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Mineral and water soluble vitamin content in the Kombucha drink

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Abstract

Summary Biologically active substances (water soluble vitamins and minerals) were analyzed in ‘Kombucha’—a curative liquor, produced by the so-called ‘Kombucha cultivation’ (Macedonian collection of microorganisms, No 734) in sweet black tea decoct. The water soluble vitamins in the Kombucha drink were separated and identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified by the comparison of their chromatographic UV spectra with the reference compounds. Four soluble vitamins have been determinated to have the following concentrations: vitamin B1 0.74 mg ml−1, vitamin B6 0.52 mg ml−1, vitamin B12 0.84 mg ml−1 and vitamin C 1.51 mg ml−1. Mineral elements of nutritional and toxicological importance were determined in dissolved ash using atomic absorption chromatography (AAS). Mineral composition content involved determination of the essential elements: zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt. Investigations of some toxic elements showed that lead and chromium were present in very small amounts, whereas cadmium was not found.

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... Minerals are inorganic substances in which play an important role in the human body. Small amounts are required by the body for normal function, growth, and maintenance [33]. Essential minerals, such as potassium (K + ), cobolt (Co 2+ ), manganese (Mn 4+ ), ...
... Minerals are inorganic substances in which play an important role in the human body. Small amounts are required by the body for normal function, growth, and maintenance [33]. Essential minerals, such as potassium (K + ), cobolt (Co 2+ ), manganese (Mn 4+ ), copper (Cu 2+ ), iron (Fe 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), and fluoride ions (F − ) [33,34], can be found in kombucha made from green and black tea. ...
... Small amounts are required by the body for normal function, growth, and maintenance [33]. Essential minerals, such as potassium (K + ), cobolt (Co 2+ ), manganese (Mn 4+ ), copper (Cu 2+ ), iron (Fe 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), and fluoride ions (F − ) [33,34], can be found in kombucha made from green and black tea. Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi (2000) quantified the content of manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium, and cadmium in kombucha [33]. ...
Article
Kombucha is a fermented sweetened tea with a mixed fermenting culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria. While the history of kombucha is not completely clear, it is now available around the world and has shown an increase in availability and demand in the United States market. The proponents of kombucha consumption tout the varied health benefits it can provide. The final kombucha flavor and composition is a function of both the initial tea used and the fermentation process. While the ascribed benefits are varied and numerous, the number of direct studies has been limited. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of the chemical composition and the potential health effects both positive and negative reported in the literature.
... Chemical analysis of kombucha showed the presence of various organic acids, such as acetic, gluconic, glucuronic, citric, L-lactic, malic, tartaric, malonic, oxalic, succinic, pyruvic, usnic; also sugars, such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose; the vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , and C; 14 amino acids, biogenic amines, purines, pigments, lipids, proteins, some hydrolytic enzymes, ethanol, antibiotically active matter, carbon dioxide, phenol, as well as some tea polyphenols, minerals, anions, DSL, as well as insufficiently known products of yeast and bacterial metabolites. The investigations of the beverage were always conducted under static conditions by the following: (Konovalov and Semenova 1955;Danielova 1957;Steiger and Steinegger 1957;Reiss 1987;Hauser 1990;Sievers and others 1995;Blanc 1996;Liu and others 1996;Roussin 1996;Petrović and others 1999;Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi 2000;Chen and Liu 2000;Lončar and others 2000;Malbaša and others 2002aMalbaša and others , 2008aMalbaša and others , 2008bMalbaša and others , 2011Chu and Chen 2006;Franco and others 2006;others 2007, 2008a; Kumar Yeasts and bacteria in kombucha are involved in such metabolic activities that utilize substrates by different and in complementary ways. Yeasts hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose by invertase and produce ethanol via glycolysis, with a preference for fructose as a substrate. ...
... The contents of manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium, and cadmium in the usual kombucha were determined by Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi (2000). The contents of the examined minerals were in range from 0.004 μg/mL for cobalt to 0.462 μg/mL for manganese. ...
Article
Fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeast (tea fungus) yields kombucha tea which is consumed worldwide for its refreshing and beneficial properties on human health. Important progress has been made in the past decade concerning research findings on kombucha tea and reports claiming that drinking kombucha can prevent various types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, promote liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Considering the widespread reports on kombucha, we recognized the need to review and update the research conducted in relation to kombucha tea, its products and tea fungus. Existing reports have suggested that the protective effects of kombucha tea are as good as those of black tea, however, more studies on kombucha tea and its composition are needed before final conclusions can be made.
... Its fermentation process also leads to the formation of a floating biofilm on the surface of the growth medium due to the activity of certain strains of AAB [7]. Chemical analysis of kombucha have shown the presence of various organic acids, such as acetic, gluconic, glucuronic, malic, L-lactic, malonic, oxalic and tartaric that are responsible for sour taste [8]; the vitamins: B1,B2, B6, B16, C [9][10]; minerals: Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn [9]; anions: F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, HPO4-, SO4- [11] and polyphenolic compounds [12]. That is why kombucha, thanks to its rich content of active substances and probiotic properties, has a beneficial effect on health. ...
... Its fermentation process also leads to the formation of a floating biofilm on the surface of the growth medium due to the activity of certain strains of AAB [7]. Chemical analysis of kombucha have shown the presence of various organic acids, such as acetic, gluconic, glucuronic, malic, L-lactic, malonic, oxalic and tartaric that are responsible for sour taste [8]; the vitamins: B1,B2, B6, B16, C [9][10]; minerals: Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn [9]; anions: F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, HPO4-, SO4- [11] and polyphenolic compounds [12]. That is why kombucha, thanks to its rich content of active substances and probiotic properties, has a beneficial effect on health. ...
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Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria belonging to the genus Acetobacter , Gluconobacter , and the yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces along with glucuronic acid, contribute to health protection. The paper presents the evaluation of ferments as a potential cosmetic raw material obtained from Yerba Mate after different fermentation times with the addition of kombucha. Fermented and unfermented extracts were compared in terms of chemical composition and biological activity. Studies of antioxidant properties were carried out using DPPH and ABTS radicals. A significant decrease in the intracellular level of free radicals was also observed. Cytotoxicity was determined on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines, resulting in significant increase in cell viability for the ferments. In addition, the ferments showed strong ability to inhibit the activity of lipoxygenase and collagenase and elastase enzymes and long‐lasting hydration after their application on the skin. Extract obtained after 21 days of fermentation contained the highest amount of phenolic acids and xanthines. The results showed that both the analyzed Yerba Mate extract and the ferments obtained with kombucha may be valuable ingredients in cosmetic products.
... Normally, kombucha tea was completely fermented when fermentation time was 12-21 days and the inoculation size of starter culture was 5-10%. Thus, a period of kombucha fermentation of 15 days was selected in this study since the highest level of acidity was demonstrated during this fermentation process [11,[21][22][23]. Moreover, yeast cells are known to convert sucrose into glucose and fructose by invertase enzymes. ...
... In this study, black tea revealed the lowest level of toxicity on Caco-2 cells because of the presence of other components found in the black tea, such as thearubigins and theaflavin, which were consistently degraded during kombucha fermentation. In contrast, catechins in green tea and oolong tea were not degraded during kombucha tea fermentation [22]. Theaflavins in black tea have been reported to possess activity against carcinogenesis by interfering with the signaling pathways and suppressing the transcription of certain oncoproteins [54]. ...
Article
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Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage that is produced from the fermentation of tea leaves. In this study, kombucha tea was prepared using 1% green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, and 10% sucrose with acetic acid bacteria and yeast. The pH values of the kombucha tea were found to be in a range of 2.70–2.94 at 15 days of fermentation. The lowest pH value of 2.70 was recorded in the kombucha prepared from black tea. The total acidity of kombucha prepared from black tea was the highest by 16.75 g/L and it was still maintained after heat treatment by boiling and after autoclaved. Six organic acids: glucuronic, gluconic, D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone, ascorbic, acetic, and succinic acid in kombucha tea were detected by HPLC with the optimization for organic acids detection using isocratic elution buffer with C18 conventional column. The highest level of organic acid was gluconic acid. Kombucha prepared from green tea revealed the highest phenolic content and antioxidation against DPPH radicals by 1.248 and 2.642 mg gallic acid/mL kombucha, respectively. Moreover, pathogenic enteric bacteria: Escherichia coli. E. coli O157:H7. Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholera were inhibited by kombucha and heat-denatured kombucha with diameter of the inhibition zones ranged from 15.0 ± 0.0–25.0 ± 0.0 mm. In addition, kombucha prepared from green tea and black tea demonstrated toxicity on Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, kombucha tea could be considered as a potential source of the antioxidation, inhibition of pathogenic enteric bacteria, and toxicity on colorectal cancer cells.
... The biochemical characteristics of tea fungus studied were increased throughout the fermentation time during the study of biochemical characteristics of tea fungus produced during Kombucha fermentation. Petrovska and Tozi, (2000) quantifi ed contents of minor and trace elements viz., manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium and cadmium in the Kombucha drink and sweet tea infusion which are presented in Table 2. Source: Petrovska and Tozi, 2000. The average mineral composition of the essential elements was in concentrations from 0.004 µg mL -1 for cobalt to 0.462 µg mL -1 for manganese. ...
... The biochemical characteristics of tea fungus studied were increased throughout the fermentation time during the study of biochemical characteristics of tea fungus produced during Kombucha fermentation. Petrovska and Tozi, (2000) quantifi ed contents of minor and trace elements viz., manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, chromium and cadmium in the Kombucha drink and sweet tea infusion which are presented in Table 2. Source: Petrovska and Tozi, 2000. The average mineral composition of the essential elements was in concentrations from 0.004 µg mL -1 for cobalt to 0.462 µg mL -1 for manganese. ...
Article
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Kombucha, Tea Kvass, Japanese or Indonesian tea fungus and Manchurian are the most common names for the symbiotic association of bacteria and osmophilic yeast in a form of thick jelly membrane which is cultured in sugared tea. It is slightly sweet, acetic acid-fl avoured beverage also called tea eider the traditional substrate for kombucha preparation is black tea sweetened with 5 to 15% of sucrose and produced during 6 to 10 days of fermentation under aerobic conditions, at a temperature range of 20 to 30°C. The fermentation is two steps fermentation in which, the yeasts ferment the sugar to ethanol, which is further oxidised by the acetic acid bacteria to produce acetic acid which reduces the pH of medium. Except black tea, diff erent types of other tea’s such as orthodox tea and herbal tea have been used for the production of apple tea wine, using natural and inoculated fermentation. Besides acetic acid, the fermented liquid contains gluconic, glucuronic and lactic acid, among them all glucuronic acid is the main therapeutic agent in Kombucha. Kombucha metabolism produces glucose, fructose, small amounts of ethanol, carbon-dioxide, vitamins C, B1 B2, B3, B6, B12, folic acid, diff erent organic acids, mainly acetic, gluconic, L-lactic, glucuronic, enzymes and some antibiotically active compounds, and many others. Beverage also contains most of tea ingredients like tea catechines and caff eine. The beverage has been claimed is considered a prophylactic agent and is considered benefi cial to human health.
... The exception was iron, and its decrease was observed in most of the samples after the fermentation period, except in the white tea + cane sugar sample. Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi [47] showed the iron content in fermented tea at the level of 0.353 ppm, which is obvious considering the unstable ionic matrix; they also examined the content of elements such as copper, manganese, nickel, and zinc, and an increase in the tested substances during fermentation was found. Note: Means ± standard deviation. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sweetened tea with a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. Literature data indicate that the kombucha beverage shows many health-promoting properties such as detoxification, chemo-preventive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, and general strengthening. The research conducted focuses on the analysis of polyphenolic compounds formed in the fermentation process using ultra-efficient liquid chromatography, as well as on checking the antimicrobial properties of kombucha against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts found in food. Analysis of the composition of the tea mushroom (SCOBY) microflora using the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper mass spectrometer showed 8 species of bacteria and 7 species of yeasts. In vitro studies confirm the bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties of fermented kombucha beverages, with white and green tea beverages showing the highest antibacterial activity. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and yeast Candida albicans were the most sensitive to the effects of kombucha tea beverages. UPLC chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of 17 bioactive compounds in kombucha beverages that can affect human health. The analyses conducted were aimed at indicating the best recipe and conditions to prepare a kombucha beverage, which allowed the selection of the version with the best health-promoting properties. Fermented kombucha teas contain many elements such as aluminium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, and sulphur.
... KT is found to contain water-soluble vitamins like vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and vitamin C. The presence of manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, and others was also detected in trace amounts in this fermented beverage (Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi, 2000). However, the essential minerals were found to be increased because of the metabolic activity of KT. ...
Chapter
Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage, obtained by fermenting sugared black tea, made from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves, with a consortium of yeast and predominantly acetic acid bacteria. In recent times, Kombucha tea has seen considerable increase in interest worldwide and can easily be said to be an emerging popular beverage. The fact that today Kombucha tea is available in multiple forms and flavors is a living testament of the massive amounts of transformation this beverage has undergone through the ages. One of the most important reasons behind the rise of the beverage is its claimed health benefits many of which have been established by scientific research. Of the various health benefits of Kombucha tea, its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer benefits are most attractive and appealing to ever increasing cohort of scientific investigators and entrepreneurs. The last decade saw noteworthy progress toward understanding the beneficial properties of this fermented tea. Scientific reports claim that drinking Kombucha tea can prevent several types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, invigorate liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Moreover, studies show that Kombucha tea is usually more effective than the original unfermented tea with respect to their biological activities. Therefore, Kombucha tea can now be regarded as a health drink and a functional beverage with potential beneficial properties.
... Therefore, it is required to develop high-potential natural antifungals due to the increase of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus, side effects of medications, pharmacological interactions, costly medications, and sometimes the unavailability of some agents [25]. Kombucha tea with unique aromatic, sweet, and sour taste contains various types of vitamins, minerals, and organic acids of fermented tea leaves and produced from the fermentation of tea and sugar [15,16,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. Kombucha as a natural product has strong antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties [34]. ...
Article
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Background and purpose: Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common opportunistic fungus, which causes infection in immunocompromised and neutropenic patients. The current guidelines recommend voriconazole as the initial therapeutic and prophylactic agent for almost all cases, especially in patients with organ transplants, which leads to increased medication resistance in A. fumigatus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity and effect of kombucha as a natural compound on A. fumigatus growth, as well as on the expression of cgrA and cyp51A genes. Materials and methods: A panel of 15 A. fumigatus strains with two quality controls of CM237 and CM2627 as susceptible and resistant strains were obtained from Tehran Medical Mycology Laboratory, Tehran,Iran(TMML).Antifungal susceptibility testing assay was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 document. Moreover, the mycelial dry weight of the fungus was calculated before and after being treated with kombucha. In addition, the quantitative changes in the expression of cgrA and cyp51A genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) technique. Results: In the present study, the minimum inhibitory concentration ranges of kombucha were measured at 6,170 and 12,300 μg/mL for ten A. fumigatus azole-susceptible strains and 24,700 μg/mL for five A. fumigatus resistant strains. Moreover, changes in mycelial dry weight under kombucha treatment conditions underwent a significant reduction (P≤0.05). A coordinate down-regulation of expression in cgrA and cyp51A genes was observed in all azole-susceptible and -resistant A. fumigatus strains, after treating the fungus with different concentrations of kombucha (P≤0.05). Conclusion: According to the obtained results, kombucha as a natural antioxidant , can exert inhibitory effects against the growth and expression of some genes in A. fumigatusstrains.
... The fermentation product is comprised of two components: a floating cellulosic pellicle layer and a sour-tasting and slightly sparkling liquid broth [2]. It contains many compounds with antioxidant activity, such as phenolics, water-soluble vitamins, organic acids, and minerals [2,3]. Williamson et al [4] demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of kombucha, which may be attributed to the tea polyphenols, can increase the in vivo antioxidant ability. ...
Article
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Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v) and wheatgrass juice (WGJ) were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis) and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus), was inoculated at 20% (v/v), and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v). The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v) black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress.
... La kombucha es elaborada mediante un proceso fermentativo llevado a cabo por un consorcio de levaduras y bacterias denominado SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast) [10], que en condiciones aeróbicas convierte los azúcares en ácidos orgánicos, como se muestra en la Figura Bacterium gluconicum, Acetobacter aceti y Acetobacter pasteurianus, causantes de la acidificación, con predominio de A. xylinum, reclasificada actualmente como Komagataeibacter xylinus [11,12]. Entre los compuestos constituyentes de la kombucha se encuentran los ácidos láctico, glucónico, acético, glucorónico, málico, tartárico, oxálico y malónico, además de etanol, CO2, vitaminas solubles (C, B1, B2, B6, B12), catalasa, entre otros [14], que pueden actuar en sinergia con los compuestos antioxidantes [15]. También se puede encontrar proteínas, aminoácidos, enzimas hidrolíticas, purinas, lípidos, pigmentos, aminas biógenas, compuestos fenólicos de té, minerales, sustancias antibióticas, ácido D-sacárico-1,4-lactona (DSL), además de metabolitos propios de las bacterias y levaduras [8,16,17]. ...
... Furthermore, not only time period of the process, but also http://jfr.ccsenet.org Journal of Food Research Vol. 7, No. 1; 2018 reducing sugar content such as glucose, produced from the decomposed sucrose, showed profound influence on cellulose and hemi-cellulose production ( Bauer-Petrovska & Petrushevska-Tozi, 2000). While later revealed by keshk & Sameshima, (2006) that reducing sugar, as a carbon source, can have a relative contradictory function in acid and biomass production, our observation was not consistent with their arguments. ...
Article
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This study is the first report using tea fungus “kombucha” to ferment natural pomegranate juice to produce a fermented beverage with high content of glucuronic acid, as a human health beneficial component. We profited the acetic acid bacteria and yeasts symbiotic layer, which is well known in producing pharmaceutical beverages with considerable released organic acids such as glucuronic acid. Also, we used the natural pomegranate juice with high amount of carbohydrate and acid, as a favourable substrate for the fermentation process. The yield of glucuronic acid production was monitored by cultivating natural pomegranate juices under the 17 optimized-combinations of three distinct sucrose concentrations, fermentation temperatures, and processing time. The combinations were designated by applying the statistical response surface methodology method. The maximum amount of glucuronic acid 17.074g/l determined in the media with 8g/l supplementary sucrose after 14 days fermentation at 37°C, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Along with glucuronic acid production, effect of the three factors - sugar concentration, processing temperature and time - was also examined on changes of five physical and chemical properties of the fermented pomegranate juices, including; pH value, remained sucrose and reducing sugar content, kombucha layer biomass, and total acidity. Within 14-day fermentation process, the pH values showed decrease, the layers’ mass presented considerable increase, and the total acid content increased in the beverages. Overall, obtained data suggested that natural pomegranate juice can be a potential candidate for further development as a functional beverage to support the maximum human daily intake of glucuronic acid (45mg for a 70kg adult).
... Kombucha drinks contain trace elements benefi cial to the human body: e.g. zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt, the content of which is higher than in pure tea brews, despite the content of harmful elements, such as lead and chromium is lower in kombucha tea (Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi, 2000). ...
Article
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Background. Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer contain- ing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are poly- phenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. Material and methods. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. Results. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Conclusions. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components’ biological activity.
... Kombu çayının sahip olduğu zengin içeriğinin tespitine yönelik çeşitli incelemeler yapılmaktadır. Bunlardan birinde ise 70g/L sakkaroz ve 5g/L siyah çay ile demleme yapılarak elde edilen bir kombu çayında; 100 ml de, 74 mg B1, 52mg B6, 84mg B12 miktarlarında B vitaminine rastlanmıştır (Petrovska & Tozi, 2000). Benzer bir çalışmada Fermantasyonun 10. gününde C vitamini miktarında artış olduğu tespit edilmiştir (Jayabalan, Malbasa, Loncar, Vitas, & Satishkumar, 2014). ...
Poster
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Abstract: Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. Tea is one of the most popular drinks due to its pleasant taste and perceived health effects. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigation of this beverage and its constituents has been under way for about 30 years.The health benefits ascribed to the consumption of teas may be related to the high content of bioactive ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols have antioxidant, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities; modulate detoxification enzymes; stimulate immune function and decrease platelet aggregation. The major phenolics present in teas are flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Conjugates of quercetin and kaempferol are the main flavonols in tea, with lower levels of myricetin. Other related compounds found in tea are gallic acid and quinic esters of gallic, coumaric, and caffeic acids, together with the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, proanthocyanidins, and trace levels of flavones. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Keywords: tea, health, antidiabetic, anti-aging,
... 1,5,13 With ongoing fermentation time, the concentration of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids with potential health benefits increases. [14][15][16][17] Due to tea polyphenols and vitamin C production kombucha exhibits pronounced antioxidant activity. 17,18 Furthermore, probiotic effects have been reported. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a traditional beverage obtained by the fermentation of sugared tea by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast which has recently re-emerged as a popular lifestyle product with potential health benefits. The characteristic feature of kombucha is the formation of a cellulosic biofilm due to the excretion of bacterial cellulose with high purity and crystallinity. Despite the growing industrial and technological interest in kombucha, current characterization techniques rely on the periodic sampling of tea broth or biofilm and ex situ analysis of its biochemical or microbial composition. Here, we use interfacial shear rheology (ISR) for the transient in situ determination of kombucha biofilm growth directly at the interface. ISR revealed that kombucha biofilm formation is a two step process with clearly distinguishable growth phases. The first phase can be attributed to the initial adsorption of bacteria at the air-water interface and shows great variability, probably due to varying bacteria content and composition. The second phase is initiated by bacterial cellulose excretion and shows astonishing reproducibility regarding onset and final mechanical properties. Hence, ISR qualifies as a new in situ characterization technique for kombucha biofilm growth and bacterial cellulose production.
... The concentrations of 0.74 mg/mL of vitamin B1, 0.08 mg/mL of vitamin B2, 0.52 mg/mL of vitamin B6, 0.84 mg/mL of vitamin B12 and 0.03 mg/mL were noted by Villarreal-Soto et al. (2018) [42]. On the other hand, 74 mg/100 mL of vitamin B1, 52 mg/100 mL of vitamin B6 and 84 mg/100 mL of vitamin B12 were found by Bauer-Petrovska and Petrushevska-Tozi (2000) in Kombucha obtained from black tea [117]. Malbaša et al. (2011) found that the concentration of vitamin C increase constantly, up to 28.98 mg/L on the 13th day of fermentation. ...
Article
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Kombucha is a low alcoholic beverage with high content of bioactive compounds derived from plant material (tea, juices, herb extracts) and metabolic activity of microorganisms (acetic acid bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts). Currently, it attracts an increasing number of consumers due to its health-promoting properties. This review focuses on aspects significantly affecting the bioactive compound content and biological activities of Kombucha tea. The literature review shows that the drink is characterized by a high content of bioactive compounds, strong antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Factors that substantially affect these activities are the tea type and its brewing parameters, the composition of the SCOBY, as well as the fermentation parameters. On the other hand, Kombucha fermentation is characterized by many unknowns, which result, inter alia, from different methods of tea extraction, diverse, often undefined compositions of microorganisms used in the fermentation, as well as the lack of clearly defined effects of microorganisms on bioactive compounds contained in tea, and therefore the health-promoting properties of the final product. The article indicates the shortcomings in the current research in the field of Kombucha, as well as future perspectives on improving the health-promoting activities of this fermented drink.
... The bioactive compounds (polyphenols, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, lactic acid, vitamins) are mostly present in fermented sugared black tea by kombucha [132]. For example, D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL) are found just in the fermented product. ...
Article
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Wild probiotic consortia of microorganisms (bacteria and yeasts) associated in the arti-sanal cultures’ microbiota (milk kefir grains, water kefir grains and kombucha) are considered valuable promoters for metabiotics (prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics and paraprobiotics) production. The beneficial effects of the fermented products obtained with the artisanal cultures on human well-being are described by centuries and the interest for them is continuously increasing. The wild origin and microbial diversity of these above-mentioned consortia give them extraordinary protec-tion capacity against microbiological contaminants in unusual physico-chemical conditions and unique fermentative behaviour. This review summarizes the state of the art for the wild artisanal cultures (milk and water kefir grains, respectively, kombucha—SCOBY), their symbiotic function-ality, and the ability to ferment unconventional substrates in order to obtain valuable bioactive compounds with in vitro and in vivo beneficial functional properties. Due to the necessity of the bioac-tives production and their use as metabiotics in the modern consumer’s life, artisanal cultures are the perfect sources able to biosynthesize complex functional metabolites (bioactive peptides, anti-microbials, polysaccharides, enzymes, vitamins, cell wall components). Depending on the purposes of the biotechnological fermentation processes, artisanal cultures can be used as starters on different substrates. Current studies show that the microbial synergy between bacteria—yeast and/or bacte-ria—offers new perspectives to develop functional products (food, feeds, and ingredients) with a great impact on life quality.
... It has been reported that bacterial species belonging to Acetobacter [2], Agrobacterium [3], or Rhizobium [4] produce cellulose. Among those cellulose producers, aerobic acetic acid bacteria that make a pellicle on the surface of fermentation broth have been studied for a long time and used for beverage manufacture such as for Kombucha [5,6]. Ninety years after Brown [7] reported for the first time in 1886 that the pellicle on an acetic ferment had a cellulose component, Brown et al. [8] showed that the pellicle formed by Acetobacter xylinum on the surface of a liquid culture had a microfibril cellulose assembly. ...
Chapter
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are mainly associated with the biotechnological process of vinegar and cellulose production, and although their occurrence in natural fermentation systems has been substantiated, their role remains rather unclear. Members of the Acetobacteraceae phylogenetic group have been reported in a range of spontaneous fermentations, such as the last phase of the cocoa bean fermentation process, the manufacturing of acidic beers, and several other slightly acidic beverages (e.g., kombucha, milk kefir, water kefir). In general, AAB are fastidious and obligate aerobes, although they can remain in a viable but nonculturable state when oxygen levels are low, and thus they are regarded as cumbersome to cultivate or isolate using laboratory media. Currently, with the implementation of culture-independent methods, as well as the introduction of metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing technologies, the abundance and functionalities of AAB in food commodities are being determined. Despite their sporadic isolation or incidence in fermentation ecosystems, the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Komagataeibacter constitute the most frequently encountered taxa. The complete genome sequencing of strains of representative AAB species has elucidated the gene repertoires related to interesting metabolic features, facilitating the understanding of the key role of AAB in natural fermentation ecosystems.
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The kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha is not yet well defined due to lack of knowledge of reaction mechanisms taking place during this process. In this study, the kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha was analysed using the suggested empirical model. The data were obtained on 1.5 g L-1 of black tea, with 66.47 g L-1 of saccharose and using 10 or 15% (V/V) of Kombucha. The total number of viable cells was as follows: approx-imately 5x10(5) of yeast cells per mL of the inoculum and approximately 2x10(6) of bacteria cells per mL of the inoculum. The samples were analysed after 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 days. Their pH values and contents of saccharose, glucose, fructose, total acids and ethanol were determined. A saccharose concentration model was defined as a sigmoidal function at 22 and 30 degrees C, and with 10 and 15% (V/V) of inoculum quantity. The determination coefficients of the functions were very high (R-2 > 0.99). Reaction rates were calculated as first derivatives of Boltzmann's functions. No simple correlation between the rate of reaction and independent variables (temperature and inoculum concentration) was found. Analysis of the empirical model indicated that saccharose fermentation by Kombucha occurred according to very complex kinetics.
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Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. Kombucha consumption has been associated with some health effects such as: the reduction of cholesterol levels and blood pressure, reduction of cancer propagation, the improvement of liver, the immune system, and gastrointestinal functions. The beneficial effects of kombucha are attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that act synergistically. Bacteria contained in kombucha beverage belongs to the genus Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and the yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces along with glucuronic acid, contribute to health protection. This review focuses on recent findings regarding beneficial effects of kombucha and discusses its chemical compounds, as well as the metabolites resulted by the fermentation process. Besides, some contraindications of kombucha consumption are also reviewed.
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The separation efficiency of micellar solutions in thin layer chromatography of hydrophilic vitamins (B1, B9, B 12 and C) has been examined using silica gel as stationary phase. The best results were obtained with mixed micelles (aqueous solution of anionic SDS (0.5%) plus non-ionic Triton X-100 (0.5%) surfactants) and butanol (9:1 v/v) as mobile phase. The proposed method is applicable to the identification and separation of vitamins (B1, B9, and C) present in drug samples (Becosule and Celin). The separation 1 μg of vitamin C from milligram quantities (up to 0.50 mg) of vitamin B, has been successfully realized. Effect of metal ions as impurities on the separation of B1, B9 and vitamin C and limit of detection of these vitamins have been examined.
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Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.
Thesis
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In this thesis there was conducted a database-supported Iiterature investigation into lactic fermented drinks on vegetable basis. A lactic fermented drink on the base of grain amaranth was developed and evaluated in analytic, sensoric and physiologic respects. The analyses comprised viscosity, colour, solubility, dry matter, pH, degree of acidity, lactic acid-, maltose-, sucrose- and glucose-content. Milled raw, toasted and popped amaranth was used as raw material. Fermentable suspensions were produced by use of technical enzymes as well as malt and by methods of hot hydrolysis at 90 °C, hydrolysis at 60 °C and wet milling. The thermophilic and mesophilic fermentations were conducted at laboratory scale (0,5 - 3 l). One-strain and multi-strain cultures were used. The parameters bacterial culture, dry matter, raw material and hydrolysing enzyme were investigated in respect to the response variables viscosity, fermentation time and fermentation course. The drinks which turned out to be best after an internal sensoric evaluation (popped amaranth, malt resp. amyloglucosidase, probiotic multi-strain culture ABT-21) were evaluated externally by a panel of 40 persons, using a hedonic acceptance test. Pure fermented amaranth drinks as well as such with added flavouring compounds were assessed. Test sheets were developed for that particular purpose. Fermented as well as not fermented amaranth drinks were spray dried. The resulting powders were evaluated in respect to their solubility. Products with high physiological value were developed. The sensory evaluation showed the drinks with added flavouring compounds to be more accepted than the pure drinks.
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Although prime compounds in yeast metabolism, vitamins in oenology have remained mostly unexplored for decades. Here, a premier characterization of the vitamers in white grape musts has been drawn. A RP-HPLC method has therefore been developed for their direct analysis in musts, allowing for the determination of 19 different vitamers from 8 water-soluble vitaminic groups, including thiamine forms T, TMP and TPP, with LODs between 0.1 and 45.9 µg.L⁻¹ and LOQs between 0.4 and 137.8 µg.L⁻¹. A resulting characterization of 85 grape musts has been drawn from their vitaminic composition. Plus, the use of neither sulfites nor filtration affects the must vitamin content. The method stands as a useful tool for the later determination of yeast requirements, or impact of winemaking products on vitamins. The method has, overall, proven as practical and sensitive, for rapid identification of vitamins and vitamers in musts.
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Kombucha fermented solutions (KFSs) were produced from tea (KTFS), rice (KRFS) and barely (KBFS) after 8 and 10 days. These solutions tested as antimicrobial activity against microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Shigelladysenteriae, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans) by agar well diffusion assay. KTFS was higher inhibitory activity than KRFS or KBFS, which gave the largest clear halo-zone diameter against S. enteritidis. Minimum lethal concentration: minimum inhibition concentration ratio wascalculated to known the KFSs action. All tested KFSs were micobicidal effect against S. aureus and C. albicans (≤2) and microbiostatic effect against other pathogenic bacteria (≥4). Objective: The study extends to examine the growth inhibitory effects and Apoptotic abilities of KFSS, on human colon (HCT-116) and liver (HEpG-2) cancer cells. Material and method: using Neutral Red Uptake Assay and the AO/EB dual Staining assays to detect anti proliferative and apoptosis properties. Results: indicated that KTFS had more antitumor activity against different tumor cells than KRFS and KBFS. Although all tested KFSs were found to reduce the cell viability in a concentration manner, but the magnitude of reduction was high in case of KTFS with lower IC50 values, and induces a higher percentage of apoptotic cells after 24 h of exposure of HEpG-2 cell line. These results suggest that the KFSs possess interesting antiproliferative properties and induce apoptosis on the HCT-116 and HEpG-2 cancer cells associated with significant antimicrobial activity. These findings provide additional support for the traditional use of KFSs in the treatment of metabolic diseases and various types of cancer.
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The production of kombucha generates as fermentation products a beverage and also bacterial cellulose (BC). Despite several studies on the production and characteristics of the beverage, BC from kombucha is still little explored and there are not many reports on the reuse of this material. The main objective of the present study was to demonstrate typical kombucha fermentation results in a satisfactory amount of BC with morphological and physicochemical characteristics similar to those produced in synthetic medium. For this, the fermentation kinetics for obtaining kombucha beverage and bacterial cellulose (BC) were evaluated in a medium containing green tea and sugar. The microbial composition of the culture was identified and Komagataeibacter rhaeticus proved to be the main strain responsible for BC production. The fermentation showed typical behavior with the production of acetic acid, citric acid, ethanol, and a slight increase in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The final concentration of 4.56 g/L of BC was obtained and identified as type I, showing a structure of fine tangled fibers and crystallinity of 74.3%. Knowing that there is a high demand for cellulose in many areas, BC produced by the kombucha industry can be an alternative source to the conventional production method.
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Kombucha beverage produced through fermentation of sugared tea using bacteria and yeast has gained attention for its beneficial health benefits. However, the cost linked to the raw materials often increases the upstream process expenses, thereby the overall operating expenditures. Thus, there is a need to explore alternative waste and cost-effective raw materials for Kombucha fermentation. The present study, compared the physico-chemical and microbial growth pattern of Kombucha beverage production using tea waste from the tea processing industries with that of the green/black tea, reporting similar trends irrespective of its type. Further, the amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA showed dominant presence of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus and high throughput sequencing of ITS1 confirmed the presence of yeast species similar to Brettanomyces bruxellensis in the tea waste based Kombucha beverage. Appreciable amount of carbohydrates (8.5/100 g) and energy (34 kcal/100 g) with appropriate organoleptic properties favourable for human consumption were also observed during the nutritional content and qualitative property assessment. The overall study showed a broad taxonomic and functional diversity existing during Kombucha fermentation process with tea waste to maintain a sustained eco-system to facilitate cost-effective beverage production with desired properties for safe consumption.
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Kombucha is a beverage obtained by fermenting sweetened green or black tea with a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY), which claims nutritional characteristics. As demand for kombucha increased, alternative extracts to green or black tea such as herbs, fruits, milk, agro-industrial materials started to be used in fermentation, giving rise to kombucha-like beverages. The literature review shows that the procedure and conditions used to obtain kombucha-like beverages are similar to the traditional fermentation. However, some additional steps may be necessary to prepare the raw material for its use as an alternative to green or black tea, the main approaches being highlighted in this review. Bioactive compounds (mainly phenolics) are considered one of the main attractions of kombucha due to their antioxidant characteristics. It is observed that, regardless of the extract used, the bioactive compounds (mainly phenolics) and also the antioxidant activity tend to increase during the fermentation of these beverages. Thus, the use of alternative raw materials to tea for the preparation of kombucha is viable and tends to serve a wide range of products according to different regions of the world. These new beverages have similar characteristics to the traditional beverage and respect the diversity of consumer market trends.
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Plant bioactive compounds have been studied mainly for their beneficial antioxidant properties. Kombucha is a fermented beverage traditionally obtained from fermentation of sweetened black or green tea by a characteristic consortium of yeasts and bacteria. The beverage naturally contains bioactive compounds from teas and their synthesis can be increased during fermentation. This review aims to explore the different bioactive compounds found in kombucha from different substrates, as well as the factors that influence on their synthesis and their amount in the final product. The results suggest phenolic compounds are the main bioactive compounds in kombucha. The substrate type contributes the most to increasing the content of bioactive compounds in the final product; fermentation time and type of sugar also increase the amount of these compounds. Further research suggestions include the combination of strategies to increase bioactive compounds in kombucha, quantification and characterization of the isolated compounds. Free access https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1emYm16Ds1s9uR
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Kombucha is a drink produced by fermentation of sweetened tea due to symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria species. In this study; pH value, total acidity, alcohol, total phenolic compounds quantities, caffein and some individual compounds contents of kombucha drinks produced using white, black and green tea were determined. At the end of the fermantation, pH and total acidity (% acetic acid) values of kombuchas including white, black and green tea were found 3,11; 3.22; 3.16 and 8,9; 9,2; 9,0, respectively. Total phenolic compund content of kombuchas produced with white tea (736,1 mg GAE/L) was higher than others. The highest amount of compounds analyzed in the kombucha samples were identified as caffeine. Gallic acid (4,76±1,06 mg/L), caffeine (63,47±4,64 mg/L) and epicatechin (1,59±0,06 mg/L) quantities of kombuchas produced with using white tea were found higher than kombuchas produced with using black and green tea.
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Kombucha is a drink produced by fermentation of sweetened tea due to symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria species. In this study; pH value, total acidity, alcohol, total phenolic compounds quantities, caffein and some individual compounds contents of kombucha drinks produced using white, black and green tea were determined. At the end of the fermantation, pH and total acidity (% acetic acid) values of kombuchas including white, black and green tea were found 3,11; 3.22; 3.16 and 8,9; 9,2; 9,0, respectively. Total phenolic compund content of kombuchas produced with white tea (736,1 mg GAE/L) was higher than others. The highest amount of compounds analyzed in the kombucha samples were identified as caffeine. Gallic acid (4,76±1,06 mg/L), caffeine (63,47±4,64 mg/L) and epicatechin (1,59±0,06 mg/L) quantities of kombuchas produced with using white tea were found higher than kombuchas produced with using black and green tea.
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The Medusomyces gisevi (combucha) culture has long been widely used by the population for food purposes, as well as a natural prophylactic and medicinal agent. The detoxification, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, hypolipidemic properties etc. are among the proven properties of kombucha. Researches by a number of authors have proven a pronounced bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of kombucha metabolites against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we conducted research on the fish pickling technology on the basis of vinegar obtained from the cultural liquid of the kombucha. We studied the organoleptic and physicochemical indicators of the experimental pickled fish batches, according to the results of which it was noted that in the course of autoleptic changes when pickling by the proposed method, the proteins undergo a stronger denaturation.
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Kombucha is a SCOBY-fermented tea beverage known for its taste, sensorial qualities, and high endogenous microbial load. In recent years, kombucha has become a popular functional food with a compound annual growth rate of 25% from 2015 to 2020 in American kombucha sales alone, and sales are predicted to keep increasing significantly over the next decade. However, kombucha is lacking in scientific research, and there is still much to be explored regarding its safety and native probiotic content. This research looked into the various routes of contamination of several kombucha systems as well as the feasibility of the producing a kombucha beverage with health-promoting characteristics derived from the inclusion of lactic probiotics. Although bacterial spore contamination and survival in the kombucha SCOBY have been documented, it is unknown whether spores can survive in the liquid, or whether they can be transmitted to daughter SCOBYs. The foodborne pathogen and spore-former Bacillus cereus was inoculated into the SCOBY, unfermented liquid, and fermented liquid of three different kombucha systems. Data suggest that neither the route of contamination nor the kombucha system influenced the transmission or survival of B. cereus spores. The spread of the spores between culture and liquid across generation was shown to be sporadic but possible, so hygienic handling of kombucha cultures and raw materials throughout the entire production process is crucial to prevent uptake of pathogenic organisms. There was no survival of B. cereus spores after short-term storage or secondary fermentation, indicating that implementation of a holding step may mitigate potential food safety threats. Kombucha is perceived to contain probiotics, but not all live cultures comprise probiotics. Some commercial kombucha products have validated probiotic strains added to them post-fermentation, but this can be costly. If probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria, are inoculated into sweet tea prior to fermentation, they may be able to acidify the tea, replacing the need for utilizing previous kombucha or acetic acid, or survive and/or produce beneficial metabolites during fermentation in great enough amounts to convey a health benefit upon consumption. The survivability of six probiotic Lactobacillus sp. in acidified, sweetened tea at 25ºC during kombucha fermentation was established, and the medium (tea) and temperature (25ºC) were both revealed to affect the growth rates of the bacteria. Differences in pH indicated that the probiotics were unable to acidify the tea pre-fermentation. Although survival during fermentation was possible for four out of the six probiotics, it was concluded that probiotic Lactobacillus sp. are not well suited for a probiotic kombucha beverages, but out of the tested probiotics, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum were the most promising candidates.
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Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria belonging to the genus Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and the yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces along with glucuronic acid, which has health-promoting properties. The paper presents the evaluation of ferments as a potential cosmetic raw material obtained from Yerba Mate after different fermentation times with the addition of Kombucha. Fermented and unfermented extracts were compared in terms of chemical composition and biological activity. The antioxidant potential of obtained ferments was analyzed by evaluating the scavenging of external and intracellular free radicals. Cytotoxicity was determined on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines, resulting in significant increase in cell viability for the ferments. The ferments, especially after 14 and 21 days of fermentation showed strong ability to inhibit (about 40% for F21) the activity of lipoxygenase, collagenase and elastase enzymes and long‐lasting hydration after their application on the skin. Moreover, active chemical compounds, including phenolic acids, xanthines and flavonoids were identified by HPLC/ESI–MS. The results showed that both the analyzed Yerba Mate extract and the ferments obtained with Kombucha may be valuable ingredients in cosmetic products.
Article
Kombucha is an effervescent fermented tea beverage that is gaining popularity for its probiotic nature and purported health benefits. The market for kombucha is expected to reach $1.8 billion by the year 2020. The composition of microbes that compose the symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) is highly variable with some species commonly found from the Gluconobacter, Acetobacter, Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces, and Schizosaccharomyces genera. It was hypothesized that different SCOBYs, obtained from different sources would vary in microbial diversity and produce different biochemical and flavor profiles in the resulting beverage over several generations. Kombucha is a fermented product and ethanol is often present in the final beverage, so it is important that a quality control method exist. The main objectives of this research were: (1a) to investigate the microbial variation between three SCOBYs of different origins and (1b) determine if there are significant differences within SCOBYs over 10 generations; (2) to determine the impact that the kombucha SCOBY has on the biochemical profile of the beverage; and (3) to learn the vocabulary words that consumers use to characterize the flavor notes in kombucha. Kombucha was produced in a laboratory setting with three kombucha SCOBY pellicles prescreened for fermentate heterogeneity by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Two batches from each unique SCOBY were produced every 14 days. The liquid from batches 1, 5, 10, and the corresponding mother SCOBY were saved for downstream analysis including DNA sequencing with Oxford Nanopore’s MinION and HPLC analysis. A sensory evaluation study was also conducted to determine the vocabulary that consumers use to describe kombucha. The two main microbes present in the SCOBYs tested in this research were Komagataeibacter xylinus and Gluconobacter oxydans. The diversity of the SCOBY did change slightly with time; however, over ten generations, the slight change in diversity was not significant (p-value > 0.05). By calculating beta diversity, Fisher’s alpha, Shannon diversity, and Simpson diversity, a clearer picture of the diversity of the SCOBY community between SCOBYs of different origins could be determined and demonstrated consortia to be quite different. Investigating the two main microbes in kombucha, K. xylinus and G. oxydans, the Pearson correlations between the microbe and the flavor compounds acidic acid, lactic acid, glucose, fructose and sucrose were determined. K. xylinus was negatively correlated to glucose, fructose, lactic acid and acetic acid, and positively correlated to sucrose (part of the formulation) concentrations suggesting this microbe dominates earlier in the fermentation. G. oxydans was positively correlated to the concentrations of glucose, fructose, lactic acid and acetic acid, but negatively correlated to sucrose, suggesting it dominates later in the fermentation. However, these correlation coefficients were low and not significant. A sensory evaluation study using 66 untrained panelists revealed the top 3 favorite flavors of kombucha amongst these panelists were ginger + other flavorings, ginger, and tropical flavors. Comparing two commercial and one lab-made kombucha sample showed that consumers found a significant difference in the vinegar, sour and bubbly flavor notes.
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In this study, sweetened black and green tea were utilized as substrate for kombucha fermentation. Linden, lemon balm, sage, echinacea, mint, and cinnamon infusions were added to kombucha to design a novel beverage with improved functional and organoleptic characteristics. After fermentation, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the kombucha increased by 13.96% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), 48.90% ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 55.54% cupric reducing AC (CUPRAC). On days 0 and 9 of storage, the bioaccessibility of the total phenolics and AC (FRAP and CUPRAC) in all of the samples showed a significant increase after gastric and intestinal digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05). The AC (DPPH) after in vitro digestion at the beginning and end of storage in all of the beverages also increased after gastric digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05); however, it decreased after intestinal digestion (P < 0.05). By conducting in vitro and in vivo studies, the effects of kombucha on health and nutrition need to be further investigated.
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Kombucha is a functional tea brewed through a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). It is applicable to various industrial sectors due to its several noteworthy features. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the following technological aspects of kombucha/SCOBY: (a) the effect of its production parameters on different scales, (b) microbiota features and factors that affect biofilm formation and fermentation so as to demonstrate its potential applications in different industrial sectors, and (d) how its consumption affects human health according to evidence collected in literature. Its production seldom occurs on an industrial scale and studies assessing its large-scale fermentation process are scarce. Various industrial sectors have benefited from SCOBY, such as the food industry, biotechnological processes and biomedicine. However, industrial applications require optimization of some parameters, such as specific equipment for product standardization aimed at cost reduction and process profitability.
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This study aimed to produce sourdough bread using an encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter culture without the addition of baker's yeast. The bioactive metabolites of kombucha sourdough starter and sourdough starter without kombucha were identified using ¹H‐NMR analysis with multivariate analysis. The physical properties, including loaf volume, specific loaf volume, firmness, and water activity were determined following standard methods. The shelf life and consumer acceptability of the bread were also being evaluated. The principal component analyses showed the presence of 15 metabolites in kombucha sourdough starter. The major compounds that contributed to the differences from sourdough starter without kombucha were alpha‐aminobutyric acid, alanine, acetic acid, riboflavin, pyridoxine, anserine, tryptophan, gluconic acid, and trehalose. The encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter increased the loaf volume (976.7 ± 25.2 mL) and specific loaf volume (4.38 ± 0.12 mL/g) compared to yeast bread. Thus, significant (P < 0.05) reduction was observed in the crumb firmness (116.07 ± 6.28 g) compared to traditional sourdough bread and yeast bread. The encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter extended the shelf life of bread by 5 to 10 days at room temperature. The sourdough bread prepared using the encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher taste and overall acceptability scores compared to the other bread. The findings indicate that the encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter is promising to produce functional sourdough bread with extended shelf life and improved quality. Practical Application Encapsulated kombucha sourdough starter culture that appropriately refreshed can be used primarily as a dough leavening agent in the bread industry without the addition of baker's yeast. This starter culture applied in sourdough bread production extended the shelf life and improved the biological function of sourdough bread.
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Kombucha is a beverage made from sugared tea transformed by yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. Being originally homemade, it has become an industrially produced soft drink whose quality standards are poorly defined and whose production process is still not fully controlled. Based on current knowledge in beverages, links between kombucha's chemical composition and sensorial compounds are drawn. Macromolecules create turbidity, whereas uncharacterized tea pigments derivatives participate in the color. Residual sugars bring sweetness and organic acids produced by acetic acid bacteria form its characteristic sour taste. Acetic acid is also part of its aroma profile, although little data are available on the smell of kombucha. Carbon dioxide, potentially polyphenols, and residual ethanol are involved in the mouthfeel. In this review, after defining the key compounds that shape the characteristic sensory properties of kombucha, the impact of different production parameters is discussed. Water composition is determinant in the extraction of tea compounds along with the tea type and infusion duration and temperature. The type and amount of sweeteners play a role in the sweetness and influences the production kinetics. Similarly, the amount of inoculum and its microbial composition have an effect on the production, but the role of the vessels' geometry and temperature are also essential parameters that can be used to adjust the acidification phase's duration. Despite the amount of research carried out, further investigations of kombucha's sensory characteristics are needed. Such research could lead to a better definition of kombucha's quality and to an improved control over its production process.
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