Article

Effect of Server Introduction on Restaurant Tipping1

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Abstract

The effect of a server introducing herself by name on restaurant tipping was investigated. Forty-two, 2-person dining parties were randomly assigned to either a name or a no name introduction condition. The use of a buffet brunch reduced contact between server and diners and held bill size constant. Results indicated that having the server introduce herself by name resulted in a significantly higher tipping rate (23.4%) than when the server did not introduce herself by name (15.0%), p < .001. Tipping rate also was affected by method of payment, with diners who charged the meal having a higher rate (22.6%) than those paying cash (15.9%), p < .001. The findings suggest the importance of initial server-diner interactions. Possible alternative explanations and suggestions for future research are provided.

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... One of the behavioural variables that has the greatest impact on the size of the tip is the size of the bill (Lynn & McCall 2000;Green, Meyerson & Schneider 2003;Saayman & Saayman 2015). Regarding the method of payment, a positive relationship was reported between credit card payment and size of the tip (Garrity & Degelman 1990;Lynn 2006aLynn , 2006b. Alcohol consumption also revealed a positive correlation between it and the size of the tip (Sanchez 2002;Conlin, Lynn & O'Donoghue 2003). ...
... Rind and Strohmetz (2001) found that in sunny weather, diners give larger tips -hence it could be said that weather influences tipping behaviour. In addition, the size of the town or city also has a positive relationship with tips, which implies that people dining in larger cities tend to give more substantial tips (Garrity & Degelman 1990;Rind & Strohmetz 2001;Lynn & Thomas-Heysbert 2003) as well as the location and whether the restaurant is elegant. The aforementioned research collectively indicates that a variety of factors influence tipping behaviour, and while certain factors overlap among diners, there is currently no universal set of variables that explain tipping behaviour. ...
... The following three factors were identified, in order of importance: waiter competence and service, mood and ambience and ethnicity and restaurant setting. Lynn and McCall (2000) also identified mood as having a positive relationship with tipping, while restaurant setting and location were also identified by Garrity and Degelman (1990), Rind and Strohmetz (2001) and Lynn and Thomas-Heybert (2003). Ethnicity was also identified by Harris (1995), Lynn (2004) and Lynn et al. (2008). ...
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The literature on dining and tipping behaviour has focused mostly on the United States of America (USA), while minimal research has been conducted in African countries. While there is a negative and grounded perception surrounding black diners being poor tippers in the USA, hardly any research has focused on the dining or tipping behaviour of this dining market from a developing country perspective. The intention of this exploratory research was to fill the current knowledge gap by segmenting black South Africans on the basis of their motives for dining out and to determine the differences in the dining and tipping behaviour of the different segments. To target potential black diners, a visitor survey was conducted at the Cape Town International Jazz Festival. A total of 256 usable questionnaires were returned and included in the analysis. Socialisation, gastronomy enjoyment, lifestyle and escape and status were identified as the four motives for dining out. Based on these motives, different black dining segments were identified and an OSI (Occasionalists, Socialisers and Indulgers) typology of diners proposed. The dining and tipping behaviour of these dining segments are furthermore influenced by several factors, with clear implications for both the server and restaurateurs. The results shed light on the dining and tipping behaviour of black South African diners and showed that this dining market cannot be regarded as bad tippers.
... Studies suggest that the service provider can increase tip amounts by utilizing subtle interpersonal interaction techniques, such that tips are markedly higher when the provider: touches or compliments the patron (Crusco & Wetzel, 1984;Seiter, 2007;Seiter & Dutson, 2007), introduces themselves (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), returns excess change to the patron (Azar, Yosef, & Bar-Eli, 2015), or includes a candy or "thank you" with the bill (Rind & Bordia, 1995, 1996Strohmetz, Rind, Fisher, & Lynn, 2002). Lynn, Jabbour, and Kim (2012) found that tips were higher with more time spent in the restaurant, but only when the bill was relatively small. ...
... While the present study is unable to pinpoint the precise mechanism within reciprocity theory that yields greater tipping due to a lack of qualitative data, both needs for equity and altruistic intentions remain relevant. Based on prior research (Aydin & Acun, 2019;Azar et al., 2015;Garrity & Degelman, 1990;Rind & Bordia, 1995, 1996Strohmetz et al., 2002) that found that tips increased in imbalanced (inequitable) situations that included an introduction, excess change, or a candy or "thank you" on the bill, we hypothesized that after accounting for number of passengers and both day and month travelled, patrons who hail their taxi will tip by a greater percentage than patrons who dispatch taxis by prior arrangement. We refer to our study as exploratory to stress its generation of testable hypotheses using a secondary data source. ...
... Indeed, these results align well with those observed in the context of the service industry. Specifically, tips were higher with longer cab rides and enhanced interactions (Aydin & Acun, 2019), or after receiving a touch or compliment or introduction from waitstaff (Crusco & Wetzel, 1984;Garrity & Degelman, 1990;Seiter & Dutson, 2007), or a candy with the bill (Azar et al., 2015;Rind & Bordia, 1995, 1996. Similarly, prior research showed patrons who spent more time in the restaurant but incurred a small bill could rebalance the perceived inequity by leaving a larger tip (Lynn et al., 2012). ...
Article
The present study evaluated the extent to which reciprocity (equity) theory could explain differential levels of tipping in New York taxi fares. From 2014 to 2017, the database recorded 73 million cab fares; however, only credit transactions (i.e., recording patrons’ tips) were included (28 million fares). Based on a reciprocity hypothesis, patrons in cabs hailed randomly off the street were expected to tip more compared to patrons who arranged travel at a dispatch centre. An analysis of covariance for each of the four years supported this, wherein patrons in hailed cabs tipped twice the percentage (14%) than patrons in dispatched cabs (7%); these results were confirmed using equivalent procedures that assumed neither normality nor variance homogeneity. Several limitations are discussed, as are directions for future research. Keywords: reciprocity, tipping, equity, genuine intention, taxi
... Results indicated a negative association between tip size and introducing oneself by name. In contrast, the only field experiment on this topic found that food servers increased the size of their tips when they introduced themselves by name (Garrity & Degelman, 1990). ...
... Lynn and McCall (2009), for instance, argued that an issue for future researchers to consider is an inconsistency regarding the association between tipping behavior and food servers introducing themselves by name. As noted earlier, one study found that food servers who introduced themselves earned higher tips than food servers who did not (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), while another found just the opposite (Lynn & McCall, 2009). In light of this, we note that the approach used by food servers in the present study included self-introductions. ...
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This study tested the effect of mutual introductions and calling customers by name on tipping behavior in restaurants. We hypothesized that mutual introductions at the beginning of the service encounter would result in larger tips. We also asked whether customer age would moderate the effect of mutual introductions on tipping behavior. Two female food servers waited on 194 customers and either facilitated mutual introductions (i.e., food servers introduced themselves by name and then invited customers to do likewise) or did not. Then, servers either used the customers’ names throughout the service interaction or did not. Finally, servers estimated customers’ ages. Multiple regression analysis indicated that food servers received a 6% increase in tips when they invited introductions and addressed customers by name than when they did not. However, customers’ estimated age was not associated with tipping behavior.
... However, from a server's perspective, a more interesting question is what tip-collecting strategies are most effective, as customer tips make up a significant portion of servers' overall income (Azar and Yossi, 2008;Holland, 2009;Mealey, 2010). Yet, only a handful of previous studies have addressed this research question (Davis et al., 1998;Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Guéguen and Jacob, 2005;Lynn and Mynier, 1993). While a layman's theory supports the notion that "a smile goes a long way," it is important to consider some boundary conditions such as the authenticity of the server's smile. ...
... To date, only a handful of studies have addressed this issue. Previous research found that if a server behaves in a way that makes customers feel close to him or her, either physically (servers squat, Davis et al., 1998;Lynn and Mynier, 1993; or touch the customer, Guéguen and Jacob, 2005), or psychologically (servers introduce themselves by names, Garrity and Degelman, 1990), customers typically tip more. ...
Purpose – While a layman's theory supports the view that “a smile goes a long way,” the authors argue that “not all smiles are created equal” in the sense that the server's smiles need to be genuine and authentic, in particular when the customer has a relationship with the server. The purpose of this study is to test such hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach – A 2 (display authenticity: authentic vs inauthentic) by 2 (state of service relationship: existing service relationship vs no service relationship) experiment was used to test the proposed hypotheses. In total, 768 surveys were distributed and 278 responses were received. Two-way ANOVA analyses were deployed. Findings – Data collected from customers reveal that authentic smiles have a direct positive impact on customers' willingness to tip. Further, such an effect is even stronger when the customer has an existing relationship with the server. Research limitations/implications – Servers should receive appropriate training regarding “deep acting” techniques. The most important limitation is the use of written scenarios as stimuli. Practical implications – Showing an authentic smile can be an effective tip-collecting strategy. Employees who are in contact with guests and customers should not only be instructed to provide service with a smile but should also be advised to make that smile appear authentic. Therefore, appropriate training of frontline employees, regarding authenticity of smiles, could be beneficial both for the company and for the employees themselves. Originality/value – No research has been done investigating whether authentic smiles generate larger tips and if so, whether any boundary conditions exist for such effects.
... Another positive relationship was found between paying with a credit card, compared to paying cash (Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Lynn, 2006); therefore, method of payment also has an influence. The size of the group or dining party has a negative influence; as the group increases, the tip becomes smaller (Freeman et al, 1975;Lynn, 2006). ...
... Aspects that were also found to play a role in tipping include the weather -for example, if it is a sunny day, people give larger tips (Crusco and Wentzel, 1984;Rind and Strohmetz, 2001). In addition, the size of the town or city has a positive relationship with bigger tips (McCrohan and Pearl, 1983;Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Rind and Strohmetz, 2001;Lynn and Thomas-Haysbert, 2003), as well as the location and whether the restaurant is elegant. This research thus aims to expand on this topic. ...
Article
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There are generally three explanations for tipping: social approval, equitable service exchange and other reasons. The combination and importance of these reasons differ between countries and cultures. In this study, three distinct questions were asked. What influences the frequency of the tipping decision? What influences the magnitude of the tip given? Who is likely to tip more than the norm? A survey among diners was conducted at one of South Africa's largest arts festivals. Using regression analyses, this paper aims to identify the factors that influence tipping behaviour in South Africa. While most previous research has focused on motivational and/or psychological reasons for tipping, this research contributes towards understanding tipping from an economic perspective. The results show that the frequency of tipping and its magnitude are a function of the ability to pay. However, socio-demographics play an important role, especially in the paying of the above-normal tip.
... As for the bill-related attributes, both bill size and payment method have been examined as factors that affect tips. Research reports that dining customers with a larger bill size who pay with credit cards tend to leave larger tips than do those with a smaller bill size who pay by cash (Garrity & Degelman, 1990;Lynn & Grassman, 1990;Lynn & Latané, 1984). When it comes to the customer-related attributes that influence tip sizes, a customer's gender, patronage frequency, size of dining party, and alcohol consumption have been investigated. ...
... As for the server-related attributes that affect tip size, the majority of previous studies predominantly examined whether a server's efforts can increase tip size. Studies reported that the server can increase tip size if he or she squats down besides the table when serving the patrons (Lynn & Mynier, 1993), introduces him or herself by name (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), and touches the patron (Crusco & Wetzel, 1984) while smiling (Tidd & Lockard, 1978). In particular, Lynn and McCall (2009)-in their online survey of more than 1000 restaurant servers-demonstrate 13 tip-enhancing techniques that are positively related to customer-reported tip size (1: tell jokes or stories, 2: squat next to table, 3: call customer by name, 4: touch customer, 5: upsell, 6: smile, 7: compliment customers, 8: predict good weather, 9: write "thank you" on checks, 10: draw on checks, 11: wear flair, 12: introduce self, and 13: repeat order). ...
Article
This exploratory study investigates two different types of determinants for servers’ actual tip earnings (individual characteristics versus work conditions) using readily available organizational data. Unlike previous studies that measured servers’ tips by asking subjects (servers or customers) to report tip amounts, we measure the actual tip earnings of each server extracted from the point of sale system. The results show that work conditions (daily work hours, weekend work hours, and immediate supervisors’ characteristics) have stronger relationships with servers’ tip earnings than servers’ individual characteristics (gender, tenure, and job satisfaction). This study represents an initial attempt to use objective data to measure servers’ tip earnings and explore its potential relationship with work conditions compared to its relationships with individual characteristics which have been frequently examined in previous studies.
... A positive correlation between employees introducing themselves by name and larger tips was found by Garrity and Degelman (1990). In their study, only two-person dining parties in a self-service buffet were included in the case study. ...
... The parties in the experimental condition leave tips more often. Therefore, verbal interaction between servers and guests has positive impact on tipping behaviour, as found in previous studies (Garrity & Degelman, 1990;Seiter, 2007;Seiter & Weger, 2010). On the other hand, tipping provides an incentive for the delivery of quality service and positively affects employee motivation (Kwortnik, Lynn, & Ross, 2009). ...
Article
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Verbal communication is the main form of personal interaction. This article presents evidence for the positive role of service staff’s verbalized hospitality on consumer behaviour. The principal aim of the study was to explore the effect of verbal attention on making additional purchases and tipping behaviour in three different countries (Sweden, England, and Serbia). Moreover, research investigated whether server gender, customer gender, and group size moderate the relationship between verbal attention, additional purchase, and tipping behaviour. For the purpose of the study, servers in casual dining restaurants either paid special verbal attention to group diners, or did not do so, before asking target questions. The results show that group diners in verbal attention conditions make additional purchases and leave tips more often. While group size moderates the relationship between verbal attention and additional purchase and tipping behaviour, such role was not confirmed in the case of server gender and customer gender. The theoretical and practical implications of verbal interaction between servers and customers are discussed, as well as differences in three analysed countries.
... Past research has documented that restaurant employees can use a wide range of techniques enabling them to increase their tips (Lynn, 2011;Lynn & McCall, 2009). For instance, it has been shown that they get more tips when they introduce themselves by their name (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), when they touch the customers briefly on the shoulder (Lynn, Le, & Sherwyn, 1998) or the forearm (Guéguen & Jacob, 2005) or when they bring a second candy with the bill (Strohmetz, Rind, Fisher, & Lynn, 2002). All these techniques have received considerable interest in the United States context because most servers' wages are based on the tips they receive. ...
... Past studies have indeed shown that practice and feedback are two key ingredients of effective learning (Salas, Tannenbaum, Kraiger, & Smith-Jentsch, 2012;Taylor, Russ-Eft, & Chan, 2005). Roleplays and active discussions were applied precisely for 12 tip-enhancing behaviors: introducing oneself by name (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), repeating the customers' orders (Van Baaren, 2005), smiling (Tidd & Lockard, 1978), complimenting the customer (Seiter, 2007), squatting next to the table (Lynn & Mynier, 1993), standing at a close distance (Jacob & Guéguen, 2012), calling customers by their name (Seiter & Weger, 2013), upselling (Butler & Snizek, 1976), touching the customer (Crusco & Wetzel, 1984), giving a second candy (Strohmetz et al., 2002), drawing on the check (Rind & Bordia, 1996), writing "thank you" on the check (Rind & Bordia, 1995). ...
Article
Previous studies have shown that restaurant employees who use tip-enhancing behaviors such as smiling, introducing oneself by one’s name or writing “thank you” on the bill receive more tips. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a training intervention about tip-enhancing behaviors on the amount of tips received by restaurant employees. The sample of this study comprised 143 employees working in 62 restaurants. Sixty-nine participants took part in the training intervention and 74 were in the control condition. After the training intervention, the amount of tips received by the employees was tracked over 5 days. Results showed that participants who followed the training intervention used more tip-enhancing behaviors than the participants in the control group, that a higher use of tip-enhancing behaviors was related to higher amount of tips and that the effect of the training intervention on the amount of tips was fully mediated by an increase in the use of tip-enhancing behaviors.
... Given the liking principle of compliance gaining, customers who like, or feel affiliation with, a server should give larger tips than customers who do not feel a connection (Cialdini, 1993). As such, it is not surprising that food servers earn higher tips by smiling (Tidd and Lockard, 1978), introducing themselves (Garrity and Degelman, 1990); using customers' names (Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Seiter et al., 2016;Seiter andWeger, 2013, 2018), moving closer (Davis et al., 1998;Guéguen, and Jacob, 2010;Leodoro and Lynn, 2007;Lynn and Mynier, 1993;Jacob and Guéguen, 2012), and touching customers (Crusco and Wetzel, 1984;Guéguen and Jacob, 2005;Hornik, 1992;Hubbard et al., 2003;Lynn et al., 1998). In addition to these behaviors, immediacy is signaled through increased eye contact (Andersen, 2004), which suggests one possible advantage of memorizing customers' orders. ...
... Given the liking principle of compliance gaining, customers who like, or feel affiliation with, a server should give larger tips than customers who do not feel a connection (Cialdini, 1993). As such, it is not surprising that food servers earn higher tips by smiling (Tidd and Lockard, 1978), introducing themselves (Garrity and Degelman, 1990); using customers' names (Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Seiter et al., 2016;Seiter andWeger, 2013, 2018), moving closer (Davis et al., 1998;Guéguen, and Jacob, 2010;Leodoro and Lynn, 2007;Lynn and Mynier, 1993;Jacob and Guéguen, 2012), and touching customers (Crusco and Wetzel, 1984;Guéguen and Jacob, 2005;Hornik, 1992;Hubbard et al., 2003;Lynn et al., 1998). In addition to these behaviors, immediacy is signaled through increased eye contact (Andersen, 2004), which suggests one possible advantage of memorizing customers' orders. ...
Article
The three experiments presented here examined the effectiveness of restaurant servers who memorize customers’ orders rather than writing orders down. In the experiments, participants viewed videos of simulated server-diner interactions and provided ratings of service quality and expected tip amount. Experiment 1 found no advantage to memorizing orders over writing them down. Experiment 2 found that memorized and correctly delivered entrees resulted in statistically significant increases in customers’ perceptions of service quality and in marginally higher tips. In addition, muddled (versus correct) orders resulted in lower ratings of service quality and dramatically lower anticipated tips. Experiment 3 found that memorizing and muddling complex orders had no effect on perceptions of service quality but led to significantly lower expected tips. The applied and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
... In addition, sometimes the treatment of employees, their communication skills, and even their ways of addressing might overshadow the quality of service. There are studies reporting that personal approaches of employees , their being able to display amiable attitudes or communicate warmly with customers , and their way of addressing to customers (Garrity & Degelman, 1990;Seiter & Weger, 2013) influence the tipping behavior. Moreover, the fact that employees realize that their attitudes and communication skills are influential in tipping behavior bring along their attempts to apply methods for getting higher tips. ...
... Attitudes of employees towards customers can influence the amount of tips. It is known that the way of communication with customers (Garrity & Degelman, 1990;Seiter & Weger, 2013), particularly personalized mode of communication -a thank you note on the bill or a smiling face- (Kinard & Kinard, 2013;Rind & Bordia, 1996;Rind & Strohmetz, 1999) can influence the tipping behavior. Considering that each generation was brought up in different economic conditions and that their behaviors can differ accordingly (Aka, 2017;Chen, 2010), the amounts of tips left by the generations might differ based on the personalization of the bill; hereupon, the following hypothesis can be written. ...
... If they learn personal information about the person crafting the product, they also indicate higher willingness to pay and better evaluations (e.g., perceptions of the taste of a cookie; Fuchs et al., 2019). Even something as simple as knowing a server's name can increase tips by more than 50% (Garrity and Degelman, 1990). ...
Article
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This research highlights the importance of retailer-consumer identity congruence – the match between the retail brand identity and the consumers’ identity. Retailers can leverage identity congruence to forge meaningful consumer-brand relationships which will result in enhanced engagement, brand loyalty, and willingness to pay. The paper discusses how creative merchandise offerings and innovative merchandising strategies contribute to the creation of a unique retail brand identity and facilitate communication of this identity to consumers. Based on interviews with retail practitioners, we formulate five ways in which retailers can establish and communicate their brand identity through creative merchandise offerings (by focusing on unique and original merchandise, leveraging local merchandise to reflect the area, making their merchandise akin to art, offering sustainable merchandise, and a high fashion product assortment). In addition, we focus on five innovative merchandising strategies which help the retailer connect the brand to the customer (creating themes, reflecting the brand story, being playful, signaling exclusivity, and virtual merchandising). We then discuss how retailers can utilize social and technological tools to amplify the retailer identity to consumers, thus increasing the likelihood that a consumer will view their identity congruent with the retail brand.
... (3) Customer knowledge of the server's name (Garrity & Degelman, 1990). ...
Article
In many countries around the world, consumers leave voluntary payments of money (called “tips”) to service workers who have served them. Since tips are an expense that consumers are free to avoid, tipping is an anomalous behavior that many economists regard as “irrational” or “mysterious.” In this paper, I present a motivational framework that offers plausible explanations for: (1) why people tip, (2) how tipping norms came into existence and evolve over time, (3) why tipping varies across individuals and situations, (4) why tipping is more common for some occupations than others, and (5) why tipping varies across nations. Many hypotheses generated from this framework are supported by existing research, but many other implications of the framework have yet to be adequately tested. Thus, the framework provides a promising and much needed theoretical guide for future research on a fascinating consumer behavior.
... The second category concerns characteristics of the server that are not directly tied to job performance such as his or her attractiveness (with more attractive female servers receiving larger tips; Hornik, 1993;Lynn & Simons, 2000) and style of dress (with more attractively dressed servers receiving larger tips; Stillman & Hensley, 1980). The third category concerns the interactions that occur between the server and the customer such as servers briefly touching their customers (Crusco & Wetzel, 1984;Hornik, 1993), squatting during their initial interaction with customers (Lynn & Mynier, 1993), giving their first names to customers during their initial contact (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), smiling at customers during their initial interaction (Tidd & Lockard, 1978), writing messages (e.g., ''Thank you'') or drawing happy faces on the back of the check (Rind & Bordia, 1995;Rind & Bordia, 1996;Rind & Strohmetz, 1999), and performing their job well (e.g., attentiveness, speed of service; e.g., Lynn, 2001;Lynn, 2003). ...
Article
The present study attempted to expand what is known about how the personality traits of servers are associated with their job performance ratings and the tips they receive from customers. Personality traits were measured in 259 restaurant servers who were evaluated by their actual customers. Conscientiousness was associated with the average job performance ratings of servers. Extraversion was found to moderate the association that job performance had with the tips that servers received such that tipping behavior was associated with job performance for servers with high levels of extraversion but this association did not emerge for servers with low levels of extraversion. These findings are discussed in the context of understanding the connection between personality traits and job-related outcomes.
... A number of studies suggest that frontline employees play a key role in influencing customer choices (e.g., Huneke et al., 2015;Woisetschläger et al., 2016;Davis et al., 1998). For instance, customers are willing to leave larger tips if the service provider introduces him/herself by name (Garrity & Degelman, 1990); uses the customer's native language (Van Vaerenbergh & Holmqvist, 2013); has physical contact with the customer (Guéguen & Jacob, 2005;Lynn et al., 1998;Stephen & Zweigenhaft, 1986); or is in close proximity when taking orders (Jacob & Guéguen, 2012). Conversely, the physical presence of the frontline employee during the payment stage can hamper customers' willingness to tip. ...
Article
Many service providers explicitly ask customers for a tip. This may create social pressure, thus resulting in lower tips. Building on the theory of psychological reactance, we propose that an explicit request to tip has a detrimental impact on tip size. Across two studies, a field experiment and an online experiment, we test this effect and examine how the physical presence of the server moderates this relationship. We find that an explicit request to tip negatively affects tip size, while server’s physical presence alleviates this effect. The findings also show that social pressure hampers perceived control, which in turn has a detrimental effect on tip size. In light of these findings, service providers might want to revisit their strategies to enhance tipping.
... Azar, in press;Conlin et al., in press;Lynn & Grassman, 1990). There is a significant positive effect in tipping when a worker touches their customer (Lynn, Le & Sherwyn, 1998), and likely to collect extensively big tips to those workers who make an impressive interaction to the customers by introducing their names rather than workers who remain anonymous (Garrity and Degelman, 1990). Experiments by Lynn and Mynier, (1993) and Lynn (1996) showed that if service staff just standing will get fewer tips. ...
Article
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This study investigates the factors influencing tipping practice in Kuala Lumpur 5-star hotels. Experienced customers of five star rated hotels were targeted in this investigation by focusing on two sub-dimensions of service component which are personal and professional dimensions. Service charges and good and service tax has been added in most premises bills raises question on why people tip. This study reports upon a study of 400 hotel customers. Using survey data, results indicated that professional aspect play the important role in tipping practice. The findings showed that the culture of tipping do exist in Malaysia especially in the city of Kuala Lumpur and this study contributes to the expansions of literature on tipping practice.
... Feinberg (1986) found in a field study that the tip left by a credit card customer is greater than that by cash customers. The same effect has been reported by other researchers (e.g., Garrity and Degelman 1990;Lynn and Mynier 1993), implying the robustness of the effect. People also tend to spend more when they use credit cards than cash payment (Monger and Feinberg 1997;Prelec and Simester 2001; Raghubir and Srivastava 2008, Study 2). ...
Article
Although Feinberg (1986, Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 348–356) has demonstrated that people’s estimated prices of consumer items are increased by credit card logos presented with the items, subsequent studies sometimes failed to replicate this effect. Feinberg (1990, Psychological Reports, 67, 331–334) has argued that people’s attitude toward credit cards determines their effect on the estimated price. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with Japanese college students, to whom credit card use is not common, as participants. For credit card holders (n = 28), the average estimate of item price was 39.5 % higher in the logo present group than in the logo absent group. In contrast, the average estimates were equivalent between the logo present and absent groups of nonholders (n = 60). These results are congruent with Feinberg’s hypothesis and accord with the fact that the favorability of credit cards was positive for the card holders, while it was neutral for the nonholders. We discussed beneficial implications for product advertising in countries where credit card is prestigious.
... (Lynn & Graves, 1996). Algunas otras por llamar a los comensales por su nombre (Garrity & Degelman, 1990), entre otros factores se han encontrado algunas en las cuales imitar su lenguaje no verbal es determinante (van Baaren, Holland, Steenaert, & Van Knippenberg, 2003) y también el dar a los clientes una muy grande sonrisa (Tidd & Lockard, 1978) Otros factores que se han analizado es las cuestiones graficas o pictogramas dentro de las notas o recibos, Rind & Bordia (1995 encontraron que era un factor a favor el escribir "Gracias" o dibujar caritas felices en las notas o recibos, en otras investigaciones fue el dibujar un sol en las notas o recibos (Guéguen & Legohérel, 2000). ...
Article
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Tipping has become a unilateral gratification paid by the client reciprocating the service provider for a good service, to a moral obligation to a service that sometimes does not comply with quality standards. Even though it is true that in some countries the tip is mandatory based on a percentage of the account payable, regardless of the service received, in other countries it is not. However, in countries like Mexico it is customary to pay it based on a percentage and sometimes this percentage depends on the quality of the service received. Mexican legislation does not make tipping mandatory, but the border areas live in a mix of Mexican and American cultures and traditions, making tips a percentage of the consumption. Resumen Las propinas se han convertido en una gratificación unilateral pagado por el cliente al proveedor de servicios por un buen servicio, esta situación es una obligación moral de un servicio que a veces no cumple con los estándares de calidad. Si bien en algunos países la pauta es obligatoria basado en un porcentaje en la cuenta por pagar, independientemente del servicio recibido, en otros países no lo es. Sin embargo, en países como México se acostumbra a pagar en base a un porcentaje condicionado a la atención recibida. La legislación mexicana no la considera obligatoria, pero en las regiones fronterizas se viven una mezcla cultural entre lo mexicano y estadounidense, que redunda en un porcentaje con también con base al consumo y la tradición.
... The technical dimension represents the tangible and objectively measurable components of service, such as service delivery, menu knowledge, and ordertaking by servers, and the functional dimension, by contrast, refers to the intangible and rational components (Whaley et al, 2014). Based on this dichotomy, prior researchers proposed a functional dimension of service, such as a light touch from a server, the server squatting down by the table, or the server introducing himself or herself by name, as closely related to tipping behaviors (Davis et al, 1998;Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Lynn and Mynier, 1993). ...
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This study adopts social stigma theory and examines whether biases toward different types of foods and restaurants exist and, consequently, whether such biases influence gratuities. A 2 × 3 experiment was conducted in order to compare the relative impacts on tip size among samples from scenarios featuring different types of cuisines and different types of restaurants while controlling for food quality and service quality. With a focus on tipping behaviors and the restaurant industry, this study confirms that diners do have stereotypes in regard to cuisine that represents different cultures. Gender and income also played moderating roles in our findings.
... In the hospitality industry, many servers, to generate larger tips, will provide personalized service or experience for their guests. For example, servers may receive more tips by introducing their names (Garrity and Degelman, 1990), calling customers by their names (Rodrigue, 2012) or touching the guests (Crusco and Wetzel, 1984;Hornik, 1992;Lynn et al., 1998). All of the above techniques involve providing a personalized interaction. ...
Purpose In hotels, room attendants are often invisible to hotel guests. This study aims to understand how customers would increase their voluntary tips when there was less or no personal interaction and communication between customers and service providers. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether providing different greeting cards in hotel rooms would affect hotel guest tipping behavior. Design/methodology/approach A field study was conducted in an upscale independent hotel. Four types of greeting cards through two personalized factors, perceived effort and personalization, were placed in the hotel rooms. The tipping amount for each room-night was recorded during the data collection. Findings There were 3,285 room-nights tip records collected in this study. The results indicated that non-personalized housekeeping greeting cards did not increase the likelihood of guests to tip, but they may increase the average tipping amount; the personalization of greeting cards from room attendants had positive effects on guest tipping behavior; the hand-written greeting card and name-introduction greeting card were predictors that can significantly increase the likelihood of hotel guests to tip. Research limitations/implications The empirical research results support social presence theory. With more consistent tipping in hotel rooms, attendants may be able to predict tips through their job performance; thus, creating a win-win in the lodging industry. Originality/value This study contributes to understanding guest-tipping behavior in the hotel rooms.
... Sunny days induce a positive mood, and a positive mood could potentially increase tipping [5,[13][14][15]. Some studies have found support for the relationship between sunlight and tipping [16][17][18], whereas others have found no association [19]. In a quantitative aggregation of two studies on sunshine and tipping, Lynn and McCall [20] found a small-to medium effect size between bill-adjusted tips and sunny weather. ...
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Does the level of sunlight affect the tipping percentage in taxicab rides in New York City? We examined this question using data on 13.82 million cab rides from January to October in 2009 in New York City combined with data on hourly levels of solar radiation. We found a small but statistically significant positive relationship between sunlight and tipping, with an estimated tipping increase of 0.5 to 0.7 percentage points when transitioning from a dark sky to full sunshine. The findings are robust to two-way clustering of standard errors based on hour-of-the-day and day-of-the-year and controlling for day-of-the-year, month-of-the-year, cab driver fixed effects, weather conditions, and ride characteristics. The NYC cab ride context is suitable for testing the association between sunlight and tipping due to the largely random assignment of riders to drivers, direct exposure to sunlight, and low confounding from variation in service experiences.
... In addition, research reveals that waitresses receive larger tips if they are perceived as attractive by customers (Lynn and Simons, 2000). Other studies have found that smiling, introducing oneself by name, lightly touching a customer on the shoulder, and squatting down next to customers when conversing or taking orders can significantly increase tips (Tidd and Lockard, 1978;Crusco and Wetzel, 1984;Garrity and Degelman, 1990;Lynn and Mynier, 1993). ...
Article
Research has shown that personalizing receipts, such as drawing “smiley faces” and writing “thank you” notes on customer bills to express gratitude, can result in larger tips for restaurant wait staff. Although the practice of receipt personalization has been supported using field experiments, limited research has examined the effectiveness of this technique based on the level of service quality provided by restaurant wait staff. Using a scenario-based approach, we found from this study that adding a personalized message significantly lowers tip percentages. Moreover, the negative effect is magnified when service quality fails to exceed customer expectations. Implications related to the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Additionally, research conducted so far has confirmed that the circumstances of the visit, such as: being on holidays (Greenberg, 2014), nice weather (Crusco, Wetzel, 1984;Rind, Strohmetz, 2006), size of the city where the visit was taking place (Garrity, Degelman, 1990;Lynn, Thomas-Haysbert, 2003;Rind, Strohmetz, 2006) and positive mood of the customer (Lynn, McCall, 2000) also influence both frequency of tipping and the magnitude of the tip. Moreover, a positive correlation between the size of the tip and the consumption of alcohol with the meal was observed (Conlin, Lynn, O'Donoghue, 2003;Sánchez, 2002). ...
... The link between liking and compliance gaining is based on identification (Kelman, 1958) which is the process by which individuals change their attitudes or behaviors as a result of the influence of liked others. For example, restaurant servers who introduce themselves by name Information, Communication & Society receive higher tips than servers who do not (Garrity & Degelman, 2006). In the context of the current research, it is critical to note that even very short conversations (e.g. ...
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Proliferation of social media has increased the amount of personal information available about users online, and this information is increasingly available to anyone including advertisers and other (unknown) users. Having knowledge about others creates information asymmetries that can be used strategically in compliance gaining scenarios. In an online text-based interaction, 66 (31 male and 35 female) same-sex dyads engaged in conversation with one partner tasked in gaining his partner's compliance. When the persuading partner benefited from information asymmetry, he was more successful at getting his conversation partner to comply with requests (42% success rate vs. 9% in the control condition). Text analysis using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count indicates that while asymmetry affected conversational topics, compliance was linked to linguistic style – not content – as well as individual differences such as sex and behavioral sensitivity. This study demonstrates how individuals might utilize publicly available information about others in conversation to achieve self-serving goals. Implications for information sharing online are discussed.
... For instance, Domino's gives us the name of person making our pizza when we order online and in high-end restaurants the chef often leaves the kitchen to visit the tables and talk directly to the customers who eat the food. Garrity and Degelman (1990) found that when a waitress introduced herself by name, consumers tipped over 50% more than when she remained anonymous. These practices can be seen as an effort to personize the producer to the consumer, presumably to increase customer satisfaction and the perceived value of the experience. ...
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Technological advances, originating in the time of the industrial revolution and accelerating today, have alienated workers from consumers, and vice versa. We argue that this alienation and accompanying feelings of being objectified as a mere interchangeable source of profit are aversive to workers and consumers. These feelings reduce the meaningfulness and satisfaction workers find in their work and make products less attractive and consumption less meaningful to consumers. We propose simple and inexpensive interventions that can be used to make business more personal, with powerful effects on workers’ job satisfaction, product quality, and product attractiveness to consumers. Paradoxically, these interventions often rely on the same technological advances that otherwise facilitate the alienation. We specifically highlight how disclosing personal information (e.g., name, personal background) about workers and consumers can impact the motivation and performance of workers. We also highlight how disclosing personal information about workers and consumers can impact consumers’ satisfaction, preferences, and willingness-to-pay. We argue that providing personal information about workers to consumers and vice versa will often yield a win-win-win effect. As more satisfied customers buy more at higher prices, more satisfied workers do a better job, and personal information can be disclosed cheaply using information technology, companies benefit from increased sales at higher prices and at very little extra cost.
... The link between liking and compliance gaining is based on identification (Kelman, 1958) which is the process by which individuals change their attitudes or behaviors as a result of the influence of liked others. For example, restaurant servers who introduce themselves by name receive higher tips than servers who do not (Garrity & Degelman, 2006). In the context of the current research, it is critical to note that even very short conversations (e.g. ...
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« To Be a waitress, you’d better have all your brains » : effort and rewards in food service in Québec Food service work is poorly documented in the scientific literature on occupational health and safety. Work was analysed following a union request whose aim was to secure greater respect for the profession. Work demands are described, as well as the strategies used to maintain a balance between workers’ health and productivity and especially to gain respect and recognition. The methodology included preliminary observations followed by 33.75 hours of systematic observations of nine food servers in three restaurants, as well as individual interviews with the same workers and a collective interview with five food servers who had not participated in the observations, to validation our conclusions. Food service workers face three types of challenges (physical, cognitive and emotional) and use several strategies to address them. The work has a large but invisible mental and emotional component since managing clients’ emotions is an important part of the job. In the North American context, where a large part of the food servers’ pay comes from tips, most strategies are aimed at increasing client satisfaction so as to get a better tip which serves as recognition of the quality of their work. But the size of the tip depends on many factors outside the control of the food server, and tipping feeds into an unequal relationship between food server and client.
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Some studies have shown that figurative cues, presented in the immediate environment of an individual, affect his/her later behavior. This effect was studied in a tipping behavior context. In three restaurants, each bill was placed under a dish, which had a cardioid shape, a round shape, or a square shape. Results showed that more tips were left in the bill dish with the cardioid shape. The activation spreading theory is used to explain these results.
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The authors provide an overview about research conducted in the area of four different voluntary market payment mechanisms, namely tipping, Pay-What-You-Want, donations, and gift giving. The authors identify three different research streams: the first stream of research investigates product and consumer characteristics that drive success measures of voluntary payment mechanisms, the second stream of research is more outcome oriented and studies economic and communicative success potentials of alternative mechanisms, whereas the third stream of research is more fundamentally oriented and discusses underlying motives of free market payments. The authors summarize and discuss important findings with respect to the three different research streams and point to open research questions and controversial findings in the field.
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van Baaren et al. (2003) found that a waitress who mimicked their patrons by repeating their order received significantly larger tips. In this study, we tried to replicate these results by testing the effect of repetition after a delay between the customer's initial order and the repetition. A waitress was instructed to mimic or not half of their customers by repeating their order verbatim when she brought the order to the table. Mimicry increased the frequency in tipping and the amount of money left by the customers.
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12 waiters and waitresses from a small Midwestern town and 16 waiters and waitresses from a large urban area participated in an experiment to assess whether larger tips were given when they stood erect or squatted when laking orders. Using an A-B-A-B research design, wailers and waitresses alternately stood and squat led for a 4-wk. period while taking orders at lunch and dinner. The research was conducted in moderately priced, family-style restaurants. Analysis indicated that significantly higher tips were given (a) at dinner than lunch, (b) in the urban area, (c) to female servers, and (d) when the server squatted.
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This study examined whether different forms of address used by food servers were related to customers' tipping behavior. Food servers addressed diners who paid with credit cards by their first names, titles plus last names, sir/ma'am, or no address. Results indicated that when food servers personalized their service by addressing their customers by name, they earned significantly higher tips than when they used less immediate forms of address, although customers' estimated age mediated these results.
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With empirical insights gained across a series of studies, the current research examines the technology-facilitated preservice tipping encounter. Drawing on the tip-enhancing literature and the spatial crowding theory, this research reveals the divergent impacts of tip suggestion on consumers’ tipping behaviors and their satisfaction with the digital payment experience. Our findings show that, while effective in elevating tipping amount, the presence of tip suggestion can frustrate consumers and impose a detrimental impact on their satisfaction with the online payment experience. Particularly, this effect is contingent on the design of the digital payment page: The negative effect of tip suggestion on satisfaction with the payment experience is more profound when the digital payment page follows a crowded layout but mitigated when the layout is spacious. Findings from the current research offer timely contributions to theory and practice with an evolving perspective on the technology-facilitated preservice tipping encounter.
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Interaction between customers and servers from different cultures provides an interesting case of intercultural communication. Although a server's attentive service on customers is common in full service dining restaurants, especially in the United States, this may not be preferable to customers from different cultures. Two studies examined cultural differences between Americans and Japanese customers on their preferences regarding U.S. restaurant servers' attentiveness and a moderating effect of culture on the relationship of server attentiveness with customer orientation, customer satisfaction and tip. A survey study (N = 975) and an experimental study (N = 145) found that server attentiveness had a positive effect on customer orientation, customer satisfaction and the amount of tip for Americans, but not Japanese customers. Implications and future directions were discussed.
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People use names to infer meaning about the objects to which those names refer. Objects whose names include vowels produced toward the front of the mouth (Siri), relative to those with vowels produced toward the back of the mouth (Google), are expected to have certain physical features (e.g., smallness, sharpness, and quickness). Do these expectations map onto social experience? The present investigation examines this question through the lens of social closeness. Participants simulating an interaction with another person whose name included a front (versus a back) vowel sound saw that person as more socially connected to themselves (Study 1), which could facilitate the interaction (better tips for servers, Study 2) or undermine it (exacerbate negative emotionality, Study 3). Theoretical and practical implications note how the sounds in names not only create expectations but also sow the seeds for self-fulfilling prophecies to be borne out in experience.
Preprint
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Modern and gig economy businesses collect voluntary contributions (i.e., tips) from consumers via screen-based payment systems (i.e., $1, $2, $3; 10%, 15%, 20%). The use of these systems has been criticized by the popular media for forcing consumers to leave large tips in contexts where they previously would have left small tips or where tips were not required. The authors employ a multi-method approach, including an analysis of secondary data (N = 51,825), a field experiment (N = 1,810), and laboratory experiments (N = 2,321) to show that an absolute dollar frame (vs. percentages) leads to higher tip payments especially for low bill amounts. These effects are attenuated when (1) absolute options are presented in cents (e.g., $0.50), leading consumers to infer that small tip amounts are acceptable and, (2) absolute options start at high levels. Countering conventional wisdom, the authors further show that open-ended formats can lead to higher tip payments compared to closed-ended response formats in specific conditions. Theoretically, these results add to the behavioral pricing, prosocial behavior, and labor economics literatures. Managerially, the results are relevant for decision makers in the multi-billion-dollar digital service industry.
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This research highlights how gender shapes consumer payments in Pay What You Want (PWYW) contexts. Four studies involving hypothetical and real payments show that men typically pay less than women in PWYW settings, due to gender differences in agentic versus communal orientation. Men approach the payment decision with an agentic orientation and women with a communal orientation. These orientations then shape payment motives and ultimately affect payment behavior. Because agentic men are more self-focused, their payment decisions are motivated by economic factors, resulting in lower payments. Conversely, communal women are more other-focused, and their payment decisions are motivated by both social and economic factors, resulting in higher payments. The findings additionally highlight how sellers can use marketing communications to increase the salience of social payment motives and demonstrate that by doing so, marketers can increase how much men pay without altering how much women pay in PWYW settings.
Conference Paper
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ZET Bahşiş, hizmetten duyulun memnuniyetin bir ifadesidir ve hizmet sektöründe yaygın bir uygulamadır. Bahşişin çalışanlar arasında nasıl pay edileceği ve bunun "adalet" açısından nasıl algılanacağı bir sorunsala işaret eder. Lisans turizm öğrencilerinin iki farklı bahşiş paylaşım sistemini nasıl algıladıklarının belirlenmesi amacıyla bir araştırma gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veriler, alan yazından yararlanılarak geliştirilen ve iki farklı bahşiş dağıtım senaryosunu içeren bir anket ile toplanmıştır. Anket, kolayda örnekleme tekniği ile Çukurova ve Kırklareli Üniversitelerinde lisans düzeyinde turizm eğitimi alan stajını tamamlamış öğrencilere, 20 Mayıs-5 Haziran 2016 tarihleri arasında uygulanmıştır. Araştırmaya 151 öğrenci katılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde, tanımlayıcı istatistiklerin yanı sıra, eşleştirilmiş t-testi, ki-kare, faktör ve korelasyon analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Bahşişin eşit paylaşıldığındaki genel adalet algısı ile alanda kaldığı durumdaki genel adalet algısı arasında olumsuz yönde zayıf bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Bulgular, materyalizm eğiliminin artmasına işaret etmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Bahşiş, turizm öğrencisi, adalet algısı. GİRİŞ Bahşiş, hizmet veren kişilere müşteriler tarafından gönüllü olarak verilen yaygın bir gelenektir (Lynn, 1997: 221). Ayrıca, bahşişler birer teşvik ve sunulan iyi hizmet için verilen ödül olarak da nitelendirilmektedir (Wang, 2010: 5). Hizmet sektöründe birçok alanda özellikle otelcilik sektöründe yaygınolarak kullanılan bir uygulamadır. Örneğin; bellboylar, barmenler, restoranlardaki servis elemanları, valeler, restoran müzisyenleri (Lynn, 1997: 221) ile taksi hizmeti sağlayanlar ve kuaförler gibi pek çok meslek grubunda bahşiş uygulamasına rastlanmaktadır. Ayrıca, dünya çapında iyi bilinen yaygın bir uygulama olduğunu söylemek de mümkündür (Namasivayam ve Upneja, 2007: 94). İnsanların bahşiş verme nedenlerine bakıldığında, ana nedenlerden biri bahşiş vermeninsosyal bir norm olduğu inancı ve daha iyi bir servis almanın yolu olarak görülmesidir. Bu nedenin temelini oluşturan unsurlar; kişinin aynı restorana tekrar geldiğinde aynı servis personeli tarafından hizmet verileceği düşüncesiyle hareket etmesi, aldığı hizmetten memnun olması, hizmet alan kişinin kendisini psikolojik olarak daha iyi ve farklı hissetmesi şeklinde ifade edilmiştir (Wang, 2010: 16-17-18). Bahşiş verme, servis personeli açısından bakıldığında, çalışanlar arasında rekabeti teşvik eden bir unsur olarak görülmektedir. Bu durum ise şu şekilde açıklanmaktadır: Daha önce oldukçaiyi bahşiş veren bir müşterinin aynı restorana geldiğinde, servis
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Despite the significance of consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) in the current business world, it remains unclear how companies can foster CPE among consumers. The present research investigates the potential of personizing a stakeholder (e.g., an employee or a supplier) by incorporating the person’s first name in advertising messages. Across four experimental studies, this research shows how personized advertising messages can increase CPE when consumers perceive a high degree of social connectedness between a company and its employees or suppliers. The findings of this research add to the understanding of CPE and further offer practical implications for advertisers in developing effective strategies to foster CPE.
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The purpose of this article is to analyse how tipping practices are given meaning and acted upon by customers and employees. Though the concept of moral economy, the article traces the ideas of rights and entitlement that are embedded in tipping. The findings indicate that customers and workers enjoy tipping. The tension between them arises from customers’ use of the tip as a mediator of individual feeling and workers’ emphasis on the tip as an economic income and on the collective processes of service production. Workers use the practice of pooling tips to reduce the economic risk and the processes of individualisation. These strategies are defined as weapons of the poor as they are developed in circumstances of economical vulnerability. The focus is on 24 in-depth interviews with customers and employees. This article offers new insights into the moral economy of tipping and the ways in which it affects the forms of resistance available to workers.
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Namen tega prispevka je spodbuditi natakarje k razmišljanju, o pomenu programov usposabljanja za kvalitetnejšo storitev in posledično pridobivanje višjih napitnin. V članku so obširneje podani, iz različnih raziskav, zbrani načini za povečevanja napitnin. Cilj te raziskave je bil na enem mestu zbrati korelacije med vedenji zaposlenih na eni strani in možnostmi za povečevanje prihodka natakarjev iz napitnin. V ozadju tega cilja je bil predvsem opažen pojav da kvalitetna storitev postavlja pogoje za povečevanje prihodkov iz napitnin. Napitnina namreč natakarjem predstavlja velik del njihovih prihodkov, zato je poznavanje načinov na njeno povečevanje, še toliko bolj pomembno. Seveda pa je poznavanje šele temelj k nadaljnjim aktivnostim. Potrebno je namreč zaposlene tudi usposobiti, da bodo tovrstne načine uporabljali pri vsakodnevnem delu z gosti. Dokazano je namreč, da tisti zaposleni, ki jih vsakodnevno uporabljajo pri svojem delu, prejmejo višje napitnine.
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The paper introduces tipping in a historical perspective, explaining and contrasting tipping habits in England and elsewhere. The case for tipping or service charges is presented. A review of the literature explores those factors that have been found to influence tipping behaviour. The methodology for a comparative introductory study of English and Italian hotel restaurant customers is explained, together with the results. Due to the limited sample sizes, care should be taken when interpreting the results, as differences identified between the English and Italian samples could be abated due to the regional differences within each country. With this qualification, the paper concludes that Italians rated influencing factors more highly than did the English and found attractiveness of server, speed of service and prompt bill delivery to be particularly important. By contrast, English customers generally rated qualities of the product to be more important than the characteristics of the server as influences on tip size.
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Tipping is an important source of income for a variety of occupations in the hospitality and tourism industry. One such occupation is waitressing and although much research has been done, especially in America, very little has been done in African countries. The purpose of this paper is therefore to determine the reasons why people tip or do not tip, as well as which socio-demographic and behavioural variables have the greatest influence on tipping. A survey was conducted at restaurants during the Aardklop National Festival, where 400 questionnaires were distributed. Results have shown that the reasons why people tip are financial, good service and social acceptability. Results have also revealed that more behavioural than socio-demographic variables influence the tipping decision.
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Conducted 2 field studies on the relationship of weather variables to helping behavior. In Study 1 (540 adult Ss), which was executed in the spring and summer and subsequently replicated in the winter, the amount of sunshine reaching the earth was found to be a strong predictor of an S's willingness to assist an interviewer. Smaller relationships were also found between helping and temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and lunar phase. Exp II was conducted indoors with 130 dining parties to control for comfort factors. Sunshine, lunar phase, and S's age and sex were found to predict the generosity of the tip left for a restaurant waitress. Sunshine and temperature were also significantly related to the 6 waitresses' self-reports of mood. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Two explanations for the effects of alcohol on prosocial behavior-that is, mood enhancement and cognitive impairment-suggest that restaurant diners should tip more when they have consumed alcohol than when they have not. However, previous attempts to find a relationship between percent tip and alcohol consumption have failed. This failure may be due to statistical problems associated with using percent tip as a measure of tipping. This article reports a study that uses as a dependent variable residuals from a regression of bill size on tip amount. The results of this study indicate that alcohol consumption is positively related to tipping.
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The amount tipped by 396 groups of restaurant diners was a function of the number of people eating together as well as the size of the bill. One-third of the variability in tipping was explained by the norm that tip should equal 15% of bill. In addition, consistent with a new theory of division of responsibility, variation around this norm was an inverse power function of group size, specifically, 18%/N'22.
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A conceptual formulation of the determinants of correspondence between attitudes and behavior suggests that social environments differ in the extent to which they provide salient and relevant "attitudinal" and "situational" guides to action. Experimental situations were constructed that differed in the extent to which interpersonal cues to situational appropriateness were available and/or relevant attitudes were made salient. 120 male college students formulated judgments of liability in a sex-discrimination court case. In this basic situation, verdicts were generally unfavorable to the female plaintiff and uncorrelated (.07) with previously reported attitudes. When attitudes toward affirmative action were made salient, covariation (.58) between favorability of verdicts toward the female plaintiff and previously measured attitudes was substantial. Participants who anticipated discussing their verdicts with a disagreeing partner adopted a "moderation" strategy and reached decisions favorable to neither the plaintiff nor the defendant. Their verdicts were uncorrelated with their personal stands on affirmative action, whether or not attitudes had been made salient (.14 and.06, respectively). (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A report of a scientifically conducted, research field study of human relations in the restaurant industry. Data were gathered from interviews with workers, supervisors, and executives in restaurants in Chicago and elsewhere. The role of status and prestige factors, the restaurant as a social system, and the results of an analysis of weak supervision are discussed in relation to productivity and sound human relations and to a better understanding of the characteristics of good supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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2 studies investigated differences in the situational control of behavior as a result of variation in attentiveness to situational and interpersonal guides to social appropriateness. In Study 1, 28 male and 28 female undergraduates participated in a group discussion that made salient either of 2 reference groups. The effects of this manipulation on social conformity were examined as a function of self-monitoring and neuroticism measures. Social conformity of high self-monitoring and low neuroticism Ss differed reliably between discussion contexts. Low self-monitoring and high neuroticism Ss were unaffected by discussion context. In Study 2 with 90 male undergraduates, raters judged their generosity, honesty, and hostility in 9 relevant situations. A variance measure of perceived situational variability indicated that high self-monitoring Ss reported more situational variability than did low self-monitoring Ss. Implications for the interaction of situational and dispositional determinants of behavior are discussed. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested the effect on tipping of a female waitress touching the male patron, the female patron, or neither patron, using 112 pairs of restaurant customers. Results show the average tip in the female condition was 15%, the average tip in the male condition was 13%, and the average tip in the no-touch condition was 11%. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the extent to which a counselor quality (reputed expertise) and a client quality (self-concept) were interactive with counselor gender and with each other as determinants of Ss' perceptions of the counselor. 105 male undergraduates were split into high- or low-self-concept groups according to their scores on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and listened to an audiotape of a male or female counselor who was introduced as an expert counselor or a nonexpert counselor or who was given no introduction. Ss then used the Counselor Rating Form to rate the counselor. Consistent with previous research, the expertness manipulation affected ratings of the counselor, whereas counselor gender alone did not. No interaction between counselor gender and expertness introduction was obtained, although one interaction (for attractiveness) was obtained for S self-concept by expertness introduction. Three-way interactions were obtained for perceived counselor expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness. These results suggest that although S self-concept alone does not determine perceptions of the counselor, it is one recipient characteristic that interacts with the counselor characteristics of gender and ascribed expertise. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Proposes a theory of social impact specifying the effect of other persons on an individual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of other people. Furthermore, impact should take the form of a power function, with the marginal effect of the Nth other person being less than that of the ( N–2)th. When other people stand with the individual as the target of forces from outside the group, impact should be divided such that the resultant is an inverse power function of the strength, immediacy, and number of persons standing together. The author reviews relevant evidence from research on conformity and imitation, stage fright and embarrassment, news interest, bystander intervention, tipping, inquiring for Christ, productivity in groups, and crowding in rats. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Compared the memories of 40 cocktail waitresses (mean age 23 yrs) and 40 undergraduates for 7, 11, and 15 drink orders presented either in order or scattered among 2 model tables. 33 dolls placed at 2 model tables gave orders by means of a cassette tape. Ss filled orders by means of flag pins of 33 different drinks. A structured interview of waitresses followed the experimental condition in an effort to collect data and determine memory strategies. Waitresses had significantly higher memory performance than students in ordered and scattered sequences; waitresses were twice as efficient in time to place each drink, particularly in ordered sequence. Interviews revealed that accurate memory led to higher customer satisfaction, tipping, and bar income. Highly accurate memory in 15 waitresses was associated with vivid perceptual interactions with customers at the time of ordering. Most waitresses reported that memory is best during busy evenings when there is more to remember. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 2 field studies on the relationship of weather variables to helping behavior. In Study 1 (540 adult Ss), which was executed in the spring and summer and subsequently replicated in the winter, the amount of sunshine reaching the earth was found to be a strong predictor of an S's willingness to assist an interviewer. Smaller relationships were also found between helping and temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and lunar phase. Exp II was conducted indoors with 130 dining parties to control for comfort factors. Sunshine, lunar phase, and S's age and sex were found to predict the generosity of the tip left for a restaurant waitress. Sunshine and temperature were also significantly related to the 6 waitresses' self-reports of mood. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study examined the effects of two types of touch in a controlled but natural setting, a restaurant. Waitresses briefly touched customers either on the hand or the shoulder as they were returning change. Customers' reactions were assessed by a restaurant survey and a novel behavioral measure, the tip expressed as a percentage of the bill. The tipping rate for the two types of touch did not differ from each other and did not differ according to the customer's gender. Both tipping rates were significantly larger than a control, no-touch condition. There were no touch effects on ratings of the waitress, the restaurant's atmosphere, or the dining experience. It was concluded that touch effects can occur without awareness, and that males will not react more negatively to touch than females when the touch is unobtrusive or free of status and dependency connotations.
Some factors affecting tipping The psychology of social impact The effects of alcohol consumption on restaurant
  • R Karen
Karen, R. (1962). Some factors affecting tipping. Sociology and Social Latank, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist, Lynn, M. (1988). The effects of alcohol consumption on restaurant t i p Lynn, M., & Latan% B. (1984):The psychology of restaurant tipping.
Tip or treat: A study of factors affecting tipping behavior . Unpublished master's thesis
  • J M May
May, J.M. (1978). Tip or treat: A study of factors affecting tipping behavior. Unpublished master's thesis, Loyola University of Chicago.