In this review each candidate for a role in kinesthesia is discussed at first alone, starting with the afferent inputs from joints, then from muscles, and then from skin and following with the efferent mechanisms, the sensations of innervation. An analysis of the integrated operation of these various components follows. In considering sensations of position and movement, the viewpoint introduced and defended by Goodwin, McCloskey, and Matthews (104) and subsequently expanded in recent reviews by Goodwin (100) and by Matthews (194) is again taken here - that is, that muscle afferents are important for such sensations and that sensations of innervation per se are not. Sensations of muscular force, or heaviness, also are considered here and the conclusion is reached that both muscle afferents and sensations of innervation are important.
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