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Abstract

A new impetus for greater knowledge-sharing among team members needs to be emphasized due to the emergence of a significant new form of working known as ‘global virtual teams’. As information and communication technologies permeate every aspect of organizational life and impact the way teams communicate, work and structure relationships, global virtual teams require innovative communication and learning capabilities for different team members to effectively work together across cultural, organizational and geographical boundaries. Whereas information technology-facilitated communication processes rely on technologically advanced systems to succeed, the ability to create a knowledge-sharing culture within a global virtual team rests on the existence (and maintenance) of intra-team respect, mutual trust, reciprocity and positive individual and group relationships. Thus, some of the inherent questions we address in our paper are: (1) what are the cross-cultural challenges faced by global virtual teams?; (2) how do organizations develop a knowledge sharing culture to promote effective organizational learning among culturally-diverse team members? and; (3) what are some of the practices that can help maximize the performance of global virtual teams? We conclude by examining ways that global virtual teams can be more effectively managed in order to reach their potential in this new interconnected world and put forward suggestions for further research.

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... In this study, we developed a competency-based intergenerational collaboration framework for global start-ups entrepreneurs. The competency-based framework was built iteratively by incorporating the domains of digital learning and innovation (Li et al., 2016;Lyashenko & Frolova, 2014;Müller et al., 2019;Pilková et al., 2022;Vuorikari et al., 2016), intercultural and intergenerational collaboration (Jensen, 2017;Martins & Terblanche, 2003), and global innovation (Jensen, 2017;Zakaria et al., 2004) into the entrepreneurial domain. The overlap of the various domains was chosen to support the study setting in light of past research that has the potential to enrich the status quo and complement the previously existing competency framework for global innovation and entrepreneurship (Bacigalupo et al., 2016;Jensen, 2017;Wu, 2009). ...
... It is important to conduct research on start-ups since they have emerged as a primary driver of global economic development in the digital age (Ramdani et al., 2022), particularly for technology oriented business model (Rasmussen & Tanev, 2015;Tanev, 2012), which are currently prevalent, particularly across Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Chege et al., 2020;Quinones et al., 2021;Wamuyu, 2015). Despite the opportunities offered by information technology and the shift to global business, challenges and barriers to the development of global start-ups remain, for instance cultural and linguistic differences (Jensen, 2017;Nurhas et al., 2019), geographical distance, lack of trust, or fear of imitation, as well as lack of skills (Jensen, 2017;Nurhas et al., 2019;Pirkkalainen & Pawlowski, 2014;Zakaria et al., 2004). A more nuanced approach could address these issues through intergenerational collaboration (Matlay & Gimmon, 2014;Underdahl et al., 2018). ...
... • Transparency: The ability to share clarified and updated information with others (generation) (Blackburn et al., 2003;Dohmen et al., 2014;Hertel et al., 2006;Martinsons & Ma, 2009;Zakaria et al., 2004;Zimmermann et al., 2013) • Effective communication: Ability to communicate comprehensively by all necessary means (Abbott et al., 2013;Audzeyeva & Hudson, 2016;Blackburn et al., 2003;Duhan et al., 2001;Fantini & Tirmizi, 2006;Goldsmith & Eggers, 2005;Hertel et al., 2006;Li et al., 2016;Markham & Lee, 2013;Nielsen, 2015;Sahay, 2004;Watts et al., 2013;Wu, 2009;Zimmermann & Ravishankar, 2014). Moreover, effective communication was classified as top 10 competency in ideation (2nd place), matching (8th place), and commercialization (5th place). ...
Article
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In this study, we looked at the competencies and changes in the competency spectrum required for global start-ups in the digital age. Specifically, we explored intergenerational collaboration as an intervention in which experienced business-people from senior adult groups support young entrepreneurs. We conducted a Delphi study with 20 experts from different disciplines, considering the study context. The results of this study shed light on understanding the necessary competencies of entrepreneurs for intergenerationally supported start-up innovation by providing 27 competencies categorized as follows: intergenerational safety facilitation, cultural awareness, virtues for growth, effectual creativity, technical expertise, responsive teamwork, values-based organization, and sustainable network development. In addition, the study results also reveal the competency priorities and the minimum requirements for each competency group based on the global innovation process and can be used to develop a readiness assessment for start-up entrepreneurs.
... The other challenge associated with crosscultural group work concerns communication in general. Zakaria et al. (2004) stated that a mixed-cultural virtual team was more likely to encounter miscommunication and misunderstanding, which can result in prolonging the decision making process and heightening stress and conflict. Furthermore, compared with group work within a local context, global collaboration requires more time and effort of both students and instructors (Hur et al., 2020;Zaugg et al., 2015). ...
... Further, a number of scholars stressed the importance of social aspects of cross-cultural collaboration. Zakaria et al. (2004) espoused that group relationships, mutual trust, social bonds, and leadership were crucial elements in building a successful global virtual team. Yang et al., (2014) identified social interaction and cultural exchange as the foundation for collaboration. ...
... Scholars investigating this area have pinpointed technological and social infrastructure as fundamental pillars of support for an online group (Preece, 2000;Rheingold, 2000). Zakaria et al. (2004) also drew attention to cross-cultural elements in global collaboration. Therefore, our pedagogical design and support for students centered on three aspects: technology, sociability and cultural orientation. ...
Article
This paper reports a case of cross-cultural online collaboration between two cohorts of pre-service teachers in Hong Kong and the Midwestern U.S. It explicates the pedagogical design and implementation of online tools for group collaboration and students’ perceptions of the benefits and challenges. Multiple web-based tools (e.g. Slack, Zoom) were selected and recommended to the students to facilitate resource sharing, communication, and artefact construction. Overall, students valued the experience of collaborating in a global virtual team in spite of some challenges encountered. Findings from this study indicated that the merits and perils of cross-cultural online collaboration coexisted and centered on three aspects: cross-cultural communication, group collaboration, and technological tools. The students greatly appreciated the values of online tools and manifested the ability to appropriate the tools to fulfill the needs of group work. The implications for pedagogical design are also discussed and technological tools supporting cross-cultural online collaboration are recommended.
... There is significant support in existing literature to suggest that geographical distance, time zone differences, language differences, cultural differences and trust adversely impact the coordination of a GVT as well as influencing project outcomes (Noll, Beecham, and Richardson 2010;Boyer O'Leary, Wilson, and Metiu 2014;Palacio et al. 2011;Sievi-Korte, Beecham, and Richardson 2019). While issues such as leadership and knowledge sharing influence project outcomes, their relationship to coordination is different, with leadership acting as a facilitator of coordination (Eisenberg and Krishnan 2018;Gilson et al. 2015;Malhotra, Majchrzak, and Rosen 2007;Zakaria, Amelinckx, and Wilemon 2004) and knowledge sharing an outcome of effective coordination (Ghobadi 2015;Gilson et al. 2015;Rosen, Furst, and Blackburn 2007;Zakaria, Amelinckx, and Wilemon 2004). Leadership and knowledge sharing were excluded from the study to focus instead on GVT issues that have been predominantly reported as having a direct, negative impact on coordination (Noll, Beecham, and Richardson 2010;Palacio et al. 2011). ...
... There is significant support in existing literature to suggest that geographical distance, time zone differences, language differences, cultural differences and trust adversely impact the coordination of a GVT as well as influencing project outcomes (Noll, Beecham, and Richardson 2010;Boyer O'Leary, Wilson, and Metiu 2014;Palacio et al. 2011;Sievi-Korte, Beecham, and Richardson 2019). While issues such as leadership and knowledge sharing influence project outcomes, their relationship to coordination is different, with leadership acting as a facilitator of coordination (Eisenberg and Krishnan 2018;Gilson et al. 2015;Malhotra, Majchrzak, and Rosen 2007;Zakaria, Amelinckx, and Wilemon 2004) and knowledge sharing an outcome of effective coordination (Ghobadi 2015;Gilson et al. 2015;Rosen, Furst, and Blackburn 2007;Zakaria, Amelinckx, and Wilemon 2004). Leadership and knowledge sharing were excluded from the study to focus instead on GVT issues that have been predominantly reported as having a direct, negative impact on coordination (Noll, Beecham, and Richardson 2010;Palacio et al. 2011). ...
... Research finds that team members in different geographical locations display a preference for emails or other forms of formal correspondence over more informal phone calls, mobile communications, or instant messaging (Herbsleb and Moitra 2001;Jimenez et al. 2017;Raghuram et al. 2019;Shameem, Kumar, and Chandra 2017;Zakaria, Amelinckx, and Wilemon 2004). ...
Article
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The advent of globalisation has led to the growing use of global virtual teams (GVT) for software development. The use of such teams enables organisations to operate across national, economic and social, and cultural boundaries; this new form of teamwork presents challenges for traditional coordination mechanisms. Hence, a range of new operational problems for the coordination of software development teams have emerged due to the nature of virtual work: these are related to issues of geographical distance, language differences, time zone(s) differences, cultural differences, and trust. This paper applies a theoretical model drawn from prior research to explore the coordination mechanisms employed by a global virtual software development team in a major multi-national telecommunications organisation. The study analyses the impact that the aforementioned issues have on the effectiveness of project team coordination mechanisms and then develops a refined conceptual model to guide future research on global virtual software development teams. The findings also inform practice on the problems encountered in ensuring the effective coordination of such teams.
... VCTs are claimed to be essential in communication and knowledge sharing processes among geographically dispersed members [26,35]. However, compared to face-to-face offline communication, two notable challenges that inhibit efficient communication and knowledge sharing in VLE have been raised [35,47]. One is that information transformation is oriented to a one-way process from the sender to the receiver, and this phenomenon will have a greater impact in virtual environments if no effective managing approach exists. ...
... The ability to communicate effectively in a virtual community depends on the active participation of both the receiver and the sender [47]. The human component in the virtual environment, the relational bonds, are the focal elements in determining knowledge sharing or organizational learning [28,41]. ...
... The human component in the virtual environment, the relational bonds, are the focal elements in determining knowledge sharing or organizational learning [28,41]. The ability to shape information in an appropriate and understandable form for receivers determines the conflicts occurring and the communication efficiency [47]. Thus, our research aims to investigate the determinate factors that facilitate efficient knowledge sharing in VLE by deriving selfpresence, virtual member trust, virtual interaction, and virtual leadership. ...
Conference Paper
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Many educational institutions and organizations have attempted to encourage knowledge sharing by implementing virtual learning communities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, how to utilize virtual communication technologies to effectively facilitate knowledge sharing among geographically dispersed learners has become an extremely urgent issue. Our study investigated 88 undergraduates (nested in 10 groups) from a University in Southwest China. The research results reveal that self-presence and virtual member trust are the primary determinants in facilitating knowledge sharing (explicit vs tacit) in a virtual learning environment (VLE). Additionally, considering the challenges of forming effective collaborations in VLE (e.g., environment uncertainty, and one-way oriented communication), virtual leadership for improving the coordination of joint activities was developed. Virtual leadership improves the climate of a virtual learning environment by strengthening the relationships between self-presence/virtual member trust and knowledge sharing. Finally, the positive interrelationship of explicit/tacit knowledge sharing and team performance is confirmed in our research.
... This may be especially pronounced in teleconferences or other synchronous meetings in which it is difficult for members who are not fluent to share complex ideas spontaneously (Dube & Pare, 2001;Harzing & Feely, 2008). Asymmetries in language fluency have been found to exacerbate and reinforce existing subgroup differences and associated status differences within global teams Metiu, 2006;Zakaria et al., 2004). ...
... Finally, culture may serve as a source of status differences, if it drives some members to contribute more directly and frequently, while others hesitate or remain quiet (Earley & Gibson, 2002;Oetzel & Ting-Toomey, 2003). For instance, cultures range from high to low context based on the degree to which meaning is inferred from context versus being stated directly and explicitly (Zakaria et al., 2004). Team members from cultures at the low context end of the continuum are likely to value clear, open communication and adopt direct communication styles. ...
... Many non-native English speakers were also vocal. Likewise, coinciding with being low context (Oetzel & Ting-Toomey, 2003;Zakaria et al., 2004), members from Anglo cultures (Australians and Americans) tended to be more direct; while those from high context cultures (typically those from Brazil or Jamaica) disagreed less often, which may have conferred lower status. But there were numerous exceptions to this as well. ...
Article
A key challenge facing global teams lies in overcoming status differences in order to elicit participation and input from all members. This study extends prior research – which has focused largely on individual-level factors such as language, culture, and location that create status differences that fracture teams and reduce participation – by examining members’ underlying orientations to participation, team practices that encourage these, and their impacts on global team effectiveness. We draw on a rich multilevel, mixed-method data set consisting of 45 in-depth interviews and a comprehensive analysis of conference calls from 9 global teams in a multinational integrated mining, minerals processing, and manufacturing organization. We identified three orientations to participation (Help, Learn, and Engage). Team-level analysis revealed team practices that encouraged certain orientations to participation to emerge, in particular relationships across sites and input solicitation. Only the Engage orientation was positively associated with overall global team effectiveness. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... The respondents acknowledged that their management must attempt to predict and bypass difficult situations when possible, overlooking minor annoyances and being humble enough to reasonably communicate when circumstances might erupt to achieve the organisation's mission and goals. Previous research, for example, that conducted by Zakaria et al. (2004), observed that successful results are more likely when efficacious leadership that can handle conflicts among trans-national teams is present. It has been suggested that this will occur upon pursuing trust and awareness of cross-cultural divergence. ...
... Thus, both foreigners and Thai managers should talk concisely and meticulously to cooperate successfully. Similarly, Zakaria et al. (2004) noted that multicultural communication skills should be considered when establishing international teams. ...
Chapter
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Currently, management is becoming more aware of the critical role cross-cultural understanding has in enabling employees to work positively, regardless of location, which is significant due to accelerating internationalisation. Competency is a questionable concept comprising values, knowledge and attitudes, which affect job performance. Lack of intercultural knowledge may be a roadblock for multicultural organisations in Thailand, particularly those aiming to internationalise in the future. This study’s purpose was to determine the abilities necessary for those involved in intercultural services. In such organisations, challenges need to be discovered and discussed following their varied cultures. Thus, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nine respondents in leadership positions in four international automotive companies in Eastern Thailand were conducted. From the data collected, several problems were identified, such as the necessity of educating foreigners on Thai culture, the differences in work approaches depending on their cultures, the blocks encountered in cultural competition, how success is perceived in an intercultural setting and, finally, how diversity can enhance team building and performance.
... As Nonaka and Toyama's (2003) account of knowledge-creating place indicates, research on knowledge and organizations draws attention to certain relational characteristics such as interpersonal trust, commitment, reciprocity, respect, and openness to other ideas (e.g. Kessel, Kratzer & Schultz, 2012;Wasko & Faraj, 2005;Zakaria, Amelinckx & Wilemon, 2004). Such relational traits are more often nourished in close relationships, which therefore become particularly relevant in virtual spaces of collaboration, characterized by an absence of face-to-face interaction. ...
... Such relational traits are more often nourished in close relationships, which therefore become particularly relevant in virtual spaces of collaboration, characterized by an absence of face-to-face interaction. Building strong bonds and team dynamics is important to facilitate knowledge sharing and achieve the group's objectives effectively (Wasko & Faraj, 2005;Zakaria et al., 2004), which is also in line with Collins' (2004) idea of mutual focus. In 1999, Robins had already emphasized the need for 'meaningful politics of engagement' (p. ...
Article
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In the context of new media art, the intrinsic interplay of disciplines poses constant learning challenges to the artists, as it requires a continuous acquisition and reconfiguration of knowledge. This article seeks to understand to what extent knowledge processes of creation, transfer and adoption contribute to the creative collaborative outcomes of new media artists, by investigating: i) explicit and tacit knowledge flows of new media artists; ii) strategies for knowledge creation, transfer and adoption; iii) contexts in which these processes are facilitated. Based on qualitative methods, findings indicate that the way in which artists learn and interact is related to their personality; values such as openness, curiosity, respect or trust shape the context for a shared interest in knowledge creation, adoption, and exchange. A holistic approach to knowledge-creating place (‘Ba’) contributes to understanding the fluid contexts in which creative processes occur.
... Despite the potential benefits of geographically dispersed teams, there is evidence in the literature that almost 50% of these teams fall short of their strategic or operational objectives (Zakaria et al., 2004). Some studies have indicated that effective KS plays a major role in the performance of geographically dispersed teams (Killingsworth et al., 2016;Reed and Knight, 2010;Singh, 2011;Wang and Noe, 2010). ...
... Members have difficulty in developing trust through traditional methods, such as common social norms, frequent social interactions, and the sharing of experiences (Daim et al., 2012). On the other hand, there is evidence that the risk of possible misunderstandings and distrust increases (Zakaria et al., 2004), and that the forms of trust developed by these teams are very fragile and temporal (Pinjani and Palvia, 2013). ...
Article
Knowledge sharing (KS) is a crucial issue for geographically dispersed IT teams. However, there is a lack of studies on the variables that affect the willingness and motivation of these teams to engage in KS behavior. We aim to analyze the joint and the differentiated effects of individual, team and organizational variables that affect KS behavior. We use a sample of 87 IT Portuguese professionals who work on geographically dispersed teams to test a conceptual model with partial least squares (PLS). Subsequently, we use importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) to analyze differences in subgroups of the sample. The PLS results indicate that there are only three predictors of KS behavior: enjoyment, affiliation, and attitude. We find no significant effects for trust, reciprocal benefits, and top management support. The IPMA results show that enjoyment is of the utmost importance, especially for women and seniors, and affiliation is crucial for juniors. The attitude towards KS is also very important in the overall sample but registers a low performance for women and juniors. The practical applications comprise the need to add enjoyment to recruitment criteria, to address attitude towards KS in training and development, and to create socialization opportunities for new team members.
... Hence, they are likely to find it easier to move to virtual collaboration. Similarly, high-context cultures would be likely to struggle to participate effectively in a team without an initial face-to-face experience, in which more contextual cues could be used (Zakaria, Amelinckx and Wilemon, 2004). Another benefit of the face-to-face meeting is that it serves to increase commitment to the group (Cichomska et al., 2015). ...
... Low context cultures and cultures high in individualism are more likely to perform in virtual teams, whereas individuals from more collectivistic cultures and high context cultures may struggle with this. Similarly, highcontext cultures and more collectivistic cultures would be likely to struggle to participate effectively in negotiations without an initial face-to-face experience, in which more contextual cues could be used (Zakaria, Amelinckx and Wilemon, 2004). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper discusses and examines trust building in the remote-digital negotiations. More specifically, the paper focuses on international trade negotiations aimed at being integrative, and how the Covid-19 pandemic affected the way they have been conducted over the years, mainly relying in face-to-face meetings. Information exchange and knowledge sharing is essential part of negotiations, occurring in interactive processes between actors involved. Trust is a prerequisite for effective information exchange and knowledge sharing and creation. Trust creates openness, willingness to collaborate, and freedom to be productive, and is a foundation for integrative negotiations. Trust manifests in different ways, affecting time, intensity, process, and results of the overall negotiation process. Remote working and remote-digital meetings have become prevalent these days, especially due to the disruption caused by Covid-19. Remote communication necessarily carries inescapable restrictions compared to face-to-face encountering and discussion. Therefore, the technology mediated (TM) remote context highlights the meaning of trust, as interaction and collaboration emerge more restricted than in face-to-face contacts. This paper builds on previous research on integrative negotiations, role of trust, and meetings. By analysing and discussing the academic literature, the purpose of the paper is to provide theoretical views and insights for further research, and practical implications for negotiators and professionals in general. The exploratory research questions are: i) what challenges did the Covid-19 pandemic pose to international trade negotiations? ii) how do virtual-TM meetings may affect trust building for integrative negotiations? iii) how does country culture and technology mediate the impact of virtual meetings in trade negotiations? By responding to these research questions, the paper focuses on intangible factors that may contribute to trust building or trust destroying in virtual meetings and how they may affect information exchange, knowledge sharing and knowledge dynamics leading to successful integrative negotiations.
... Townsend et al. (1998) were among the early pioneers who linked knowledge sharing and effective communication with the success of VTs. Zakaria et al. (2004) confirmed this observation by noting that "the ability to create a knowledge-sharing culture within a global virtual team rests on the existence (and maintenance) of intra-team respect, mutual trust, reciprocity, and positive individual and group relationships" (p. 15). ...
... Knowledge sharing is a key factor related to the productivity of VTs ( Zakaria et al., 2004) and "knowledge has been recognized as an asset for the competitive advantage of organizations" (Sénquiz-Díaz & Ortiz-Soto, 2019, p. 88). Donnelly and Johns (2020) found via a systematic review that remote working can result in dehumanization, which can negatively affect organizational knowledge sharing and exchange. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT Purpose – Virtual Team (VT) productivity is affected by multiple factors, including knowledge sharing, communication and collaboration due to geographical or temporal dispersion. This review spans multiple VT contexts globally to determine the practices that contribute to productive VTs. The authors fill a research gap by exploring how, across cultures and contexts, VTs overcome temporal and geographical dispersion barriers to share knowledge and foster productivity. Aim – To reveal and understand critical factors that enhance virtual team productivity across multiple sectors and geographical boundaries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a systematic review of twenty-one articles, which resulted from a comprehensive database search and quality screening of the best available evidence. Inductive thematic coding was used to conduct a mixed-method synthesis of findings across these studies. Findings – Proper implementation of HRM practices combined with the utilization of technology tools that best fit tasks based on temporal and geographical needs can help organizations overcome dispersion issues among virtual teams. Limitations of the study – Due to limitations of available evidence, this systematic review could not address all possible contexts. As a result, applying these findings across the broadest range of geographic areas and industry sectors should be exercised cautiously. Additionally, a small number of included articles were conceptual papers of relatively lower academic rigor. Practical implications –This study highlights the importance of implementing HRM policies related to hiring, induction, training, and on-going appraisal practices to encourage knowledge sharing and build trust and socialization among teams. Originality/value – By synthesizing evidence across various sectors and geographic boundaries, this paper provides rigorously supported recommendations for increasing VT productivity.
... Learning is a part of all stages of team development; however, it is often hindered when using various virtual tools for communication that are present in virtual teams. Zakaria, Amelinckx, and Wilemon [2004] note that since learning is not purely based on verbal or written communication, the lack of face-to-face contact, that is, the limited number of non-verbal clues, decreases the chance of success of the team's learning activities. In this sense, individuality becomes even more significant in virtual teams when it comes to learning -individuals must be ready and able to search for and process information independently and effectively. ...
Article
The study focuses on the development of virtual teams from the perspective of individuals by extending the theory of self-directed learning (SDL) beyond the extant research in nursing education and applying it to a sample of adult population working in virtual teams in Hungary. After finding the necessary theoretical steps to connect SDL with virtual teams, research was conducted to validate existing instruments or, if this is impossible, to develop a new SDL instrument for virtual teams. The results confirm the viability of the SDL theories in the context of teams that mostly work remotely. While the validity of known SDL readiness (SDLR) instruments developed for nursing education could not be reliably confirmed on the sample of working adults in virtual teams, it is supported by the conventional three-factor SDLR construct with a reduced item number. In this study, the authors advance a new measurement tool, referred to as SDLR9, which, while mirroring the three original factors known in the literature, also points to a higher-order latent SDLR variable.
... Even though placing in and protecting an eexchange web webpage is presumably profoundly valued, it is miles considerably less exceptionally evaluated to hold the kind of retail facade than a real one because of the reality it is miles continually open, might be gotten to through many thousands across [11] They permit community-oriented compositions concerning administered gatherings of entertainers who sometimes if at any point, meet. These innovations utilize verbal trade frameworks which can be every worldwide and continually up, thusly allowing 24-hour pastime and offbeat notwithstanding coordinated cooperation among individuals, gatherings, and organizations [12]. By diminishing the consistent charge of work, sizable working from home need to make it less hard for individuals to artworks on bendy plans, to artistic creations low maintenance, to extent occupations, or to keep up with or additional positions at the same time. ...
Preprint
As we are aware Information Technology had its cutting-edge lifestyle from the overdue sixties of the remaining century whilst the Arpanet become introduced, funded with the aid of using the branch of protection of the USA. After that, the IT enterprise has come a protracted manner to its cutting-edge form in which its miles gambling a dominant function in each sphere of life. It has made innovative modifications in facts amassing and dissemination and worldwide communication. It is growing into a surely paperless painting environment. Also, we can now ship a message very without difficulty to everywhere withinside the international in seconds. From a schooling factor of view, we can have a digital elegance in which the teacher ought to take a seat down in any part of the arena and his college students scattered in all exceptional elements of the arena via video convention with the presentation of look at substances in addition to query and solution sessions. A health practitioner now sitting in any part of the arena ought to carry out a surgical procedure in which the affected person is mendacity in some other part of the arena. These work examples display where we stand these days compared to what has become 1/2 of a century back. But as we recognize, nothing on this international is only correct as the whole thing has a darkish side. In this paper, we might speak about the deserves and demerits of enforcing IT globally and in which we are heading withinside the future.
... The levels of trust and collaborative culture in a team positively influence creativity (Barczak et al., 2010). Multiple studies also underline that knowledge sharing benefits team innovation performance (Zakaria et al., 2004;Widmann and Mulder, 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Having a shared vision is crucial for innovation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of individual propensity to collaborate and innovate on the development of a shared vision. Design/methodology/approach The authors build a network in which each node represents the vision of one individual and link the network structure to individual propensity of collaboration and innovativeness. During organizational workshops in four multinational organizations, the authors collected individual visions in the form of images as well as text describing the approach to innovation from 85 employees. Findings The study maps individual visions for innovation as a cognitive network. The authors find that individual propensity to innovate or collaborate is related to different network centrality. Innovators, individuals who see innovation as an opportunity to change and grow, are located at the center of the cognitive network. Collaborators, who see innovation as an opportunity to collaborate, have a higher closeness centrality inside a cluster. Research limitations/implications This paper analyses visions as a network linking recent research in psychology with the managerial longing for a more thorough investigation of group cognition. The study contributes to literature on shared vision creation, suggesting the role which innovators and collaborators can occupy in the process. Originality/value This paper proposes how an approach based on a cognitive network can inform innovation management. The findings suggest that visions of innovators summarize the visions of a group, helping the development of an overall shared vision. Collaborators on the other hand are representative of specific clusters and can help developing radical visions.
... Entrepreneurs today can expand globally due to technological advancements. However, many significant barriers to developing global start-ups have been identified, including geographic isolation, lack of trust, and aversion to imitation (Jensen, 2017;Zakaria et al., 2004). One significant stumbling block is a lack of competencies and successful characteristics (Clercq et al., 2012;Giardino et al., 2014;Nurhas et al., 2020), particularly in the early stage when strategic organizational decisions are often urgently needed (Clercq et al., 2012;Giardino et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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This study proposes a framework for the collaborative development of global start-up innovators in a multigenerational digital environment. Intergenerational collaboration has been identified as a strategy to support entrepreneurs during their formative years. However, integrating and fostering intergenerational collaboration remains elusive. Therefore, this study aims to identify competencies for successful global startups through intergenerational knowledge transfer. We used a systematic literature review to identify a competency set consisting of growth virtues, effectual creativity, technical domain, responsive teamwork, values-based organization, sustainable networking, cultural awareness, and facilitating intergenerational safety. The competency framework serves as a foundation for knowledge management research on the global innovation readiness of people to collaborate across generations in the digital age.
... Paradoxically, the concept has been a fast-growing concept of interest in other fields, such as "strategy-as-practice"; the "signature processes" behind "strategic capabilities",…" materiality and artefacts in science and technology studies; … consumer cultures in marketing; and … corporate branding" according to Costas and Kunda in Schein et al. (2015, p. 118). Despite the difficulty of defining the concept, the most enduring conceptualisations of organisational culture are those of collective sentiment or ideological orientationcommon language, artefacts and enduring patterns of behaviour (Harris, 1994;Reigle, 2001;Schein et al., 2015;Westbrook, 1993;Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004), evolving from organisations as some representation of society, or societies writ small (Silverman, 1971). This infers that organisational culture is a concept that is rooted in the broader construct of culture itself and that sociologically, it is a representation of social systems consisting of socialisation processes: norms and structures that give rise to specific values, beliefs, stories, rituals and ceremonies within the little defined society or organisation (Allaire & Firsirotu, 1984, pp. ...
Conference Paper
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This research focused on the formation of organisational culture in virtual work teams that exist within the context of virtual organisations. Virtual organisations have become commonplace in the 21st century and their key characteristics are technological enablement as well as geographic and spatial distribution. A constructivist grounded theory study was carried out using 18 respondents who were at the time working as part of a virtual team within a virtual organisation along with five sets of archival records which were collected and analysed theoretically. The results of the study indicated that organisational culture developed through managing the core theme of virtuality while maintaining organisational effectiveness and facilitating interpersonal relationships. The findings from this research are expected to inform stakeholders of virtual organisations so that they may better anticipate, facilitate and respond to organisational culture development within a virtual working context.
... In line with research (Janssen, 2003), trust motivates employees to collaborate/dynamic interaction and support each other's ideas through reciprocity and knowledge sharing will improve performance. Innovative employee work behavior is analogous to when interpersonal relationships within high-quality team members and among co-workers are created harmonious cooperation (Janssen et al., 2004;Scott and Bruce, 1994), as well as between work teams and organizational teams (Zakaria et al., 2004). ...
Article
The research objective is to develop optimal distinctive open innovation (ODOI) concepts, propositions and indicators as well as to test them empirically. ODOI was formed using a synthesis method of two concepts, namely optimal characteristics, derivatives of social identity theory, and open innovation derived from innovation theory. Quantitative empirical testing using SEM on primary data, the PTS lecturers in the LLDIKTI VI Central Java environment were 190 respondents. The test results show that ODOI is able to mediate the effect of innovative work behavior on improving employee work performance. Innovative work behavior has an effect on increasing ODOI and has an effect on improving employee work performance. ODOI has an effect on improving employee work performance.
... Because they do not have the same in-office experiences or communications as other employees, they can't have the same level of interaction or communication to build the same level of understanding of organizational objectives and metrics. Oftentimes the intra-team communications between virtual employees and others in the organization are so task-oriented that the informal interpersonal relations building communications are lost or never sent (Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004). This hinders virtual employees understanding as to how they interact with different departments or how other departments' processes complement each other. ...
Article
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Misalignment among virtual team members in performance expectations leads to a divergence between virtual teams’ perceptions of performance expectations and the organization’s and this divergence can lead to major organizational performance issues. This articles addresses this issue and provides advise to alleviate risks cause by misalignment.
... However, human factors and interpersonal relationships also play an important role in knowledge sharing and virtual cooperation. In fact, this role may well be more decisive than the role played by technological factors (Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004). ...
Thesis
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Building on both the Human Resource Management (HRM) and the leadership literature, the aim of this dissertation was to enrich the scholarly and management literature on NWW in modern organizations by examining the relationships between perceived HRM practices and leadership styles associated with NWW and employees’ workplace proactivity. Furthermore, we explored how this relationship is mediated by psychological empowerment including self-determination. Self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan, & Deci, 2017) and the closely related concepts of structural and psychological empowerment (Spreitzer, 1995) were chosen as a lens through which to examine the core concepts explored in this thesis as all of which rely upon the autonomous motivation of employees to perform.
... Highly competent, talented teams are often trusted to make decisions on their own. Intercultural virtual teams can develop new ideas that can improve innovation and creativity, combining different team member opinions (Zakaria et al., 2004). Facilitating virtual team collaboration and understanding their needs can boost team creativity, and provide competitive and organizational advantage. ...
Article
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Globalization and dynamic economic conditions have exponentially increased the use of virtual work in organizations. Effectiveness in software development teams, therefore, is now a relevant issue in business, psychology or other fields. Despite the uniqueness of software development teams and their work conditions, their effectiveness has not been sufficiently researched to clearly determine how it relates to personality traits, work challenges and the virtualization level. To expand the understanding of the mechanisms that influence team effectiveness in software development, an ecological framework is selected. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between personality traits, work factors and team effectiveness within the context of software development teams. Methodology: The exploratory study was conducted in international software development companies operating in Lithuania. Forty-five software development teams (N = 142) filled in the Team task performance scale, Hexaco-PI-R questionnaire and rated perceived work challenges and team virtualization level. The statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS. This survey is an initial stage of a larger project. Findings: Personality traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to team effectiveness. In software development teams the most prevalent work challenges were time zone differences, lack of information when working on a project, and lack of a clear purpose. Lack of information and poor foreign language skills negatively affect team effectiveness. A higher virtualization level is associated with more frequent work challenges (culture and foreign language challenges, time zone differences) and team performance.
... In order to maximize innovative outputs, tasks are distributed among partners not only within one location but also between several countries. However, due to the reduction of communication channels in virtual communication and higher cultural diversity of teams that operate in different countries, misunderstanding and dissent during task processing is inevitable (e.g., Bouncken & Winkler, 2010;Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004). Yet, in contrast to interpersonal incompatibilities (i.e., relationship conflicts), certain types of conflicts-task-related disagreements (i.e., task conflicts)-may be helpful for effective decision-making and may even evoke positive affect under certain circumstances. ...
Thesis
Konflikte am Arbeitsplatz sind allgegenwärtig–sie erschweren den Berufsalltag und können schlimmstenfalls auch zu privaten Problemen führen. Dennoch ist unklar, wie genau Aufgabenkonflikte das Wohlbefinden und die Leistungsfähigkeit von Beschäftigten beeinflussen. Mechanismen, wann und warum Aufgabenkonflikte negative Folgen haben, wurde bisher wenig erforscht. Begründet werden kann dies damit, dass Aufgabenkonflikte bisher zumeist in Feldstudien mittels retrospektiven (und zudem subjektiven) Momentaufnahmen untersucht wurden. Das erste Ziel meines Vorhabens war es demnach, Aufgabenkonflikte in einer Tagebuchstudie sowie in einem kontrollierten Setting im Labor zu untersuchen, um deren emotionale und kognitive Konsequenzen präzise und unmittelbar zu erfassen. Weiterhin haben bisherige Studien größtenteils situative Faktoren untersucht und persönliche Charakteristiken, die ebenfalls die Bewertung von Aufgabenkonflikten beeinflussen, außer Acht gelassen. Daher verfolgte ich als zweites Ziel eine ganzheitliche Sichtweise auf den Aufgabenkonflikt einzunehmen. Dafür explorierte ich, ob Unterschiede zwischen Personen emotionale Mimikry zu zeigen (d.h. die Emotionen anderer zu spiegeln) einen Einfluss auf die Beurteilung von Aufgabenkonflikten haben. Um das Bild auf Aufgabenkonflikte zu komplementieren bestand mein finales Ziel darin, die Wirksamkeit einer Intervention zur Abschwächung von Konfliktkonsequenzen zu untersuchen. Hierfür wählte ich eine allgemein bekannte Strategie der kognitiven Umbewertung („Reappraisal") und prüfte, ob diese Strategie einen Aufgabenkonflikt als weniger emotional aufreibend und somit weniger destruktiv erscheinen lässt. Durch die Integration von vier empirischen Studien, die in renommierten psychologischen Zeitschriften publiziert wurden, leistet meine Dissertationsschrift einen Beitrag dazu, die von Konflikten am Arbeitsplatz ausgehenden komplexen Wirkweisen besser zu verstehen, sowie Möglichkeiten aufzuzeigen Konfliktkonsequenzen zu modifizieren.
... Moreover, trust is a typical and necessary factor in a knowledge sharing culture (Kyriakidou, 2004). Considering that managers could help to create a culture which could facilitate knowledge sharing between employees (Zakaria, Amelinckx & Wilemon, 2004), we investigate the potential of trust as a medium linking knowledge sharing and leadership style. ...
Chapter
Knowledge management (KM) is a dominant theme in the behavior of contemporary organizations. While KM has been extensively studied in developed economies, it is much less well understood in developing economies, notably those that are characterized by different social and cultural traditions to the mainstream of Western societies. This is notably the case in China. This chapter develops and tests a theoretical model that explains the impact of leadership style and interpersonal trust on the intention of information and knowledge workers in China to share their knowledge with their peers. All the hypotheses are supported, showing that both initiating structure and consideration have a significant effect on employees’ intention to share knowledge through trust building: 28.2% of the variance in employees’ intention to share knowledge is explained. The authors discuss the theoretical contributions of the chapter, identify future research opportunities, and highlight the implications for practicing managers.
... We also extend work on group processes by examining decision-making in groups that are nationally heterogeneous and have high-status female group members. Modern groups that engage in decision-making are often heterogeneous with regard to national identities, genders, and belief systems (O'Brien & Rickne, 2014;Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004), yet scholars have limited knowledge of group processes outside of Western contexts and in heterogeneous teams where people come from different backgrounds (Arnett, 2008;Henrich, Heine, & Norenzayan, 2010;Watson & Kumar, 1992). In this study, we test whether women influence decision-making in groups of people from across the world who have been exposed to different amounts of gender equality and, also, whether they interact with other male and female group members in a similar way. ...
Article
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In contemporary society, decisions are often made by teams whose members represent different nationalities and genders. In the current work, participants from 55 countries formed groups of three to four people to select one of five firms in a mock firm search. In all groups, one woman was randomly assigned to have higher status than her groupmates; she was also surreptitiously instructed to persuade her group to select one (randomly-assigned) firm. We measured cardiac interbeat intervals for participants throughout the decision-making process to assess physiological linkage-the degree to which a "sender's" physiological response predicts a "receiver's" physiological response at a subsequent time interval. On average, high-status women were successful at persuasion. The physiological responses of successful high-status women were also predicted by the responses of their female groupmates: stronger linkage to female group members during the task was associated with success at persuading the group. Successful high-status women were also perceived as more persuasive than others in the group. This work shows that the link between status and successful persuasion generalizes to women among heterogeneous international teams. It also suggests that attention to others-often associated with physiological linkage-may be useful in persuading others during decision-making.
... Many researchers argue that virtual communication can exacerbate the challenges of intercultural communication (Distefano & Maznevski, 2000;Holtbrügge, Weldon, & Rogers, 2013), thus requiring even more sensitivity and attention to cultural and contextual dynamics. Yet again, current research in this domain focuses predominantly on the impact of cultural values on communicative behaviors and the core behavioral repertoire for effective communication in virtual work (Abugre, 2018;Holtbrügge et al., 2013;Jarvenpaa & Leidner, 1999;Zakaria, Amelinckx, & Wilemon, 2004). While email communication is most commonly explored, a growing number of studies investigate the impact of culture on the use of other virtual communication channels, such as videoconferencing (Ozcelik & Paprika, 2010) or instant messaging (Guo, Tan, Turner, & Huzhong, 2008). ...
Article
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The centrality of communication in international business (IB) is undeniable; yet our understanding of the phenomenon is partially constrained by a cross-cultural comparative focus as opposed to intercultural, process-oriented research designs that capture the dynamic nature of communicative interactions. Our brief review of studies at the intersection of culture and communication in the context of global work interactions reveals the dominant research trends that guided IB scholarship to date in this domain. We propose eight shifts in perspective to advance the field’s theorizing and create avenues for further research.
... Superior skills are distinctive competencies that support the company to achieve positional advantages, and positional advantages which are expressed as performance outcomes which include customer satisfaction and loyalty. Employee innovative work behavior is analogous when good interpersonal relationships together with high-quality team member exchange relationships exist between colleagues (Janssen et al., 2004), as well as between work teams and organizational teams (Zakaria et al., 2004). The role of trust is intended to promote innovation in teams and/or carry out similar tasks to achieve predetermined organizational targets ( Van der Vegt & Janssen, 2003;Pudjiarti et al., 2017). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the concept of optimal distinctive open innovation as mediating variable in relationship between Person-Job Fit and Person-Organization Fit and work innovation behavior and lecturer performance. The method used in this study are through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis with the object of the study conducted on 193 lecturers determined by purposive random sampling technique at private universities in Central Java. The findings showed significant effects of person-organization fit on the optimal distinctive open innovation and on innovative work behavior. Moreover, person-job fit is of significant on optimal distinctive open innovation, and on innovative work behavior. In testing the effect of mediating variables, optimal distinctive open innovation is of significant on innovative work behavior which in turn affecting the significant influence of innovative work behavior on lecturer performance. The findings emphasize that the success-oriented way of thinking requires the expertise of employees to always create creative, superior and unique ideas. Private universities must always pay attention to the principles of industrial management and professionalism in human resource management, in order to survive and develop. Superior skills will produce superior performance, and superior skills are distinctive competence that supports the company to achieve positional advantage.
Article
Global virtual teams (GVTs) are a prevalent work structure that enable people to accomplish tasks across time, space, and cultural boundaries and perform cross-culturally. However, few studies have highlighted what exact behaviors enable GVTs to share knowledge effectively. Based on a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 22 respondents from various multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia, we answer the following overarching research question: Why do high context members switch their communicative behaviors amongst foreign team members within global virtual teams? Our study provides detailed narratives of high-context team members becoming the behavioral “switchers” to collaborate and share knowledge with their foreign team members effectively. Our study defines and clarifies the concept of cross-cultural code-switching as a key behavior reflecting effective cross-cultural performance when accommodating foreign team members’ communicative behaviours by adopting (1) directness in speech, (2) openness during knowledge sharing, and (3) task-oriented aims. This study addresses several gaps in the field of cross-cultural management by extending Hall’s (1976) theoretical lens on high-context and low-context cultures, Molinsky’s (2007) cross-cultural code-switching concept in the context of the virtual work structure, and the criterion space surrounding cross cultural performance.
Article
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Examining the influence of trust in fostering knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) in virtual teams is of great research value in the current complex, dynamic, and competitive era of a knowledge economy. This study investigated the relationship between trust in coworkers (TC) and KSB. Based on social information processing theory and social cognitive theory, we developed a multilevel moderated mediation model where the team members’ psychological safety (PS) was considered a mediator, while team virtuality (TV) and knowledge sharing self-efficacy (KSSE) acted as team and individual-level moderators, respectively. On surveying 282 individuals in 37 virtual teams of three Chinese internet companies, we found that TC positively affected team members’ KSB and this relationship was fully mediated by team members’ PS. Our findings also demonstrated that the effect of TC on KSB depended on the degree of TV and employees’ KSSE. Specifically, when TV and KSSE were higher, the TC–PS and PS–KSB relationship and the mediating effects of PS in the TC–PS–KSB relationship were all stronger. Our study extends the trust-KSB literature by identifying the psychological mechanism and boundary conditions in the TC-KSB relationship. Moreover, our findings also offer valuable managerial implications for virtual team managers on facilitating team members’ PS and KSB.
Article
Background: The importance of virtual work is growing. Especially in knowledge-intensive, dynamic and international sectors, virtual teams have become an ubiquitous work form, promising more flexibility and higher performance. To solve complex problems they have to share and assimilate knowledge, but it is difficult in virtual contexts to overcome social distance and to avoid communication issues. Knowledge sharing in virtual teams may be more prone to errors and take more time. Objective: Current studies mainly consider a one-sided perspective, either focusing on technical or human influencing factors for effective knowledge sharing in virtual teams, but not on the interaction between these. This study addresses that gap by exploring success-critical factors for knowledge sharing by using the socio-technical systems-approach. Methods: The database of the study consists of 26 in-depth interviews. The interviews were partially structured and based on the Critical Incident Technique. Using a deductive categorization scheme consisting of four main categories and 21 subcategories, the frequencies and overlaps of influencing factors on successful knowledge sharing in virtual teams were examined. Results: Each critical incident reported included factors from all four main categories (technology, structure, people and task) with specific frequencies and connections. Structural influencing factors as well as technological factors are mentioned particularly frequently together. Conclusion: The results of the study underline the importance of an integrated socio-technical view on knowledge sharing in virtual teams. Technical and social factors need to be considered simultaneously. The findings can be used for designing and optimizing knowledge sharing processes in virtual teams.
Article
As the world moves toward the “New Normal” with borderless innovation and remote work, Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are increasingly involved in tapping talent that is external to organizational boundaries. This study distills learnings from the use of globally distributed external talent that has been facilitated by innovation intermediaries, a development that holds significant managerial implications for the post‐COVID industrial era. Moving beyond the conventional and recognized need for global talent management practices, we provide a perspective on talent management outside organizational boundaries, a topic that that has received limited attention so far. Through the lenses of open innovation and talent management, we define a typology of innovation problems on the basis of latent talent needs. We take a step further, and for each problem type, we identify the competencies that are relevant, the reward mechanisms of the intermediaries, and the extent of collaboration required with internal talent. This typology provides a basis for researchers in the talent management community to study talent acquisition and management strategies of MNEs across various contexts and various innovation needs.
Chapter
Globalization and cost-saving initiatives undertaken by organizations continue to play an essential role in the transition from face-to-face to virtual team environments (Mancuso et al., in Advances in Developing Human Resources 12:681–699, 2010). This shift has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 global pandemic crisis during which most organizations required a large part of their workforce to work from home (Hughes & Saunders. Handbook of research on remote work and worker well-being in the post-COVID-19 era. IGI Global, pp. 264–285, 2021). This chapter examines the role of virtual teams during unplanned emergency situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we examine the role of developmental relationships across four levels of analysis, including individual, organizational, technological, and team. We also explore the ways HRD researchers and professionals can remove the barriers to effective virtual teams and enhance the development of work relationships through mentoring and coaching initiatives in virtual teams, hence providing new perspectives for virtual human resource development. Implications for developmental relationships are identified and discussed.
Conference Paper
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The ways in which individuals develop temporal orientations that divide the flow of personal experience into the time zones of past, present or future influence decision making and action taking, in terms of dominant temporal orientation. Research so far has already highlighted the link between specific time orientations (mainly future) and a series of behaviors associated with health, risk taking or academic achievement. Although time perspective was investigated as a cognitive motivational concept with important implications on learning outcomes and behavior, there is little or no evidence concerning the e$ects of time perspective on work related achievement motivation. Similarly, albeit time perspective was studied in relation with other individual variables that might provide insights for a better understanding of its volitional nature (such as, locus of control, optimism/pessimism or self-determination), self-regulation was not yet considered. Based on these assumptions, the present study investigates the possible associations between di$erent time perspectives, selfregulation and achievement motivation. It was conducted using a survey method on a convenience sample of 67 MA students. Results show positive associations between future time perspective and self-regulation, and negative associations between present fatalist and self-regulation, respectively past negative and self-regulation. Likewise, achievement motivation seems to be positively related to future time perspective and negatively related to past negative and present fatalistic. Moreover, these correlations are supported at subscale level. The present findings advice for taking into account the way in which individuals assign the personal and social experiences to time frames, that help them give order, coherence and meaning in work settings. Since career, as well as schooling is by de#nition future-oriented, identifying the dominant time perspective and its relation to behaviors associated with planning and achieving one’s goals might help better understand career choices. Concurrently, since time perspective is associated with problematic behaviors, it could be included in the study of work related behaviors (counterproductive or organizational citizenship behaviors) along with self-regulation.
Chapter
The Covid-19 pandemic has forced many universities to take appropriate safeguards, which have included campus closures and increased usage of online teaching. These mandated changes have resulted in a rapid improvisation of courses to transform them from a traditional to an online setting. Nonetheless, research has shown that online learning is not the same as traditional classroom-based learning and simply transferring classroom-based materials and lectures to a virtual setting can result in students experiencing boredom, isolation and a lack of stimulation. In order to overcome this, it is necessary to develop new, interactive materials and to create collaborative and meaningful learning experiences for their students. In the move to online teaching, faculty who are unfamiliar with teaching in a virtual environment are expected to undertake their new role of developing and facilitating their online classes proficiently. This can be problematic for faculty unaccustomed to working in this type of environment if they do not have the skills required to support their students effectively. Exploring the behaviours and competencies of experienced online tutors can help these new faculty to identify and develop their own behaviours and competencies, thus improving their effectiveness in the virtual environment. This chapter explores the abilities of experienced online tutors in order to improve the competencies and behaviours that emergency online faculty require during challenging times such as COVID-19. As a result, this information can help traditional face-to-face faculty to identify and develop their own competencies and behaviours in order to improve their effectiveness in the virtual environment. Thus, this chapter explores the competencies that online faculty need in order to develop and teach virtual classes. These include foundational competencies – cognitive, creative, moral, emotional and social intelligences – and virtual competencies such as didactic, technological, cultural, interactive, political and time-management competencies. Implications for faculty and organisations are also discussed. It is not clear whether the forced change to online teaching by the COVID crisis is permanent or temporary. However, as universities seek to maintain and improve their educational offerings during this generational event, ensuring that faculty can meet these new challenges by having the requisite competencies, is a key component to their success.
Chapter
Durch die zunehmende globale Vernetzung der Wirtschaft und Entwicklungen elektronischer Kommunikations- und Kooperationsmedien werden Mitarbeitende zunehmend in internationalen virtuellen Teams eingesetzt. Multinationale Unternehmen können so weltweit auf ihr gesamtes Know How zugreifen und die geeignetsten Mitarbeitenden dort einsetzen, wo ihre Fähigkeiten am besten genutzt werden können. Durch die Nutzung komplementärer Zeitzonen spart dies Zeit und Kosten ein und kommt dem Wunsch nach einer ortsunabhängigen Arbeitsplatzgestaltung entgegen. Trotz der vielen Vorteile, die virtuelle Teams mit sich bringen, ist die internationale virtuelle Zusammenarbeit auch mit Herausforderungen verbunden, die zu verzögerter Bearbeitungsdauer, Unzufriedenheit der Teammitglieder oder gar dem Scheitern von Projekten führen können. In diesem Beitrag wird der aktuelle Stand der Forschung aufgezeigt, wobei insbesondere der multidimensionale Charakter internationaler virtueller Teams fokussiert und vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Trends potentielle Entwicklungsrichtungen für Forschung und Praxis skizziert werden.
Chapter
Was a problematic team always doomed to frustration, or could it have ended another way? In this paper, we study the consistency of team fracture: a loss of team viability so severe that the team no longer wants to work together. Understanding whether team fracture is driven by the membership of the team, or by how their collaboration unfolded, motivates the design of interventions that either identify compatible teammates or ensure effective early interactions. We introduce an online experiment that reconvenes the same team without members realizing that they have worked together before, enabling us to temporarily erase previous team dynamics. Participants in our study completed a series of tasks across multiple teams, including one reconvened team, and privately blacklisted any teams that they would not want to work with again. We identify fractured teams as those blacklisted by half the members. We find that reconvened teams are strikingly polarized by task in the consistency of their fracture outcomes. On a creative task, teams might as well have been a completely different set of people: the same teams changed their fracture outcomes at a random chance rate. On a cognitive conflict and on an intellective task, the team instead replayed the same dynamics without realizing it, rarely changing their fracture outcomes. These results indicate that, for some tasks, team fracture can be strongly influenced by interactions in the first moments of a team’s collaboration, and that interventions targeting these initial moments may be critical to scaffolding long-lasting teams.
Chapter
For many businesses, managing globally distributed IT projects effectively is key to success in today’s competitive environment. However, IT projects and their managements are notorious for failures, and managing globally distributed teams poses unique additional challenges. While the Internet, email and the Web have been major means of communication among such teams, new Web 2.0 technologies and applications which have emerged into prominence in the last few years present new opportunities for successfully managing global projects. This paper presents the authors’ findings on awareness and level of use of Web 2.0 tools for project management among global teams. It also offers recommendations on how managers of global IT projects can manage their teams more efficiently and effectively using Web 2.0 tools.
Chapter
This chapter, Chapter 11 of Communicating Across Cultures at Work 4th edition, shows how skilled intercultural communication helps overcome the difficulties produced by cultural differences when performing work activities. The activities covered include intercultural negotiating; cooperating, coordinating and knowledge-sharing; and working in or leading diverse groups or teams. Performing these work activities effectively in an intercultural setting depends on cultural knowledge and understanding, awareness of barriers, and intercultural communication skills described in earlier chapters. This chapter describes additional skills and processes specific to each intercultural work activity: for instance, harmonization of mental models in negotiations, informal social interaction for cooperation, coordination and knowledge sharing, using multicultural individuals for cultural brokerage in groupwork and maintaining high levels of action for leadership.
Chapter
This chapter presents and synthesizes the culturally oriented challenges of managing distributed projects by Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) and examines the distinctive issues intrinsic to GVT work structures from a research perspective. In the first section, the authors define the concept of the global virtual team and explore the differences between global virtual teams and traditional co-located team structures. In the second section, they draw upon the cross-cultural theories (Hall, 1976; Hofstede, 1984) as a framework to explore the unique aspects of managing GVTs and then further develop a cultural typology illustrating the challenges of GVTs. Next, the authors discuss the research approaches to examine the cultural impacts on the success of GVTs, as well as highlight the practical implication in the light of the wide-ranging training programs needed by multinational corporations. In the final section, they assert that in order to be effective, GVTs need to develop new patterns of communication, team structure, knowledge exchange, and project management capabilities, and thus, the authors conclude with the future research directions.
Chapter
The widespread adoption of global virtual teams has been driven by an unprecedented need to draw upon talents of employees from around the globe in a manner that is both organizationally and financially feasible. The success of these teams depends largely on the levels of intra-team trust and collaboration they are able to establish throughout the life of their projects. Team members on global virtual teams may differ substantially on a number of cultural dimensions including preferences for individualistic versus collective teamwork, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and contextual communication. This chapter will investigate how these four cultural dimensions are likely to impact intra-team trust within a global virtual team. Suggestions that team leaders can utilize to address these cultural dimensions are also presented.
Chapter
Multinational pharmaceutical companies are facing the challenge of finding the right balance between local responsiveness and global integration. A cross-case study analysis of the sales force training process at the Swiss company Roche Pharmaceuticals identified four areas of collaboration, each of which comprises a certain number of collaborative tasks. The equivocality and complexity of these tasks should, however, be taken into account when considering information and communication technology (ICT) support. The authors developed a task-media fit matrix and used it to choose and justify the usage of certain information and communication technologies. The end result of this article is a reference model for the three layers of strategy, process, and ICT for e-collaboration within the dispersed sales force training process in multinational pharmaceutical companies. The authors also maintain that the task-media fit matrix can help both practitioners and researchers to either justify investments in e-collaboration tools or to evaluate ICT architectures in the field of e-collaboration.
Chapter
This research project investigates what are the national cultural factors that influence employees’ cross-cultural knowledge sharing in online environments and in what way. The chapter draws on findings from 41 in-depth interviewees conducted with 20 Chinese and 21 American employees who worked for a large multinational corporation. The rich interview data identified three national cultural differences that impacted Chinese and American participants s’ knowledge sharing through an online system, namely, language, differences grounded in collectivism/individualism, and different levels of uncertainty avoidance. English created a barrier for Chinese users to post their ideas but it didn’t seem to stop them from consuming knowledge. Differences grounded in collectivist/individualist values were mainly reflected in these two cultural groups’ different logic regarding the relationship between different working contexts and the need to share. Chinese participants also showed a higher level of uncertainty avoidance than American participants. Together these cultural differences could explain why Chinese shared knowledge less frequently than their American peers. Despite these reported cultural differences, findings from this research suggest that the actual cultural differences were smaller than what literature implies. Possible explanations for fewer cultural differences are explored. Practical implications for knowledge management practitioners are also offered.
Chapter
New technologies for sharing information and communication are being developed every day. Such technologies have become critical to organizations and are needed to bridge the global distance gap. The ability for employees to meet virtually and interact with domestic and global partners is priceless. This ubiquitous communication ability also can be used to promote diversity and equality in the workplace. In this chapter, the increased global role of technology in the workplace and how its use can benefit and/or hinder diversity objectives will be discussed. Additionally, an innovative course delivery method will be used to demonstrate how students in diversity courses can use virtual technologies to build skills and develop intercultural and global competencies by learning from and interacting with students from around the world.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the collaborative use of computing resources to support decision making in industry. Through the use of middleware for desktop grid computing, the idle CPU cycles available on existing computing resources can be harvested and used for speeding-up the execution of applications that have “non-trivial” processing requirements. This chapter focuses on the desktop grid middleware BOINC and Condor, and discusses the integration of commercial simulation software together with free-to-download grid middleware so as to offer competitive advantage to organizations that opt for this technology. It is expected that the low-intervention integration approach presented in this chapter (meaning no changes to source code required) will appeal to both simulation practitioners (as simulations can be executed faster, which in turn would mean that more replications and optimization are possible in the same amount of time) and management (as it can potentially increase the return on investment on existing resources).
Article
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Purpose Coworking spaces (CWS) are a globally increasing phenomenon of new shared work environments used by freelancers, entrepreneurs and small companies that often work in information technology and creative industries. The purpose of this study is to examine coworkers’ knowledge sharing (KS), focusing on attitude, behavior and individual creativity. Several theoretical perspectives are deployed for factors influencing KS. Design/methodology/approach A research model is developed and tested, relying on a sample of 95 German coworkers using a structural equation modeling approach. Findings The attitude towards knowledge sharing and actual sharing behavior in CWS improve coworkers’ creativity. Behavior and attitude differ in positive impact depending on the level of collaboration orientation. Despite the presence of an agreeable atmosphere, lower collaborative orientation results in KS being rated lower. Practical implications Community commitment showed the highest positive impact on KS behavior. For community development, CWS will have to take differences in the KS behavior of their coworker client base into account to foster creativity. Originality/value The authors provide initial empirical insights into the relationship between KS and creativity in CWS. Core coworking values are shown not to form a uniform block but rather “collaboration” is acting as a discriminator.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the roles of employees’ perceived knowledge sharing and trust on organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach The authors examined the proposed hypotheses by using survey data from 228 responses collected from an IT services company. Findings The authors found that a knowledge sharing culture was positively related to interpersonal trust, knowledge sharing behavior and organizational learning. Employees’ perceived trust among people had a positive effect on knowledge sharing behavior and organizational learning. Knowledge sharing behavior was also positively related to organizational learning. In addition, interpersonal trust and knowledge sharing behavior played mediating roles in linking knowledge sharing culture and organizational learning. Originality/value This study provides empirical support for the mediating role of interpersonal trust and knowledge sharing behavior on the link between knowledge sharing culture and organizational learning.
Article
Background To prepare K-12 students for the globalizing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workplace, teachers must utilize pedagogies to improve students’ 21st century skills, specifically in communication. Project Based Learning (PBL) has evidenced success in enhancing students’ communication skills, while global collaboration through virtual interactions (herein global PBL) provides unique opportunities for students to practice communication in STEM by leveraging videoconferencing and Learning Management System technologies, bridging classrooms internationally. Yet, the extent of synergistic effects of global PBL on developing students’ STEM communication skills is unknown. Purpose This study investigated if a global PBL was an effective pedagogy for enhancing and developing communication skills needed for communication and global competence in the STEM workplace, from the perceptions of both US teachers and students. Sample A mixed method study investigated the impact of global PBL in two fifth grade STEM-focused classrooms; to explore, from the perception of teachers and students, changes in students’ communication competencies. Design and methods The intervention consisted of a 3-week PBL focused on air pollution in the water cycle, where two American treatment classrooms participated in global PBL with French and Chinese students in English language classrooms through Canvas. A third American classroom (using the same PBL, but without any virtual collaboration elements) served as a control. Data sources included teacher and researcher classroom observations, a pre and post student survey, and teacher interviews. Results Results of teacher perception data and researcher observation suggested the global PBL developed students’ abilities to share and understand ideas, use multiple representations to present those ideas, and be more receptive to perspectives different than their own. Conclusion This research suggests global PBL is a meaningful strategy for K-12 teachers to develop students’ communication competencies in STEM.
Article
Knowledge and its propagation are unquestionably at the center of most, if not all, discussions on innovation, performance, as well as other elements related to firm success. Although the literature has proposed several key success factors for knowledge sharing within a firm, it has yet to explore how these factors rank in terms of importance from a firm nationality perspective. Through a Delphi method approach, upstream professionals from four major multinational Oil and Gas firms (Brazilian, North American, Norwegian, and French) ranked specific literature‐based proposed factors for successful intrafirm knowledge sharing. There were a total of three rounds, where the first round had 41 participants, and the remaining two rounds had 39 participants. On average, open door policy and organizational culture were the most relevant factors that lead to knowledge sharing within the four firms. In terms of the least relevant ones, acknowledgement and status were seen, on average, as factors less likely to lead to intrafirm knowledge sharing. Lastly, it can be concluded that the Oil and Gas industry is very homogeneous regarding intrafirm knowledge sharing as the outcomes accrued from this work are very similar regardless the nationality of the Oil and Gas firm.
Article
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This paper develops a conceptual framework to explain different understandings of the concept of teamwork across national and organizational cultures. Five different metaphors for teamwork (military, sports, community, family, and associates) were derived from the language team members used during interviews in four different geographic locations of six multinational corporations. Results indicated that use of the teamwork metaphors varies across countries and organizations, after controlling for gender, team function, and total words in an interview. Analyses of specific relationships between national cultural values and categories of metaphor use and between dimensions of organizational culture and categories of metaphor use revealed patterns of expectations about team roles, scope, membership, and objectives that arise in different cultural contexts. We discuss the implications of this variance for future research on teams and the management of teams in multinational organizations.
Article
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This study addressed the nature and functioning of relationships of interpersonal trust among managers and professionals in organizations, the factors influencing trust's development, and the implications of trust for behavior and performance. Theoretical foundations were drawn from the sociological literature on trust and the social-psychological literature on trust in close relationships. An initial test of the proposed theoretical framework was conducted in a field setting with 194 managers and professionals.
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This study focused on whether people with different individualistic and collectivistic (I-C) tendencies speak different languages, belong to different religious groups and are of different gender. These three independent variables were examined using data from 517 college students in Lebanon: a multi-lingual society where both worldviews (I and C) co-exist. The Twenty Statement Test, Triandis' Attitude items, and ten of Schwartz's Value items were used to empirically test the I-C orientations and the above variables. Results indicated that language plays a primary role in individuals' orientations; respondents who used the Arabic language were consistently more collectivist than those who used either English or French. The discussion focused on the role of second language, specifically, English or French, which when learned by Arabic native speakers, enhanced the accessibility of private self-cognitions. Religion seemed to impact individuals' orientations in certain domains, but not consistently. Gender did not appear to be of significance in I-C orientation in this study.
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Only a few studies that have examined the effects of participation on an individual's goal acceptance and performance have been conducted within a cross-cultural context. In the present study, we tested for the contingency between the effectiveness of goal-setting strategies and cultural values. We examined three goal-setting strategies within three different cultural groups—assigned goals, goals participatively set by a group representative and the experimenter, and goals participatively set by a group. The three cultural groups studied were U.S. students ( n = 60), individualistic and having a high power distance; Israeli students from urban areas ( n = 60), collectivistic and having a low power distance; and Israeli students from kibbutzim ( n = 60), highly collectivistic and having a low power distance. Results indicated that participative strategies led to higher levels of goal acceptance and performance than the assigned strategy. Culture did not moderate the effect of goal-setting strategies on goal acceptance, but it appeared to moderate the strategy on performance for extremely difficult goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Many organizations are forming “virtual teams” of geographically distributed knowledge workers to collaborate on a variety of workplace tasks. But how effective are these virtual teams compared to traditional face-to-face groups? Do they create similar teamwork and is information exchanged as effectively? An exploratory study of a World Wide Web-based asynchronous computer conference system known as Meeting Web™ is presented and discussed. It was found that teams using this computer-mediated communication system (CMCS) could not outperform traditional (face-to-face) teams under otherwise comparable circumstances. Further, relational links among team members were found to be a significant contributor to the effectiveness of information exchange. Though virtual and face-to-face teams exhibit similar levels of communication effectiveness, face-to-face team members report higher levels of satisfaction. Therefore, the paper presents steps that can be taken to improve the interaction experience of virtual teams. Finally, guidelines for creating and managing virtual teams are suggested, based on the findings of this research and other authoritative sources.
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This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although cross-cultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated with charismatic/transformational leadership will be universally endorsed as contributing to outstanding leadership. This hypothesis was tested in 62 cultures as part of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Research Program. Universally endorsed leader attributes, as well as attributes that are universally seen as impediments to outstanding leadership and culturally contingent attributes are presented here. The results support the hypothesis that specific aspects of charismatic/transformational leadership are strongly and universally endorsed across cultures.
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This paper explores the challenges of creating and maintaining trust in a global virtual team whose members transcend time, space, and culture. The challenges are highlighted by integrating recent literature on work teams, computer-mediated communication groups, cross-cultural communication, and interpersonal and organizational trust. To explore these challenges empirically, we report on a series of descriptive case studies on global virtual teams whose members were separated by location and culture, were challenged by a common collaborative project, and for whom the only economically and practically viable communication medium was asynchronous and synchronous computer-mediated communication. The results suggest that global virtual teams may experience a form of "swift" trust, but such trust appears to be very fragile and temporal. The study raises a number of issues to be explored and debated by future research. Pragmatically, the study describes communication behaviors that might facilitate trust in global virtual teams.
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A global economy requires business organizations to cultivate their international holdings by respecting the national differences of their host countries and coordi nating efforts for rapid innovation. In this essay we first review relevant literature in the areas of communication and innovation and explore how efforts toward innovative practices are directly related to globalism and business strategy. We then focus on issues associated with national culture, corporate culture, and pro fessional culture that are relevant to strategies for researching business communi cation in global contexts. Finally, we suggest directions for future work.
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This study of group support systems examined the effects of the fit of task demands for numeric, visual, and conceptual language with the ability of different communication channels to transfer these types of information. It was proposed that the quality of this task language demand-communication channelfit would affect group perfonnance and strategy. Fifty-four groups worked on two levels of a spatial-visual task that varied in level of information processing complexity. Audio conferencing groups whose communication channels were poorly matched to task language demands performed more poorly, made fewer decisions per time period, and used less appropriate strategies than did face-to-face and screensharing groups. Performance decrements in the audio conferencing groups were due partly to the use of improper strategies when unaware of infonnational differences, and partly due to communication problems that limited the ability of the audio channel to allow effective integration or coordination of members' contributions even when group members were aware of information differences. The results are discussed in the context of information sampling disadvantages that occur when a poor fit between task language demands and communication channels inhibits sharing of information between group members.
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This research presents a “meso” level approach that models charismatic leadership in organizations as a function of contextual factors (such as work unit structure, work group collectivism, and crisis), an issue that has rarely been explored in charismatic leadership research. Data were collected from 596 managers and subordinates embedded in 101 work units in a large, complex organization and were analyzed at the individual, group, and cross-levels of analysis. Results indicate that organic structure and collectivistic cultural orientation were positively associated with the emergence of charismatic leadership, whereas perceptions of crisis were negatively related to charismatic leadership. Further, subordinates' ratings of leader charisma were related to leader ratings of work unit performance. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
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The past decade has brought advanced information technologies, which include electronic messaging systems, executive information systems, collaborative systems, group decision support systems, and other technologies that use sophisticated information management to enable multiparty participation in organization activities. Developers and users of these systems hold high hopes for their potential to change organizations for the better, but actual changes often do not occur, or occur inconsistently. We propose adaptive structuration theory (AST) as a viable approach for studying the role of advanced information technologies in organization change. AST examines the change process from two vantage points: (1) the types of structures that are provided by advanced technologies, and (2) the structures that actually emerge in human action as people interact with these technologies. To illustrate the principles of AST, we consider the small group meeting and the use of a group decision support system (GDSS). A GDSS is an interesting technology for study because it can be structured in a myriad of ways, and social interaction unfolds as the GDSS is used. Both the structure of the technology and the emergent structure of social action can be studied. We begin by positioning AST among competing theoretical perspectives of technology and change. Next, we describe the theoretical roots and scope of the theory as it is applied to GDSS use and state the essential assumptions, concepts, and propositions of AST. We outline an analytic strategy for applying AST principles and provide an illustration of how our analytic approach can shed light on the impacts of advanced technologies on organizations. A major strength of AST is that it expounds the nature of social structures within advanced information technologies and the key interaction processes that figure in their use. By capturing these processes and tracing their impacts, we can reveal the complexity of technology-organization relationships. We can attain a better understanding of how to implement technologies, and we may also be able to develop improved designs or educational programs that promote productive adaptations.
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The frequently used influencing tactics in a relatively high collectivist and high power distance culture have been investigated. An exploratory study indicated that leaders used both implicit influence and more directive forms of influence. Empirical measures suggested that none of the western influence strategies were frequently used in Turkey. Analyses of influence incidents revealed that most frequently perceived influence behaviors were “granted power/authority” and “taking over responsibility” followed by “rationalizing and involving” and “pressure”. These findings, which seemed to be contradicting each other at the beginning, reflect the high collectivism, power distance and paternalism values found in Turkish culture.
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In this study, we examined the effects of temporal coordination on virtual teams supported by an asynchronous communication technology (Lotus Notes). Specifically, we evaluated the moderating role of a temporal coordination mechanism, process structure, on the relationship between conflict management behavior and virtual team performance. An experiment was conducted with 35 five-person teams in the United States and Japan. Our findings show that the way virtual teams manage internal conflict is a crucial factor in their success and that temporal coordination has some significant moderating effects.
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My purpose in this article is to introduce studying cultural variability in communication in general and this special issue in particular. I begin by examining the nature of culture. Next, I review the emic and etic approaches to studying communication and culture with a focus on the major dimensions of cultural variability used to explain communication across cultures. Following this, I examine individual-level processes that mediate the influence of culture on communication. I conclude by overviewing the articles included in this issue and discussing how they are consistent with current trends in the study of cultural variability in communication.
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Malaysia, once known primarily for its commodity exports of tin and rubber, has grown rapidly into an important trading partner of both the United States and Europe. A large Islamic nation with a diverse population of Malays, Chinese, and Indians, it preserves many traditional values while adopting an increasingly international outlook. In this article, we use findings of the GLOBE study to identify important values of Malays, relating them to preferred organizational leadership styles. Malaysians place particular emphasis on collective well-being and display a strong humane orientation within a society that respects hierarchical differences. The culture inhibits assertive, confrontational behavior, giving priority to maintaining harmony. Effective leaders are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than participative style. Expatriate managers need to avoid actions that are incompatible with these values and expectations.
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Business people in the English-speaking world tend to underrate the significance of language skills in general, and in particular, the importance of variation within the English language. This article considers the various types of English that are spoken throughtout the world and the implications for business transactions. Attention is paid to the problems that arise owing to the use of one type of English as opposed to another owing to the various forms of distortion and misunderstanding that arise. Attitudes towards different varieties of English are also considered in terms of a possible negative impact on negotiation of business dealings in general. The impact of ways of learning English is outlined and some suggestions made as to how to overcome the problems that arise through intra-language variation in business.
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Cross-cultural training is fast becoming a recognizably important component in the world of international business. This paper discusses the effectiveness of cross-cultural training in facilitating the process of acculturation, and in developing the culture-specific and culture-general skills needed to increase the sociocultural and psychological adjustments of sojourners and expatriates when they encounter a foreign culture. A new cross-cultural training model is created by integrating acculturation and training effectiveness models. This new model suggests that providing two different types of training program prior to cultural contact will help recipients to effectively modify existing culture-general and culture-specific skills. As a consequence, they will achieve a higher degree of sociocultural and psychological adjustment. Experiential training should trigger affective and behavioral responses, which are the basis of intercultural effectiveness skills, and thus enhance psychological adjustment. By contrast, cognitive training should trigger cognitive responses, especially cultural awareness and interpersonal skills, and enhance sociocultural adjustment.
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This article examines the effect of communication media on group processes and the consequent effect of processes on group cohesiveness, satisfaction, and productivity using mediated regression analysis. Data are based on Straus and McGrath (1994), in which 72 three-person groups worked on idea generation, intellective, and judgment tasks in either computer-mediated (CM) or face-to-face (FTF) discussions. Straus and McGrath found that in comparison to FTF groups, CM groups were less productive across tasks and expressed lower satisfaction in the judgment task. This article adds to findings about group outcomes by showing that CM groups expressed lower cohesiveness than did FTF groups. Analysis of communication processes shows that CM groups had higher proportions of task communication and disagreement and greater equality of participation. In contrast to prior reports that people using electronic communication are depersonalized, CM groups did not engage in more attacking behavior and they exchanged higher rates of supportive communication than did FTF groups. Mediated regression analysis reveals that the group process accounted for the effect of communication mode on cohesiveness and satisfaction but not on productivity. Results suggest that media effects on outcomes, as well as on processes such as task focus and equality of participation, are due to the rates by which CM and FTF groups operate and not necessarily because of any inherently depersonalizing feature of electronic communication.
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This paper examines the theoretical and empirical relationship of training and individualism-collectivism to self-efficacy (a person's estimate of his or her ability to perform a task) and performance in studies of managers from Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, and the United States. A laboratory experiment and a six-month field experiment were used to test hypotheses predicting that for individualists, self-focused training would have a stronger impact on self-efficacy and performance than would group-focused training and, for collectivists, group-focused training would have a stronger impact on self-efficacy and performance than would individual-focused training. The results show consistent support for the hypotheses at both a cultural and an individual level of analysis. A general model of self-efficacy and culture in an organizational environment is discussed.
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R. B. Gallupe et al (see record 1991-18315-001) attributed the superiority of electronic brainstorming to a number of factors, including the technology's ability to reduce production blocking. In the present article, the authors manipulated production blocking in 3 experiments and assessed the performance of blocked and unblocked electronic brainstorming groups (EBGs) and verbal brainstorming groups. When normal EBGs were compared with verbal brainstorming groups, EBGs were found to be significantly more productive, which replicated earlier research results. In contrast, blocked EBGs performed at the same (or lower) levels as verbal brainstorming groups in all 3 experiments. The authors conclude that the reduction in production blocking inherent in using the electronic brainstorming technology is 1 reason that EBGs are more productive than verbal brainstorming groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Emerging group technologies are attracting attention from researchers and practitioners for the benefits they potentially offer in terms of communications, productivity, and decision-making capabilities within an organization. To date, research in this area has focused on process or outcome variables, substantively ignoring organizational context issues. This paper reports on a field study that investigated users' perceptions of the impact of group support systems on power and influence within the organization. The study was conducted within a division of a major U.S. software company specializing in the development of business software tools for desktop PCs. Fifteen purposively selected managers and nonmanagers, spanning diverse functional areas, were extensively interviewed for this study. Evidence gathered suggested that group support systems are perceived to exert an equalizing force on power and influence by (1) increasing participation in the decision-making process, (2) improving access to information, (3) improving access to persons, (4) reducing the “power distance” to key individuals, and (5) providing increased opportunities to influence the opinions of others. These results provide a basis for future studies that will attempt to clarify the relationships between organizational context and group technology usage.
Article
Group Support Systems (GSS) support intellectual and collaborative group work. For example, one type of GSS is Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS). EMS provide software to facilitate a group's ability to brainstorm and organize ideas, and then formulate, select, or prioritize alternatives. Accompanied by human facilitation, EMS use information technology to augment team meetings by (a) fostering independent thinking without disruption, and (b) enabling better understanding and agreement among team members. Existant models of communication do not effectively portray the communication interaction occurring in EMS (or the broader umbrella of GSS). The purpose of this article is to extend Kincaid's convergence model and present a preliminary, holistic, conceptual model of communication that includes the contributions GSS makes to communication effectiveness in group discussions. The suggested model portrays the interactivity of group participants and accounts for process losses and/or process gains (termed “noise” and “noise abatement”) which may affect the GSS process. Additionally, the model shows the connection between the communication process and the participants' contextual linkages to what has happened in the past and what will occur after the communication ends.
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This paper describes an application of group support technology to a series of economic policy-making meetings. The meetings were part of a national study aiming to upgrade New Zealand's competitive position in global markets. The aim of the research is to determine if electronic meeting technology could support an economic development process where participants came from a variety of backgrounds (e.g., business competitors, different ethnic groups) and where meeting urgency and efficiency were of prime importance. A multiple case approach was adopted. The meetings were organized and facilitated by the coordinator of the national study. Research data were gathered by observing the meetings, by questionnaires administered to participants, and by interviews with the coordinator and his staff. Analysis of these data indicates that participants felt that the meetings were both very effective and efficient. Implications for using group support technology for economic policy development are discussed.
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Pressured by the growing need for fast response times, mass customization, and globalization, many organizations are turning to flexible organizational forms, such as virtual teams. Virtual teams consist of cooperative relationships supported by information technology to overcome limitations of time and/or location. Virtual teams require their members to rely heavily on the use of information technology and trust in coworkers. This study investigates the impacts that the reliance on information technology operationalized in our study via the user satisfaction construct and trust have on the job satisfaction of virtual team members. The study findings reveal that both user satisfaction and trust are positively related to job satisfaction in virtual teams, while system use was not found to play a significant role. These findings emphasize that organizations seeking the benefits of flexible, IT-enabled virtual teams must consider both the level of trust among colleagues, and the users' satisfaction with the information technology on which virtual teams rely.
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This paper explores the challenges of creating and maintaining trust in a global virtual team whose members transcend time, space, and culture. The challenges are highlighted by integrating recent literature on work teams, computer-mediated communication groups, cross-cultural communication, and interpersonal and organizational trust. To explore these challenges empirically, we report on a series of descriptive case studies on global virtual teams whose members were separated by location and culture, were challenged by a common collaborative project, and for whom the only economically and practically viable communication medium was asynchronous and synchronous computer-mediated communication. The results suggest that global virtual teams may experience a form of "swift" trust, but such trust appears to be very fragile and temporal. The study raises a number of issues to be explored and debated by future research. Pragmatically, the study describes communication behaviors that might facilitate trust in global virtual teams.
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Sumario: Why virtual teams? -- Teaming from the beginning -- The power of purpose -- Through the worm hole -- Teaming with people -- It's all in the doing -- Virtual places -- Working smart -- Virtual values