Article

Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other‐sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same‐sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships

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Abstract

This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in general. As expected, perspective taking, learning about the other sex, and meeting the other sex were seen as rewards of OS friendships more often than for SS friendships and romantic relationships. Confusion about the nature of the relationship was seen as a cost of OS friendships more often than of SS friendships and romantic relationships. Intimacy, support, and companionship were mentioned less often as rewards of OS friendships than romantic relationships. Adolescents also completed questionnaires about their own specific relationships of each type. Their OS friendships were perceived as less supportive than their other two relationships; OS friendships were also seen as having fewer negative interactions than romantic relationships. Our findings expand the application of social exchange theory and lend empirical support to prior speculations about OS friendships and their importance in adolescents' social worlds.

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... Indeed, women's same-(vs. cross-) sex friendships are characterized by greater quality and nurturance (Sapadin, 1988) and are perceived as closer, more supportive, and more reciprocal (Hand & Furman, 2009;Mehta & Smith, 2019;Parker & De Vries, 1993). ...
... However, there are also several benefits afforded to women who form friendships with men (Bleske-Rechek & Buss, 2000). For instance, from an evolutionary perspective, a major benefit of cross-sex friendships is gaining access to potential long-and short-term romantic and sexual partners (Hand & Furman, 2009;Lemay & Wolf, 2016;Lewis et al., 2015). Consistent with this reasoning, cross-sex friendships increase around adolescence, when mating goals are activated (Poulin & Pedersen, 2007;Richards et al., 1998), and adolescents who have more cross-sex friendships become sexually active at a younger age than those who have fewer (Poulin, 2011). ...
... In line with evolutionary theoretical perspectives regarding the mating benefits of cross-sex friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009;Lemay & Wolf, 2016;Lewis et al., 2015), the results of Study 1 and 2 demonstrate that women who prefer male friends experience mating benefits. Study 1 demonstrated that women's preference for male (vs. ...
Article
The current research examined the factors that impact women's preference for male (vs. female) friends and how these preferences, in turn, impact how women are evaluated by others. Studies 1–2 demonstrated that women who prefer male (vs. female) friends reported greater mating and sexual success, placed less trust in female friends, and held more hostility towards other women. Study 2 also showed that women's distrust of female friends is predicted by greater perceived aggression from female peers, which in turn predicted greater preference for male friends. Studies 3–5 revealed that women (but not men) reported greater distrust of female targets who prefer male (vs. female) friends. Study 5 further found that women's decreased trust in female targets who prefer male (vs. female) friends was predicted by expectations that these targets possess more socially undesirable traits, more hostility towards other women, and greater sexual unrestrictedness. Together, results suggest the relationship between women's friendship preferences and other women's evaluations may be bidirectional. Women's preference for male friends was predicted by perceived aggression from and lack of trust in other women, and other women distrusted and inferred negative traits about women who preferred male friends.
... This is likely because girls' same-gender friendships are characterized by high levels of disclosure and social support (e.g., Rose & Asher, 2017). Girls may view othergender friendships as serving a different purpose from their same-gender friendships; rather than perceiving their other-gender friendships as a main source of emotional support, girls may view other-gender friendships as an opportunity to learn more about adolescent boys (Hand & Furman, 2009). ...
... In addition, their perceptions of other-gender friendships change with age. Interestingly, early adolescents perceive other-gender friendships as higher in companionship than romantic relationships (Connolly, Craig, Goldberg, & Pepler, 1999), whereas older adolescents perceived romantic relationships as higher in companionship than other-gender friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009). ...
... Similarly, early adolescents perceive other-gender friendships as being higher in closeness than romantic relationships , whereas older adolescents perceive romantic relationship as higher in emotional intimacy than other-gender friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009). ...
Chapter
Friendships are central relationships in the lives of children and adolescents. This chapter considers the role of gender in these relationships. Starting as early as preschool, children tend to affiliate with same-gender peers. Similarities and differences between girls’ friendships and boys’ friendships are discussed, along with implications for psychological adjustment. Then, the development of cross-gender friendships and their implications for psychological adjustment are considered. Future directions for the study of gender and friendships in childhood and adolescence are proposed.
... Despite the fact that the students' individual attributes, such as background experiences, characteristics and attitudes, influence a student's likelihood in getting along with peers relationship, Oseguera and Rhee posited that the peers and faculty members that students interacted with could also have an influence on relationship and students interest on classroom engagement on academic tasks. However, many developmental psychology studies have shown that the positive influences that opposite-sex peers bring into developmental trajectory are not as strong as those of same-sex peers (Lempers & Clark-Lempers, 1993;McDougall & Hymel, 2007;Shaffer-Hand & Furman, 2008). This is not surprising as individuals tend to interact and develop friendships with samesex peers in their childhood and early adolescence, and that opposite-sex friendships only gradually appear in early adult (Bukowski, Sippola, & Hoza, 1999;Feiring, 1999;Kovacs, Parker, & Hoffman, 1996;Maccoby, 1998;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). ...
... This is not surprising as individuals tend to interact and develop friendships with samesex peers in their childhood and early adolescence, and that opposite-sex friendships only gradually appear in early adult (Bukowski, Sippola, & Hoza, 1999;Feiring, 1999;Kovacs, Parker, & Hoffman, 1996;Maccoby, 1998;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987). Furthermore, having opposite-sex peers can be a source of misunderstanding and confusion in defining the nature of the relationship (Reeder, 2000;Shaffer-Hand & Furman, 2008). That is, when others can be concerned that their opposite-sex interaction is misjudged by others as romantic relationships when it is not or that their opposite-sex friendships are ruined in the case that the opposite-sex peer might like them and there is not mutual liking (Shaffer-Hand & Furman, 2008). ...
... Furthermore, having opposite-sex peers can be a source of misunderstanding and confusion in defining the nature of the relationship (Reeder, 2000;Shaffer-Hand & Furman, 2008). That is, when others can be concerned that their opposite-sex interaction is misjudged by others as romantic relationships when it is not or that their opposite-sex friendships are ruined in the case that the opposite-sex peer might like them and there is not mutual liking (Shaffer-Hand & Furman, 2008). This engraved way of perceptions and misjudgment in the college students' mind sometime minimize in having relationship with opposite-sex relationship other than the those students in romantic relationships. ...
... Beginning in early adolescence, however, CS friendships start to emerge and continue to become more prominent throughout adolescence (Sippola, 1999). It has been posited that the development of CS friendships may coincide with the emergence of sexual and reproductive needs that also begin to develop at this time (Furman & Buhrmester, 1992) and that CS friendships may serve as a bridge from SS friendships to romantic relationships (Hand & Furman, 2009). Indeed, it is possible that for early adolescents CS friendships may be the first close relationship with a member of the opposite sex. ...
... Consequently, it is likely that the existing research on CS friendships includes many different types of relationships under this term, which may actually be better conceptualized as different types of relationships (Sippola, 1999). Indeed, Hand and Furman (2009) note that much of the existing literature on CS friendships would be better conceptualized as research on CS relationships. Furthermore, they argue that if researchers want to understand the transformations in adolescent peer networks and their implications for adjustment, it is important to distinguish between CS friendships and romantic relationships (Hand & Furman, 2009). ...
... Indeed, Hand and Furman (2009) note that much of the existing literature on CS friendships would be better conceptualized as research on CS relationships. Furthermore, they argue that if researchers want to understand the transformations in adolescent peer networks and their implications for adjustment, it is important to distinguish between CS friendships and romantic relationships (Hand & Furman, 2009). In particular, research suggests that dyads comprised of former romantic partners or where one or both members desires a romantic relationship likely function differently compared to more platonic friendships and should not be considered the same type of relationship (Guerrero & Chavez, 2005;Koenig et al., 2007;Messman et al., 2001;Schneider & Kenny, 2000). ...
Article
Friendships between members of the opposite sex become more common and increase in importance across adolescence (e.g., Kuttler, La Greca, & Prinstein, 1999); however, little research has examined these relationships. Of the limited research, most has focused on comparing mean-level differences in friendship features between cross-sex (CS) friendships and same-sex (SS) friendships. Overall, this research has suggested that CS friendships are lower in positive quality compared to SS friendships. These findings offer little insight into why CS friendships continue to be valued and maintained. The current study used two approaches to better elucidate the value of CS friendships in a sample of 309 college students. First, this study added to the existing literature by evaluating both positive and negative dimensions of quality in SS and CS friendships. Results suggested that although greater positive quality was reported in SS friendships, lower negative quality was simultaneously reported for CS friendships. Second, the current study examined participants’ self-reports of the interactions that occurred within their CS and SS friendships, as well as what they wanted to occur to determine how the fulfillment of desired behaviors contributed to satisfaction in each friendship. This approach allowed participants to determine the types and amount of interactions that they would like from their friendship partners, rather than relying on pre-determined notions of quality. Polynomial regression with response surface analysis was employed to examine how discrepancies between received and desired maintenance impacted satisfaction. Results partially confirmed a matching hypothesis, with greater satisfaction reported when levels of received and desired maintenance were similar. However, in contrast to the interdependence theory hypothesis, greater levels of satisfaction were reported at higher levels of maintenance. Importantly, response surface results suggested that high overprovision was associated with a corresponding decrease in satisfaction for SS friendships. This result is in contrast to traditional, “more is better” conceptions of friendship features and suggests that participants may experience “too much of a good thing” with friends. Overall, the use of these two approaches is thought to be a more balanced investigation of CS friendships than previous assessments of positive quality that have dominated the literature.
... Women feel more at ease with and find it easier to feel close to other women (Reisman, 1990). Same-gender friendships were also seen as more supportive than mixed-gender friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009). Because same-gender friends are more supportive and at ease with each other, they should have greater knowledge of and accessibility to the other friend's knowledge. ...
... Given previous research suggesting that same-gender friendships are closer and more supportive than opposite-gender friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009;Reisman, 1990), characteristics that should lead to stronger TMSs, one surprising finding is that gender composition was not associated with TMS strength. The number of mixed-gender best friendships was much lower than the number of same-gender best friendships (33 vs. 181), reducing our power to detect differences. ...
... This suggests that mixed-gender friendships may contain more total knowledge than samegender friendships, although people in both types of friendships may rely on and know each other's knowledge. Previous research suggests that same-gender friendships should allow for more disclosure and closeness (Hand & Furman, 2009), which we hypothesized should lead to stronger TMSs. However, there may be fewer differences on these factors when the mixed-gender friendship is a best friendship. ...
Article
Transactive memory is a system for encoding, storing, and retrieving information between people, where each person has knowledge of the other’s memory. Through two studies, we assessed whether transactive memory occurs in best friendships (N = 682). Results showed that transactive memory systems (TMSs) do exist in best friendships. Importantly, stronger TMSs are associated with higher friendship quality (satisfaction and commitment), and their strength is related to different friendship characteristics (e.g., trust). A novel method for assessing TMS structure was developed. Mixed-gender friendships were associated with more differentiated structures (different knowledge), and friendships higher in inclusion of other in the self were associated with more integrated structures (similar knowledge). These studies have implications for the quality and operation of friendships.
... Distintos estudios han apuntado la importancia que este tipo de relación social emergente tiene para el desarrollo de diversas habilidades y estrategias relacionales: las experiencias sentimentales adolescentes están asociadas con mayores índices de aceptación social, competencia relacional con amigos y compañeros, y competencia romántica (Furman, Low y Ho, 2009), así como con el desarrollo y gestión de emociones como el afecto o la intimidad, la afirmación del estatus social, la experimentación de roles sexistas, o los primeros acercamientos sexuales (Furman y Wehner, 1997;Ortega-Rivera et al., 2011); todo ello contribuiría al desarrollo del ámbito social adolescente y a la propia realización personal (Shaffer y Furman, 2009) con la consecuente repercusión en el desarrollo positivo. Contribuyen, además, al desarrollo de variables personales ligadas al bienestar personal, como el logro de la identidad o el ajuste psicológico (Bouchey, 2007;Braithwaite et al., 2010;Shaffer y Furman, 2009; entre otros), de forma que los chicos y chicas con una relación de pareja han señalado mejores índices en su autoconcepto, ligado a una mayor satisfacción general, respecto de aquellos que no tenían experiencia sentimental (Campbell, Sedikides y Bosson, 1994). ...
... Los estudios realizados han señalado que el proceso de formación de las nuevas parejas y su mantenimiento contribuyen al desarrollo de diversos aspectos personales -tales como identidad, autoestima, etc.- (Braithwaite et al., 2010;Shaffer y Furman, 2009), así como de habilidades interpersonales (Furman, Low y Ho, 2009). Si bien pueden constituir a la vez un factor de riesgo para la implicación en conductas negativas (Joyner y Udry, 2000; Shaffer y Furman, 2009). ...
... Diferentes estudios habían relacionado la experiencia sentimental durante la adolescencia con mejores niveles de bienestar general, lo que contribuía al logro de la identidad y a un mejor ajuste psicológico (Bouchey, 2007;Braithwaite et al., 2010;Shaffer y Furman, 2009; entre otros). Siguiendo la línea de estudio de Campbell et al. (1994), quienes apuntaban que los chicos y chicas con relación de pareja señalaban mejores índices en su autoconcepto y satisfacción general que aquellos que no tenían experiencia sentimental, se trató de analizar el ajuste psicológico y las actitudes sexistas de los participantes comparando las medias alcanzadas por aquellos que tenían pareja en el momento de ser encuestados, lo que tenían experiencia sentimental previa pero no en el momento de la encuesta, y aquellos que nunca habían tenido pareja sentimental. ...
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Las relaciones de pareja requieren de un aprendizaje y de un proceso en el que influyen no sólo factores personales sino también de cómo han sido las relaciones de amistad. Este es uno de las cuestiones que aborda la tesis ‘Dating Violence y cortejo adolescente: un estudio sobre la violencia en parejas sentimentales de los jóvenes andaluces’, de la investigadora de la Universidad de Córdoba, Carmen Viejo Almanzor. En concreto, el estudio aborda la relación de las parejas adolescentes, la evolución de las relaciones sociales desde el grupo de iguales hasta la formación de las parejas, sus características y el rol que desempeñan analizando los potenciales contextos de violencia que deriven en fenómenos de violencia de género. Para la elaboración de la tesis, la autora se apoya en un estudio estadístico de 3.258 entrevistas recogidas en 22 centros de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato de las ocho provincias andaluzas. El Centro de Estudios Andaluces publica este trabajo que fue galardonado con el Premio Tesis Doctoral convocado por la fundación en la octava edición.
... Similarities and differences occur in same-and other sex friendships. Children and adolescents see same-and other-sex friendships as similar in terms of companionship (Hand & Furman, 2009;McDougall & Hymel, 2007). However, they perceive same-sex friendships as more intimate and see themselves as more similar to or compatible with same-sex friends. ...
... Compared to same-sex friendships, adolescents are more concerned about ambiguity in other-sex friendships (e.g., if one friend develops romantic feelings) and that others will misunderstand the relationship (Hand & Furman, 2009). ...
... Males are more likely than females to perceive heterosocial benefits of other-sex Dyadic Peer Relationships 78 friendships. They are also more likely than females to perceive other-sex friendships as venues for meeting other-sex peers and to see physical attraction in other-sex friendships as a benefit of the relationships (Hand & Furman, 2009). In fact, other-sex friendships may serve as models for developing skills for romantic relationships. ...
... Researchers have only recently begun using interdependence and social exchange models in their research on adolescents' close relationships (Hand & Furman, 2009); in general, empirical studies of relationship satisfaction among adolescents are scant. Collins (2003) suggested that characterizing relationships in any life period requires considering the distinctive emotional responses, expectancies, and schemata relevant during that time in development. ...
... Adolescent relationships with close friends and dating partners can be described as ongoing mutually acknowledged voluntary interactions (Collins, 2003). Close friendships and romantic relationships are characterized by intimacy and contain elements of communication, emotional support, and possessiveness (Hand & Furman, 2009;Lempers & Clark-Lempers, 1993). Because early adolescents' close relationships with peers have received little attention, we do not know whether friendships and romantic relationships serve similar or different functions during this developmental period. ...
... Because early adolescence is a time when first romantic relationships emerge, this is an important time to begin investigating romantic relationships and to compare these relationships with close friendships in processes and outcomes known to occur in both types of relationships (i.e., communication, emotional support, possessiveness, and satisfaction). Limited but recent research has shown that the benefits of relationships vary by gender and type of close relationship (Hand & Furman, 2009;Pagano & Hirsch, 2007). Among high school students in grades 9 through 12, Pagano and Hirsch (2007) found that in close friendships, girls reported higher levels of mutual support and self-disclosure than did boys. ...
Article
Interdependence and social exchange theories were used to explore parent–adolescent relationship quality and early adolescents' relationships with close friends and dating partners. Associations among adolescents' perceptions of parental support and psychological control, peer relationship experiences (communication, emotional support, and possessiveness), and peer relationship satisfaction were examined using a test-replication design. Our largely African American and female samples ranged from age 11 to 15. Results indicated the parenting variables were directly related to peer relationship experiences, which, in turn, predicted relationship satisfaction. The association between parental support and relationship satisfaction was mediated by peer communication and emotional support. Limited moderation by gender and relationship type was found. Parental psychological control mattered more for female and parental support more for male adolescents' close peer relationships. Dating partner possessiveness was most detrimental for females' relationship satisfaction, whereas communication influenced relationship satisfaction most for females reporting on friends and males reporting on dating partners.
... In addition to provisions that overlap with same-gender friendships, some literature suggests that cross-gender friendships contribute unique relationship characteristics. For example, mid-adolescents have identified obtaining a unique perspective (McDougall & Hymel, 2007), learning about the opposite gender, and meeting members of the opposite gender (Hand & Furman, 2008) as unique benefits of cross-gender friendships, and some have argued that crossgender friendships provide a way for adolescents to practice interacting with the opposite gender, a skill that is necessary in many adult contexts (Connolly, Craig, Goldberg, & Pepler, 1999;Hand & Furman, 2008). In contrast, having issues with relationship expectations (i.e., managing others' assumptions that the relationship is not platonic) has been identified as a unique drawback to cross-gender friendships (McDougall & Hymel, 2007). ...
... In addition to provisions that overlap with same-gender friendships, some literature suggests that cross-gender friendships contribute unique relationship characteristics. For example, mid-adolescents have identified obtaining a unique perspective (McDougall & Hymel, 2007), learning about the opposite gender, and meeting members of the opposite gender (Hand & Furman, 2008) as unique benefits of cross-gender friendships, and some have argued that crossgender friendships provide a way for adolescents to practice interacting with the opposite gender, a skill that is necessary in many adult contexts (Connolly, Craig, Goldberg, & Pepler, 1999;Hand & Furman, 2008). In contrast, having issues with relationship expectations (i.e., managing others' assumptions that the relationship is not platonic) has been identified as a unique drawback to cross-gender friendships (McDougall & Hymel, 2007). ...
Article
The primary aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in problem content and dyadic problem talk duration as potential contributors to previously documented depressogenic effects of co-rumination in late adolescence. Participants (N = 176 undergraduate students) included pairs of same-gender female (n = 37), same-gender male (n = 15), and cross-gender (n = 36) friends who completed self-report measures assessing individual depressive symptom severity, as well as within-dyad co-rumination habits and friendship quality. Dyads also participated in an observational problem talk task, which asked each dyad member to identify a current personal problem and discuss it with their friend during a 16-minute videotaped session. Each participant’s identified problem was coded for inclusion of interpersonal and dependent content, and videotaped conversations were coded for the total time each dyad spent discussing problems and the total time each dyad member spent discussing their own problem (own-problem talk) and their friend’s problem (friend-problem talk). Consistent with existing depression literature, results indicated that females reported greater depressive symptom severity than males. Female dyads also reported the most co-rumination and engaged in the longest total problem talk, and both male and female participants reported engaging in more co-rumination when their dyad partner was female. However, own- and friend-problem talk did not vary by gender, and neither co-rumination nor total, own-, or friend-problem talk duration were predictive of depressive symptoms. Although female gender did not predict problem content, and problem content was not associated with depressive symptoms, interpersonal problem content predicted increased own-problem talk. These findings are in contrast to the overwhelming majority of research that has found co-rumination to be predictive of depressive symptoms, and provide no direct support suggesting that problem content and problem talk duration contribute to the depression gender gap. However, results do indicate that problem talk, a key component of co-rumination, is most likely to be prolonged when the problem being discussed has interpersonal content. The current results thus suggest that cumulative rather than interactive effects of gender and problem content may impact the co-rumination habits of late adolescents.
... Relacje homopłciowe pozostają podstawowym zasobem rozwoju społeczno-emocjonalnego (Mehta & Strough, 2009). Adolescenci ciągle mocniej związani są z rówieśnikami tej samej płci (Bukowski, Sippola, & Hoza, 1999), postrzegają relacje homopłciowe jako bardziej znaczące (Lempers & Clark-Lempers, 1993), heteropłciowe zaś jako zapewniające mniejsze wsparcie (Hand & Furman, 2009;Kuttler, La Greca, & Prinstein, 1999). W konsekwencji poczucie izolacji silniej redukowane jest przez sympatię ze strony rówieśników tej samej niż innej płci (Bowker, Spencer, Thomas, & Gyoerkoe, 2012). ...
... Ponadto utrzymywanie interakcji heteropłciowych przyczynia się do podniesienia samooceny (Darling, Dowdy, Van Horn, & Caldwell, 1999), poszerzania zasobów kompetencji społecznych, np. poprzez doświadczanie odmiennych perspektyw (Hand & Furman, 2009), ułatwiając relacje z rówieśnikami z własnej grupy płciowej (Rose-Krasnor, 1997), potencjalnie zmniejsza prawdopodobieństwo odczuwania samotności. Istnieją więc przesłanki wskazujące, że w okresie dojrzewania nawiązywanie bliższych (koleżeńskich/przyjacielskich) relacji z osobami drugiej płci może wiązać się z poziomem dobrostanu psychospołecznego. ...
Chapter
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Abstrakt Artykuł poświęcony jest relacjom między dwoma procesami zachodzącymi wśród uczniów kończących drugi etap nauki w szkole podstawowej: (1) włącza-niem osób innej płci w sieci koleżeńskie oraz (2) zmianami poczucia integracji rówieśniczej. Analiza przeprowadzona została w modelach latentnej krzywej rozwojowej (dynamika heterofilii) oraz latentnej różnicy wyników (zmiany poczucia integracji rówieśniczej) i wykorzystywała dane z ogólnopolskiego wzdłużnego badania SUEK (N = 5748). Stwierdzono: na początku klasy 5 szko-5 szko-5 szko-ły podstawowej zjawisko heterofilii jest stosunkowo rzadkie, zdecydowana większość (54,6%) uczniów/uczennic jako osoby przez siebie lubiane wskazuje wyłącznie rówieśników tej samej płci; w badanym okresie odnotowano wzrost preferencji heterofilnych; między początkiem klasy 5 a końcem klasy 6 odno-towano pogorszenie oceny jakości relacji rówieśniczych wśród uczennic, lecz nie wśród uczniów; wykazano wreszcie, że wzrost natężenia heterofilii pod koniec drugiego etapu dodatnio koreluje ze zmianami zachodzącymi w za-kresie poczucia integracji rówieśniczej: im większy wzrost heterofilii między klasą 5 a klasą 6, tym większa poprawa (mniejszy spadek) poczucia integracji z rówieśnikami klasowymi. Artykuł dyskutuje znaczenie uzyskanych wyników. 1 Praca powstała w wyniku realizacji projektu badawczego o numerze 2017/27/B/HS6/00850 finansowane-go ze środków Narodowego Centrum Nauki.
... Either way, women likely play a unique role in men's sexual socialization. Indeed, young people report that the benefits of other-sex friends include opportunities to meet the other sex, learn about the other sex, and obtain insights from the "other" perspective (Feiring, 1999;Hand & Furman, 2009). What male and female peers do collectively, however, is regulate and inform young men's sexuality; ostracism and acceptance represent peer responses to young men's performances of hegemonic masculinity (Cohan, 2009;Smiler, 2013;Vanden Abeele, Campbell, Eggermont, & Roe, 2014;Way, 2011). ...
... Other-sex friendships increase across adolescence and peak in late adolescence and emerging adulthood, yet little is known about sexual communications between men and their female friends (Hand & Furman, 2009;Poulin & Pedersen, 2007). This gap in the literature reflects a longstanding focus on same-sex friendships, which is understandable given the prevalence of sex segregation across the life span (Mehta & Strough, 2009). ...
Article
The current study provided an exploratory mixed methods investigation of the messages undergraduate men received about sex and relationships from their male and female friends. Participants included 310 undergraduate men who provided written responses regarding the specific messages they had received from male and female friends. Descriptive codes included: just do it, meaningful intimacy, gentlemen, postpone sex, women's sexual desire, and objectification of women. Reports of sexual communications were typically consistent with the Heterosexual Script and congruent with the friend's gender. Accordingly, reports of male friends' communications often portrayed the accumulation of sexual experiences and partners as necessary and desirable, whereas serious, romantic relationships were often portrayed as hindrances. Reports of female friends' messages, in contrast, primarily focused on the importance of romantic relationships and the idealization of sex within such relationships. Reports of messages that were incongruent with the Heterosexual Script were rare, and were more often found in reports of female friends' communications. For example, female friends were the only source of messages regarding women's sexual needs, desires, and pleasures. By documenting patterns of common and uncommon messages and their sources, the present study contributed insights into how male and female friends similarly and differentially reinforce different dimensions of hegemonic masculinity. (PsycINFO Database Record
... The present analysis did not explicitly examine romantic partners. However, opposite-sex friendships are often marked by romantic interest (Kaplan & Keys, 1997), and even if the relationship is not romantic, a benefit of these relationships is gaining access to potential romantic partners (Hand & Furman, 2009). ...
... These findings suggest that how boys feel about their bodies depend on the extent to which they can reasonably expect to attract possible romantic partners from their pool of friends. Supporting this view, research on the benefits of opposite-sex friendships suggests that a benefit of these relationships is meeting potential romantic partners (Hand & Furman, 2009 Loth et al. (2011) suggest that the pernicious association of weight status with psychological well-being is not resolved by normal developmental processes and that clinicians and others working with adolescents should be attentive to the psychological well-being of overweight adolescents. Although the present study was exploratory and no firm conclusions can be made, results support Loth et al.'s assertions and further suggest that one may need to consider the weight status of important others when considering the association between adolescent weight status and well-being. ...
Article
Drawing on multiple theoretical perspectives (e.g., social comparison theory, reward theory, evolutionary theory), the present research examined the relations of self and friendship network weight status to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression. A diverse, population-based sample of adolescents completed measures of well-being and were measured for height and weight. Boys had greater self-esteem if their male friendship networks' weight status mismatched, versus matched, their own weight status (d =.23). Conversely, boys had greater body satisfaction if their female friendship networks' weight status matched, versus mismatched, their own weight status (d =.18). For girls, the relations of male and female friendship networks' weight status with well-being did not vary by one's own weight status. Evolutionary theory appears to best explain the observed patter of results, and clinicians may want to consider friends' weight status when dealing with adolescents' body satisfaction issues.
... Yet, ethnographic research demonstrates that same-sex friends, by and large, reinforce and regulate young people's gender performances (Armstrong & Hamilton, 2013;Bettie, 2003;Smiler, 2012;Tolman, 2002). Other-sex friends may play a critical role in sexual socialization too; young people believe that having other-sex friends affords unique opportunities to learn about the other sex and to meet more other-sex peers (Hand & Furman, 2009). In fact, the ''other'' perspective is featured regularly in popular women's and men's magazines, including Cosmopolitan's ''Ask Him Anything'' column and GQ's ''Ask a Real Live Lady'' column. ...
... Although sexual communications are more frequent among same-sex friends than other-sex friends (Trinh & Ward, in press), more research is needed on the role of other-sex friendships in sexual socialization. Indeed, young people indicate that speaking with their other-sex friends exposes them to a new perspective (Hand & Furman, 2009). Whereas the present study focused on a binary (male vs. female friends), future research should consider how friends' gender identities shape how sexual scripts are conveyed, mocked, denied, or subverted. ...
Article
In the current study I used mixed methods to explore the messages that undergraduate women (n = 415) reported receiving from their male and female friends regarding sex and romantic relationships. Reports of friends’ messages varied widely and entailed both support for and criticism of sexual gatekeeping, sex positivity (e.g., sexual agency), and advice regarding sex and romantic relationships. Four individuals, including the author, developed codes to examine this wide range of responses to sexual expectations and prohibitions and independently and reliably coded the data. Response patterns illustrate that reports of female friends’ messages were typically longer and more nuanced than reports of male friends’ messages. Sex-positive messages and sexual gatekeeping messages were frequently reported simultaneously, and this pattern of co-occurrence illustrates the tensions between diverse discourses regarding women’s sexuality. The diversity in reports of friends’ messages challenges popular notions that friends’ influences are wholly problematic and highlights a need for more gender-focused sex education curricula.
... Likewise, for the participants, it is a display of disrespecting the limit of the friendship. However, confusion about the nature of the relationship was more evident in opposite companies than in same-sex friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009). This may imply that setting the boundary regardless of sex may encounter a certain degree of confusion on the nature of friendship. ...
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We are proud to announce the release of the third quarter journal issue (Volume 5 Number 3, July-September 2022). Twelve articles were included in this issue, exploring interesting social science topics with the use quantitative and qualitative research designs, particularly ethnographic, autoethnographic, and phenomenological approaches. Jamaal S. Omamalin explored the social dynamics of Filipino social drinking, or "tagay" employing the qualitative research design through the ethnographic method as the primary research technique. Tagay is engaged by people for reasons usually celebratory and enjoyable in nature. It possesses social dynamics and elements which gear its conduct- rules, time and place, behaviors, gender and power relations, material components, roles, mechanisms, definitions, and functions. Differing through social considerations, the identity of tagay as a Filipino drinking culture remains distinct as embodied by a single drinking glass and continues to be dynamic and adaptive, relying on those who partake. Tagay becomes what it is depending on the perception of those who participate. Elizabeth Susan V. Suarez investigated her role as a music educator -adult learner within the context of choral pedagogy. To answer her questions, she drew from my childhood experiences and discovered that "modelling behavior” is an exemplary pedagogical tool for expedited but efficient choral rehearsal. This led to the development of the Guided Partnered Model (GPM), which has shaped the learners, choir members, and my music appreciation, developing self-esteem, self-worth, and musicianship. The ethnography method was used for data collection, and writing was assembled through hindsight. Furthermore, data analysis was gleaned from narrative inquiry, finding that the expressions of knowledge, skills, and values evidenced through stage performances have resulted in self-affirmation. This provided reflective opportunities to develop this autoethnography. Ma. Albina A. Serra-Labrador used autoethnography to describe her experiences as a mother-teacher during the peak of the pandemic. It is in the context of her experiences and other mother-teachers working from home, conflicts in the roles played by mother-teachers at home, the expectation of society, and social norms. It is about how she perceived her reproductive and productive roles. Moreover, she interviewed mother-teachers, and their stories served as counter and conforming narratives to my narratives. The following are emerging themes: the unprecedented time; a mother is born; off the rhythm; and silver lining. These themes discussed the various phases mother-teachers grappled upon and triumphed. Writing this autoethnography was a therapeutic experience for the high emotions she had to deal with during the pandemic. Rianne Kate V. Reyes used autoethnography to provide a layered account of her experience as a locally stranded individual, particularly how she coped and used certain privileges to get out from such a dreadful experience. She conveyed her story by also incorporating different voices through related literature and interviews of other stranded students. Her journey begins with downplaying the pandemic's severity to coming to terms with her vulnerability at that time. Being stranded is akin to being stuck in limbo, overcoming the obstacles and challenges to get home, and realizing the importance of privilege in times of hardship. The coping strategies used while stranded reflect the distinct Filipino ways of coping, such as bayanihan, pag-tiis, and utang na loob. Writing this autoethnography has proven therapeutic and allowed her to see her experience in a wider context. . Eric M. Ragpala explored the experiences of the COVID-19 survivors during their mandatory isolation Descriptive phenomenology is the research design used in the study. Snowball sampling was utilized to determine the 24 participants of the study. The data was gathered through an online semi-structured interview conducted via Google Meet and Zoom, two video communication applications. Thematic analysis was utilized to develop themes based on the responses from the COVID-19 survivors who served as participants. The study generated four themes with twelve sub-themes. The study revealed that mental health impacts how the participants perceive, feel, behave, and perform, as well as how they plan, handle stress, and interact with others. The participants' mental health has been compromised because of the mandatory isolation, and they expressed a wide range of psychological emotions, including stress, fear, anxiety, and loneliness, that may impact their mental health. Daily communication and entertainment, an optimistic mindset, and praying regularly are the coping mechanisms identified in the study. Coping mechanisms were developed to determine the activities made by the participants to mitigate the impact of mandatory isolation on their mental health. Benny S. Soliman, Allan B. de Guzman, and Marc Eric S. Reyes utilized descriptive phenomenological method to characterize the mental health of a select group of Filipino YLHIV. In-depth interviews with ten fully consented male participants aged 18-30 were conducted. Field texts were subjected to Collaizi's (1978) seven-step data analysis method. Interestingly, the Mental Health Tower of Youth Living with HIV emerged after thoroughly analyzing the data. This model typifies the mental health of YLHIV, which operates in an environment where both internal and external pressures make them experience (a) disruptive thoughts, (b) depressive mood, and (c) deteriorative behavior. The study has vividly described the instability of the YLHIV's mental health. Therefore, it is vital to develop a mental health program specifically designed for youth living with HIV. Chester Alan R. Merza conducted a qualitative study to explore and analyze the formation and dissolution of straight-gay friendships among 13 Ilocano men recruited through snowball and purposive sampling. Pagtatanong-tanong, an indigenous method of data gathering, was employed. Thematic analysis and investigator triangulation were performed for analysis and validation. Results revealed that for the formation phase, Ilocano men portrayed active and passive roles that shared interest, nourishing personality, and open-mindedness were strong social motivators. Likewise, the causes of possible dissolution were growing intimacy and physical distance. Termination can be either a direct or indirect approach. The understanding of this unorthodox alliance provided communal empathy and acceptance and carried the mission to educate about the interaction of both communities. Holden Kenneth G. Alcazaren and John Robby O. Robiños assessed the research training needs of the faculty members in a private university in Bacoor, Cavite, regarding their current research characteristics (i.e., research self-efficacy, research attitudes, and research interests) as a basis for potential research training. Focusing on a relatively small scale of faculty members, the paper compared the faculty’s demographic profile and research characteristics to further understand the overall university faculty research productivity. The findings revealed that they have an above-average confidence level with their research skills, have a somewhat positive view of research, and are likely to be interested in doing research. The study found no significant differences among the participants' research characteristics when grouped according to their gender and educational attainment. However, there is a significant difference in the research attitudes among different age groups. Results have provided an objective assessment of the current research characteristics of university faculty members that may inform potential training programs. Shanee-Jee Llera-Nunez, Merlita V. Caelian, and Dennis V. Madrigal assessed the extent of practice of graduate attributes and the level of satisfaction with program delivery and implementation in the areas of vision, mission, goals, and objectives (VMGO), faculty, curriculum and instruction, research, student services, extension programs, physical facilities, and administration as assessed by graduates of academic years 2008 to 2020. Likewise, it investigated the challenges encountered by the graduates to complete their degrees and the reasons for enrolment. A descriptive study was conducted among 72 graduates from MPAG and 49 PhD DVM programs. The data were generated from a survey questionnaire and computed using the mean, standard deviation, frequency count, and percentage distribution. The profile of the graduates revealed that most of the rank-and-file students were promoted to either supervisory or higher management positions. Results further revealed that the practice of graduate attributes in the workplace is to a very great extent. Being spiritually sound was rated the highest while scholarly leaders of science got a slightly lower mean, both very great extent. Graduates were very highly satisfied with the program delivery and implementation. Research studies rank highest, followed by faculty. Physical facilities and student services were rated high only. Among the challenges encountered by graduates are concerns on thesis/dissertation writing, social relationships and work responsibilities, compulsory attendance to classes, inadequate services, and insufficient information. Hendra Hendra, Achmad Ridwan, and Agung Dharmawan Buchdadi examined the characteristics of excellent Buddhist sermons among Buddhist householder priests (Pandita) in Indonesia. It further investigated the discourse of a standard of an excellent Buddhist sermon in the context of Pandita. This qualitative research employed a single-case-study method that connects the analysis of documentation studies, observations, and in-depth interviews. The findings exhibited three key dimensions and indicators through which a Pandita is expected to employ in their duties related to Buddhist sermon, namely, bringing benefits, skillful delivery, and quality of the content. The findings may benefit future research on the competency framework of sermon training in Indonesia for Panditas. Feliciana P. Jacoba, Arneil G. Gabriel, Olive Chester M. Cuya-Antonio, Corinthian M. Obispo, and Jocelyn P. Gabriel examined the relationship between Emotional Quotient (EQ), profile, and faculty performance are important. The 175 faculty of a Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the Philippines were randomly selected. Employing Jerabek's (1996) Emotional Intelligence Test, EQ was found, on average, to indicate the faculty’s ability to recognize and deal with their own and others’ emotions effectively. Analysis of variance, regression, and Pearson Correlation revealed a significant positive correlation between teaching performance and their EQ, confirming that emotional intelligence influences teaching performance. Further, the combined impact of education and academic rank influences EQ, which may be the basis for further study. It is recommended that EQ be considered by HEIs when hiring faculty. Intelligence and emotional quotient are equally important in generating high performance. Therefore, the study may contribute to the significance of faculty's EQ on productivity. Leomarich F. Casinillo evaluate the different determinants that significantly influenced the engineering students' level of challenge in learning statistics in the new normal with the aid of a structured questionnaire by means of a Google form survey. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were employed to extract meaningful information from the gathered data. Results showed that the students' perception score for the level of challenge in learning statistics is 7.37 (±1.99), which can be interpreted as "challenging." This implies that students face challenges as they learn statistics lessons amid the pandemic setup. The regression models constructed have revealed that "age", "sex", "learning environment", "money spent on internet load", "physical health", and "creativity of statistics lessons" are the significant causal factors of the level of challenge in learning statistics. Conclusively, statistics teachers must adjust and be considerate to their students regarding their learning needs in line with the pandemic setup. Ma. Ron-Ron B. Pescador and Merlita V. Caelian determined the extent of implementation of revenue generation programs in cities for the fiscal years 2019-2020 as assessed by a sample size of 312 implementers and 411 stakeholders. It also assessed the effectiveness of the collection strategies employed by local treasurers and investigated the challenges encountered and the best practices of cities in implementing revenue generation programs. Using descriptive analysis, the results generally revealed that the extent of implementation of the revenue generation program is to a great extent. Collection strategies employed by the treasurers were found effective. Three groups of challenges emerged from the study; those challenges are common to treasurers and assessors, most of which are administrative in nature, including poor tax administration and corruption. The challenges for assessors include outdated valuation of properties due to irregular general revision resulting in a small tax base. Challenges for treasurers concern their compliance with government regulations and ordinances. The best practice recommended by stakeholders is adopting the electronic payment system and simplifying the tax system. The study concluded that the great extent of implementation of the revenue-generation programs using effective collection strategies led to efficient tax administration, resulting in self-reliant cities that minimize challenges and link best practices to viable service enhancements. The research findings attempt to address the gap in the literature and may serve as the basis for policies, programs, and plans of action that will enhance organizational practices and improve the quality of life. We congratulate all authors for the publication of your papers in this issue. Likewise, we extend our heartfelt appreciation to our referees and editors who did the rigorous review of the articles. Happy researching!
... Likewise, for the participants, it is a display of disrespecting the limit of the friendship. However, confusion about the nature of the relationship was more evident in opposite companies than in same-sex friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009). This may imply that setting the boundary regardless of sex may encounter a certain degree of confusion on the nature of friendship. ...
Article
In straight-gay friendship, diversity is recognized, respected, and celebrated. It is an unorthodox connection between heterosexual and gay men. The alliance is affected by the facilitating or constraining social forces of affectional orientation and traditional masculinity. The qualitative study sought to explore and analyze the formation and dissolution of straight-gay friendships among 13 Ilocano men recruited through snowball and purposive sampling. Pagtatanong-tanong, an indigenous method of data gathering, was employed. Thematic analysis and investigator triangulation were performed for analysis and validation. Results revealed that for the formation phase, Ilocano men portrayed active and passive roles that shared interest, nourishing personality, and open-mindedness were strong social motivators. Likewise, the causes of possible dissolution were growing intimacy and physical distance. Termination can be either a direct or indirect approach. The understanding of this unorthodox alliance provided communal empathy and acceptance, and carried the mission to educate about the interaction of both communities. It is suggested that positive portrayals lessen stigma and discrimination.
... Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa mengembangkan pola kelekatan yang aman (secure attachment) dan menyelesaikan konflik secara lebih konstruktif merupakan faktor penting dalam meningkatkan kepuasan hubungan. X PENDAHULUAN Hubungan berpacaran pada masa dewasa diyakini memiliki peranan yang penting dalam perkembangan sosial dan personal individu (Hand & Furman, 2009). Dibandingkan dengan hubungan berpacaran pada masa remaja, hubungan berpacaran pada masa dewasa dianggap lebih serius, serta saling mendukung dan berkomitmen, sehingga hubungan dapat bertahan lebih lama (Kansky, 2018). ...
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Pola kelekatan merupakan salah satu faktor individual yang secara konsisten ditemukan memengaruhi kepuasan hubungan. Resolusi konflik yang konstruktif juga terbukti dapat meningkatkan kepuasan hubungan. Meski pengaruh kedua faktor tersebut terhadap kepuasan berhubungan telah didukung oleh studi-studi mandiri, studi ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi secara komprehensif peran dari kedua faktor itu melalui analisis jalur. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini berfokus untuk melihat bagaimana pengaruh antara dua pola kelekatan (anxious attachment dan avoidant attachment) dan resolusi konflik (keterlibatan konflik, perilaku positif, dan perilaku menghindar) terhadap kepuasan hubungan berpacaran pada dewasa muda dengan menggunakan analisis jalur (path analysis). Terdapat 824 partisipan dewasa muda (18-36 tahun; Musia = 21.6; SD = 2.54) dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa anxious attachment, avoidant attachment, dan resolusi konflik secara signifikan berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan hubungan. Penelitian ini menggambarkan bahwa pola kelekatan dan resolusi konflik merupakan faktor penting dalam menjaga stabilitas dan kepuasan hubungan.
... The benefits of good quality own-gender friends for youth's social, emotional, and psychological adjustment have been well documented (e.g., Hodges et al., 1999;Lodder et al., 2017). Though own-gender friendships may be more stable and of higher quality than other-gender friends (Hand & Furman, 2009;Hartl et al., 2015), gender differences in these findings prohibit making strong conclusions (e.g., boys report more positive features associated with other-than own-gender friends, whereas girls may have better quality relationships with own-gender friends, or no differences; Kuttler et al., 1999;Poulin & Pedersen, 2007;Thomas & Daubman, 2001). Despite these somewhat mixed findings regarding the relative quality of other-compared with own-gender friends, there is increasing evidence that other-gender friendship also can provide important benefits (independent of own-gender friends). ...
Article
Though there is increasing awareness of the potential benefits of other‐gender interactions and friendships, there has been little research examining the factors that might act as barriers or promoters of such friendships. Our goal was to explore both individual‐level factors (i.e., gender identity) and indicators of the social environment (i.e., perceived peer norms) that might relate to other‐gender friendships. Sixth graders (N = 396, 47% girls; 65% White) nominated friends in their classrooms, reported their similarity to both own‐ and other‐gender peers and reported on perceived peer norms related to other‐gender interaction. Results indicated that, in general, feeling similar to other‐gender youth was associated with more other‐gender friends. Positive peer norms (e.g., heightened respect) but not negative norms (e.g., teasing) also were associated with more other‐gender friends. Findings have implications for the importance of broadening our understanding of friendship homophily to consider gendered interests/similarities in addition to gender category. Further, the promotion of positive peer norms over negative ones might be an effective means of intervention to promote other‐gender friendships.
... Participants wrote the names of their same-sex "very best friend" and their "second best friend" in their grades and schools [42]. Same-sex friendships were examined because the large majority of adolescents have same-sex best friends and numerous studies have indicated important differences in the function [43], quality, and influence of same-sex versus other-sex friendships during adolescence [44,45]. Only mutual (reciprocated) best friendships were subsequently considered. ...
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Although many studies show that peers influence the development of adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties, few have considered both internalizing and externalizing difficulties in the same study, and fewer have considered the contributions of parents. Using a longitudinal sample of 385 adolescents, the contributions of best friends’ internalizing and externalizing difficulties (as assessed in Grade 6; G6: Mage = 13.64 years; 53% female; 40% ethnic or racial minority) were examined as they predicted subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties (at G8); in addition, the moderating role of both maternal and paternal support (at G6) was explored. Structural equation modelling revealed that best friend internalizing difficulties predicted decreases, but that best friend externalizing difficulties predicted increases in adolescents’ externalizing difficulties over time. Significant interactions involving both maternal and paternal support revealed that the negative impact of a G6 best friend having internalizing problems on later G8 adolescent externalizing problems was stronger at low levels of maternal and paternal support. The findings highlight the complex, and interactive, influences of friends and parents on the development of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology during adolescence, and underscore the importance of targeting both sources of social influence in research and clinical work.
... These friendships are important to consider because both the features and influence of other-gender friendships differ from those of same-gender friendships (Feiring, 1999). For example, in a study of older adolescents averaging 17 years of age, othergender friendships provided less support but fewer negative interactions than same-gender friendships (Hand & Furman, 2009 Although no research has specifically considered the prevalence, qualities, or impact of other-gender friendships in the lives of withdrawn children and young adolescents, one potential implication of the aforementioned findings is that other-gender friends may be uniquely important. If highly withdrawn youth struggle in their friendships with same-gender peers, they may not struggle in the same way with other-gender peers. ...
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It has long been assumed that children and adolescents want to be with their peers and therefore make active efforts to engage with them. However, a sizable minority of youth avoid peers for internal reasons (e.g., anxiety, preferences for solitude) or because they are socially withdrawn. Although by definition, withdrawn youth tend to stay away from peers, they do interact and form relationships with peers. Yet most research assesses peers narrowly, focusing almost exclusively on youth who share the same gender and grade/school, leaving unanswered questions about which peers matter most. In this article, we highlight research findings that illustrate the very influential peer experiences of withdrawn children and adolescents, and we discuss emerging research on less frequently studied peers. By assessing peers more broadly, we contend, knowledge about the importance of peers to withdrawn youth will extend from same-gender and same-school contexts to the larger social milieus they inhabit.
... A good-quality romantic relationship is positively associated with higher levels of well-being and, through consistent reinforcement of self-worth, is also related to competence in later years (Kamp Dush and Amato 2005;Masten et al. 1995). Consequently, a good level of general well-being may enable identity formation and increase psychological adjustment (Bouchey 2007;Braithwaite et al. 2010;Shaffer Hand and Furman 2009). In contrast, adolescents who have negative experiences in romantic relationships have much less confidence in their capabilities to form qualified relationships, as well as in their abilities to perform other tasks in their lives; further, romantic relationships with negative qualities are associated with depressive symptoms (Furman and Shaffer 2003;La Greca and Harrison 2005). ...
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The present study investigated the effects parental psychological control, warmth, and behavioral control have on emotional-abuse victimization in romantic relationships. Two hundred and thirty university students who had been in a romantic relationship for at least six months completed the Parenting Styles Questionnaire, the Earlier Abuse Experience Information Form, and the Emotional Abuse Questionnaire. Moderation analysis indicated that the three-way interaction between mother’s psychological control, warmth, and behavioral control in regard to emotional abuse was significant. More specifically, mother’s psychological control predicted emotional-abuse victimization when warmth was both moderate and high while behavioral control was low. These findings indicate that, when parents do not provide sufficient behavioral control and monitoring of inappropriate behaviors during childhood, parental warmth exacerbates the negative effects psychological control has on emotional-abuse victimization in the romantic relationships of late adolescents. The present study significantly contributes to developing an understanding of how perceived childhood experiences of parental psychological control and parental attitudes are transferred to late adolescence and consequently could be a risk factor for adolescents’ experiences of emotional abuse in their romantic relationships.
... Hand, L.S., & Furman, W. (2008). Rewards and costs in adolescent other-sex friendships: Comparisons to same-sex friendships and romantic relationships. ...
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Online dating brings together strangers in an environment which often lacks real-time physical cues.This inexistence of a shared physical context gives people the opportunity to take advantage of the existing anonymity in online dating platforms and to claim identities as they like. The link between the online and offline identity is addressed by the warranting principle. Whilst in offline dating people generally have an unquestioned and unambiguous warrant between the presented identity and the tangible body’s self, this is not the case in online dating. The question arises whether such a warrant could potentially be generated in online dating platforms. Inspired by online shopping environments, the idea of adding reputation information as a warrant has recently been implemented in online dating apps (e.g., Do I Date and Once). However, the effects have not yet been investigated. Consequently, this research aims to investigate whether adding third-party reputation information to an online dating profile could potentially serve as a warrant for online daters and could impact their perceived trustworthiness and their chances to go on an offline date. This book is available via: https://networkcultures.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/It_Happened_on_Tinder_small.pdf
... 9 Additionally, romantic involvement opens adolescents to possibility of verbal, psychological, or physical dating aggression. 10,11 However, romantic involvement also provides adolescents with social support and companionship, 2,12 social satisfaction, 5 emotional intimacy, 13 and positive emotions. 14 Finally, as adolescents' sexual behavior most often occurs with dating or romantic relationship partners, 15 the quality and dynamics of those partnerships can affect sexual health outcomes. ...
Article
Using data from 600 adolescents (14-17 years old) from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, we examined the prevalence and demographic correlates of adolescents’ romantic activities (ie, group dating, dyadic dating, and relationship involvement) and their confidence in avoiding unwanted romantic experiences. Overall, 55.8% of adolescents had engaged in at least one romantic activity. More adolescents reported having gone on dyadic (42.1%) and group (37.3%) dates than had been involved in romantic relationships (32.9%). Age and gender were the most consistent correlates of each romantic activity. Each type of romantic activity becomes more common as adolescents mature. Female adolescents were less likely to report romantic activities. Approximately 25.7% of adolescents were not confident that they could turn down unwanted dates, and 34.3% were not confident that they could end a relationship they no longer wanted to be in. Clinicians can draw on our results when discussing romantic development with their adolescent patients.
... 22 Interestingly, existing studies reveal that romantic relationships provide a unique opportunity to practice and refine interpersonal skills as they typically involve more intense emotions and conflict than adolescents' friendships. 23,24 Adolescents also report that romantic partners provide support, companionship, and intimacy, which may help adolescents cope with day-to-day challenges and promote adjustment. 25,26 Thus, research suggests that some romantic relationships can advance social development among adolescents and protect against depression. ...
Article
Objective: Prior research identified 4 distinct dating trajectories from 6th to 12th grade: Low, Increasing, High Middle School, and Frequent. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 10th graders in the Low dating group differed on emotional, interpersonal, and adaptive skills from youth in the other trajectories. Methods: The sample consisted of 594 10th graders. We compared the 4 dating groups using teacher ratings (social skills, leadership, depression) and student self-reports (positive relationships with friends, at home, and at school; depression, suicidal ideation). To compare scores by dating trajectory, we used chi-square test and analysis of variance. Results: Students in the Low dating group had significantly higher teacher ratings of social skills and leadership, and lower ratings of depression compared to the other groups. Self-reports of positive relationships did not differ by dating groups. Self-reported depression was significantly lower in the Low dating group, but suicidal ideations did not differ. Conclusion: Adolescents who were not in a romantic relationship had good social skills and low depression, and fared better or equal to peers who dated. These results refute the notion that non-daters are maladjusted. Health promotion interventions in schools should include non-dating as one option of healthy development.
... Men varför en grupp unga inte har vänner finns det begränsad forskning om. Vänskapsrelationer mellan könen är på motsvarande sätt ett område som ägnats lite uppmärksamhet eller hänvisats till romantiska relationer (Hand och Furman 2009;Tuval-Mashiach, Walsh, Harel och Shulman 2008). Syftet med denna artikel är att synliggöra ungdomars erfarenheter av sociala relationer med vänner av samma respektive motsatt kön. ...
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Denna artikel baseras på en enkätundersökning bland 2356 elever i årskurs nio i Sverige. I artikeln studeras ungdomars erfarenheter av vänskapsrelationer. En stor majoritet uppger att de umgås med vänner på sin fritid, går hem till vänner och bjuder vänner hem till sig. Men en grupp ungdomar, framförallt flickor med utlandsfödda föräldrar tillåts inte umgås med vänner av motsatt kön.
... Men varför en grupp unga inte har vänner finns det begränsad forskning om. Vänskapsrelationer mellan könen är på motsvarande sätt ett område som ägnats lite uppmärksamhet eller hänvisats till romantiska relationer (Hand och Furman 2009;Tuval-Mashiach, Walsh, Harel och Shulman 2008). Syftet med denna artikel är att synliggöra ungdomars erfarenheter av sociala relationer med vänner av samma respektive motsatt kön. ...
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... Regardless of peer status, by late adolescence, other-sex friendships may eclipse same-sex friendships on relationship features of cohesion and closeness (Berndt, 1982;Guyer, Caouette, Lee, & Ruiz, 2014;Kuttler, La Greca, & Prinstein, 1999). Thus, othersex friendships appear to offer a valued relationship with distinct rewards, including a compensation for a lack of close same-sex friends, a precursor to romantic relationships, and an additional context for self-exploration and identity development (Bagwell & Schmidt, 2011;Hand & Furman, 2009). Because youth with ADHD are more likely to be rejected by their same-sex peers (Bagwell et al., 2001;Hoza et al., 2005), other-sex peers may offer another avenue to form high-quality friendships. ...
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Objective: This study compared the quality of friendships (same- and other-sex) in adolescents with and without ADHD, across age and gender. Method: A community sample of 115 participants (61 ADHD, 54 Comparison), ages 13 to 18, completed a questionnaire assessing perceived levels of social support and negative interactions experienced in their friendships. Results: Ratings of friendship social support diminished across age in youth with ADHD, but increased in typically developing youth. Adolescents with and without ADHD, however, did not differ on ratings of negative interactions experienced in their friendships. Compared with males, females rated their friendships to be more supportive, irrespective of ADHD status. Adolescents with and without ADHD rated their same-sex friendships to be simultaneously more supportive and more conflictual than their other-sex friendships. Conclusion: Assessments of adolescents with ADHD should include a careful examination of their social functioning with particular attention devoted to the quality of their friendships.
... Respondents who reported having important opposite-sex friendships were most often boys, also supporting prior research [23]. Some research suggests that opposite-sex friendships deteriorate during adolescence as romantic interest and relationships emerge [24,25], whereas other researchers argue that adolescents' romantic relationships may promote opposite-sex friendships [26,27]. More research is needed to understand what impact, if any, opposite-sex friendships have on development of healthy romantic relationships. ...
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Purpose A gender analysis was conducted to illuminate the key elements of friendships highlighted by early adolescent girls and boys in two sites for the purpose of better understanding the impact of gender norms on adolescent friendships in different contexts. Methods Narrative interviews with early adolescents were conducted in two sites: Assiut, Egypt (n = 37) and Ghent, Belgium (n = 30). The interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English, and coded using Atlas.ti for analysis. Results In both Assiut and Ghent, early adolescents reported some similarities in defining key characteristics of their same-sex friends as well as in the activities they share. However, differences were noticed among boys and girls within each site. In addition, the scope of shared activity was broader in Ghent than in Assiut. In both sites, few opposite-sex friendships were reported. Gender norms influenced choice of friends as well as the type and place of shared activities. Conclusions Building on knowledge that adolescent friendships guide and reinforce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that impact immediate and long-term health, our findings indicate that gender norms inform early adolescent friendships, which may impact healthy development.
... Dunphy's (1963) theory of adolescent peer structure and romantic development initially proposed that popular male and female group members crossed unisexual group boundaries to initiate cross-gender friendship and dating (2011) confirmed that adolescents' dating activities are situated in peer contexts and develop in four stages (infatuation, affiliative, intimate, and committed) by progressing from unisexual to mixed-gender peer groups led by socially skilled early daters. However, other researchers have found that intra-group dating has some pitfalls, as friendship-to-romance transitions jeopardize adolescent group cohesion and unity (Hand & Furman, 2009) and adolescents are more likely to look outside their immediate friendships for dating partners. Additional research on adolescent dating is needed to bridge network science with traditional theories of social development, providing important insights into adolescents' behaviors and attitudes (Kreager, Molloy, Moody, & Feinberg, 2016). ...
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Drawing from theories of structural power and relational competence, this paper proposes an innovative theoretical model able to predict relationship outcomes during adolescence by mapping the partners’ resources and patterns of exchange in four contexts (family, work/school, leisure time, and survival) as power bases in the relationship. Adolescent dating is an important juncture in the developmental pathway to adult partnership, both in terms of relational satisfaction and relationship violence. Power processes can capture the dynamics of both healthy and unhealthy relationships, regardless of gender, contingent to the power advantage (or disadvantage) within the relationship and can produce predictable consequences for partner’s behavior. Knowing which partner holds what kind and amount of power and in which decision-making areas may be used to predict the actions of either partner and ultimately identify the trajectories of their relationships.
... Dunphy's (1963) theory of adolescent peer structure and romantic development initially proposed that popular male and female group members crossed unisexual group boundaries to initiate cross-gender friendship and dating (2011) confirmed that adolescents' dating activities are situated in peer contexts and develop in four stages (infatuation, affiliative, intimate, and committed) by progressing from unisexual to mixed-gender peer groups led by socially skilled early daters. However, other researchers have found that intra-group dating has some pitfalls, as friendship-to-romance transitions jeopardize adolescent group cohesion and unity (Hand & Furman, 2009) and adolescents are more likely to look outside their immediate friendships for dating partners. Additional research on adolescent dating is needed to bridge network science with traditional theories of social development, providing important insights into adolescents' behaviors and attitudes (Kreager, Molloy, Moody, & Feinberg, 2016). ...
Chapter
Drawing from theories of structural power and exchange and relational competence theory, this article proposes an innovative theoretical model able to predict relationship outcomes during adolescence by mapping the partners’ resources and patterns of exchange in four contexts (family, work/school, leisure time, and …….) as power bases in the relationship. Power processes can capture the dynamics of both healthy and unhealthy relationships, regardless of gender, contingent to the power advantage (or disadvantage) within the relationship. Knowing which partner holds what kind and amount of power and in which decision making areas, may be used to predict the actions of either partner and ultimately identify the trajectories of their relationships. Keywords: dating, relational resources, power, relationship outcomes, adolescence
... Again, participants provided contact information for their partner so that we contacted the romantic partners directly to obtain consent. A similar duration criterion has been used in prior research (Collins, Welsh, & Furman, 2009;Connolly & Johnson, 1996;Hand & Furman, 2009;Madsen & Collins, 2011). Therefore, participants and their romantic partner completed assessments only once during ages 20 It is important to note that of the 160 participants, 146 reported experiencing a recent breakup and only 22 participants (16%) had the same romantic partner at both waves of data collection and were included in the analyses, which highlight the romantic exploration typical during emerging adulthood. ...
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This study assessed the key aspects of romantic relationship dissolution in emerging adulthood as predictors of future mental health and romantic qualities. It utilized a longitudinal, multiinformant, multimethod study of 160 participants with their romantic partners and close friends followed from ages 20–25, with a breakup assessed at age 22. Having control over initiating a breakup at age 22 predicted relative increases in peer-rated internalizing symptoms and autonomy-undermining interactions with a new partner at ages 23–25. Having a greater understanding of the reasons for a breakup predicted lower self-reported internalizing symptoms and relative decreases in partner-reported romantic conflict as well as relative increases in self-reported relationship satisfaction and peer-rated intimate relationship competence at ages 23–25. Predictions remained after accounting for numerous potential confounds including age 20–22 baseline relationship quality, social competence, internalizing symptoms, and gender. Implications for understanding links between breakup characteristics on emerging adult psychological and relationship functioning are discussed.
... For example, demanding coursework and preparation for college placement often lead to increases in school related stress (McAndrew, Akande, Turner, & Sharma, 1998). Socially, adolescents frequently experience stressors in the domain of romantic relationships and peer networks (Hand & Furman, 2009;Kuttler & LaGreca, 2004). Also common is elevated stress associated with developing more intimate friendships while maintaining family relationships and establishing autonomy (Laursen & Collins, 1994;Nieder & Seiffge-Krenke, 2001). ...
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... Nesta fase da vida, os adolescentes caracterizam-se por uma maior autonomia face à família, desenvolvem relações íntimas com pares do mesmo sexo e começam a namorar. O namoro e o estabelecimento de relações amorosas representam uma transição para a adultez sendo para muitos adolescentes manifestações do estado adulto (Hand & Furman, 2009). Os relacionamentos amorosos assumem maior significado no final da adolescência, começando os adolescentes a ensaiar os equilíbrios entre a construção da intimidade e da identidade. ...
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Background: Within interpersonal relationships, romantic relationships take on a special meaning at the end of adolescence. Objectives: The main purpose of this methodological study was to translate and adapt the Relationship Questionnaire into the Portuguese culture. Methodology: A questionnaire (questions related to socio-demographic characteristics and romantic relationships, as well as the relationship questionnaire) was applied to a sample composed of 127 higher education students, obtained using a non-probability purposive sampling. Results: Results showed a 16-item scale, distributed into four factors (Possessive relationship, Controlling relationship, Demeaning relationship, and Destructive relationship), which explained 63.850% of the variance. The correlation matrix (?²=840.544; pKaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO=0.815) ensured the adequacy of the factor model. The scale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.847). Data confirmed that the instrument is accurate, reliable and valid. Young people have healthy relationships, though female students have better relationships than male students. Conclusion: Results indicated that this is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess romantic relationships.
... Present findings showed that romantic relationship satisfaction, although accounted for less than VEC scores, was the predictor of both the SWLS and Positive and PANAS scores of the participants. In the literature, the positive association between romantic relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction has been one of the most consistent findings in several studies (e.g., Collins, 2003;Dush & Amato, 2005;Furman & Shaffer, 2003;Hand & Furman, 2006;Zarrett & Eccles, 2006). Studies also yielded that quality of the romantic relationships was found to be a predictor of depressive symptoms (e.g., La Greca & Harrison, 2005;Davila, Steinberg, Kachadourian, Cobb, & Fincham, 2004). ...
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This study explored the role of romantic relationship satisfaction and two dimensions of career commitment (vocational exploration and commitment and tendency to foreclose) in subjective well-being among 391 (169 females, 222 males) senior university students. The results of two separate multiple regression analyses yielded that life satisfaction was significantly predicted by relationship satisfaction and vocational exploration and commitment whereas positive and negative emotions were significantly predicted by relationship satisfaction, tendency to foreclose and vocational exploration and commitment. The implications, limitations and future directions for research were discussed. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu
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The main goal of the analysis presented in this paper is to examine the dynamics of including other-sex peers in the peer networks of early adolescents, aged 11 (at T1) and 13 (at T2), and the relationship between sex heterophily and changes in the sense of peer integration. The analysis was conducted using the Latent Difference Score (LDS) model with data from a representative nationwide longitudinal study in Poland (n = 5748). With reference to the dynamics related to the heterophilic process, the research confirmed that at the beginning of grade 5 of primary school, heterophily is still relatively rare, yet towards the end of early adolescence, there is a gradual shift, more strongly in girls, towards breaking through the strictly same-sex segregation and embarking on heterophilic relationships. Importantly, the LDS model—even when controlling for different measures of peer network—showed significant and positive (among both girls and boys) relations between establishing cross-sex relationships and the sense of peer integration. The results indicate that the appearance of the opposite sex in the peer network between grades 5 and 6 will improve the sense of peer integration. The findings are discussed in relation to results from other studies in the field.
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Building a new social network (SNS) with connections is especially important for first-year students to deal with the transition to college. The goal of the current study was to investigate the link between congruence in extroversion and the interaction frequency within cross-sex classmate dyads on SNS. Based on a cross-sectional study among 371 cross-sex first-year students dyads (Mage = 18; SD = 2.08) using polynomial regression with response surface analysis, we found that: (i) dyads with congruent levels of extroversion indeed interacted more frequently online than dyads with incongruent levels of extroversion; (ii) extroverted dyads interacted more frequently online than introverted dyads; and (iii) dyads with an increased level of incongruence on extroversion had a decreased frequency of online interaction. The sex-segregated social network might be magnified by the difference in extroversion within cross-sex dyads. The discussion focused on potential explanations from the reward of interaction model and the expectations for cross-sex friendship.
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This study assessed early adolescent positive and negative affect as long-term predictors of romantic conflict, anxious and avoidant attachment, romantic and social competence, and relationship satisfaction in adulthood utilizing a longitudinal, multi-informant study of 166 participants assessed annually at ages 14–17, and again at ages 23–25. Positive affect in adolescence predicted greater self-rated social competence during late adolescence and greater self-rated romantic competence and less partner-reported hostile conflict almost a decade later. Negative affect predicted lower social and romantic competence. Results generally remained significant after controlling for personality traits, providing greater support for the hypothesis that affect has a robust, direct relation to romantic development over time.
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The study examined how preadolescents and adolescents represent and make sense of their mothers’ and friends’ perspectives concerning their real-life conflicts. Participants (N = 108) in three age groups (10-, 14-, and 17-year-olds) provided narrative accounts of their own conflicts with mothers and friends. The findings revealed age-related gains in understandings of others’ perspectives, with youths increasingly referring to others’ reasons and critically examining the validity of others’ perspectives. Contrary to some assumptions in the literature, youths were as likely to explain and validate their mother’s as their friend’s perspective. Moreover, youths more frequently agreed with their mother’s perspective and invalidated their friend’s perspective. The findings provide important insights into the different contexts afforded by youths’ relationships for socio-cognitive development.
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The aim of this research was to explore the association of abuse experiences (child sexual abuse and adult physical/sexual violence) to sexual relationship power among Black substance-abusing women. The study was a secondary analysis of baseline data collected from 124 Black women in 12 drug treatment programs across the United States who initially participated in an HIV risk reduction trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The findings revealed that adult sexual abuse, but not childhood sexual or adult physical abuse, was associated with lower relationship control and decision-making dominance as measured by the Sexual Relationship Power Scale. The findings suggest that designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions that address adult sexual violence may enhance the relationship power of Black substance-abusing women and in turn may promote safer sex practices.
Chapter
Adolescence is a time of significant social, emotional, and cognitive change. This chapter will review the literature on neurobiological changes that underlie these behaviors. We begin by operationalizing adolescence, then review how the conceptual frameworks and empirical studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience have contributed to understanding this important developmental window and conclude by discussing the translational value of the basic science and implications for real-world applicability. Keywords: adolescence; socio-emotional; cognitive; brain development
Chapter
In the following chapter, we examine several factors related to same- and other-gender interactions from childhood through adolescence. In general, childhood is marked by a period of segregation into same-gender groups followed by a gradual period of integration into mixed-gender groups which begins in adolescence. However, as we highlight, there are many factors (e.g., pubertal development, social cognitions, social contexts) that contribute to individual variations in the transition from same-gender to mixed-gender groups. Drawing from the work of several prominent feminist scholars, we take a perspective that focuses on individual differences beyond a limited gender difference paradigm.
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Established research has shown that friendship is an important correlate of happiness. Yet, these studies did not directly examine the relationship between cross-sex friendship and happiness. Thus, the studies reported in this chapter aimed to investigate the association of cross-sex friendship with happiness. The first study revealed that cross-sex friendship quality and happiness are positively correlated, regardless of how happiness was assessed (e.g., affective, global). The second study showed that cross-sex friendship-happiness association is similar among emerging adults in Turkey and the U.S. The third study provided additional support for a positive relationship between cross-sex friendship quality and happiness, as it revealed that cross-sex friendship quality predicted unique variance in happiness above and beyond the role of personality for both U.S. and Turkish samples. Collectively, the studies have shown that cross-sex friendship quality is a reliable correlate of happiness. Findings were evaluated in light of theory and directions for future research were provided.
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Although previous research demonstrates that peers serve as top sexual informants and advisers, little is known about how peer sexual communications may be a gendered phenomenon. Do communications about sex and romantic relationships vary according to who is speaking to whom? The current study examined 517 college students' reports of male and female peers' communications of four sexual scripts and the associations between reports of such communications and participants' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Results suggest that peer messages about sex and relationships vary by the gender of the recipient and the gender of the communicator. Women reported more frequent communications of all sexual scripts from female peers than did men. In terms of male peers' sexual communications, only one gender difference emerged: men reported receiving significantly fewer messages about the relational script than women. Compared to same-sex peer communications, there were more associations between other-sex peer communications and undergraduates' sexual attitudes and levels of sexual and dating experience. Implications for the role of same- and other-sex peers in sexual socialization are discussed.
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Love has been identified as one of the most important aspects of interpersonal strength. During adolescence, the main social contexts in relation to love are friendships and dating relationships. The aim of this study was to measure the link between romantic relationship experience and personal adjustment, taking into account effects of age and sex, and to analyse the effect of adolescent dating relationship quality on personal adjustment. A total of 3258 Spanish adolescents were surveyed. The results indicated that dating status does not affect adolescent self-esteem, but has a significant effect on internalizing and externalizing behaviours and sexist beliefs. Regarding relationship quality, those adolescents who had a very good-quality relationship reported higher levels of psychological adjustment in terms of the variables measured. Results are discussed according to their utility for positive social development and its links to dating relationship quality during adolescence.
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A sample of 406 subjects completed a questionnaire testing the influence of personal spirituality, education and several other factors on sexual tension in cross-sex friendships (CSF Tension). The subjects included 143 students from a Christian university (CU), 137 from a secular junior college (JC), and 127 non-students (NS). The primary criterion variable was the amount of CSF Tension experienced: Each subject rated to what extent sexual tension made friendship difficult due to different characteristics (e.g., he/she is physically attractive, dressed seductively) of 16 hypothetical friendships. A measure of sexuality—a composite of 12 questions adapted from the Self-Assessment Survey—assessed sexual activity, values, and ideation. Other predictors included neuroticism, openness to experience, extraversion, and demographics. JC students rated significantly more liberal than CU students on all 12 of the sexuality questions but no CSF-Tension differences were found for 15 of the 16 hypothetical CSF comparisons. JC students also rated two standard deviations lower on spirituality than CU students. Also, NS differed from students by being older, more spiritual, more educated, less involved in sexual activities, and experienced less CSF Tension. For the entire sample, spirituality was associated with sharply lower levels of sexual activities and ideation (r = −.601) and significantly lower levels of CSF Tension. The influence of education was similar to that of spirituality but not as robust.
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Mixed-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual behaviors increase during adolescence as a normal part of development. However, some studies have revealed potential risks to these types of social relationships. Different authors have indicated that dating violence among adolescents is an issue for concern. To date, there has been little research on this topic cross-nationally. This study examined and compared the prevalence and characteristics of physical dating violence among young people aged between 15 and 18 years in England and Spain (N = 200 in Spain, N = 199 in England), and how being involved (or not) in this violence relates to romantic relationship quality. Results indicated that approximately 23% of young people reported victimization and 30% reported perpetrating physical dating violence. In both countries, most of those involved in physical dating violence reported involvement in reciprocal violence (displaying both aggression and victimization). Those young people involved in dating violence reported higher levels on scales assessing negative aspects of relationship quality compared with those not involved, but there were no significant differences in positive aspects of relationship quality. Furthermore, different patterns appeared relating to the severity of violence and country. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice. © The Author(s) 2015.
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The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship–romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 ninth-grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: Romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition to dating.
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Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.
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This study explores peer influence on urban preadolescents' perceptions of social status benefits of material possessions. A longitudinal design is used. Natural, interaction-based peer groups are identified through the Social Cognitive Map procedure. Findings indicate that high-status rather than low-status peers in a group are influential on individuals. Strong influence of high-status peers is observed in both boys' and girls' groups. High-status peers are particularly influential on low-status individuals in girls' groups and on high-status individuals in boys' groups. Additionally, high-status peers' influence is stronger on African Americans than on Hispanic Americans and tends to be stronger on Hispanic Americans than on White Americans. These findings imply that special attention should be given to high-status youth in groups who highly endorse social benefits of material possessions. Characteristics of the target youth (e.g., gender, ethnicity and individual status) should be considered in future efforts for reducing the pervasiveness of materialism.
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Research on cross-sex friendships has noted the presence of sexual tension in many of these relationships. Yet, to our knowledge, no studies have directly examined the frequency and effect of sexual contact on friendships. This investigation provides an initial look at the prevalence of sexual activity in otherwise `platonic' cross-sex friendships and applies a recently developed model of expectation violations to understand the related consequences of that behavior. Results suggest that approximately half the heterosexual college student population has engaged in sexual activity in an otherwise platonic cross-sex friendship and that the aversive uncertainty within valence model of expectation violations serves as a good framework from which to understand the associated relational outcomes. The findings' implications for research on cross-sex friendships are discussed.
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This article reports a longitudinal study of the social interaction patterns of college students and adults. Adults (N = 113) from 26 to 31 years old who had participated in similar studies in college kept detailed records of social activity for 2 weeks. Three hypotheses were supported. First, from college to adulthood, opposite-sex socializing grew, whereas same-sex, mixed-sex, and group interactions decreased. Second, intimacy increased in adulthood, whereas satisfaction did not. Contrary to theories that focus on the formation of primary intimate relationships in early adulthood, intimacy increased in all interaction categories. Sex differences in the development of intimacy were also noted. Third, correlations revealed marked consistency over time in several variables. Implications of these findings for social development during early adulthood were examined.
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provides a review of the measurement of friendship perceptions [of school age children and adolescents] / the existing measures of friendship perceptions are described / the conceptual background, psychometric properties, and validational evidence for each instrument are presented / the general conceptual and methodological issues involved in the measurement of friendship perceptions are discussed questionnaire measures of friendship features [Berndt's assessment of friendship features, Friendship Qualities Scale, Friendship Quality Questionnaire, Friendship Questionnaire, Network of Relationships Inventory, Behavioral Systems Questionnaire] / interview measures of friendship characteristics [Children's Friendship Interview, current status of measurement of friendships] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In "Making a Friend in Youth," Robert L. Selman and Lynn Hickey Schultz look at theoretical, clinical, and research work from a developmental perspective to do two things: describe both normal and pathological interactions of children with regard to friendship; and show how youngsters, lonely because of their social behavior or emotional problems, can be helped to learn what it means and feels like to make and keep a friend. Selman and his colleagues at a day school he directs for children with social and emotional difficulties have developed an innovative treatment program called "pair therapy," the first clinical approach of its kind that uses and builds upon developmental theory. Regardless of their formal diagnosis, the children at the school all have experienced isolation from peers because of their overly aggressive or withdrawn behavior. To foster psychosocial and personal development, pairs of children carry out challenging activities together and, with the help of a therapist, reflect on the success of their mutual efforts. The result of ten years of work, it demonstrates that developmental theory, empirical research, and clinical practice can nurture and support one another in the quest to understand normality and pathology in psychosocial development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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focus . . . on heterosexual relationships, but we believe that most of the ideas are applicable to gay and lesbian relationships as well (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the nature and functions of adolescent romantic relationships, integrating prevailing theories of social exchange with a developmental perspective on close relationships. First, models of close relationships derived from social exchange theory are reviewed, with particular emphasis on principles applicable to adolescents. Second, developmental processes that shape social exchanges are discussed. Adolescent romantic relationships may differ from those during other age periods due to alterations in resources attributed to proximal and distal mechanisms. Third, a framework for understanding adolescent romantic relationships is proposed that elaborates developmental variations in exchange processes and resources. The authors' aim is to apply models of adult social exchange to adolescent romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We tested evolution-based hypotheses about (1) sex differences in perceived benefits and costs of opposite-sex friendship and (2) differences in perceived benefits of same-sex friendships and opposite-sex friendships. In the Preliminary Study (N= 400), an act nomination procedure was used to identify the benefits and costs of same-sex friendships and opposite-sex friendships. In Study 1, a total of 231 participants (100 men, 131 women) evaluated the frequency of occurrence of 100 benefits and costs in their closest same-sex friendship or opposite-sex friendship. In Study 2, a total of 229 participants (92 men, 137 women) evaluated how beneficial and how costly each would be if it were to occur in their closest same-sex friendship or opposite-sex friendship. Results supported several key hypotheses. Men perceived sex with their opposite-sex friends as more beneficial than did women. Women reported receiving protection from their opposite-sex friends more often than did men, and they perceived the protection as highly beneficial. Both men and women reported receiving information from opposite-sex friends about how to attract mates, and they perceived this information as beneficial. The discussion focuses on whether these benefits reflect an evolved psychology of opposite-sex friendship, or instead are incidental by-products.
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Adolescents' conceptions of cross-sex friendships and romantic relationships were explored in a sample of 1755 adolescent boys and girls ranging in age from 9 to 14 years. These adolescents uniquely characterized romantic relationships in terms of passion and commitment whereas cross-sex friendships were largely characterized by affiliation. Even the youngest of the adolescents made these distinctions. Nonetheless, both age and experience were associated with changes in the use of descriptors. References to intimacy increased in both types of relationships, and references to passion and affiliation decreased. These age- and experience-related differences occurred independently of each other. The results are consistent with the view that even young adolescents who are lacking extensive experiences with cross-sex and romantic relationships would have an awareness of the core features of romantic relationships. Moreover their conceptions were consistent with adults' views of love and friendship suggesting a shared cultural base for conceptions of cross-sex friendship and romantic relationships.
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A set of criteria based upon biostatistical considerations for determining the interrater reliability of specific adaptive behavior items in a given setting was presented. The advantages and limitations of extant statistical assessment procedures were discussed. Also, a set of guidelines for differentiating type of adaptive behavior that are statistically reliable from those that are reliable in a clinical or practical sense was delineated. Data sets were presented throughout in order to illustrate the advantages of recommended statistical procedures over other available ones.
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Children's vulnerability to jealousy surrounding their best friends was explored in 2 studies. Study 1 involved 94 adolescents who reported on their friendship jealousy on a newly created measure. Results indicated that the jealousy measure had sound psychometric properties and produced individual differences that were robust over time and free from socially desirable responding. As expected, girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest friendship jealousy. Study 2 involved 399 young adolescents and extended the measurement of self-report jealousy to a broader age range. In addition, Study 2 included assessments of jealousy provided by friends and other peers. Self- and peer-reported jealousy were only modestly associated and had somewhat distinct correlates. Structural modeling revealed that young adolescents' reputation for friendship jealousy was linked to behaving aggressively and to broader peer adjustment difficulties. Both self- and peer-reported jealousy contributed to loneliness.
Book
Although innumerable songs, poems, plays and movies have been written about adolescent romantic relationships, no scientific book has been written on that topic. Numerous volumes exist on adult romantic relationships and on adolescent sexuality, but this volume, first published in 2000, was the first to examine adolescent romantic relationships. A group of eminent investigators met to discuss the topic and were charged with the task of writing about their conceptualization of these relationships and of romantic experiences in adolescence. The papers cover the full range of aspects of romantic relationships, and examine general processes and individual differences within the general context of adolescent development. Each paper contains numerous provocative ideas that are designed to stimulate research on the topic.
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Previous research has provided descriptions of the changes occurring in the adolescent social network, particularly as these changes relate to the onset of heterosocial relationships. However, questions regarding the characteristics that distinguish among the various types of other-sex relationships and regarding the function of these various relationships for adolescent social and emotional development remain to be examined. In this article, possible functions of and challenges associated with the onset of other-sex relationships are explored. In addition, methodological challenges associated with studying other-sex relationships during adolescence are described.
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Early romantic experiences are believed to play a central role in the development of the self and intimacy, although little work exists on the nature of romance in early to middle adolescence. This study examines White, middle class 15-year-olds' descriptions of their dating partners and romance. As expected, the majority of the sample had dating experiences that were brief in duration, although they were intense in terms of frequency of contact. Affiliative more than attachment qualities characterized these adolescents' conscious views of romance. Girls were more likely to mention interpersonal qualities, and boys were more likely to mention physical attraction when describing romantic relationships
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This study investigated attraction in heterosexual cross-sex friendships. Study I used in-depth interviews with 20 dyads (40 participants) to uncover four types of attraction that occur in cross-sex friendships - subjective physical/sexual attraction, objective physical/sexual attraction, romantic attraction, and friendship attraction. These types of attraction are subject to being symmetrical or asymmetrical, and may incur changes over time. Study 11 (N = 231) used a questionnaire to assess the frequency of each type of attraction and the frequency with which types of attraction are perceived to change. The most prevalent form of attraction was friendship attraction, and the least prevalent form was romantic attraction. The implications of these results for understanding both cross-sex friendships and the process of attraction are discussed.
Article
This study examined factors associated with sexual attraction in close, platonic, cross-sex friendships. Male (n = 83) and female (n = 103) heterosexual undergraduates were surveyed about their relationships with their closest current platonic cross-sex friend. Results suggest that sexual attraction is often present in cross-sex friendships, common to both sexes, and is more frequently evidenced by males. Regression analysis revealed that the variables of sex, loving, previous romantic involvement and the interaction of loving and (bio-logical) sex all accounted for significant amounts of variance in predicting sexual attraction, while liking, relationship duration and current romantic status did not. Loving accounted for the most variance in predicting sexual attraction.
Article
Theorists have suggested that adolescents'same-sex peer relations are related to their opposite-sex peer relations. To test this hypothesis, 112 tenth graders were asked to complete sociometric ratings, a perceived social competence questionnaire, and a questionnaire designed to measure empathic perspective-taking and idiosyncratic strategy use. Results indicated that there was a relation between same-sex and opposite-sex measures, but there were sex and target differences. Both same-sex and opposite-sex popularity were more strongly related for boys than for girls. Compared to boys, girls indicated greater empathic perspective taking in their same-sex peer relations, but there was no sex difference for empathic perspective taking in the subjects' opposite-sex peer relations. Compared to girls, boys were more idiosyncratic in their ranking of the effectiveness of the strategies. Finally, popularity and perceived social competence was more strongly related for girls than for boys.
Article
The present study investigated how adolescents perceive their same-sex and opposite-sex friendships. A total of 576 6th-through 12th-grade students rated both their same-sex and opposite-sex friendships on 11 functional and structural attributes. MANOVA and ANOVA results revealed significant gender differences for most of the attributes, but no grade differences. The females gave higher ratings than did the males to both the same-sex and opposite-sex friendships. Whereas the same-sexfriendship received higher ratings than the opposite-sexfriendship on some attributes, the overallpattern offindings in this regard indicated that same-sex and opposite-sex friendships share in functional importance by simultaneously providing for many of the social needs of adolescents.
Article
Responds to S. L. Meyer et al (see record 1991-27106-001) and P. J. Caplan and J. Larkin (see record 1991-27078-001) concerning E. E. Maccoby's (see record 1990-19535-001) original article on gender and relationships. It is argued that attitudes toward the opposite sex are forged in the peer group; interactive styles developed there carry over into mixed-sex interactions of adolescence and adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Suggest that R. Fisher's (1925) correlation ratio is a useful descriptive measure for assessing the practical importance of research findings. A. Acock and G. Stavig (1979) proposed a nonparametric measure of association that was defined differently from Fisher's. The present authors define a correlation ratio for selected nonparametric tests that is conceptually parallel to that of Fisher and that can be applied to any ANOVA on ranks. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the hypothesis that children would report that different social-network members provide different social provisions, using 199 5th–6th grade White children. Ss completed network of relationships inventories, which assessed 10 qualities of their relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, grandparents, friends, and teachers. Consistent with R. S. Weiss's (1974) theory (i.e., that individuals seek specific social provisions or types of social support in their relationships with others), Ss reported seeking different provisions from different individuals. Mothers and fathers were turned to most often for affection, enhancement of worth, a sense of reliable aid, and instrumental aid. Next to parents, grandparents were turned to most often for affection and enhancement of worth, and teachers were turned to most often for instrumental aid. Friends were the greatest source of companionship, and friends and mothers received the highest ratings of intimacy. Ss also reported having more power in their relationships with other children than in those with adults. Conflict was perceived as occurring most often in sibling relationships. Ss were most satisfied with their relationships with mothers, and they thought their relationships with mothers and fathers were the most important. Bases for children's differentiations of their relationships and implications for understanding social networks are discussed. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a review and analysis of theoretical and empirical issues in the mechanisms and functions of interpersonal behaviors and their development in social encounters. The relationship of social cognitive structures in the individual to societal structures, developmental, emotional, and economic aspects of interpersonal relations, and remedial techniques for miscommunication and impaired performance resulting from cognitive differences are also examined. (20 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Suggests approaching adolescent romantic relationships from a developmental-contextual perspective. The author presents a heuristic model of a prototypic, four-phase sequence through which adolescents pass in their development of romantic interests, skills, and relationship experiences. In each phase the author discusses the character of romantic activity and key features of the peer context. Finally, some applications of this model to future research on the role of peers in adolescent romantic relationships are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The significance of having close, cross-sex friendships in adolescence was examined with 223 10th through 12th graders (aged 15–18 yrs). Adolescents with only same-sex friends were compared to adolescents with both same- and cross-sex friends in terms of their social and emotional functioning. In addition, the friendship qualities (companionship, intimacy, prosocial support, esteem support) of adolescents with same- and cross-sex friendships were compared. Results reveal that having a close, cross-sex friend is a common experience in adolescence, and increases with adolescent age. Furthermore, findings reveal that adolescents reported more companionship in their same-sex versus cross-sex friendships, younger adolescent girls reported more prosocial support in their same- versus cross-sex friendships, and adolescent boys reported receiving more esteem support from their cross-sex friends. Unlike during middle childhood, having close, cross-sex friends in adolescence does not appear to be associated with problems in social or behavioral adjustment, but is associated with lower perceived social acceptance. The implications of these and other findings for understanding adolescents' close friendships and issues for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined dating-stage and developmental-contextual models of romantic relationships during early adolescence. Same-gender friendships, affiliation with mixed-gender groups, dating, and romantic relationships were investigated in a sample of 1,284 young adolescents of diverse ethnocultural backgrounds. Data were collected cross-sectionally in Grades 5 through 8, as well as longitudinally in the fall and spring of an academic year. Consistent with a stage model, affiliation with mixed-gender groups and dating were qualitatively distinct activities that were sequentially organized and facilitated the progression from same-gender friendships to dyadic romantic relationships. The results also provide insights on how the developmental context may alter stage pathways: Dating activities were incorporated with mixed-gender affiliations, group-based romantic stages showed more stability than other stages, and the ethnocultural context influenced romantic timing. Finally, results indicated that participation in romantic activities heightened adolescents' future interest in having a romantic relationship.
Article
Adolescents' peer structures and the quality of their friendships were explored as antecedents of romantic relationships. Longitudinal data were gathered in a sample of 180 high school students over a 3-year period from grade 9 to grade 11. Consistent with Dunphy (1963), small groups of close friends were predictive of other-sex peer networks which were, in turn predictive of the emergence of future romantic relationships. Indirect effects were found for same-sex groups of close friends and same-sex networks. Consistent with Furman and Wehner (1994), the qualitative features of relationships with both friends and romantic partners were predictive of the qualitative features of subsequent romantic experiences. These linkages suggest ways in which peer relationships may support romantic development at this stage of the life cycle.
Article
Adolescents' romantic relationships have attracted popular interest, but, until recently, little scientific curiosity. Research has been impeded by erroneous assumptions that adolescent relationships are trivial and transitory, that they provide little information beyond measures of the influence of parent-child and peer relationships, and that their impact is primarily associated with problems of behavior and adjustment. This article proposes that distinguishing five features of romantic relationships (involvement, partner selection, relationship content, quality, and cognitive and emotional processes) is essential to describing adolescents' relationships and their developmental significance. These distinctions also help to clarify the role of context, age-related variations, and individual differences in the impact of romantic experiences. Research is needed to illuminate questions of how and under what conditions romantic relationships affect individual development and how romantic and other close relationships jointly influence developmental trajectories during adolescence.
Article
The articles in this special issue tell a story of adolescence--a remarkably consistent and coherent story. It is a story of the emergence of other-sex relationships of the change from the predominantly same-sex peer networks of preadolescents to the networks of adolescents containing several new forms of other-sex relationships. These papers highlight the richness of these relationships and the individual dyadic and contextual factors that influence and are influenced by the emergence of these relationships in the adolescent social arena. It is a story that is only now being told by social scientists and one to which these papers contribute substantially. In our commentary we summarize our rendition of this story highlight the key themes in these papers and point out the chapters that remain to be written in this story of adolescent other-sex relationships. (excerpt)
Article
Linear and curvilinear associations between experiences in the same- and other-sex peer groups and the protective functions of friendship with an other-sex peer for early adolescents without a same-sex friend were examined in a sample of 231 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade girls and boys. Findings indicate that (a) at the level of the individual, early adolescent girls and, to a much smaller extent, early adolescent boys show a preference for same-sex peers; (b) this unilateral difference in expansiveness accounts for differences in participation rates in same -and other-sex friendships; (c) children of both sexes who are either very popular or very unpopular are more likely than other children to have other-sex friends; and (d) among children without a same-sex friend, having an other-sex friend is linked to higher levels of perceived well-being for boys and lower levels of well-being for girls. Each of these results is discussed according to our understanding of how the same- and other-sex peer systems function as a system to affect development in early adolescence.
Article
This research was an investigation into four challenges purported to confront cross-sex friends. One hundred and thirty eight individuals (females = 86, males = 52) completed two surveys designed to explore the extent to which the sexual, emotional bond, audience, and equality challenges were present in their cross-sex friendships. Over 98% of the participants were heterosexual, 99% were Caucasian, and approximately 5% were Hispanic. Data gathered from the first survey were analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance, with gender, type of friendship, and romantic status as the independent variables, and three of the four challenges as the dependent variables. The first survey also included open-ended questions designed to explore the nature and existence of the challenges. The second survey was in a diary format. Respondents kept a frequency count for three weeks of discussions they had with their cross-sex friend concerning the challenges, and thoughts that they had as individuals concerning those challenges. Results from both surveys indicate that though the challenges exist and have powerful effects on a small percentage of individuals in cross-sex friendships, for the majority of participants the challenges are not perceived as salient.
Article
Cross-sex friendship is a generally ignored yet significant close relationship in American culture. This paper is primarily a call to social scientists for attention to this relationship. The paper discusses the reasons for a lack of attention to this close relationship, and delineates the significance of cross-sex friendship as a focus of analysis for social scientists interested in the field of personal relationships. An initial exploration of the nature of cross-sex friendship is achieved through a conceptualization of the major relationship challenges that cross-sex friends must negotiate. These challenges are (1) determining the type of emotional bond experienced in the relationship, (2) confronting the issue of sexuality, (3) dealing with the issue of relationship equality within a cultural context of gender inequality, and (4) the challenge of public relationships—presenting the relationship as authentic to relevant audiences. The paper concludes by recommending several principles and avenues of future research to begin a research tradition on this significant yet ignored personal relationship.
Chapter
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Article
Abstract:Adolescent friendships containing the emotional intensity of romantic relationships, yet lacking sexual activity, have been documented in numerous cultures and historical periods. This research explores these relationships among contemporary young sexual-minority women. Phone interviews with 80 lesbian, bisexual, and unlabeled women between 18 and 25 years of age (M = 21.8, SD = 2.1) assessed characteristics of their closest adolescent friendships. Cluster analysis differentiated conventional from passionate friendships, the latter containing more characteristics of romantic relationships. Same-sex friendships were not more likely than cross-sex friendships to be classified as passionate, and passionate friendships were not disproportionately likely to involve sexual attraction. Same-sex passionate friendships were initiated at earlier ages than same-sex conventional friendships, and those that developed prior to a young woman's first same-sex sexual contact were less likely t journal article
Article
This article argues that behavioral differentiation of the sexes is minimal when children are observed or tested individually. Sex differences emerge primarily in social situations, and their nature varies with the gender composition of dyads and groups. Children find same-sex play partners more compatible, and they segregate themselves into same-sex groups, in which distinctive interaction styles emerge. These styles are described. As children move into adolescence, the patterns they developed in their childhood same-sex groups are carried over into cross-sex encounters in which girls' styles put them at a disadvantage. Patterns of mutual influence can become more symmetrical in intimate male-female dyads, but the distinctive styles of the two sexes can still be seen in such dyads and are subsequently manifested in the roles and relationships of parenthood. The implications of these continuities are considered.
Article
This study is concerned with the development of companionship and intimacy. Subjects in the second, fifth, and eighth grades (mean ages, respectively, 7.5, 10.4, and 13.4) rated the importance and extent of companionship and intimate disclosure experienced in social life in general and in each of 8 types of relationships. Companionship was perceived as a desired social provision at all 3 grade levels. Family members were important providers of companionship for children in the second and fifth grades, but they became significantly less so in the eighth grade. Same-sex peers were important providers across all 3 grades, and they became increasingly important as children grew older. Opposite-sex peers did not become important as companions until the eighth grade. Counter to expectations, there were no age differences in the global desire for intimacy. Parents were important providers of intimate disclosure for the youngest children, but they were less important among the younger adolescents. There was mixed support for the hypothesis that same-sex friends become important providers of intimacy during preadolescence. Findings were different for boys and girls, suggesting that girls seek intimate disclosure in friendship at younger ages than boys do.
Article
Adolescents' peer structures and the quality of their friendships were explored as antecedents of romantic relationships. Longitudinal data were gathered in a sample of 180 high school students over a 3-year period from grade 9 to grade 11. Consistent with Dunphy (1963), small groups of close friends were predictive of other-sex peer networks which were, in turn predictive of the emergence of future romantic relationships. Indirect effects were found for same-sex groups of close friends and same-sex networks. Consistent with Furman and Wehner (1994), the qualitative features of relationships with both friends and romantic partners were predictive of the qualitative features of subsequent romantic experiences. These linkages suggest ways in which peer relationships may support romantic development at this stage of the life cycle.
The social psychology of groups Adolescent Other-sex Friendships 287
  • J W Thibaut
  • H H Kelley
Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley. Adolescent Other-sex Friendships 287 © Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2008 Social Development, 18, 2, 2009
Boundary areas in social and developmental psychology
  • W. G. Graziano
The company they keep: Friendships in childhood and adolescence
  • W. Furman
Advances in adolescent development: Volume 6, Relationships during adolescence
  • W. Furman
  • E. A. Wehner
Gender and relationships
  • Maccoby
Can men and women just be friends? Personal Relationships