Kinesthetic Sensibility

ArticleinPhysiological Reviews 58(4):763-820 · November 1978with50 Reads
Source: PubMed
In this review each candidate for a role in kinesthesia is discussed at first alone, starting with the afferent inputs from joints, then from muscles, and then from skin and following with the efferent mechanisms, the sensations of innervation. An analysis of the integrated operation of these various components follows. In considering sensations of position and movement, the viewpoint introduced and defended by Goodwin, McCloskey, and Matthews (104) and subsequently expanded in recent reviews by Goodwin (100) and by Matthews (194) is again taken here - that is, that muscle afferents are important for such sensations and that sensations of innervation per se are not. Sensations of muscular force, or heaviness, also are considered here and the conclusion is reached that both muscle afferents and sensations of innervation are important.
    • "An age-related reduction in hip abduction–adduction strength and torque production rate (Johnson et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011) may negatively affect ML-balance control (Chang et al., 2005 ). Besides adequate muscle strength, balance control requires adequate integration of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information (McCloskey, 1978). Hip abductor afference appears to play a role in this, since hip abductor vibration causes ML sway (Cofre Lizama et al., 2016; Roden-Reynolds et al., 2015). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Mediolateral balance impairment is an important cause of falling in older adults. We aimed to investigate whether hip abductor muscular strength and/or position sense are limiting factors in mediolateral balance control. Methods: Sixteen community-dwelling older adults performed three different mediolateral weight-shifting tasks, by tracking (1) a sinusoidally moving visual target, "visual-MELBA"; (2) a sinusoidally translating platform without explicit visual feedback, "mechanical-MELBA"; and (3) an unpredictable platform translation, "sudden-platform-translation." Balance performance was quantified for each task and correlated with hip abductor position sense, isometric strength, and peak hip abduction/adduction moments and moment rates. Findings: Participants with better balance performance showed higher and faster hip abduction/adduction moment production during the tasks. Isometric hip abductor strength was significantly correlated with accuracy of tracking the visual target, while hip abductor position sense was associated with the bandwidth over which the mechanical target could be tracked and with a smaller delay between CoM movement and the sudden-platform movement. Interpretation: Hip abductor muscles play an important role in mediolateral balance control. Accurate balance performance appears limited by lower hip abductor strength when explicit visual information on balance reduces the need for hip abductor proprioception, while proprioceptive acuity may limit balance performance when no explicit enhanced feedback is presented and required weight shifts have to be inferred from "normal" sensory information.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "Furthermore, pain related to knee OA influences work productivity and employment status [45]. In addition to pain, patients may have joint stiffness, knee extensor muscle weakness, and altered proprioception [46][47][48]. These symptoms often cause restriction in the ability to get up from the chair, difficulty in walking, and stair climbing [46]. "
    Full-text · Chapter · May 2016 · Physical Therapy in Sport
    • "Additionally, studies have also reported active repositioning trials to be a more functional assessment of afferent pathways as a result of general attenuation and selective gating of kinaesthetic awareness during active voluntary movements (Kaminski & Perrin, 1996; Lephart et al., 1997). The researchers also related the role of muscle spindles during conscious perception of limb movement to be higher as they detect changes in muscle length during voluntary contractions (McCloskey, 1978), as compared to the passive trials (Kaminski & Perrin, 1996; Lephart et al., 1997 ). Thereby, suggesting active proprioceptive tests to be a more functional assessment of proprioception as compared to the passive tests. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The current review and meta-analysis systematically investigated the effect of joint stabilizers on proprioception, postural stability, and neurological activity. Methods Systematic identification of published literature was performed on online databases; Scopus, PEDro, SportDiscus, and EMBASE, followed by a critical PEDro methodological quality appraisal. Data from the studies were extracted and summarised in a tabular format. Results Of 2954 records, 50 studies, involving 1443 participants met our inclusion criteria. In the included studies, 60% of studies reported significant enhancements (p<0.05), 19% of studies reported enhancements (p>0.05) and 21% of studies reported no effects of joint stabilizers on proprioception and/or postural stability. Meta-analysis of pooled studies demonstrated beneficial effects of joint stabilizers on the knee (95%CI: 0.35° to 0.61°) and ankle (at 10: 0.1° to 0.65°) joint proprioception, and negligible effects on postural stability (-0.28° to 0.19°). Conclusion The pooled evidence suggests that application of joint stabilizers enhances joint proprioception and stability by not merely altering the mechanical stability of the underlying musculoskeletal structures but by also causing subtle changes in cerebral hemodynamics and musculoskeletal activation. These findings support clinical implications of joint stabilizers as a prophylactic and rehabilitation measure in modern sports and rehabilitation settings.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
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