISCRIMINATION 5 explains why decision makers would in some cases discriminate against, and in some cases in favor of, attractive same-sex candidates. ...
... It is possible that each theory captures a different reason why attractiveness discrimination occurs. But one explanatory limitation of research highlighting intrasexual competition is that it was unable to account for findings showing that decision makers prefer attractive candidates to equally qualified unattractive, even when the candidate is of the same sex as the decision maker (e.g., Bardack & McAndrew, 1985;Cann et al., 1981;Dipboye et al., 1977;Dipboye et al., 1975;Marlowe et al., 1996;Quereshi & Kay, 1986;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). Our theory explains why decision makers would in some cases discriminate against, and in some cases, in favor of, attractive same-sex candidates. ...
... Empirical studies comparing the importance and interplay of self-generated textual and pictorial cues for impression formation have yielded heterogeneous results; some have attested to the dominance of textual cues only (Pelled et al., 2017), while others have noted that pictorial primacy predicted the results under certain circumstances (Van Der Heide, D'Angelo, & Schumaker, 2012) in Facebook profiles. Only a few studies have focused explicitly on expertise evaluations in a professional context; once again, these studies delivered heterogeneous results highlighting the importance of favorable applicant profile pictures in PNS for hiring decisions, especially for highexpertise CVs (Baert, 2018) or only for mediocre CVs (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). However, the aforementioned studies focused on general social network sites (e.g., Facebook) and/or did not focus explicitly on expertise cues in both text and pictures. ...
... The interaction between text-based cues and picture-based cues for expertise was not addressed. With regard to impression formation in a professional setting, Watkins and Johnston (2000) showed that profile picture attractiveness only influenced the positivity of an application evaluation if the quality of the CV was average (i.e., not in cases where the quality of the CV was high). Additionally, in cases where the CV was of average quality, attractive applicants were evaluated more favorably than candidates with no pictures. ...
... Accordingly, the study by Watkins and Johnson outlines the role of the quality of textual cues in the influence of picture-based cues on expertise evaluation. Contrary to Watkins and Johnston (2000), Baert (2018) found a larger effect of favorable Facebook profile pictures on hiring chances when text-based information about the applicants hinted at higher training levels. Thus, investigations on the interplay of self-generated text-based and picture-based cues on expertise evaluation have revealed heterogeneous results to date. ...
Article
Job applicants’ self-presentation in their profiles on professional networking services (PNS), such as LinkedIn, may be crucial for the evaluation of their expertise for a job. Importantly, on PNS profiles, self-generated picture-based and text-based cues are shown together, and both may influence expertise evaluations. In three experiments, we systematically analyzed impression formation in the context of PNS profiles by investigating the influence of self-generated textual and pictorial cues on job applicants’ expertise evaluations. Student participants were presented with different PNS profiles that were systematically varied by the level of expertise (high vs. medium vs. low) conveyed through text (i.e., a description of experience and education) and pictures (i.e., a photo of the profile owner vs. a placeholder). Our results revealed a textual primacy in expertise evaluations of PNS profiles, as text expertise was crucial, independent of picture expertise. However, picture expertise was particularly important in cases of high text expertise. Placeholders always resulted in more negative judgments than high-expertise pictures and sometimes even had the same effect as low-expertise pictures. Finally, we discuss implications for theory building on impression formation and practical consequences for self-presentation in PNS.
... Specifically, when people meet an attractive person, they assume that the person also has positive personality traits. A fundamental principle of human perception is that people form their first impression of others based on immediately observable characteristics, especially physical appearance [11]. The face is exposed to public view and is key to human identity, so the perception of another person's physical attractiveness is strongly influenced by facial appearance [12]. ...
... Regarding the effect of appearance on hiring employment potential, [11] asked 180 psychology students to imagine that they were working in human resources, and needed to decide whether or not to interview candidates, of varying quality, who had responded to a fictitious ad. Participants were divided randomly and those in the control group received resumes without any image. ...
... The attractiveness of women candidates is considered as an influencing factor for recruitment decisions which is also sometimes mixed with qualifications of candidates (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). For instance, research conducted by Jawahar and Mattsson (2005) to investigate the effects of the attractiveness of job applications. ...
... A considerable amount of literature has been published on physical attractiveness and its impacts on individuals (Chaker, Walker, Nowlin & Anaza, 2019;Hong, Lee & Johnson, 2019;Umberson & Hughes, 1987;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). These studies highlight the importance of being attractive. ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to examine appearance-based discrimination in the workplace. Modern society is exalting beautification and good looking, which affect not merely social relations but also the process of employment. It is argued that employees who have 'good looking' are recruited, paid more, and promoted rapidly, while those who have 'wrong looking' discriminated against. Therefore, the chapter explores how individuals encounter discrimination in the workplace due to their appearance during the decision-making process of employers. It emerges from the literature that discriminating based on appearance is not illegal in almost all countries. However, it is publicised by lawsuits against employers. There are several measures that need to be taken at different levels in order to forestall discriminatory practices. At the individual level, an embracing attitude should be internalised. A merit-based recruitment strategy should be adopted by employers. Finally, new anti-discrimination laws and regulations must be passed by authorities to tackle with ugly discriminatory practices.
... most important physical characteristics, affecting how individuals judge and make decisions about others [6]. ...
... There is no medicinal cure for HPV; however there are different modes of physical destruction (topical treatments or removal of the lesions through surgery) which can be performed [152]. In the US, there is a 9-valent vaccine series available for the high-risk phenotypes of HPV (6,11,16, 18 as well as types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) recommended for both male and female patients from ages 11-21 and 11-26, respectively [153]. ...
... In a recent study, . Face attractiveness is an important variable to study because perceived attractiveness is associated with many positive outcomes, for example a higher attributed intelligence , more positively evaluated personality traits , and a higher likelihood of getting a job (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). With regard to emotion perception, the detection of happiness is more efficient in attractive faces Mueser, Grau, Sussman, & Rosen, 1984). ...
... Consensus about what is attractive and what is not is high both across and within different cultures and facial attractiveness plays an important role in many different social interactions. For example, attractiveness increases the likelihood of getting a job interview (Watkins & Johnston, 2000), entails higher ratings on favorable personality traits such as Agreeableness ) and higher intelligence ratings . Moreover, participants generally tend to attribute positive qualities to attractive and negative attributes to unattractive persons (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Previous research on valence biases in face perception revealed inconsistent findings either proposing angry or happy faces to be detected more efficiently. Most studies in this field used the face-in-the-crowd (FiC) paradigm, in which participants have to judge whether there is a divergent face in a crowd of distractor faces. However, this task leads to ambiguous results because it is not entirely clear whether effects are based on a fast perception of the target or the distractor faces surrounding it. The newly developed mood-of-the-crowd (MoC) paradigm can complement existing FiC findings. Instead of deciding whether there is a deviating face in a crowd of distractors, this novel paradigm uses multiple target emotions, eliminating the differentiation between target and distractors. In addition to investigating general biases in emotion perception with this new paradigm, the examination of the stability of perceptual biases over the life span and the moderating role of individual differences (fear of rejection) and stimuli characteristics (face attractiveness) were of main focus. In all studies, eye-tracking procedures were implemented to further illuminate the individual’s search processes when using the novel mood-of-the-crowd paradigm.
... The attractiveness of women candidates is considered as an influencing factor for recruitment decisions which is also sometimes mixed with qualifications of candidates (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). For instance, research conducted by Jawahar and Mattsson (2005) to investigate the effects of the attractiveness of job applications. ...
... A considerable amount of literature has been published on physical attractiveness and its impacts on individuals (Chaker, Walker, Nowlin & Anaza, 2019;Hong, Lee & Johnson, 2019;Umberson & Hughes, 1987;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). These studies highlight the importance of being attractive. ...
... For instance, research has shown that attractive politicians enjoy more media exposure than their less-attractive colleagues (see Lenz and Lawson 2011), and this could hurt them during a scandal. Alternatively, these individuals could be simply deciding to retire and enjoy the benefits that their attractiveness can produce in other fields (see Eagly et al. 1991;Watkins and Johnston 2000). Even more simply, these individuals appear to come from lesssafe districts. ...
... Attractive individuals get several ''breaks'' or societal advantages in life (Eagly et al. 1991). To name a few benefits, generally speaking attractive individuals are more successful in their professional careers, they tend to get a pay premium, and they get lighter sentences when they commit a crime (Gunnell and Ceci 2010; Watkins and Johnston 2000). Politics is no different. ...
Article
Full-text available
In general, politicians involved in scandals of various natures are punished by voters. Good-looking politicians, on the contrary, are rewarded by voters. Almost fifty years of empirical research has shown that ill-informed voters will use the physical attractiveness of candidates, as well as readily-available information on scandal allegations involving candidates running for office, as a heuristic shortcut to determine their voting behaviour. This article represents the first attempt to link the existing literature on the electoral effects of scandals with the existing literature of the electoral impact of candidate attractiveness. Using data on U.S. House of Representatives elections between 1972 and 2012, we find that candidate attractiveness mitigates the negative electoral effects of involvement in scandal; this implies that attractive politicians do get a “break” when involved in scandals. Of all type of scandals, we also find that candidate attractiveness has the largest moderating role if the incumbent is embroiled in a sex scandal.
... This is also in line with Davison et al.'s (2012) recommendations, who advise standardising the data collection process, especially when using Internet sources, in order to formally collect (and rate only) job-related information. For candidates, setting a higher level of privacy on their social network profiles could be useful but, equally, may be perceived as hiding something; either way, the most efficient strategy is to increase the quality of the CV (Watkins and Johnston, 2000). Finally, showing a great level of CEs would be advantageous in SDs; highlighting confidence, and effective, controlled and balanced personality features are perceived as having high motivation and being inclined towards great job performance. ...
... Following the suggestion by Watkins and Johnston (2000), it may be interesting to study the differences between the moments in which recruiters enhance their first impressions about the objectification of the candidate and the perceived CEs with other pieces of information derived from their CV, experience, and interests, in order to study if this new information really changes their first thoughts. Moreover, because the objectification phenomenon derives from being subject to sexual media content (Harper and Tiggemann, 2008), which differs culture by culture (Harris, 2004), stereotypes change according to the specific institutional environment in which people are embedded. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this case, I discuss the combined influence of candidates’ overall attractiveness and their perceived personality in selection decisions. The theoretical background is briefly described and focuses on the conceptual and methodological advancements made by social psychologists in measuring perceived attractiveness and personality self-assessment. These have been innovatively implemented within the management domain concerned with selection decisions. The relationships among the highlighted variables, depicted in a moderated mediation model, have been tested through a laboratory experiment involving 150 professional recruiters. The contribution is mainly focused on the decisions that were made with respect to the validation of measures and of the stimulus material. Each decision includes the related lesson learned from its outcome and suggestions for future research.
... Résumé formats high in information richness may likely be more prone to positive assessment than résumé formats low in information richness. Watkins and Johnston (2000) showed that average résumés were better evaluated when a photograph of an attractive applicant was attached. One can also argue that the author of anonymous applications forms may be viewed as cold and impersonal in the French context, where more than 71% of professionals consider that the photograph is necessary on a résumé (APEC, 2013). ...
... Our findings lead to several conclusions that could help practitioners to improve the selection process. First, in line with Watkins and Johnston (2000) we consider that during the screening phase of the selection process, information regarding an applicant's physical appearance (i.e., a photograph) should not be requested unless it can be justified as a job relevant factor. Even if attractiveness may still bias evaluations of job applicants, during interviews, the personal contact makes it easier to offset the effects of negative stereotypes (Pager, Western, & Bonikowski, 2009 were mixed with standard résumés, the lack of information may disadvantage the anonymous ones. ...
Article
During the preselection process, recruiters use cues from résumés to form attributions about applicants’ suitability. They rely on visible characteristics (e.g., origin) that activate stereotypes that can lead to discriminatory decisions. The anonymization of application forms is a possible intervention to avert discrimination. The few studies on this topic led to inconsistent conclusions. The present study aims to extend previous findings by comparing decisions on anonymous and standard résumés that differ in quality. Recruiters (N = 1,031) assessed a series of application forms whose profile (Caucasian, Moroccan, overweight, normal stature) and résumé content (experience, spelling errors) differed. Results show that anonymous application forms are rated more severely than standard forms, and are effective in neutralizing discriminatory behaviors toward overweight applicants.
... Or conversely, the degraded photo may have induced doubt or suspicion, which increased information processing. The same pattern of results emerged in other experiments that also manipulated source attractiveness and argument quality (Dipboye et al. 1977;Watkins and Johnston 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the basic mechanisms by which the nonverbal behavior of a communicator can influence recipients’ attitudes and persuasion. We review the literature on classic variables related to persuasive sources (e.g., physical attractiveness, credibility, and power), as well as research on mimicry and facial expressions of emotion, and beyond. Using the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) as a framework, we argue that the overt behavior of source variables can affect attitude change by different psychological processes depending on different circumstances. Specifically, we describe the primary and secondary cognitive processes by which nonverbal behaviors of the source (e.g., smiling, nodding, eye contact, and body orientation) affect attitude change. Furthermore, we illustrate how considering the processes outlined by the ELM can help to predict when and why attractive, credible, and powerful communicators can not only increase persuasion but also be detrimental for persuasion.
... Studies have found that attractiveness was not only perceived at a faster perception rate than unattractive faces (Hung, Nieh, & Hsieh, 2016), but could also bias one's attention, leading to a persistent attentional focus onto an attractive target rather than a neutral or unattractive target (Mo, Xia, Qin, & Mo, 2016;Sui & Liu, 2009). Studies on attractiveness and job selection have suggested that attractiveness may be associated with a more thorough examination of other factors related to final decisions, including details on the resume (Cann, Siegfried, & Pearce, 1981;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). Therefore, patient attractiveness may have biased review board decisionmakers to find the patient more fit to reenter society following his institutionalization. ...
Article
Studies have demonstrated that the mere mention of criminal risk factors for future violent criminal behaviour predicted decisions to detain or release not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) patients following their review board hearing. We looked to further our understanding of review board decisions by assessing the influence of the mention of risk factors as well as psychopathic traits, protective factors, and the moderating effect of physical attractiveness. To this end, we coded the mention of risk factors, psychopathic traits, and protective factors in clinical reports of 90 62 former male NCRMD patients and rated their attractiveness on a scale of 1-10, of which 62 cases adhered to all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analyses demonstrated that the mention of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) items significantly increased the odds of being detained following a review board hearing, while attractiveness predicted decisions to discharge the patient. In addition, an interaction effect between PCL-R item-mentions and attractiveness was identified, such that highly attractive patients with high levels of PCL-R item-mentions were more likely to be detained following review board hearings. These results further our understanding of what factors influence review board decisions and demonstrate how extraneous factors can moderate the influence of risk-relevant information. Ultimately these results speak to the need to further educate decision makers on evidence-based risk and protective factors and furthermore, how to avoid the pitfalls of allowing irrelevant information, such as physical attractiveness, from influencing such critical decisions affecting this vulnerable population.
... On an everyday level, women have been stereotyped and blamed for consumerism (Stearns 2006: 62), while expected to look feminine by performing bodily rituals and beauty practices which make them take part in the consumer culture by purchasing costly products. Women in many cultures are socially expected to maintain certain standards of physical appearance to stay within the labor market, depending on the beauty requirements of the job (Watkins and Johnston 2000;Davis 1994;Kwan and Traunter 2009), but are blamed for not functioning well enough and are not taken seriously or not allowed upward movement if they are perceived 'too feminine' (Bloksgaard 2011). It has also been suggested that physical appearance could create a hierarchy in the continuum of wages in many professional fields (Cereda 2012: 104). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores perceptions of Iranian academics of the relationship between women’s physical appearance and academic achievements. The research is conducted using interviews with academics working in different universities in the field of social sciences. Results included individual and structural explanations of the relationship between women’s physical appearance and academic achievements. Data showed a significant emphasis by the participants on the importance of beauty for women. Gender differences were observed in participants’ responses as well as in emotional reactions to the interview questions. Most male participants viewed beauty as the primary resource and an asset for marriage marketing for women. Some female participants denounced beauty as an objective notion and problematized the glorification of masculinity in the workplace. Female participants also discussed an existing backlash against women’s growing participation in academia and reflected on the political aspects of body management and feminine beauty in Iran. In conclusion, it is discussed that beauty discourses can be interpreted as a part of the broader social bias towards women’s participation in academia.
... In addition, observational studies reveal that regardless of qualification attractive men and women are more likely to receive call-backs from recruitment agencies (Busetta et al., 2013). Taken together, research demonstrates that more attractive females are more likely to be invited for interviews (Baert & Decuypere, 2014), receive higher performance ratings (Drogosz & Levy, 1996;Vilela, González, Ferrín, & Araújo, 2007), more positive interview ratings (Barrick, Shaffer, & Degrassi, 2009), higher earning potential (Musumeci & Shahani-Denning, 1996), more managerial ability (Dean, 2014), as well as receive an increased chance of employment (Watkins & Johnston, 2000). ...
... Im Gegenzug werden weniger gutaussehende Personen diskriminiert (z. B.Watkins & Johnston, 2000). Der optische Eindruck versperrt den Entscheidungsträgern gewissermaßen den Blick auf die tatsächlichen Kompetenzen des Menschen. ...
... For complete reviews on the current state of literature, see Berggren, Jordahl, and Poutvaara (2017), (Milazzo and Mattes (2015), and Stockemer and Praino (2017). though, overall, attractive job applicants are evaluated more favorably than less attractive applicants, Watkins and Johnston (2000) find that physical attractiveness has no impact when it comes to high-quality job applications. Similarly, Tews, Stafford, and Zhu (2009) find that the attractiveness of job applicants does have an impact on their employment suitability evaluation, but its impact is lower than that of their general mental ability and conscientiousness. ...
Article
Objective In this article, we address two major gaps in the understanding of the relationship between candidate attractiveness and electoral success. With the assistance of the Victoria Police Criminal Identification Unit in Melbourne, Australia, we show how good‐looking candidates look like by building the faces of six “ideal candidates” in terms of physical attractiveness. Utilizing our “ideal candidates,” we then investigate whether candidate attractiveness can actually sway electoral results. Methods We proceed in four distinct steps, using data from the 2008 U.S. House of Representatives elections. First, we collect data on candidate attractiveness. Second, we build our “ideal candidates” and obtain their attractiveness ranking. Third, we model the effect of candidate attractiveness on candidate vote margins. Fourth, we run four hypothetical scenarios that assess whether candidate attractiveness can sway the electoral results in marginal seats. Results About two‐thirds of marginal races would trigger a different winner if the actual loser looked like our ideal candidates. In addition, virtually every single marginal race would have had a different outcome if the unsuccessful candidate looked like our “ideal candidate” and the successful candidate was very unattractive. Conclusion Candidate attractiveness can sway electoral results, provided that elections are competitive.
... For instance, physically attractive individuals are judged as more socially and intellectually competent, more successful, and happier than less attractive individuals (Dion et al. 1972;Eagly et al. 1991). Attractive people are also more likely to be hired for jobs (Dipboye et al. 1975(Dipboye et al. , 1977Watkins and Johnston 2000), receive higher salaries (Roszell et al. 1989), and benefit from more lenient sentencing in the courtroom (Stewart 1985;Mazzella and Feingold 1994). However, the aim of this chapter is not to explore the various effects of physical attractiveness on an individual's life, but rather to explain which features are considered attractive and why. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
If you enter the word “beauty” in a search engine, almost all the pictures you will see appear on your computer screen are of attractive young women. In Western society, the concept of beauty is closely associated with physical attractiveness and especially feminine physical attractiveness. Beautiful women are everywhere: on the walls of our cities, on the screens of our movie theaters, on the glossy paper of our magazines. But is this phenomenon restricted to contemporary societies? It does not seem so, as women’s beauty has occupied the minds of painters, poets, philosophers, musicians, and writers for centuries. Indeed, in arts, depictions of idealized female beauty far outweigh those depicting ideals of male beauty. Why are human beings so fascinated by female attractiveness? The aim of this chapter is to show how evolutionary theory can help us to understand this passion for women’s bodies and their beauty, and explore what the arts can teach us about human beauty while addressing the question of its universality.
... Various aspects of physical appearance-both objective characteristics like height and more subjective characteristics such as beauty-have been shown to influence labor market outcomes (Hamermesh and Biddle, 1994;Harper, 2000;Watkins and Johnston, 2000). A person's natural features and the way he or she is clothed and groomed can have an effect on hiring, firing, and promoting decisions of employers, possibly through direct preferences or through an (assumed) relationship with productivity. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we look at the factors determining the decision to get a tattoo and relate this to several outcome measures, such as income, employment status, and health. The analyses are based on unique panel data of a representative sample of Dutch individuals. The tattooed population differs significantly from the non‐tattooed population on a wide range of characteristics. We use fixed effects and instrumental variable analysis to explore the effects of tattoos. Our analyses suggest less favorable outcomes for people with (very visible) tattoos, though especially in the case of the labor market, the relationships are relatively weak.
... Dies eröffnet die Möglichkeit, Bewerbende noch vor einem Screening der Bewerbungsunterlagen zu testen und gewährleistet dadurch eine objektivere Vorauswahl. Erfolgt diese basierend auf Anschreiben und Lebenslauf, so beeinflussen viele Faktoren jenseits der Eignung der Bewerbenden das Urteil, beispielsweise Bewerbungsfotos (Schuler & Berger, 1977;Watkins & Johnston, 2002), Namen (Kaas & Manger, 2010) oder Lücken im Lebenslauf (Frank & Kanning, 2014). Demgegenüber können beim Online Assessment Durchführungs-, Auswertungs-und Interpretationsobjektivität als gegeben angesehen werden (Kubinger, 2009) und es kann bereits zu einem frühen Zeitpunkt der valideste Prädiktor von Berufs-und Trainingserfolg gemessen werden, die Intelligenz (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). ...
Chapter
Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet Möglichkeiten und Herausforderungen digitaler Tools und Technologien im Recruiting, beispielsweise Künstliche Intelligenz (KI), sowie deren mögliche Auswirkungen auf die Akzeptanz seitens der Bewerbenden. Hierzu werden zunächst bestehende Modelle der Akzeptanz von Personalauswahlprozessen und solche zur Technikakzeptanz zu einem Modell der Akzeptanz von KI im Bewerbungsprozess integriert. Anschließend werden anhand eines prototypischen Bewerbungsprozesses Möglichkeiten und Grenzen digitaler Tools und Technologien aufgezeigt. Es wird anhand des vorgestellten Modells der Akzeptanz von KI in Auswahlprozessen herausgearbeitet, wie diese Tools die Wahrnehmung der Bewerbenden beeinflussen können.
... Human beings yearn to become beautiful and are willing to choose beautiful people to be their mates. For example, it is well-documented that facial beauty is associated with important benefits, such that people with beautiful faces have obvious advantages in mate selection, job hunting, election campaign, and other social and economic activities (Hamermesh and Biddle, 1994;Watkins and Johnston, 2000;Rhodes, 2006;. This phenomenon is the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype (Dion et al., 1972). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown the phenomenon that “what sounds beautiful is good” is a stereotype. It is not clear whether vocal attractiveness affects social decision-making in economic games. Using a modified trust game task, we investigated the neural mechanism of the influence of vocal attractiveness on cooperative decision-making. Participants first heard the voice (attractive or unattractive) of the partner. They had enough time to decide whether to cooperate with the partner for a chance to earn monetary rewards. The behavioral results showed that participants made more invest choices in the attractive partner condition, and they were more likely to cooperate with the female partners in the unattractive voice condition. The event-related potential (ERP) analysis for voice stimuli showed that attractive voices induced larger N1 amplitude than unattractive voices only in the male voice condition. And female voices elicited smaller N1 and larger P2 amplitudes than male voices in both the attractive and unattractive voices condition. A larger P3 amplitude was evoked by female voices and attractive voices. In addition, a more positive late positive complex (LPC) was induced by male voices and attractive voices. This study suggested that attractive voices facilitated cooperative behavior, providing evidence for the “beauty premium” effect of the attractive voices. Moreover, participants were more likely to cooperate with female partners. In the early stage, gender information and male vocal attractiveness were processed automatically, suggesting that male vocal attractiveness was processed preferentially than the female voice. In the late stage, participants allocated attention to both male and female vocal attractiveness.
... der Wirkung von Attraktivität im Bewerbungskontext beizusteuern. In der ersten Studie stand der What is beautiful is good Effekt (Chung & Leung, 1988;Dion et al., 1972;Watkins & Johnston, 2000) im Vordergrund. Hier konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Attraktivität eines männlichen Bewerbers zu signifikant besseren Bewertungen desselben führte -unabhängig von der Passung der Bewerbung zur ausgeschriebenen Stelle. ...
... This study enable us to answer the exploratory questions of how much text is needed to make predictions using computer-based text analysis and whether a cover letter is in fact needed at all. Other studies have also shown the importance of the appearance of applications (Arnulf, Tegner, & Larssen, 2010;Watkins & Johnston, 2000), indicating that there could be further success markers. This study might also enrich findings on these. ...
Article
This study investigated whether word categories of LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) are able to predict application success. To this end, 581 cover letters, CVs and complete application documents were analysed. Based on previous research, successful candidates, who receive a job offer, were expected to have used a more categorical, complex, and less self‐centred language. Conversely, rejected applications were expected to have been written in a dynamic style, linguistically simpler, more concerned with hedonistic issues and focused on the day‐to‐day lives. Overall, existing models could only be partially applied. Both the cover letter and the CV were found to contain predictive information regarding application success, which is noteworthy given the distinct standardization of application documents.
... The effect of appearance in the workplace has been widely studied (e.g., Hosoda et al., 2003). For example, candidates with attractive, as opposed to unattractive, faces are considered more hireable (e.g., Watkins & Johnston, 2000). More recent research has also shown that people infer diverse personality traits (e.g., caring, intelligent, and confident) from facial appearance (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008) and that these inferences affect leadership hiring processes (for a review, see Todorov et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings highlight two facets of the two fundamental stereotype content dimensions of agency (i.e., ‘dominance’ and ‘competence’) and communality (i.e., ‘morality’ and ‘sociability’; e.g., Abele et al., 2016) with implications for understanding gender inequality in the workplace (e.g., Prati et al., 2019). Extending this research and contributing to the facial first impressions literature, we examined how these facets of agency and communality when inferred from White men’s and women’s faces, along with attractiveness, influence their leadership suitability. In three studies in the United Kingdom (total N = 424), using student and working samples and two managerial descriptions, we found an unexpected pattern of results, supported by an internal meta‐analysis: attractiveness and competence were the most important predictors of hirability for all candidates. For women, dominance was the next most important predictor; for men, morality and sociability were more important than dominance. Moreover, morality and sociability were more important in evaluating men than women, while dominance was more important in evaluating women than men. Findings are discussed in terms of a ‘deficit bias’, whereby the qualities women and men are considered to lack – dominance for women, morality, and sociability for men – may be given more weight when evaluating their leadership suitability.
... Having an attractive voice is useful because listeners tend to associate it with an attractive face (Hughes and Miller, 2016), a likeable personality (Zuckerman and Driver, 1989), and assign it higher health ratings (Albert et al., 2021). It has been reported that physical attractiveness leads to advantages in situations such as dating (Berscheid et al., 1971), job applications (Watkins and Johnston, 2000), promotion (Chung and Leung, 1988), elections (Jäckle et al., 2020), and is associated with more social support (Sarason et al., 1985). While one's physical appearance cannot be easily altered at least in the short run, adjusting their own voice is an immediately possible alternative. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this pilot study we investigated the vocal strategies of Cantonese women when addressing an attractive vs. unattractive male. We recruited 19 young female native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese who completed an attractiveness rating task, followed by a speech production task where they were presented a subset of the same faces. By comparing the rating results and corresponding acoustic data of the facial stimuli, we found that when young Cantonese women spoke to an attractive male, they were less breathy, lower in fundamental frequency, and with denser formants, all of which are considered to project a larger body. Participants who were more satisfied with their own height used these vocal strategies more actively. These results are discussed in terms of the body size projection principle.
... Would you like me to try a few experiments for you?' 49 This comment fits with the thesis of Gervais et al. (2012, p. 743) who argued that 'women's bodies were reduced to their sexual body parts in perceiver's minds' . Much has been written about female employees and a frequent focus on the attractiveness of women (Heilman & Stopeck, 1985;Smith et al., 2018;Watkins & Johnston, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
The article focuses on the British banking sector in the late twentieth century. It explores the approach of the managers of Barclays Bank, who in contrast to their competitors, decided to use female staff at the forefront of their strategy to increase business and to improve customer perceptions of the bank within its branches. In particular, we explore the decision to place women on the ‘shop floor’, to sell financial services and to dress them in a corporate uniform. Special clothing is often seen as a symbolic representation of an organization’s identity and culture. The article examines the way in which managers used female employees and their femininity as a device to attempt to build stronger customer relationships that eventually became part of a wider branding exercise.
... The benefits of physical attractiveness and others' negative judgments of beauty work People often benefit from being seen as physically attractive (e.g., Langlois et al., 2000). Physically attractive individuals tend to be viewed as more sociable and competent (Dion et al., 1972;Verhulst et al., 2010), have superior mating options (Fales et al., 2016), and gain more work success (Watkins & Johnston, 2000) than those who are less attractive. In light of these benefits, it is not surprising that consumers can put substantial time and money into improving their appearance (Sorvino, 2017). ...
Article
Consumers seek naturalness across many domains, including physical appearance. It seems that the desire for natural beauty would discourage artificial appearance-enhancement consumption, such as cosmetic use. However, across an analysis of the “no-makeup movement” on Twitter and Nielsen cosmetic sales (Study 1a), an image analysis of #nomakeup selfies using machine learning approaches (Study 1b), and three experiments (Studies 2–4), we find that calls to look natural can be associated with increased artificial beauty practices. Drawing from attribution theory, we theorize that calls to look natural maintain the value of attractiveness while adding the consumer concern that others will discount their attractiveness if overt effort is present. Thus, rather than investing less effort, consumers may engage in a self-presentational strategy wherein they construct an appearance of naturalness to signal low effort to others, thereby augmenting their attractiveness. This work contributes to attribution and self-presentation theory and offers practical implications for naturalness consumption.
... In occupational psychology, two important self-regulatory resources relevant to individuals' career development at both the individual and contextual levels have emerged-namely, career adaptability (CA) and future work self (FWS; Savickas, 1997;Strauss et al ., 2012) . Although physical appearance has been linked to employment decisions, salary offers, and career outcomes (Beehr & Gilmore, 1982;Desrumaux et al ., 2009;Dipboye et al ., 1977;Morrow et al ., 1990;Watkins & Johnston, 2000), studies linking the direct effect of physical appearance and self-regulatory resources are limited . Similarly, the indirect effect of self-esteem on self-regulatory resources is unclear . ...
Article
This study examined the indirect effects of global self-esteem (GSE) on the linkage between proactive personality (PP), appearance-contingent self-worth (ACSW), and career adaptability (CA) among 372 Chinese undergraduate students. The indirect effect of future work self (FWS) on the linkage between GSE and CA and between PP and CA was also examined. Results demonstrated that GSE mediated the PP-CA relationship; however, GSE was not a mediator in the ACSW-CA relationship. FWS mediated both the GSE-CA and PP-CA relationships. Gender differences in the strength of the relationships were also observed. The findings expand existing empirical work by demonstrating the important indirect effects of GSE and FWS in relation to CA. Career counselors and educators may encourage students to be more proactive and boost their GSE to accomplish their career goals.
... For example, when no constraints are placed on a person's ability and/or motivation to think, attractive sources can reduce (e.g., Dipboye, Arvey, & Terpstra, 1977;Pallak, 1983;Watkins & Johnston, 2000) or increase (Puckett et al., 1983) careful processing of a message under different circumstances and thereby influence attitudes. Under conditions that are not conducive to careful thinking (e.g., distraction, low-involvement, low relevance/responsibility, etc.) and/or for individuals who do not enjoy cognitively demanding tasks (i.e., low need for cognition; Cacioppo & Petty, 1982), attractiveness has been shown to influence attitudes by acting as a relatively simple acceptance or rejection cue (Haugtvedt, Petty, Cacioppo, & Steidley, 1988). ...
Article
It is well established that the physical attractiveness of the source of a message can influence recipients' attitudes about the message proposal. The current research is the first to examine if attractiveness is also capable of affecting attitude confidence and resistance to change. Experiment 1 revealed that an attractive source decreased recipients' attitude confidence, even when it did not affect attitudes. Experiment 2 replicated this novel finding and identified a critical condition under which this effect is more likely to occur. Specifically, attractiveness only reduced attitude confidence when it was unrelated to the merits of the persuasive proposal. This moderation by message relevance suggests that people can correct the confidence in their judgment for inappropriate sources of bias. Experiment 3 specified the conditions under which correction is more likely to take place on attitudes and on attitude confidence. Specifically, correction for source attractiveness on attitudes required an explicit correction instruction but correction on attitude confidence occurred regardless of the instruction. Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated that the effect of attractiveness in reducing attitude confidence is consequential by making attitudes less resistant to change when facing counter-attitudinal information. Taken together, the present research demonstrated that attractiveness can reduce attitude confidence as well as undermine subsequent resistance to counter-attitudinal messages, but only when attractiveness was viewed as an unwanted biasing factor (i.e., the message topic was unrelated to attractiveness).
... We selected male applicants because ethnic minority males may experience high-(est) levels of hiring discrimination in many Western-European countries (i.e., subordinate male target hypothesis; Arai et al., 2016;Derous et al., 2012;Thanasombat & Trasviña, 2005). Typically, discriminatory resume-screening seems not to be much affected by the gender of the rater (see Watkins & Johnston, 2000, for an example in the context of resumescreening and applicants' physical attractiveness), unless gender roles are violated (see Waung et al., 2015, for an example in the context of the video resumes-screening and impression management tactics). Because our design did not incorporate such gender role violations, we did not expect gender differences and additional analyses also showed that results were not affected by participants' gender. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resume-screening by human raters is vulnerable to hiring discrimination but recruiter training as a way to overcome biased resume-screening is under-researched. The present study addresses this gap. Building on key cognitive processes that steer discriminatory decision-making in resume-screening and insights from diversity literature, we investigated the effectiveness of two cognitive training interventions (i.e., a culture-general assimilator and a structured free recall intervention) for reducing hiring discrimination against ethnic minority job applicants in the resume-screening stage. A pre-test, repeated post-test experimental study showed initial hiring discrimination (i.e., less positive evaluations of minority job applicants than majority ones), which was reduced shortly after both training interventions. Hiring discrimination, however, resurfaced 3 months later for both interventions. The culture-general assimilator also positively affected participants’ perceived ability to suppress stereotypes, both short-term and long-term. Findings are considered in the light of a comparison of these training interventions, their programme features, and their compatibility with the resume-screening task. Implications for prejudice reduction initiatives, their potential differential effects, and further research are also discussed.
... The attractiveness stereotype, also known as the "what is beautiful is good" effect (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972), describes the phenomenon that humans believe physical attractiveness to be associated with a diverse range of positive attributes (for a meta-analysis, see Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani, & Longo, 1991a, b). For example, attractiveness increases the likelihood of getting a job interview (Watkins & Johnston, 2000), entails higher ratings on favorable personality traits such as Agreeableness (Borkenau & Liebler, 1992Smits & Cherhoniak, 1976), and higher intelligence ratings (Jackson, Hunter, & Hodge, 1995). Thus, the attractiveness stereotype suggests that attractiveness and positive attributes are strongly associated in the minds of people. ...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical findings predominantly support a happiness superiority effect in visual search and emotion categorization paradigms and reveal that social cues, like sex and race, moderate this advantage. A more recent study showed that the facial attribute attractiveness also influences the accuracy and speed of emotion perception. In the current study, we investigated whether the influence of attractiveness on emotion perception translates into a more general evaluation of moods when more than one emotional target is presented. In two experiments, we used the mood-of-the-crowd (MoC) task to investigate whether attractive crowds are perceived more positively compared to less attractive crowds. The task was to decide whether an array of faces included more angry or more happy faces. Furthermore, we recorded gaze movements to test the assumption that fixations on happy expressions occur more often in attractive crowds. Thirty-four participants took part in experiment 1 as well as in experiment 2. In both experiments, crowds presenting attractive faces were judged as being happy more frequently whereas the reverse pattern was found for unattractive crowds of faces. Moreover, participants were faster and more accurate when evaluating attractive crowds containing more happy faces as well as when judging unattractive crowds composed of more angry expressions. Additionally, in experiment 1, there were more fixations on happy compared to angry expressions in attractive crowds. Overall, the present findings support the assumption that attractiveness moderates emotion perception.
... The research reported in this paper has its strengths as well as weaknesses. First, in contrast to most studies on bias and accuracy in resume screening (e.g., Cole et al., 2005;Watkins & Johnston, 2000), we tested our main research questions with real recruiters. Second, our applicants were real people who provided their own personal biographical information. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present research examined the role of thinking mode for accuracy in recruiters and laypeople’s judgments of applicants’ cognitive ability. In Study 1, students who relied on their intuition were somewhat less accurate. In Study 2, an experimental manipulation of thinking mode (intuitive vs analytical) revealed no apparent differences in accuracy. Moreover, there were no differences in accuracy or agreement between recruiters and laypeople. Examination of the use of specific resume content suggested that intuitive thinking corresponds to basing one’s judgments more on the way that applicants present themselves in their personal letter and less on diagnostic biographical information such as SAT scores. The findings point to the possibility that professional recruiters may not possess intuitive expertise in this context.
Preprint
Full-text available
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was used to explore whether there was an implicit attractiveness bias favouring employability for attractive versus unattractive facial stimuli with a sample of university students (N = 35; male = n10, female =n25). This study also examined whether there was a relationship between participant scores on the IRAP and on the Beliefs About Appearance Scale (BAAS, Spangler, 1999), a questionnaire measuring the importance an individual believes their appearance is in various areas. Results from the BAAS showed high ratings for the importance of appearance across both genders. Gender was considered as a between-groups factor. A pro-attractive bias was found in D-scores on three of the four IRAP trial-types, and an anti-attractive bias was found on one of the IRAP trial-types. An anti-unattractive prejudice was also evident for male participants. The implications of these results are discussed regarding expanding nuanced data for implicit beauty-bias beyond social domains in important areas such as employability. Abstract The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was used to explore whether there was
Article
Videos made by job candidates can be an effective means of promoting their qualifications, thus potentially helping them secure a job. However, little past research has focused on the impact of such videos on reviewers’ appraisals of a prospective candidate. Using Aristotle's means of persuasion as a methodological framework, this study first identified the most sought after candidate attributes identified by hiring firms, then explored the degree to which firm representatives felt two candidate‐generated videos demonstrated these attributes. Findings suggest reviewers deemed the attributes characterised by pathos (emotional connections) as most important and found this quality to be most evident in the videos. As such, videos may provide the means to inject pathos into a job candidate's self‐promotional materials not possible in more traditional application packages. However, while such videos offer advantages over traditional candidate collateral, their potency can elicit strong and sometimes unintended reactions.
Article
This article in the journal Gruppe. Interaktion. Organisation. provides an overview of past, present and future of recruitment and assessment. It illustrates how in the process of digitization the methods of recruitment and assessment change through the use of Artificial Intelligence, which opportunities and risks are associated with these developments, and what needs to be considered when introducing the new technologies. © 2018, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature.
Article
Facial attractiveness plays a crucial role in a variety of social interactions because attractive faces are preferred in general. Although it is considered that beauty is in the eye of the beholder and ethnic groups have different standards for judging beauty, facial attractiveness judgements are more similar than different across sexes, ethnic groups, and ages. Previous studies have shown that that various facial features contribute to facial attractiveness. On the other hand, facial make-up is a popular cosmetic practice throughout history and across cultures. There is evidence that make-up has a beautifying effect on facial attractiveness. This review summarizes such findings briefly and discusses how attractive faces are produced by make-up.
Article
In this study, we investigated the effects of facial physical attractiveness on perception and expressing habit of smiling and angry expressions. In experiment 1, 20 participants rated 60 photo subjects’ smiling and angry expressions of uncontrolled physical expression configuration. The results showed that for the angry faces, the perceived expression intensity and the expression naturalness in the attractive group were significantly stronger than those in the unattractive group; for the smiling faces, this attractiveness bias was not observed. In experiment 2, using artificial expressions made by an identical expression template, interestingly, the perceived expression intensity and the expression naturalness of the smiling faces in the attractive group were stronger than those in the unattractive group, while the impression strength of anger between the two groups was approximately the same. A comparison of the two observations suggests that facial physical attractiveness can enhance the perceived intensity of a smiling expression but not an angry expression, and that the inconsistencies between the two experiments are due to the difference of expressing habits between unattractive and attractive persons. These results have implications as regards the effect of facial attractiveness on the expressing habits of expression senders and the person’s development of social skills.
Article
Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in preference between orthodontists and laypeople, judging soft tissue digital alterations of a Class II Division 1 profile of a female patient with mandibular retrognathia, produced by simulated camouflage and mandibular advancement therapy. Methods The profile image of a White woman with a Class II Division 1 mandibular retrognathic profile was digitally modified to produce 7 pictures: 1 baseline, 3 stepwise increase in the nasolabial angle of 113°, 121°, and 129°, and 3 stepwise increase in chin-neck length of 51 mm, 54 mm, and 57 mm. Forty-four orthodontists and 162 laypeople assessed these 7 images. Results The untreated baseline profile was found to be least attractive for both orthodontists and laypeople, with orthodontists scoring significantly lower than laypeople. The profiles representing mandibular advancement therapy were judged significantly better by both groups than camouflage therapy. Orthodontists preferred straighter profiles than laypeople, giving the highest-ranking to a chin-neck length of 57 mm, whereas laypeople gave the highest rank to a chin-neck length of 54 mm. Conclusions Orthodontists prefer straighter profiles and gave a lower ranking to the untreated Class II Division 1 female profile compared with laypeople. Orthodontists and laypeople favor mandibular advancement therapy over camouflage therapy. However, both groups seem to prefer the effect of both treatment modalities over the untreated baseline Class II Division 1 profile.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird dargelegt, wie Personen zu einem Eindruck und einer Beurteilung einer anderen Person kommen. Dabei wird auf die Rolle von äußerlich beobachtbaren Merkmalen des zu Beurteilenden und des Verhaltens einer Person eingegangen. Fehleinschätzungen resultieren häufig daraus, dass bei der Beurteilung von Verhalten situative Gegebenheiten zu wenig berücksichtigt und damit letztendlich dispositionale Faktoren überschätzt werden. Es wird zudem auf Merkmale der Situation bei der Eindrucksbildung eingegangen. Je nach Blickwinkel und Auffälligkeit können Beurteilungen ein und desselben Verhaltens sehr unterschiedlich ausfallen. Schließlich werden auch Merkmale des Beurteilers dargelegt, die einen Einfluss auf die Eindrucksbildung ausüben. Auch aufgrund dieser Merkmale ist die Beurteilung anderer Personen meist nicht das, was wir „objektiv“ nennen würden. Aus diesem Grund ist es sinnvoll, verzerrende Mechanismen zu kennen und sie bei weitreichenden Beurteilungen zu vermindern.
Article
The international tourist hotel industry that focuses on quality of the “tangible” service is a typical high-contact service. Many studies raised the importance of recruitment criteria for aesthetic labour. To survive in the recent competitive work environment, many hoteliers enhance their competitiveness in the process of service employee selection and emphasize the importance of physical attractiveness. However, it is “self-confidence” to be the basic reason for employees to perform their attractive manner and professional jobs. This study uses self-confidence as a moderator which is rare relevant empirical evidence to confirm the relationships between physical attractiveness, professional competence and service attitude. The results show that confidence of the service personnel, physical attractiveness and professional competence have positive significant correlation relationships with service attitude. Service personnel's “self-confidence” is the most important variable towards service attitude. The study borrows selection and training functions of human resource management to integrate the knowledge of psychology, marketing management to expand the theory.
Article
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG In einem Online-Experiment mit 472 Personen wird die Bedeutung des Akzents von Bewerbern untersucht. Die Pbn hören ein Telefoninterview, in dem eine Bewerberin entweder hochdeutsch, mit bayerischem oder sächsischem Akzent spricht. Anschließend bewerten sie diese hinsichtlich einer Vielzahl von Eigenschaften. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich ein sehr großer Haupteffekt (Eta 2 =.24) des Akzents. Die sächsisch sprechende Bewer-berin wird im Vergleich zu einer hochdeutsch bzw. einer mit bayerischem Akzent sprechenden Bewerberin als weniger leistungsorientiert und sozial kompetent erlebt. Zudem würde sie mit geringerer Wahrscheinlichkeit zu einem nachfolgenden Interview eingeladen oder eingestellt werden. Die bayerisch sprechende Bewerberin ist nur in zwei Punkten im Nachteil gegenüber einer hochdeutsch sprechenden: sie wird als weniger leistungsorientiert wahrgenommen und erhält mit geringerer Wahrscheinlichkeit eine direkte Stellenzusage. Die berufliche Erfahrung mit Personalauswahlprozessen schützt nicht vor derartigen Urteilsverzerrungen. Beurteiler, die selbst mit Akzent sprechen, weisen geringfügi-gere Verzerrungseffekte auf, allerdings nur bezogen auf den bayerischen Akzent.
Article
Background The importance of physical appearance in social and professional situations has been well studied. It has been suggested that improving dental appearance may increase employment prospects. This scoping review aims to map the current literature regarding the impact of dental appearance on employability. Methods A scoping review was carried out in accordance with guidance from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed iteratively, databases were searched and decisions on inclusion made in duplicate. Data were charted in Excel and synthesised using a visual map, study summary table and narrative description. Results We identified 16 relevant articles: ten experimental simulation studies, two qualitative studies, one cross-sectional survey, one pre-/post-dental treatment survey, one retrospective cohort study and one narrative systematic review. Experimental simulations support the notion that visible dental conditions can negatively impact appraisals of employment-related personal characteristics. Negative impacts on job-seeking self-efficacy and willingness to apply for jobs have also been documented. Conclusions The applicability of this evidence base to the UK health system context is uncertain and demonstration of real-life impact on employment is lacking. Further research is needed before programmes to improve dental appearance could be justified on the basis of improving employment outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Many factors can affect recruiters, personnel managers or employers during employee selection process such as degrees and other typical qualifications of candidates the possess of the right transferable skills, the knowledge of job market, their working experience, the combination of personal attributes, self presentation skills, personality. Apart of them and many others factors, there is a consensus in a large extent, that candidates’ physical attractiveness can affect recruiters’ decisions during employment selection process, both in first stage of screening their curriculums’ vitae, as well as in the second stage which is the interview hiring process. This study aims to search the role of employee candidates’ physical attractiveness and its comparative impact between first stage of screening applicants according to their resumes and second stage of hiring decisions during employment interview. For this purpose, an empirical research has been conducted in order to explore the importance and relative impact of candidates’ physical attractiveness in decisions and selection process outcomes. In particular we asked two hundred and sixty recruiters’, personnel managers’ and employers in Greece about the impact of candidates’ physical attractiveness might have in their recruiting and hiring decisions. Results show that physical attractiveness influence recruiters decisions and affect selection outcomes in both selection stages. The impact is higher and statistically more significant in interview process. Physical attractiveness also compared to resume quality in order to explore relative impact among these factors. Results show a greater influence of resume quality than physical attractiveness.
Article
Full-text available
The paper aims to investigate the associations among self-efficacy, happiness, individual values and attractiveness promoting behavior. The impact of self-efficacy and happiness on individual values and attractiveness promoting behavior is analyzed through the partial least squared structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings provide important implications that both self-efficacy and happiness are important in one’s life but they play different and independent roles. The results found that individual values and attractiveness promoting behavior are independent and they have no significant association with each other. In essence, there is no one perfect solution for all quests. In order for an individual to attain higher level of individual values, psychological and mental factor like happiness should be paid much more attention than perceived ability like self-efficacy. However, self-efficacy is the key factor for an individual to engage oneself in behavior that promote his/her attractiveness.
Book
Full-text available
The intent of this book is to review the research on selection interviews from an integrative perspective. The book is organized around a conception of the interview as a multistage process. The process begins as the interviewer forms initial impressions of the applicant from previewing paper credentials and from initial encounters with the applicant. The actual face-to-face interview follows, consisting of verbal, nonverbal, and paralinguistic exchanges between interviewer and applicant. The process concludes with the interviewer forming final impressions and judgments of the applicant's qualifications and rendering a decision (e.g., hire, reject, gather more information). The book follows from this general sequence of events, with each chapter focusing on a stage of the interview. In exploring the phases of the interview, the text draws freely from basic research on social cognition, decision making, information processing, and social interaction. Chapter 1: An overview of selection interview research and practice Chapter 2: Cognitive processes of the interviewer Chapter 3: First encounters: Impression formation in the preinterview phase Chapter 4: Social interaction in the interview Chapter 5: Final impressions: judgments and decisions in the post interview phase Chapter 6: Alternative models of the interview process Chapter 7: Evaluating the selection interview Chapter 8: Legal issues in selection interviews Chapter 9: Strategies for improving selection interviews Chapter 10: Other functions of the interview Chapter 11: Concluding comments References Author Index Index
Article
Full-text available
Physical attractiveness has been linked to mental health, intelligence, ability and performance. Most of the studies on attractiveness have been experimental in nature and focused on perceptions of mental health and achievement rather than actual mental health and achievement. Operating within a status characteristics framework, we analyze the impact of attractiveness on the actual achievement and mental health of individuals in a national sample. We find consistently significant and monotonic relationships of attractiveness with four measures of achievement and eight measures of psychological well-being. Based on these analyses, we conclude that survey research findings corroborate experimental findings on attractiveness; that one's attractiveness does impinge on achievement and psychological well-being; and that status characteristics theory can be used to explain the effects of attractiveness on well-being and achievement.
Article
Full-text available
Reports an error in the original article by author's name (Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 60(1) Feb 1975, 39-43). On page 41, there were several typographical errors in Table 2. 30 college students and 30 professional interviewers rated and ranked bogus resumes on suitability for a managerial position. Applicant sex, physical attractiveness, and scholastic standing were systematically varied in the resumes. A 2 * 2 * 2 * 3 repeated measures analysis of variance on the ratings yielded 4 significant main effects (p < .05), while the same analysis on the rankings yielded 3 significant main effects (p < .01). Students rated applicants more favorably than professionals. Both groups preferred males to females, attractive applicants to unattractive applicants, and applicants of high scholastic standing. The latter variable accounted for the greatest proportion of variance. However, internal analyses of the rankings reveal that sex and physical attractiveness were more important than indicated by the analysis of variance.
Article
Full-text available
Reexamined among 160 male and 160 female university students H. Sigall and N. Ostrove's (see record 1975-20975-001) finding of an interaction between physical attractiveness of a female defendant and type of crime. Four independent variables were investigated: the defendant's physical attractiveness, the type of crime, the S's gender, and the defendant's gender. No evidence was found of the attractiveness and offense interaction obtained by Sigall and Ostrove. This conclusion was strengthened by the findings of R. K. Mizelle (1988) and M. Plaster (1989). Female Ss gave the unattractive swindlers longer sentences, but attractiveness did not affect their sentencing of burglars. Findings suggest that the attractiveness–leniency effect is dependent on both the type of crime and gender of the S. Results support the contention of Sigall and Ostrove that the relationship between attractiveness and reactions to transgressions is complex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Applies the ecological approach to perception, drawing on the recent theories of J. Gibson (1979) and R. Shaw, M. Turvey and W. Mace (1982) to the social domain. The general advantages of this approach are enumerated, its applicability to social perception is documented, and its specific implications for research on emotion perception, impression formation, and causal attribution are discussed. The implications of the ecological approach for the understanding of errors in social perception are also considered. Finally, the major tenets of the ecological approach are contrasted with current cognitive approaches, and a plea is made for greater attention to the role of perception in social knowing. (100 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
60 male undergraduates read an essay supposedly written by a female college freshman. They then evaluated the quality of the essay and the ability of its writer on several dimensions. By means of a photo attached to the essay, 20 Ss were led to believe that the writer was physically attractive and 20 that she was unattractive. The remaining Ss read the essay without any information about the writer's appearance. 30 Ss read a version of the essay that was well written while the other Ss read a version that was poorly written. Significant main effects for essay quality and writer attractiveness were predicted and obtained. Ss who read the good essay evaluated the writer and her work more favorably that Ss who read the poor essay. Ss also evaluated the writer and her work most favorably when she was attractive, least when she was unattractive, and intermediately when her appearance was unknown. The impact of the writer's attractiveness on the evaluation of her and her work was most pronounced when the "objective" quality of her work was relatively poor. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Varied the physical attractiveness of a criminal defendant (attractive, unattractive, or no information) and the nature of the crime (attractiveness-related or attractiveness-unrelated) in a factorial design. After reading 1 of the case accounts, 120 undergraduates sentenced the defendant to a term of imprisonment. An interaction was predicted: When the crime was unrelated to attractiveness (burglary), Ss would assign more lenient sentences to the attractive defendant than to the unattractive defendant; when the offense was attractiveness-related (swindle), the attractive defendant would receive harsher treatment. Results confirm the predictions, thereby supporting a cognitive explanation for the relationship between the physical attractiveness of defendants and the nature of the judgments made against them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
110 male and female student "interviewers," classified as either high, moderate, or low on physical attractiveness, evaluated 12 bogus job applicants for whom sex, physical attractiveness, and qualifications had been varied. A 2 × 3 × 2 × 3 × 2 analysis of variance was computed, with the 1st 2 variables (interviewer sex and attractiveness) constituting between-group factors, and the last 3 variables (applicant sex, attractiveness, and qualifications) constituting repeated measures factors. Regardless of interviewer sex and attractiveness, highly qualified applicants were preferred over poorly qualified applicants, male applicants were preferred over female applicants, and attractive candidates were preferred over unattractive candidates. Discrimination in employment decisions was attributed to sex-role and physical attractiveness stereotypes. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Each of 72 professional personnel consultants rated the suitability of one bogus applicant for selected masculine, feminine, and neuter jobs, and for alternatives to employment. Each resume was identical with the exception of the systematic variation of the applicant's sex and the omission or inclusion of a photo depicting the applicant as physically attractive or unattractive. As predicted, personnel decisions strongly reflected the operation of sex-role stereotypes as well as sex-relevant and sex-irrelevant attractiveness stereotypes. These factors similarly affected consultants' recommendations of alternatives to employment and consultants' causal attributions of applicants' projected occupational successes and failures. Sex-role typing provides a significant example of the powerful effects of stereotypes in the expansion and restriction of alternatives of expression and action available to men and to women in our society (Bern, 197S; Block, von der Lippe, & Block, 1973; Broverman, Vogel, Broverman, Clarkson, & Rosenkrantz, 1972). The influence of sex-role stereotypes on both access and employee treatment is centrally important to sex discrimination in employment, a practice prohibited by Title VII of the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964, The social sciences have begun to systematically examine sex discrimination in a number of settings, both naturalistic and experimental. The greatest amount of research has assessed discrimination against females in traditionally masculine, that is, male-dominated, occupations. Men have been evaluated more favorably than women for writing journal articles (Goldberg, 1968), for painting pictures (Pheterson, Kiesler, & Goldberg, 1971), and for
Article
This review demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although subjects in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with our implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that subjects were asked to make: The differences in subjects' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information.
Article
Past research on variables affecting hiring decisions has emphasized the role of applicant and inter-viewer demographics. Howeve~ recent studies have questioned the generalizability of findings from laboratory interviews to real interviews. In this article, a model of demographics and interviewing decisions is proposed and tested with actual employment interviews. Industrial interviewers (N = 8) provided demographic data concerning themselves and applicants (N = 171), rated applicants on widely studied attributes, and made two hiring decisions. The data support the model that interview outcomes are directly dependent on the more logically relevant variables, such as skill. Furthermore, the influence ofdemngraphics is modest and less important than other variables.
Article
180 undergraduates rated level of aspiration and likelihood of success for male or female targets of high, low, or unknown physical attractiveness possessing masculine, feminine, or androgynous gender characteristics for occupations varying in prestige and gender orientation. Perceived level of aspiration and likelihood of success was influenced by sex of target only for female-oriented occupations. Physical attractiveness increased the perceived likelihood of success in high prestige male-oriented and neutral occupations. Gender characteristics influenced perceived level of aspiration for all high prestige occupations but for only one low prestige occupation. Results are discussed relative to changing stereotypes in today's society.
Article
Rosenthal and Jacobson found that a teacher's expectations about a child's behavior strongly influence his actual behavior. Generally, teachers form their first impressions of children, and thus develop their expectations for them, from two sources of information--the children's school record and their physical appearance. In this experiment, teachers were given objective information, presumably about a child's scholastic and social potential, accompanied by a photograph of an attractive or an unattractive boy or girl. It was found that the child's attractiveness was significantly associated with the teacher's expectations about how intelligent the child was, how interested in education his parents were, how far he was likely to progress in school, and how popular he would be with his peers.
Article
Five experiments tested the hypothesis that observers use the physical attractiveness of women to encode and organize memories of their behavior during a simulated discussion. Four of these experiments also investigated whether this tendency to categorize by attractiveness (measured by misattributions of statements to speakers) is related to attractiveness stereotyping. Results showed that observers made more intracategory than intercategory errors in trying to match high and low attractive discussants with their statements, but did not consistently categorize average attractive speakers separate from those at the extremes of attractiveness. Categorization of high and low attractive discussion participants was correlated with stereotyping of these individuals, but not with stereotyping of high and low attractive women who did not participate in the discussion. By replicating results of previous research on categorization by race and gender, these findings support the view that common processes may underli...
Article
An applied sample was randomly assigned to evaluate the credentials of a job candidate with or without a physical disability and whose interview responses varied in quality (positive vs. average vs. negative). In addition to making hiring decisions, participants completed a number of measures including the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964), the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (Gething, 1991), an interview comfort measure, and an EEOC knowledge quiz. Results consistently indicated that participants evaluated the job candidate with a disability more favorably than the job candidate without a disability. Data also indicated a relationship between participants' level of comfort when interacting with persons with disabilities and their interview evaluations of such individuals. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for diversity management.
Article
Sex-typed college students (16 males and 16 females) and androgynous college students (16 males and 16 females) evaluated the resumes of fictitious applicants for a managerial position described as requiring interpersonal competencies. The applicant's physical attractiveness, qualifications, and sex were systematically varied in the resumes. Five-way analyses of variance were performed on the hiring decisions about the applicants and the perceived attractiveness, masculinity, femininity, and social desirability of the applicants. Hiring preferences were shown for attractive over unattractive applicants, for wellqualified over less qualified applicants, and among these preferred groups, males were favored over females. The subject's sex-role orientation predictably moderated the effect of the applicant's attractiveness but not the effect of the applicant's sex. Sex-typed subjects committed “beautyism” more than androgynous subjects did. The applicants' sex, qualifications, and attractiveness affected how they were perceived in terms of sex-role attributes as well as sex-irrelevant, socially desirable traits. Theoretical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Article
Two studies explored reactions to the overweight by isolating the effects of weight from other characteristics of the job applicant. The first study, which established the existence of a stereotype, shows that the overweight are viewed consistently more negatively than others on variables considered important for successful job performance. The second study experimentally investigated occupational discrimination in a simulated hiring setting. Overweight applicants were less highly recommended than average-weight persons despite objectively identical performances. The findings are discussed m the context of current research on cognitive processes.
Article
Candidate physical attractiveness, sex, and age, along with rater age and sex, are assessed in terms of their ability to affect recommendations for promotions. Forty personnel professionals evaluated eight candidates for a regional manager position using simulated assessment center data in a 2x2x2 repeated measures design. Results indicated a small, favorable bias in favor of attractive candidates, consistent with prior research. Applicant sex, applicant age, and rater sex were unrelated to recommendations, but rater age explained 14% to 21% of the variance in three recommendation ratings. Younger raters were observed to be more lenient. In addition, some small interactions effects were detected. Continued research on physical attractiveness and rater characteristics is advocated on grounds that even small effects may be substantively significant when the number of qualified applicants exceeds positions available.
Article
Employing natural observations, female and male courtroom judges set the fines or bail amounts in misdemeanor and felony cases for 915 female and 1,320 male defendants. These persons varied widely in attractiveness and were unable to alter their appearance before presentation to their judges. Police officers, acting as confederates, rated the defendants' attractiveness levels. These levels were compared with bails and fines set by the judges. Defendant attractiveness levels were important only in bail and fine amounts for misdemeanor charges, not for felonies. Implications of the results for additional inquiry in ecologically justifiable litigation settings are presented.
Article
Three experiments examined the impact of race and facial attractiveness upon evaluations received by essay writers. From one perspective, distinct stereotypes for race and attractiveness each should be reflected in any evaluations. From a second perspective, when outgroup members possess a favorable attribute, such as attractiveness, ingroup members may (a) misperceive and alter its meaning or (b) alter their perception of other traits possessed by those outgroup members, and consequently rate those outgroup members less favorably than other outgroup members. Although data from a prior naturalistic study suggested that this latter perspective would be supported, it was not.
Article
Does deliberation attenuate extralegal biases in jury verdicts, or does it exaggerate them? Consistent with an information-integration theory analysis, Kaplan and Miller in 1978 found that deliberation can eliminate such biases. However, in the present study, the physical attractiveness of a criminal defendant only influenced postdeliberation mock juror and jury judgments. When the defendant was attractive, there was a shift in judgments toward acquittal, but when the defendant was unattractive, there was no such shift. As a result, mock juries were more likely to acquit the attractive defendant than the unattractive defendant. Because a shift toward acquittal is the modal pattern during deliberation in close criminal cases, the results suggest that the unattractive defendant did not receive the benefit of the doubt that is usually granted to criminal defendants. The results of this and other studies are discussed in terms of social influence patterns in jury deliberation.
Article
In an examination of the impacts on electoral success of candidate gender, candidate physical attractiveness, prestige and responsibility of office sought, and voter characteristics, 219 college students evaluated six challengers to an incumbent in either a mayoral or county clerk's race. Challengers represented men and women of high, moderate, and low physical attractiveness. Male, but not female, voters discriminated against female candidates. While physical attractiveness accentuated perceptions of masculinity in a man and femininity in a woman, the appeal of an attractive (i.e., more feminine) woman seeking a masculine-stereotyped position was not damaged by the so-called “beauty is beastly” effect. However, attractiveness was less consistently an asset for female candidates than it was for male candidates. Male, but not female, candidates directly benefitted from being physical attractive and were also more positively evaluated to the extent that they were perceived as highly masculine. These findings not only contribute to understanding of the joint impacts of sex-role and attractiveness stereotypes, but call into question survey findings pointing to the demise of sexism in electoral politics.
Article
Empirical research on the role of physical attractiveness in employment selection is reviewed. Physical attractiveness is conceptualized as a beneficial status characteristic, although further investigation of the magnitude of the bias is needed. Conceptual and methodological problems impeding understanding of physical attractiveness are noted and a descriptive model specifying the role of attractiveness in selection decision-making is offered.
Article
Reviews the book, The Employment Interview: A Social Judgment Process by Edward C. Webster (1982). Webster himself clearly states that it is not a manual for training new interviewers. Neither would it structure a training programme to improve current levels of interviewer performance, although it contains many useful suggestions for such a program. It is for students of the interview. The term students is used broadly here. Structurally, following the introduction, Chapter 2 reviews the key McGill findings on decision-making in the employment interview. Chapter 3 introduces three models of interview research. Chapter 4 reviews findings on interviewer expectancy effects. Chapter 5 reviews related research on implicit personality and impression formation. Chapter 6 reviews external influences, including the physical environment, contrast effects, the pressure to employ, situational role constraints, and knowledge of job requirements. Chapter 7 is a review of documented failures to train interviewers to make more accurate interview decisions. Chapter 8 reviews the findings on structure in the interview. The final chapter, the interviewer-applicant relationship, shines some well-directed light on the applicant side of the picture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Attractive condidates were evaluated more favorably than unattractive candidates. However, this effect was qualified by type of job: attractive candidates were preferred over unattractive candidates only when they were interviewed for a sex-appropriate position. (Author)
Article
On the basis of a review of attractiveness stereotype research as well as sociological theory and research on status concepts, it was hypothesized that physical attractiveness produces stereotyped status inferences along with the stereotyped trait inferences that have already been given much research attention. This hypothesis was tested by a series of four studies. In the first three studies, subjects matched yearbook photographs with stimulus photo descriptions representing high achieved, high ascribed, low achieved, and low ascribed status. More attractive photos were matched with the high status than with the low status descriptions, and this finding was stronger for ascribed status than for achieved status. Subjects consistently tended to associate the high ascribed status descriptions with the most attractive photos. In the fourth study, subjects responded to the photos in the stimulus set with separate assessments of how likely each person was to earn or inherit a high station in life. Photo attractiveness was found to be weakly correlated with assessments of earned life station, and strongly correlated with assessments of inherited life station. Taken together, these findings suggest that physical attractiveness is a status cue-and in particular an ascribed status cue. A number of previous studies from the physical attractiveness literature are briefly reviewed, and the notion of status inferences in proposed as helping to account for the findings.
Article
Examined whether physically attractive stimulus persons, both male and female, are (a) assumed to possess more socially desirable personality traits than physically unattractive stimulus persons, and (b) expected to lead better lives (e.g., be more competent husbands and wives and more successful occupationally) than unattractive stimulus persons. Sex of Subject * Sex of Stimulus Person interactions along these dimensions also were investigated. Results with 30 male and 30 female undergraduates indicate a "what is beautiful is good" stereotype along the physical attractiveness dimension with no Sex of Judge * Sex of Stimulus interaction. Implications of such a stereotype on self-concept development and the course of social interaction are discussed.
Article
The assumed connection between social and professional competence and physical and social personal qualities were examined by having American undergraduate students make attributions about a target described in a fictitious case study. Information about the target's social and professional success was varied to create high and low levels of each; both target and subject sex were also varied. Subjets estimated the height and weight of the target and rated physical attractiveness, interpersonal attraction, and intelligence. The results indicate a perceived relationship between competence and both physical and social characteristics. Competent individuals were considered to be taller, more physically attractive, and more socially attractive. Professional competence led to predictions of greater intelligence. Except for the expected overall height and weight advantage for men, target sex yielded a single reliable effect. In estimating weights, target sex interacted with social competence. High social competence led to lower estimated weights for women but higher weights for men. The results suggest that American students have some clear expectations involving social and physical attributes.
Article
Assigned 60 managers in a large corporation to a workshop, a group discussion, or a control group. The workshop and group discussion involved training directed toward the elimination of rating errors that occur in performance appraisal and selection interviews (i.e., contrast effects, halo effect, similarity, and first impressions.) 6 mo after the training, Ss rated hypothetical candidates who were observed on videotape. Results show that (a) trainees in the control group committed similarity, contrast, and halo errors; (b) trainees in the group discussion committed impression errors; and (c) trainees in the workshop committed none of the errors. The importance of observer training for minimizing the "criterion problem" in industrial psychology is discussed. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined gender differences in physical attractiveness and intelligence stereotypes by having 40 male and 40 female undergraduates evaluate 10 bogus job applications in which the gender, physical attractiveness, and intelligence of a purported applicant for a peer counseling position were systematically varied. Simple effects tests indicated that for less intelligent applicants, lower attractiveness was a relative liability for men and a relative asset for women. Women of lower intelligence and higher attractiveness suffered from a negative bias that men with the same characteristics did not. Men were generally viewed less positively than women, and this effect was increased when men were of low attractiveness and intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A review of 6 studies which compared decision-making processes of employment interviewers and college students to examine the generalizability of research conclusions based on college student samples showed that relative to interviewers, students are lenient in their ratings. No other important differences have been reported, and findings appear to be quite comparable with respect to variances, intercorrelations, interrater agreement, and main effects for decision process, content, and accuracy. It is concluded that generalizability should never be merely assumed, but rather demonstrated empirically in other research areas, following the example of the studies involving interview decision-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Gave 360 male and 360 female undergraduate judges photographs, previously scaled as high, moderate, or low in physical attractiveness, and asked Ss to record their impressions of the stimulus persons on an adjective checklist. Results showed high attractiveness to be associated with positive traits, the reverse holding for low attractiveness. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that, in a 1st-impression situation, a person's level of attractiveness may evoke in a perceiver a consistent set of expectancies by a process of trait inference. This kind of process accords well with previous research relating physical attractiveness to interpersonal processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relationships among appearance, grades, 17 teachers' ratings of ability, and test scores for 209 male and 207 female 6th–8th graders. Attractiveness appeared to have small relationships with teacher ratings of ability and grades, although the relationships were generally not significant when test scores were controlled. For males, a strong Teacher-by-Attractiveness interaction was observed, suggesting that some teachers discriminated against unattractive boys much more than others did. In a 2nd study, the relationships among appearance, grades, socioeconomic status, and effort were examined in a national sample of 2,213 10th-grade males. With controls, physical attractiveness again had a small relationship with grades, indicating at least a small degree of discrimination against unattractive children. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although Ss in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with the authors' implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that Ss were asked to make: The differences in Ss' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Past research on variables affecting hiring decisions has emphasized the role of applicant and interviewer demographics. However, recent studies have questioned the generalizability of findings from laboratory interviews to real interviews. In this article, a model of demographics and interviewing decisions is proposed and tested with actual employment interviews. Industrial interviewers ( N = 8) provided demographic data concerning themselves and applicants ( N = 71), rated applicants on widely studied attributes, and made two hiring decisions. The data support the model that interview outcomes are directly dependent on the more logically relevant variables, such as skill. Furthermore, the influence of demographics is modest and less important than other variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Out of a total of 72 undergraduates, 24 males and 24 females viewed the videotaped professional self-presentation of a presumed counselor who was either physically attractive or unattractive. Ss then indicated their impressions of the counselor on 12 traits and their expectancies of the counselor's helpfulness for 15 personal problems. Relative to the physically unattractive counselor, the attractive counselor generally was perceived more favorably by both sexes, especially with regard to his intelligence, friendliness, assertiveness, trustworthiness, competence, warmth, and likeability. The attractive counselor also elicited more favorable counseling outcome expectancies for 8 of the specific personal problems. 2 control groups who listened to the tapes but were unaware of the counselor's appearance did not differ from each other in their ratings of the counselors. Results are discussed in the context of previous and further research on the physical attractiveness variable and in the context of their implications for counseling. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent reviews of the literature have pointed out the need for additional knowledge of the decision-making process as it occurs in the selection interview. The present paper reports the first results from a long-term project designed to investigate this process in a life insurance context. These results provided valuable information on which additional work could be based. The research presently being undertaken is briefly described and discussed.
Article
Over the last few years, the selection interview has been subjected to a great deal of criticism. Most of this criticism has stressed a general lack of evidence concerning the interview's reliability and validity. The present paper, while agreeing for the most part with prior criticism, attempts to take three further steps. First, the present limited knowledge is explained in terms of (a) a lack of comparability between studies and (b)an overdependence on research results from other areas. Second, in spite of these shortcomings, there are numerous research findings which have received support from more than one study. These findings are summarized and discussed. Finally, a starting point for basic research on the selection interview which may lead to more profitable research in the future is presented.
Article
The effects of sex role and physical attractiveness stereotypes on subjects' perceptions of a stimulus person were examined in a field study of their influence on occupational suitability ratings. The present research distinguished the biological sex from the sex role of a hypothetical job applicant. A sample of personnel consultant subjects evaluated a male or female stimulus applicant, who was attractive or unattractive, for masculine, feminine, and sex-neutral occupations. The stimulus applicant was either masculine, feminine, or androgynous in hisher sex role. Consistent with the experimental hypothesis, masculine and androgynous persons were preferred to feminine persons for the masculine occupations while feminine and androgynous persons were preferred to masculine persons for the feminine occupations, regardless of biological sex or attractiveness. Also consistent with predictions, attractiveness influenced ratings for the sex-neutral occupations. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of individuating information about a stimulus person in eliminating the effects of stereotypes on judgments of individuals. Possible implications for personnel decision making are also considered.
Article
The effect of forced postponement of a hiring decision until after specific qualifications had been evaluated was examined as a procedure to reduce sex and physical attractiveness discrimination. Ninety six male and 148 female undergraduates evaluated the qualifications of an attractive, average, or unattractive male or female applicant. Ratings of specific qualifications preceded or followed an overall and hiring decision rating. Results indicated that the order variable influenced ratings of specific qualifications but not the overall or hiring decision. Sex of subject and attractiveness did affect the hiring decision with male and attractive applicants being preferred.
Article
The present study investigated the effect of attitudes toward women, physical attractiveness, and competence on impression formation of women. Male and female undergraduates read a competent or incompetent essay allegedly written by a physically attractive or unattractive female and responded to questions about the essay and its writer. Subjects were classified as traditionals, moderates, or liberals on the basis of their scores on the Attitudes Toward Women Scale. Female subjects' impressions were affected by the competence of the stimulus person and by their sex-role attitudes, but were not influenced by the physical attractiveness of the writer. Males, however, were influenced by all three variables. Evidence was found for a reversal of the physical attractiveness stereotype for liberal males with reference to incompetent women. The implications of these findings for physical attractiveness research are discussed.
Article
Two experiments were performed to replicate and extend previous findings of judgmental bias which favors physically attractive people. In the first experiment male and female subjects judged an essay purportedly written by an attractive or an unattractive female author. The attractive author was rated as significantly more talented by male judges. Female judges rated the attractive author as less talented, although this difference was not statistically significant. A second experiment concerned ratings by males and females of essays written by attractive or unattractive male authors. The results suggested that the attractiveness halo effect does not occur for male authors.
Article
The major purpose of this study was to investigate whether favoritism for the physically attractive, a phenomenom demonstrated amost exclusively on the basis of rating scales, generalizes to nonreactive, behavioral helping responses. Four hundred and forty-two males and 162 female white adult callers in public phone booths in a large metropolitan airport found a completed graduate school application form, a photograph of the applicant, and an addressed, stamped envelope. The picture was used to convey information as to the physical attractiveness (attractive vs. unattractive), race (black vs. white), and sex of the applicant. As predicted, delivery of the application was facilitated more for attractive than unattractive persons. There was also a significant race effect, with whites receiving more help than blacks. Implications of these findings for the physical attractiveness literature are discussed.
To investigate the idea that providing information about a job applicant's past performance can avert sex discrimination in preliminary employment decisions, an experiment was conducted in which both Applicant Sex and Type of Information were varied. As predicted, highly job-relevant information was found to produce less differential treatment of male and female applicants than did information of low job relevance or no information at all. Also as predicted, the type of information provided had more impact on reactions to female applicants than male applicants, with high job-relevance information producing the most favorable responses and, unexpectedly, low job-relevance information producing the least favorable responses to female applicants. Additional results suggested that these effects were mediated by the degree to which female job applicants were characterized by stereotypic attributes. The findings are interpreted as supportive of the idea that undermining the information value of sex stereotypes as a basis of inference about the attributes of a given woman can function to reduce sex discrimination in employment settings.