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The Possibilities and Limits of Telework in a Bureaucratic Environment: Lessons From the Public Sector

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Abstract

By modifying the spatial and temporal framework of work, telework involves a reorganisation of the conduct of work that affects the employment relationship in different ways. In this paper, we focus on control issues. Based on the empirical study of two experiences led in the public sector, we illustrate the necessity to redefine the rules of control and to recast managerial practices and role.

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... Performance Management of Work from Home WFH arrangements require reconfiguration of bureaucratic structures of control, funding, accountability, and patterns of oversight (Schuster et al. 2020). Although WFH is arguably more effective in flatter organization structure that allow flexibility, deregulated work, and autonomy than in bureaucratic organizations with hierarchical structures, empirical research has shown that WFH can be effectively implemented in government organizations under certain conditions (Taskin and Edwards 2007). For "white-collar" job functions to be effectively adapted to WFH mode, Taskin and Edwards (2007) demonstrated the need for three conditions: (a) professional workers with high levels of autonomy; (b) strategic support from management and effective and transparent communication; and (c) modification of organization policies and regulations. ...
... Although WFH is arguably more effective in flatter organization structure that allow flexibility, deregulated work, and autonomy than in bureaucratic organizations with hierarchical structures, empirical research has shown that WFH can be effectively implemented in government organizations under certain conditions (Taskin and Edwards 2007). For "white-collar" job functions to be effectively adapted to WFH mode, Taskin and Edwards (2007) demonstrated the need for three conditions: (a) professional workers with high levels of autonomy; (b) strategic support from management and effective and transparent communication; and (c) modification of organization policies and regulations. Successful WFH in the public sector requires an effective performance management approach by setting clear and consistent WFH guidelines, policies, and expectations, strategically aligning and securing work processes, and supporting and engaging employees. ...
... However, WFH poses a challenge to the need for predictability, accountability, and management control as it entails functions characterized by being unforeseen and multifaceted, and thus not easily accountable for when compared to control of on-site work functions, which depends on visibility and physical presence of employees. Therefore, Taskin and Edwards (2007) stress that managing WFH processes should not contradict with innovative means of control whether trust-based as employee selfcontrol, social control, or performance oriented as electronic-based tools. ...
... Such work is performed without advance notice, momentary and scattered in time and space. New practices are less dependent on employer consent, more taken for granted, informal, based on responsible autonomy and extend outside regular working hours (Alexander et al., 2010;Giménez-Nadal et al., 2020;Mullan & Wajcman, 2019;Nätti et al., 2011;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). ...
... Early studies gave insight into the conflicting impacts of teleworking's ability to decouple work from fixed places (Boell et al., 2016): On one hand, telework was regarded as a privileged coping strategy to balance work and home life (Collins et al., 2013); on the other, it brought blurred boundaries and work-life conflict (Berkowsky, 2013;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Peters et al., 2004;Sayah, 2013;Wight & Raley, 2009). In terms of control, telework entailed contradictory implications, being presented both as a factor in the liberation of workers (from production constraints) as well as a means for employers to electronically monitor and regulate work performance at a distance (Dunn, 2009;Sewell & Taskin, 2015;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). ...
... For example, when telework is unregulated and occasional, its daily rhythms may be increasingly steered by horizontal and informal pacesetting among colleagues (Alexander et al., 2010;Allvin et al., 2011;Giménez-Nadal et al., 2020). In less qualified professions, telework may become less voluntary and increasingly determined by employer interests and technical control mechanisms (Hodder, 2020;Messenger & Gschwind, 2016;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). These suggestions call for further examination of the processes that regulate 'new' telework activity in time and space. ...
Article
Full-text available
We examine how mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs) and mediated interaction transform daily work activity in contemporary, extended telework. We expand on the concepts of mediated bundles and pacesetters to understand how the rhythms and employee control of work activity change. We draw on in‐depth interviews with 22 teleworkers with varying skills and work tasks. We find that mobile technology not only relaxes the time–space constraints of telework but fosters countering processes of recoupling and fixity. New ICTs shift the relative importance of individually defined and work‐related pacesetters. The rhythm of daily work is increasingly set by horizontal interaction between spatially dispersed coworkers. It is informally regulated through practices of the continuous‐mediated interweaving of workflows and synchronised responsivity in relation to changing work intensity. Highly qualified teleworkers more often signal that they are in control and setting the pace compared to less qualified.
... With a few exceptions (Halford, 2005;Hislop and Axtell, 2009;Taskin and Edwards, 2007), this spatial reconfiguration of work has been poorly theorized, leaving with no answer to questions about the meaning and implications of the re-spatialization of work, even though such practices inevitably alter the social space of organizations (Lefebvre, 1991), that is, their territoriality and materiality (Halford, 2005;Sewell and Taskin, 2015). By modifying the spatial, temporal, and material frames of work, these practices imply a "re-regulation" (i.e., reorganization of the conduct of work; Edwards et al., 2002), with various effects for social, managerial, and power relations (Dale, 2005;Dale and Burrell, 2008;Sewell and Taskin, 2015). ...
... Furthermore, the hybridation and spatial reconfiguration of work alters employees' notions of visibility and invisibility, presence and absence, and colocation or dislocation, in both time and space and virtual or physical settings (Felstead et al., 2003;Halford, 2005). Thus it involves a novel re-regulation of work and reorganization of the conduct of work (Edwards et al., 2002;Taskin and Edwards, 2007) that requires new managerial practices, as well as revised social and power relations. We need a deeper investigation of the materiality and spatiality of new work practices (Dale, 2005), embedded in organizational politics, especially with regard to the way companies use coworking spaces for their own employees, in a way that tends to respatialize and re-materialize remote work and re-embed it in a physical space. ...
... Organizational research highlights the influence of spatial and temporal dimensions on the nature and implications of work practices, proposing that the "where" and "when" intertwine to produce the "how" of working, such that "Where work is done makes a difference to working practices and to organizational and personal relationships" (Halford, 2005, p. 20). Spatial hybridity in particular changes the nature of work, organization, and management, because they get enacted in different spaces (e.g., domestic, organizational, virtual) (Halford, 20005), leading to a re-regulation of work that involves new ways to manage and control employees (Taskin and Edwards, 2007). Furthermore, power relations are central to understanding why organizations are spatially organized in certain ways (Taylor and Spicer, 2007). ...
... Along with other innovations broadly referred to as electronic government, telework offers researchers the opportunity to explore the interplay between socio-technical changes and public administration functioning (Hood 2000;Welch and Pandey 2007). While acknowledging that ICTs are its enablers, conventional conceptualizations of telework emphasize its implications for the spatial and temporal aspects of the conduct of work in public bureaucracies (Taskin and Edwards 2007). ...
... The way in which telework interacts with specific attributes of public bureaucracies has attracted some concerns. On the one hand, new forms of work that rely on ICTs alter the unity of space, time, and action and may challenge the traditional forms of management control in public administration, specifically, hierarchical oversight (Hood 1995) and monitoring employees in situ and de visu, that is, based on their physical presence and visibility (Taskin and Edwards 2007). On the other hand, some researchers have postulated that "although the information society is often assumed to have an inherently liberal bias, the technologies associated with it have the potential for substantially enhancing the oversight approach to control […] of traditional field bureaucracies" (Hood 2000, 2). ...
... Second, our findings address the underexplored role of remoteness on learning in public organizations (Taskin and Edwards 2007), defined as "individual perceptions of the deployment of knowledge in a group setting" (Moynihan andLanduyt 2009, 1098) that is integral to social interaction and engagement in government work practice. Previous research has identified several structural and cultural elements that may hinder organizational learning in public agencies. ...
Article
Over the last decades, one of the most significant changes in the workplaces of government agencies around the world has been the introduction of telework. The relatively scant public administration research on this innovation and on its semantic or substantive variations such as telecommuting, home-work, remote work and smart work, has examined its effects on teleworkers and only recently on non-teleworkers. However, scholars have overlooked the relational dynamics triggered by telework. This is the focus of our study. We start by connecting telework with specific features of public bureaucracies, such as control, modularity and the separation of professional and personal life. Next, we explore through a mixed methods design a relational dynamic overlooked by previous studies, i.e. the preferences of non-teleworkers towards teleworking colleagues and the motives behind them. Results from a discrete choice experiment with over 1,000 non-teleworking public employees revealed a remarkably strong preference toward non-teleworkers. A qualitative follow-up based on semi-structured interviews found the workplace collective as the locus of the tensions caused by telework and illuminated critical issues perceived by non-teleworkers, ensuring a more fine-grained understanding of the impacts of flexible work arrangements on the functioning of public organizations.
... "La déspatialisation fait référence à la perte d'une proximité physique et psychosociologique" (Taskin, 2010 (Michinov, 2008). La confiance est un des éléments important dans la mise en place d'un télétravail réussi (Bentley et al., 2016;Dose et al., 2019;Golden & Raghuram, 2010;Taskin & Edwards, 2007 ...
... Des individus seraient plus aptes que d'autres à télétravailler. Dans la littérature, il est rapporté que certains patrons choisissent les salariés les plus méritants et leur octroie le télétravail pour récompense(Taskin & Edwards, 2007). Les profils les plus adaptés seraient les télétravailleurs du savoir ayant une plus grande autonomie, travaillant sur des projets. ...
... Les profils les plus adaptés seraient les télétravailleurs du savoir ayant une plus grande autonomie, travaillant sur des projets. Ils doivent être en capacité de planifier et d'organiser leur travail pour respecter les objectifs ou les délais(Bobillier Chaumon et al., 2018;Taskin & Edwards, 2007;Tavares, 2017). On relève aussi que les travailleurs mobiles permanents se sentiraient moins isolés donc plus à l'aise qu'un télétravailleur à domicile(Taskin, 2010 ;Tavares, 2017). ...
Article
Le télétravail attire de plus en plus de salariés en termes d’amélioration de la qualité de vie. Le contexte conjoncturel permet le développement de ce mode d’organisation. La digitalisation est de plus en plus forte. Les effets d’intensification et de densification liés à la pression temporelle sont décrits, ainsi que les effets sur les relations de travail en réseau. Enfin la question se pose de choisir les salariés aptes au télétravail. Cependant, il semble plus utile d’accompagner les salariés dans les stratégies pouvant être salvatrice pour la santé. Mots clés : télétravail, isolement, TIC, personnalité, santé Keywords : telework, telecommuting, social isolation, ICT, personnality, health
... Along with other innovations broadly referred to as electronic government, telework offers researchers the opportunity to explore the interplay between socio-technical changes and public administration functioning (Hood 2000;Welch and Pandey 2007). While acknowledging that ICTs are its enablers, conventional conceptualizations of telework emphasize its implications for the spatial and temporal aspects of the conduct of work in public bureaucracies (Taskin and Edwards 2007). ...
... The way in which telework interacts with specific attributes of public bureaucracies has attracted some concerns. On the one hand, new forms of work that rely on ICTs alter the unity of space, time, and action and may challenge the traditional forms of management control in public administration, specifically, hierarchical oversight (Hood 1995) and monitoring employees in situ and de visu, that is, based on their physical presence and visibility (Taskin and Edwards 2007). On the other hand, some researchers have postulated that "although the information society is often assumed to have an inherently liberal bias, the technologies associated with it have the potential for substantially enhancing the oversight approach to control […] of traditional field bureaucracies" (Hood 2000, 2). ...
... Second, our findings address the underexplored role of remoteness on learning in public organizations (Taskin and Edwards 2007), defined as "individual perceptions of the deployment of knowledge in a group setting" (Moynihan andLanduyt 2009, 1098) that is integral to social interaction and engagement in government work practice. Previous research has identified several structural and cultural elements that may hinder organizational learning in public agencies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decades, one of the most significant changes in the workplaces of government agencies around the world has been the introduction of telework. The relatively scant public administration research on this innovation and on its semantic or substantive variations such as telecommuting, home-work, remote work and smart work, has examined its effects on teleworkers and only recently on non-teleworkers. However, scholars have overlooked the relational dynamics triggered by telework. This is the focus of our study. We start by connecting telework with specific features of public bureaucracies, such as control, modularity and the separation of professional and personal life. Next, we explore through a mixed methods design a relational dynamic overlooked by previous studies, i.e. the preferences of non-teleworkers towards teleworking colleagues and the motives behind them. Results from a discrete choice experiment with over 1,000 non-teleworking public employees revealed a remarkably strong preference toward non-teleworkers. A qualitative follow-up based on semi-structured interviews found the workplace collective as the locus of the tensions caused by telework and illuminated critical issues perceived by non-teleworkers, ensuring a more fine-grained understanding of the impacts of flexible work arrangements on the functioning of public organizations.
... Therefore, to study re-regulation processes in organizations, it is necessary to consider how employees experience work activities and relationships-in our case, in the context of flexwork. Re-regulation emphasizes the continuing contests and contradictions of any work system (Taskin and Edwards, 2007). We follow this approach by focusing on the tensions of flexwork and the ways in which they manifest themselves in an organization. ...
... This might explain the evolution from relational interactions towards transactional ones (Harris, 2003;Thorne, 2005;Tietze and Nadin, 2011). These less embodied relations involve the emergence of individual strategies to ensure positive relationships with peers and managers; to stay visible and show proof of work, or to establish or maintain a level of trust (Taskin and Edwards, 2007). As a result, flexworkers "manage the optics" (Richardson and McKenna, 2014:732) by mobilizing several signalling strategies (see Sewell and Taskin, 2015). ...
... This observation provides insights into the effects of flexwork on working relationships. In the past, visibility and presence were key components of an employee's relationship to work and peers (Taskin and Edwards, 2007). Now, presence is less expected (e.g., the building could not hold all employees), and visibility can be partially re-built virtually. ...
Article
Full-text available
Existing studies on flexwork stress its individualizing inclination by showing how it gives autonomy to employees, boosts individual productivity, or supports personal well-being at the expense of group cohesiveness, social ties and other characteristics of the “collective” in organizations. Obviously, flexwork both continues and contributes to an individualization process of working activities and relationships. But, how exactly does flexwork re-regulate working relationships and communities? Is the “collective” irremediably damaged and doomed to disappear? Building on a case study conducted in an insurance company having implemented flexwork, we observe invisibilized employees working from diverse premises (e.g., home, office, etc.) initiating alternative ways of staying united and close. This article shows the re-regulation of these working relationships and communities' through a collective identity process involving de/re-spacing identity; i.e., the spatial and material aspects of flexible work in relation to identity.
... As vantagens do teletrabalho frequentemente retratadas na literatura, consistem na redução de custos organizacionais e com o tempo de deslocamento, em maior flexibilidade e melhoria da produtividade, da qualidade de vida e do desempenho, equilíbrio entre vida profissional e vida pessoal, maior autonomia e diminuição dos índices de rotatividade e de absenteísmo (Bae & Kim, 2016;Barros & Silva, 2010;Baruch, 2001;Caillier, 2013aCaillier, , 2013bCaillier, , 2013cCoenen & Kok, 2014;Hislop et al., 2015;Lee & Hong, 2011;Steil & Barcia, 2001;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). Por outro lado, o teletrabalho também traz desvantagens e riscos, tais como o isolamento profissional, a sobrecarga de trabalho, a falta de suporte tecnológico, dificuldades de progressão na carreira, a visão preconceituosa dos colegas de trabalho e da chefia e o conflito entre trabalho e família (Aderaldo, Aderaldo, & Lima, 2017;Barros & Silva, 2010;Mann, Varey, & Button, 2000;Pérez, Sánchez, & de Luis Carnicer, 2002;Rosenfield & Alves, 2011;Tietze, 2005). ...
... Embora os estudos sobre o tema no setor público brasileiro ainda sejam escassos, pesquisas realizadas em organizações privadas brasileiras e em instituições internacionais permitem afirmar a existência de diversos benefícios que podem ser obtidos por meio de um programa de teletrabalho bem-sucedido. É possível perceber a redução de custos para a empresa e para o teletrabalhador, maior flexibilidade, melhoria da produtividade (Butler, Aasheim, & Williams, 2007;Sánchez, Pérez, De Luis Carnicer, & Jiménez, 2007), motivação (Caillier, 2012(Caillier, , 2016Kwon & Jeon, 2017) e satisfação no trabalho (Bae & Kim, 2016;Caillier, 2012Caillier, , 2014Hornung & Glaser, 2009) melhoria da qualidade de vida, e maior equilíbrio entre vida profissional e vida pessoal a redução com o tempo de deslocamento, maior autonomia para gerenciar o trabalho (Bae & Kim, 2016; Barros & Silva, 2010;Baruch, 2001;Caillier, 2013aCaillier, , 2013bCoenen & Kok, 2014;Hislop et al., 2015;Lee & Hong, 2011;Taskin & Edwards, 2007;ter Hoeven & van Zoonen, 2015), melhoria do desempenho e do atendimento das demandas, a diminuição dos índices de turnover e absenteísmo (Bae & Kim, 2016; Barros & Silva, 2010;Baruch, 2001;Caillier, 2013aCaillier, , 2013bCaillier, , 2013cCoenen & Kok, 2014;Hislop et al., 2015;Lee & Hong, 2011;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). Além desses benefícios é possível perceber ainda, alguns benefícios para a sociedade, tais como a diminuição dos congestionamentos e da poluição e na inclusão social no mercado de trabalho (Bae & Kim, 2016;Bailey & Kurland, 2002;Mello, Santos, Kuniyoshi, Gaspar, & Kubo, 2014;Nohara, Acevedo, Ribeiro, & Silva, 2010). ...
... Embora os estudos sobre o tema no setor público brasileiro ainda sejam escassos, pesquisas realizadas em organizações privadas brasileiras e em instituições internacionais permitem afirmar a existência de diversos benefícios que podem ser obtidos por meio de um programa de teletrabalho bem-sucedido. É possível perceber a redução de custos para a empresa e para o teletrabalhador, maior flexibilidade, melhoria da produtividade (Butler, Aasheim, & Williams, 2007;Sánchez, Pérez, De Luis Carnicer, & Jiménez, 2007), motivação (Caillier, 2012(Caillier, , 2016Kwon & Jeon, 2017) e satisfação no trabalho (Bae & Kim, 2016;Caillier, 2012Caillier, , 2014Hornung & Glaser, 2009) melhoria da qualidade de vida, e maior equilíbrio entre vida profissional e vida pessoal a redução com o tempo de deslocamento, maior autonomia para gerenciar o trabalho (Bae & Kim, 2016; Barros & Silva, 2010;Baruch, 2001;Caillier, 2013aCaillier, , 2013bCoenen & Kok, 2014;Hislop et al., 2015;Lee & Hong, 2011;Taskin & Edwards, 2007;ter Hoeven & van Zoonen, 2015), melhoria do desempenho e do atendimento das demandas, a diminuição dos índices de turnover e absenteísmo (Bae & Kim, 2016; Barros & Silva, 2010;Baruch, 2001;Caillier, 2013aCaillier, , 2013bCaillier, , 2013cCoenen & Kok, 2014;Hislop et al., 2015;Lee & Hong, 2011;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). Além desses benefícios é possível perceber ainda, alguns benefícios para a sociedade, tais como a diminuição dos congestionamentos e da poluição e na inclusão social no mercado de trabalho (Bae & Kim, 2016;Bailey & Kurland, 2002;Mello, Santos, Kuniyoshi, Gaspar, & Kubo, 2014;Nohara, Acevedo, Ribeiro, & Silva, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar as atitudes frente à mudança organizacional ocasionada pelo teletrabalho em organizações públicas brasileiras e analisar suas possíveis relações com as características funcionais e demográficas dos servidores. Para tanto, buscou-se desenvolver uma escala de atitudes frente à mudança ocasionada pelo teletrabalho. Participaram da pesquisa um total de 410 servidores de duas instituições públicas do governo federal brasileiro. Os resultados evidenciaram uma escala com 16 itens distribuídos em uma estrutura fatorial composta por três dimensões atitudinais: ceticismo, temor e aceitação, os quais obtiveram índices de confiabilidade satisfatórios em todos os fatores. Além disso, as análises descritivas sinalizaram que as principais atitudes desenvolvidas pelos servidores no processo de mudança decorrente do teletrabalho estão relacionadas ao temor e a aceitação. Adicionalmente, as análises de regressão sinalizaram que as características demográficas e funcionais podem influenciar as atitudes dos servidores diante a implementação dessa nova forma de trabalho. Esses resultados permitiram identificar alguns desafios para as organizações públicas e trazem algumas reflexões importantes. Foi possível perceber, sobretudo, a necessidade de adequação das políticas e práticas de gestão de pessoas às especificidades do teletrabalho, bem como da preparação e do desenvolvimento dos gestores e servidores públicos para essa nova realidade organizacional.
... Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the adoption of NWW was steadily increasing (European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2015) reflected in national laws that stipulate the right to request flexible working arrangements (e.g., the Flexible Working Act in Netherlands, Overheid, 2016 or the Flexible Working Regulations the United Kingdom, The National Archives, 2014). Existing literature highlights the need to re-align managerial control when employees' work time-and especially work space-has become more flexible (Kurland and Cooper, 2002;Taskin and Edwards, 2007;Field and Chan, 2018). Although there seems to be a consensus that managerial control practices must be adapted for NWW (Kurland and Cooper, 2002;Taskin and Edwards, 2007), little is known about how this process can be organized in a public bureaucracy. ...
... Existing literature highlights the need to re-align managerial control when employees' work time-and especially work space-has become more flexible (Kurland and Cooper, 2002;Taskin and Edwards, 2007;Field and Chan, 2018). Although there seems to be a consensus that managerial control practices must be adapted for NWW (Kurland and Cooper, 2002;Taskin and Edwards, 2007), little is known about how this process can be organized in a public bureaucracy. This paper follows a praxeological research approach (see overview in Reckwitz, 2002) to understand how the material, spatial, and embodied practices are meant to be enacted at new and dispersed sites (Schatzki, 2005), and how this is challenged by pre-existing assumptions about how work is done (Ashforth et al., 2000). ...
... In general, transformations of work practices have a profound impact on management practices and are accompanied by a comprehensive adaptation process in organizations (Kingma, 2019). When implementing remote working, organizations must re-think their work and managerial control practices-in particular when they have previously relied on the presence and visibility of employees (Bailey and Kurland, 2002;Kurland and Cooper, 2002;Dimitrova, 2003;Taskin and Edwards, 2007;Sewell and Taskin, 2015;Peters et al., 2016). Managerial control practices are fundamental in organizations as they coordinate employees' efforts, enable agreement between managers at different hierarchy levels, serve as a source of motivation by setting up an incentive system, and function as signals to trigger necessary interventions by management (Goold and Quinn, 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines managerial control practices in a public bureaucracy at the moment of introducing remote work as part with a new ways of working (NWW) project. The qualitative study builds on 38 interviews with supervisors and subordinates conducted before the advent of COVID-19. By interpreting interviewees’ conversations about current and anticipated future work practices in the changing work setting, we reveal tacit and hidden practices of managerial control that are currently prevalent in many organizations introducing remote working. Three constitutive moments of the organization’s transformation to NWW are analytically distinguished: (i) how implicit becomes explicit, (ii) how collective becomes self, and (iii) how personal becomes impersonal. Our findings emphasize that the transition to NWW must take into account prevailing institutional logics and must reconnect to a fundamental and often neglected question: What does doing work mean within the particular organization? Negotiating this fundamental question might help to overcome supervisors’ uncertainties about managerial control and provide clarity to subordinates about what is expected from them while working remotely. Finally, we discuss how the transition to NWW may serve as both an opportunity and a potential threat to established organizational practices while highlighting the challenge supervisors face when the institutional logics conflict with remote working.
... Few studies have established a link between perceived social approval on the part of the employees' professional entourage and the adjustment of their remote and mediatised work practices. Some studies do, however, demonstrate that the adoption of telework depends in particular on the employees' desire to be more present to meet the needs of their families and friends [24,25]. Moreover, some other studies [26,27] specify that remote workers tend to develop specific behaviours in the context of their professional practices, such as the more frequent use of emails or telephone calls, in order to remain visible to their professional entourage. ...
... This increase is notably a response to the offer of autonomy and flexibility included in this type of work practice and supported by the use of ICTs. The importance of autonomy as a factor of commitment to the company in the context of remote work is also demonstrated in earlier studies [25,29], underlining a higher level of commitment as soon as employees are given a choice of location or working time. However, other works provide more contrasting results, pointing out that remote work either has no impact on commitment [20] or tends to reduce it [30]. ...
... Our study happens to be in line with other studies that have shown how the use of technologies in the context of remote working practices results in an increase in organisational commitment [23], potentially fostered by the increase in work autonomy offered by these technologies and, more globally, by remote work [25,29]. As expected, our results identified the targeted effects of the frequency of each of the three uses of mobile technologies on the components of organisational commitment. ...
Article
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Several studies have emphasised the effects of perceived social approval in employees’ professional environment (colleagues and managers) on the implementation of remote and mediatised work practices and, more specifically, on their spatial, temporal and material characteristics. The use of information and communication technologies has been identified in the literature not only as affecting the levels felt by employees in terms of their relation to work (organisational commitment and recognition for work accomplished) but also in terms of work-life balance and health (stress and addictions). However, these studies are few in number when it comes to nomadic and informal work practices and rarely address perceived social approval in employees’ professional entourage. We used an empirical study based on a questionnaire survey. The results indicate that employees favour smartphone and laptop use. The effects of perceived social approval in their professional entourage differ according to the technologies used. These uses also have an impact on commitment and recognition, but their effects on employees’ perception of the effects of work life on “non-work” life and on addiction-related behaviours are more nuanced. These findings lead us to discuss the “right to disconnect” and the development of support and supervision schemes for nomadic, informal and mediatised work practices.
... Despite some positive relationships presented in the literature, contrasted influences of some components of flexwork arrangements on well-being and performance are pointed out. To a large extent, and as suggested elsewhere, isolation and collaboration, control and autonomy as well as work life balance and work life blur may be considered as the two faces of the same coin (Taskin and Edwards, 2007). For example, recent research shows deleterious effects of flexwork arrangements on performance, knowledge sharing, identity or well-being at work. ...
... Felstead et al., 2005;Gajendran and Harrisson, 2007;Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2008), qualitative in-depth case studies (e.g. Taskin and Edwards, 2007), or through proposing theoretical frameworks (e.g. Taskin and Bridoux, 2010;Allen, Renn and Griffeth, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the managerial literature, flexwork arrangements are presented as beneficial for employees and employers in terms of well-being and performance, among other work-related outcomes. Recent meta-analysis and in-depth case studies introduced skepticism regarding such positive relationships. In an attempt to characterize the effects of such working arrangements on well-being and performance, we collected 843 questionnaires among individuals involved in flexwork arrangements, i.e. teleworking and/or working in open offices or shared offices, as well as in individual premises. Results show that while teleworking is positively correlated to intrinsic job satisfaction, work motivation and work environment for performance, shared offices are positively correlated to problems of concentration and negatively correlated to work environment for performance. Moreover, and while telework moderates the negative effects of shared offices on well-being and performance, it is only when combined to open-space that well-being and performance remain unimpacted or positively impacted. More surprisingly, people working in individual offices are also those feeling the most performant and healthy at work. Our discussion highlights the potential of shared offices in terms of work fragmentation and addresses some avenues for future research.
... The necessity of reorganisation and more precisely of more autonomy granted to employees has been found as a major cause preventing the diffusion of telework in France, according to the work of Aguilera et al. (2016) based on different surveys and semistructured interviews in the Brittany region. At the same time, employees working remotely may feel the inability to show their honesty and productivity, turning into a signalling strategy like sending more messages to colleagues and supervisors to be visible (Kurkland and Bailey, 1999;Taskin and Edwards, 2007;Sewell and Taskin, 2015). This could be seen as a reflection and/or incorporation of the ideological stance provided by the mainstream economic approach to work relations. ...
... More traditional communication mechanisms, like phone calls, are not adequate since they result in time consuming activities or are not enough suited to track workers' productivity (Kurkland and Bailey, 1999), that's why they are not always appreciated by managers. Taskin and Edwards (2007) address the question of the impact of telework on workers' autonomy and control focusing on the public sector in Belgium, therefore applying the same research question to an already highly bureaucratised work environment. According to their findings, telework enables supervision and managerial control over workers by superimposing new practices to old and more traditional ones. ...
Conference Paper
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The global pandemic induced by the spread of the Covid-19 acted as an exogenous shock which forced organisations to adopt telework as a daily and common form of work along a relevant fraction of the occupational structure. Indeed, most of the growing contributions on telework focused on the estimation of employment which can work remotely, while less or any attention has been paid to the impact of the "new" work arrangement on the labour process. Our paper aims at filling this gap. Drawing from a real-time cross-professional, cross-organisational and cross-national qualitative survey, our research investigates two main and interrelated aspects. First, we show how organisations reacted to this shock in terms of autonomy and forms of control including standardisation and teamwork dimensions across different occupations and economic sectors. Second, we describe how and to which extent workers respond: adapting, resisting or appropriating the new organisation of work. More specifically, we study the effect on the above-mentioned dimensions across different occupations to highlight heterogeneity along the vertical division of labour. JEL classification: L23, M54, 033, J81.
... Finalement, l'attitude des managers face au télétravail et leur capacité à manager à distance, respectivement à changer de paradigme managérial, contribuent au succès du déploiement du télétravail (Lee, 2021;Nunes, 2005;Taskin & Edwards, 2007 (Boell, Cecez-Kecmanovic, & Campbell, 2016). ...
... La littérature montre que l'attitude à adopter le télétravail dépend non seulement de sa facilité d'utilisation perçue, mais également de l'utilité que les individus y voient (Beauregard et al., 2019;Taskin & Edwards, 2007;Viswanath Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). Ici encore, le voyant est vert puisque 74% des répondants jugent le télétravail comme étant utile. ...
Conference Paper
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Après l'excitation qui a suivi les premières mesures de télétravail induites par la Covid-19, de nombreuses problématiques de management sont très vite apparues. En particulier se sont posées les questions relatives à l'efficacité du travail des employés et aux conditions d'une adoption réussie de ce nouveau mode de fonctionnement. L'étude se concentre sur les questions suivantes : quel est le nouvel attrait au télétravail et quelles en sont les causes potentielles ? Dans quelles mesures les employés se sentent-ils maintenant aptes à réaliser leur travail à distance et pour quelles raisons ? Afin de répondre à ces questions, nous avons mené pendant plusieurs semaines, auprès d'employés (N = 170) exerçant dans des domaines variés, une enquête sur l'expérience, les aptitudes et les motivations au télétravail. Il en résulte que l'adoption du télétravail est effective pour les répondants. Ceux qui en ont fait l'expérience présentent un attrait très marqué ainsi qu'une aptitude à le pratiquer bien réelle, avec des freins technologiques presque inexistants. Le modèle théorique utilisé, qui s'appuie sur les modèles d'acceptation de la technologie (TAM), a permis de mettre en évidence un nouveau facteur important de l'adoption du télétravail : le gain de temps sur les trajets domicile-travail. La tendance qui se dessine vers une adoption durable du télétravail implique cependant un regard critique et une discussion sur son déploiement, à long terme, dans les organisations publiques et privées.
... Finalement, l'attitude des managers face au télétravail et leur capacité à manager à distance, respectivement à changer de paradigme managérial, contribuent au succès du déploiement du télétravail (Lee, 2021;Nunes, 2005;Taskin & Edwards, 2007 (Boell, Cecez-Kecmanovic, & Campbell, 2016). ...
... La littérature montre que l'attitude à adopter le télétravail dépend non seulement de sa facilité d'utilisation perçue, mais également de l'utilité que les individus y voient (Beauregard et al., 2019;Taskin & Edwards, 2007;Viswanath Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). Ici encore, le voyant est vert puisque 74% des répondants jugent le télétravail comme étant utile. ...
Preprint
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After the considerable excitement caused by COVID-19 and the first telework measures, many management issues became apparent and some questions quickly arose, especially about efficiency of employees' work and conditions for successful telework adoption. This study focuses on the following questions: what is the new interest to telework for employees and what are the potential reasons for this? How much employees feel able to do their work remotely now and why? To answer these questions, we conducted a survey over several weeks, that involved employees coming from different industries (N=170), in order to collect their experience, skills and motivations for teleworking. The results show that adoption of telework is real for the respondents. Those who have experienced it present a strong motivation and a real capacity to use it, with almost no technological barriers. The theoretical model that we used, based on Technology Acceptance Models (TAM), has highlighted an important new factor of telework adoption: time saved in commuting. The study points out that adoption of telework could be sustainable for both public and private organizations, and this requires a critical examination and discussion.
... De forma geral, a literatura aponta uma relação positiva entre a institucionalização do trabalho remoto e a melhoria dos resultados organizacionais e, por este motivo, sua utilização tem sido impulsionada como forma de eficiência, redução de custos e melhoria da qualidade de 2010;BARUCH, 2001;CAILLIER, 2013aCAILLIER, , 2013bCAILLIER, , 2013cCOENEN;KOK, 2014;HISLOP et al., 2015;HONG, 2011;STEIL;BARCIA, 2001;TASKIN;EDWARDS, 2007;TREMBLAY;THOMSIN, 2012). Para a sociedade, alguns benefícios também são citados, como redução do trânsito, menos poluição e menos pessoas nos transportes públicos (CHAKRABARTI, 2018). ...
... De forma geral, a literatura aponta uma relação positiva entre a institucionalização do trabalho remoto e a melhoria dos resultados organizacionais e, por este motivo, sua utilização tem sido impulsionada como forma de eficiência, redução de custos e melhoria da qualidade de 2010;BARUCH, 2001;CAILLIER, 2013aCAILLIER, , 2013bCAILLIER, , 2013cCOENEN;KOK, 2014;HISLOP et al., 2015;HONG, 2011;STEIL;BARCIA, 2001;TASKIN;EDWARDS, 2007;TREMBLAY;THOMSIN, 2012). Para a sociedade, alguns benefícios também são citados, como redução do trânsito, menos poluição e menos pessoas nos transportes públicos (CHAKRABARTI, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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Este estudo buscou analisar a produção científica sobre o teletrabalho no setor público a fim de identificar os principais atributos do trabalho remoto. Por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura foi possível constatar que apesar da crescente propagação do teletrabalho, poucos estudos tratam sobre o tema na administração pública, o que carece de aprofundamento nas reflexões teóricas e na testagem de modelos empíricos. Os resultados encontrados demonstram que o teletrabalho melhora a satisfação e motivação no trabalho, promove o equilíbrio entre vida familiar e profissional, diminui os níveis de turnover e melhoram o desempenho. No entanto, o isolamento, bem como as dificuldades de infraestrutura tecnológica são apresentadas como principais desafios. Por fim, foi possível identificar algumas lacunas na literatura. Estudos futuros podem ampliar o horizonte a respeito do teletrabalho considerando as expectativas dos servidores e gestores públicos, de forma a garantir a oferta de melhores resultados à sociedade.
... However, setting up a flexible and productive remote work program is not an overnight journey. For instance, an efficient smart working program requires that managers develop new procedures to monitor and supervise employees, while remote workers learn how to coordinate with managers and colleagues [8]. Furthermore, context-specific barriers must be overcome, especially in Italian public administration. ...
... A first challenge is that traditionally employees are managed and controlled when they are in the workplace, where they interact and coordinate with their manager and colleagues [14]. Remote work diminishes the possibility of supervising employees and requires new practices to facilitate their control [8]. ...
Article
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This case study describes the implementation stages and some outcomes of a remote work program that was adopted in an Italian municipality before the COVID-19 pandemic. This research used a qualitative case study approach, proposing a semi-structured interview with 14 staff members (six remote-worker employees, their respective managers, and two intermediate-level managers) about the experience with the remote work program. In addition, two researchers attended two preparatory program meetings. The evidence shows that, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work was mainly performed at home, for one or two days a week. Together with their manager, remote workers decided the tasks to perform remotely and the criteria to monitor remote work. Furthermore, employees appreciated the remote work program, perceiving themselves to be more productive in their work. Elements of this case study may be relevant for companies that aim to move from an emergency to a more planned remote work.
... Eine Innovation in diesem Bereich ist die Einführung von Homeoffice 1 (Caillier 2012;de Vries et al. 2019). Dabei lässt sich das Konzept Homeoffice als alternative Arbeitsweise definieren, die es -unterstützt durch Informations-und Kommunikationstechnologien -den Mitarbeitern und Mitarbeiterinnen ermöglicht, ihre Aufgaben von zuhause aus zu erledigen (Taskin & Edwards 2007). Nilles et al. (1976) haben das Phänomen Homeoffice resp. ...
Article
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Zur Eindämmung der Covid-19 Pandemie gab der Bundesrat zu Beginn des Jahres 2020 eine Homeoffice-Empfehlung ab. Anfang 2021 trat eine Homeoffice-Pflicht in Kraft. Frühere Studien zeigten, dass zu Beginn der Pandemie insbesondere auf Gemeindeebene jedoch nur sehr wenige Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter im Homeoffice arbeiteten. In dieser Studie wird deshalb aus Sicht der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter untersucht, welche Voraussetzungen es für Homeoffice braucht, welche Auswirkungen mit Homeoffice verbunden werden und welche Rahmenbedingungen zukünftig aus Sicht der Gemeindeangestellten für Homeoffice vorhanden sein sollten. Zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen wurden im November 2020 Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter von allen 162 Zürcher Gemeindeverwaltungen mittels einer standardisierten Online-Umfrage zu Homeoffice befragt. Die Befragung der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter zeigt, dass mit Beginn der Pandemie der Wunsch nach Homeoffice sowie auch die Nutzungsmöglichkeiten gestiegen sind. Als wichtige Aspekte zeigen sich die Eignung der Tätigkeit sowie die Eignung des heimischen Arbeitsplatzes. Negative Auswirkungen von Homeoffice sehen die Befragten insbesondere in der generellen Schwächung interpersoneller Beziehungen im beruflichen Umfeld. Positiv wiederum wirkt sich das Homeoffice auf die Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Privatleben, auf das konzentrierte Arbeiten sowie auf die wahrgenommene Arbeitgeberattraktivität aus. Soll Homeoffice stärker genutzt werden, gilt es aus Sicht der Befragten zukünftig verstärkt flexibles Arbeiten zu ermöglichen, mehr digitale und interaktive Kommunikationsmittel zu nutzen und verstärkt in Teamentwicklungsmassahmen zu investieren. Insgesamt zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass es für erfolgreiches Homeoffice auf Gemeindestufe verstärkte Bemühungen bei der digitalen Transformation der öffentlichen Verwaltung sowie die Förderung eines beziehungsorientierten Führungsstils braucht.
... They explain these results with the importance of personal trust and responsibility in remote working. This result is confirmed by many other studies [37,95,120,174,208] Consequently, smart working is often a matter of informal and highly individualised agreements, and its adoption rate is strongly variable between economic sectors and activities. ...
Article
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The paper explores the potentialities of telework, a topic with rich literature published since the 1970s, which has become topical again with its forced application related to the COVID-19 pandemic emergency. The paper carries out an analysis of the potential territorial impact—transport networks and geographies of living—of telework in the Italian national context. The analysis highlights the potential relevance of the application of telework in certain metropolitan areas that present urban poles where economic sectors with a high propensity for telework are centralised. This survey relates the large stock of tourist housing in the vicinity of large metropolitan areas to a potential demand arising from the change in housing preferences towards more pleasant contexts made possible by the application of telework. In conclusion, this work aims to contribute to the construction of a platform for the Italian context—lagging behind but with recent legislative measures on smart working—aimed at favouring the definition of research lines able to enhance the potential offered by the application of telework for environmental, social, and territorial sustainability objectives, and it also aims to outline possible territorial scenarios for the main metropolitan areas
... Dažniausiai tai buvo sprendimai, susiję su dienos socialinę globą teikiančių įstaigų veiklos stabdymu, įstaigų lankymo uždraudimu ir pan. 135 . Antra, savivaldybių administracijos prevenciškai stengėsi apsaugoti socialinės globos įstaigas net ir 132 Rekomendacijos, kaip saugiai teikti paslaugas socialinės globos įstaigose ir vykdant lankomąją paslaugų gavėjų priežiūrą karantino metu, VDĮ prie SAM, 2020-04-16ų Dėl socialinių paslaugų srities darbo karantino sąlygomis, LR SADM raštas LR Seimo Socialinių reikalų ir darbo komitetui, Nr. ...
Research
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COVID-19 epidemija privertė valdžias neatidėliotinai ieškoti veiksmingų sprendimų atsakui į krizę. Vadinamosios atsako į COVID-19 sukeltą krizę politikos formuotos adaptuojant krizių valdymo modelius visuomenės sveikatos valdymo sričiai arba kuriant naujas, unikalias reagavimo prieigas ir priemones. COVID-19 pandemijos sukelta krizė yra unikali ir išskirtinė pagal daugumą charakteristikų. Ji yra priskiriama „mažos tikimybės, bet aukšto poveikio“ krizei atsižvelgiant į poveikius sveikatos ir socialinės apsaugos sistemoms, kitoms viešojo valdymo sritims. Taigi, atrasti krizei įveikti veiksmingų priemonių, jas sukurti ir įgyvendinti valdžiai nebuvo paprasta.
... Cuckier (2019) pré cise que le té lé travail dans la fonction publique est adapté à des emplois fortement processisé s et hié rarchisé s par les normes et procé dures de travail. Taskin et Edwards (2007) ajoutent que, dans ce contexte, le té lé travail est plus adapté aux gestionnaires. Toutefois, des analyses complé mentaires n'ont pas ré vé lé de diffé rences significatives entre ces deux groupes. ...
Article
Résumé L’objectif de cette étude est d’examiner comment le recours généralisé au télétravail durant la pandémie de la COVID-19 a pu créer un contexte de travail spécifique influençant la santé psychologique et la performance des employés. Les résultats des analyses menées sur un échantillon de 3771 télétravailleurs canadiens ont révélé que le travail à distance a engendré des demandes additionnelles telles que l’interdépendance des tâches et l’isolement professionnel. Ces demandes ont eu des effets négatifs sur la performance en télétravail en augmentant la fréquence du stress perçu. Toutefois, la présence de ressources telles que le soutien organisationnel semble jouer un rôle tampon en modérant l’effet direct de l’isolement professionnel sur la performance en télétravail.
... However, new technologies are helping organisations monitor, control, and supervise employees while teleworking, which has led to a rapid increase in the gig economy during the last few years. As a result, essential constraining features associated with managers' trust, power, and control have been eased [7,27], facilitating more categories of teleworkers. ...
Article
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Telework and ICT-based mobile work (TICTM) arrangements have emerged in response to technological changes driven by digitalisation, increasing flexibility within the labour market, and globalisation. As telework becomes more widespread, these flexible models of work are rapidly expanding to new categories of employees, changing the factors traditionally found to be important for telework eligibility. The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of new profiles of teleworkers, examining main factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of different TICTM arrangements. We apply multinomial logistic regression models to a sample of more than 20,000 workers from the 6th European Working Conditions Survey. Our findings confirm the heterogeneity in the profiles of teleworkers, particularly distinguishing by TICTM arrangement. Occasional teleworkers are usually male managers or professionals, but a relevant percentage of highly mobile teleworkers are technicians and associate professionals, while clerical support workers amount to a large group of home-based teleworkers. The majority of occasional and highly mobile teleworkers are still men, but this can no longer be said of home-based teleworkers. The correlations between telework and permanent contracts, full-time jobs, and living in urban areas are weak, showing that TICTM is spreading into more precarious, temporary, and lower-paid jobs, especially among home-based teleworkers and highly mobile teleworkers.
... Les organisations privées comme publiques se trouvent obligées de réfléchir quant à l'intégration de la forme du travail à distance ce qui se traduit par un changement plus ou moins important de (Tremblay et al., 2006). De cette définition on peut dire que le télétravail se caractérise par trois éléments essentiels : la distance, soit une dispersion spatiale et/ou temporelle, la fréquence de l'arrangement et l'usage des TIC (Taskin, 2007 ;Tremblay, 2001). La combinaison de ces éléments permet de distinguer le télétravail du travail à distance, qui est une notion plus large, ou du travail à domicile, qui ne suppose pas le recours aux TIC. ...
Article
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La littérature sur le télétravail au cours des dernières décennies a évolué et s'est élargie, en raison de son application accrue et évolutive, ainsi qu'avec l'avènement de la pandémie Covid-19 qui impose cette forme de travail dans les organisations publiques et privées. Le but de cet article est de mesurer l'impact du télétravail sur la qualité du service produit par les principaux acteurs d'écosystème de PORTNET pendant la période de confinement en se basant sur des critères sociaux-économiques. Notre problématique est la suivante : Quel impact des pratiques du télétravail sur la qualité du service public dans le secteur portuaire marocain ? Dans cette étude, 114 opérateurs de la communauté portuaire ont été interviewés en ligne. Après avoir examiné les informations collectées, Les résultats de l'étude ont montré que la qualité de service produit, dans une situation de télétravail, ne peut être améliorée qu'avec l'existence de bonnes relations avec les collègues du travail et avec les supérieurs hiérarchiques. Ces résultats ont démontré aussi que le télétravail contribue à la diminution des charges et l'augmentation de la productivité pour l'entreprise. Les chercheurs, les praticiens et les différents acteurs peuvent bénéficier de ces analyses et mener des recherches. Mots Clés : Télétravail ; Communauté Portuaire ; Qualité du service produit. Summary: The literature on telework in recent decades has evolved and expanded, due to its increased and evolving application, as well as with the advent of the covid-19 pandemic which imposes this form of work in public organizations. and private. The purpose of this article is to measure the impact of teleworking on the quality of service produced by the main actors of the PORTNET ecosystem during the lockdown period based on social-economic criteria. Our problem is as follows: What impact of teleworking practices on the quality of public service in the Moroccan port sector? In this study, 114 operators from the port community were interviewed online. After examining the information collected, the results of the study showed that the quality of service produced, in a telecommuting situation, can only be improved with the existence of good relations with co-workers and with superiors. hierarchical. These results have also shown that teleworking contributes to reducing costs and increasing productivity for the company. Researchers, practitioners and various stakeholders can benefit from these analyzes and conduct research.
... Working virtually is often related to a number of advantages for the individual employee (Bailey & Kurland, 2002;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). Previous research has demonstrated that employees who work virtually from home tend to feel less stressed (Konradt et al., 2003;Raghuram & Wiesenfeld, 2004), experience a better work-life balance (Kreiner et al., 2009;Raghuram & Wiesenfeld, 2004;Taskin & Edwards, 2007), be more satisfied with their jobs (Maruyama et al., 2009), and perform better (Apgar, 1998;Pinsonneault & Boisvert, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that virtual work provides benefits to individual employees (e.g. less stress, higher job satisfaction, and higher productivity), the organization (e.g. lower real estate costs and higher commitment and performance) and, potentially, society at large (less traffic, less pollution, and lower healthcare costs through reduced stress and work-family conflict). To realize the potential benefits associated with virtual work, many organizations have introduced new policies to enable employees to work virtually. However, research evidence and media reports indicate that many employees are hesitant to utilize the opportunity to work virtually. To better understand this gap between formal organizational policies and actual adoption, we investigate the predictors and conditions of virtual work adoption. Drawing on Lewin’s field theory and Bandura’s social cognitive theory, we examine the extent to which virtual work self-efficacy, virtual work climate, and their interaction predict individual adoption of virtual work arrangements. To test our hypotheses, we conducted a survey study of 256 employees from a multinational information technology company. Our results suggest that an effective virtual work climate encourages employees with low virtual work self-efficacy to engage in more virtual work.
... Exclusion 2 : We also excluded papers if they did not focus on the antecedents of the decision to adopt telework, but rather on the variables that influence the negotation process or the success of telework (examples of papers excluded based on this criterion: [33,72,82]). ...
Chapter
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Telework or telecommuting – a concept of flexible work arrangements predominantly driven by the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community – has vastly increased in recent months due to lockdowns and other measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we explicitly exclude outside forces (such as a pandemic) as grounds for adopting telework, but rather ask: What are the reasons for organizations and/or individuals to voluntarily decide for or against telework? In this effort to identify the most relevant antecedents of the adoption of telework at both the organizational and the individual level, we present the results of a comprehensive literature review of 72 papers conducted in Q4/2020. The discovered characteristics influencing the decision for or against telework were then structured in a 6 (rationales) by 2 (organization vs individual) matrix, each of which was further analyzed in detail. The multifaceted results fall into three broad categories that impact telework adoption: (i) the type of work, (ii) the way this work is organized and (iii) its organizational environment.
... Después de un período de relativo estancamiento del crecimiento en el número de teletrabajadores en los primeros años del siglo XXI, los últimos cambios tecnológicos, el aumento de las actividades basadas en conocimiento, la mayor división de tareas y la digitalización masiva de las existentes, permitieron la supervisión y el control a distancia (Frey y Osborne 2017), derribando las barreras del empresariado a su implantación (Sewell y Taskin 2015;Taskin y Edwards 2007;Thulin et al. 2019;Vilhelmson y Thulin 2016), y extendiendo el teletrabajo o el trabajo móvil a más niveles y categorías de teletrabajadores. Esta última expansión, por tanto, parece estar causada más por las demandas, expectativas e intereses de los empleadores, que por las propias necesidades de los teletrabajadores o trabajadores móviles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen Los cambios tecnológicos provocados por la digitalización, la automatización y la globalización están permitiendo que más trabajadores/as puedan desempeñar sus tareas desde múltiples ubicaciones. Esta expansión del teletrabajo, estimulada aún más por la pandemia del COVID-19, transforma no solo los espacios y tiempos de trabajo, sino también las relaciones laborales y condiciones de empleo. Nuestro objetivo es explorar las nuevas desigualdades entre distintos tipos de trabajadores atendiendo a la intensidad y lugar de uso de las tecnologías. El estudio empírico utiliza datos de más de veinte mil trabajadores de la UE-15 de la 6ª Encuesta Europea de Condiciones de Trabajo para analizar, mediante modelos de regresión logística multinomial, los diferentes perfiles de teletrabajadores. El análisis muestra la tendencia al aumento en la heterogeneidad de los perfiles de teletrabajadores/as y a desigualdades crecientes entre ellos. Hay grandes diferencias entre los distintos tipos de teletrabajadores atendiendo a la ocupación, el sector de actividad y el país. Las mujeres se encuentran mayoritariamente en el grupo de teletrabajadores más precarios y con peores condiciones laborales. Abstract Technological innovations related to digitization, automation and globalization are favouring more workers to work from multiple locations. This expansion of teleworking, further stimulated by the COVID-19 pandemic, is altering not only workspaces and work schedules, but also labour relations and working conditions. Our objective is to explore the reconfiguring of inequalities among different types of teleworkers according to the intensity and place of use of ICT. This empirical study draws on data from more than twenty thousand workers in the EU-15 from the 6th European Survey of Working Conditions to analyse, using multinomial logistic regression models, the different profiles of teleworkers. The analysis shows the tendency to an increased heterogeneity in teleworker profiles and to growing inequalities between them. There are great differences between the different types of teleworkers depending on the occupation, the activity sector and the country. Women are mostly in the most precarious group of teleworkers and with the worst working conditions.
... Further, it may also be seen as a natural reaction that regulatory telework initiatives among these professions are interpreted as managers' lack of trust and need for control. Such interpretations might even be justified as previous research shows that managers may experience a loss of control during telework and therefore may become mistrusting and reluctant toward telework options [5,50]. It has also been seen that academics may perceive less autonomy and work influence when managers regulate their telework [7,38,51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of academic institutions offer their staff the option to work from other places than the conventional office, i.e., telework. Academic teaching and research staff are recognized as some of the most frequent teleworkers, and this seems to affect their well-being, work performance, and recovery in different ways. This study aimed to investigate academics’ experiences and perceptions of telework within the academic context. For this, we interviewed 26 academics from different Swedish universities. Interviews were analyzed with a phenomenographic approach, which showed that telework was perceived as a natural part of academic work and a necessary resource for coping with, and recovering from, high work demands. Telework was mostly self-regulated but the opportunity could be determined by work tasks, professional culture, and management. Telework could facilitate the individual’s work but could contribute to challenges for the workgroup. Formal regulations of telework were considered a threat to academics’ work autonomy and to their possibility to cope with the high work demands. The findings provide insight into academics’ working conditions during teleworking, which may be important for maintaining a sustainable work environment when academic institutions offer telework options.
... Remote work, as a research topic, has been studied from diverse angles often separately for employers (Farrer, 2020) and employees (Baruch & Nicholson, 1997). For employers, remote work has been studied for organizations from diverse sectors; thus, the existence of benefits (e.g., availability of data) and limits (e.g., lack of trust) of remote work in a bureaucratic environment (Taskin & Edwards, 2007) or the public sector (De Vries et al., 2019) is already known. However, overall, it seems to be a favored way of working for startups and tech conglomerates (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) (Hopwood, 2019). ...
Chapter
The objective of this study is to describe and analyze Human Governance analytics to face the Digital Economy. Based on the purpose of this study, the following research questions were formulated: Which are the main Human Governance analytics for Public Organizations to face the Digital Economy? The main findings are based on bibliometric analysis and two case studies applied to Public Organizations, the analytics regarding talent search and acquisition, talent development, and talent performance appraisal were identified by the bibliometric analysis and tested in the case studies. The goal is to help organizations to transform their processes and contribute to higher efficiency and effectiveness, based on digital technologie
... Previous telework experience has been considered to provide employees with knowledge that may facilitate their teleworking practice and their health at work [5,54]. This may have affected findings in present study, as the participants were experienced teleworkers with the majority teleworking several times per month or several times per week. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine if psychophysiological activity, postures and movements differ during telework (i.e., work performed at home) and work performed at the conventional office. We performed twenty-four-hour pulse recordings and accelerometry measurements on 23 academic teaching and research staff during five consecutive workdays, with at least one day of telework. Additionally, we conducted salivary sampling during one day of telework, and one day of office work. Heart rate and heart rate variability indices, postural exposure and cortisol concentration were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Workplace and Time (i.e., before, during and after workhours) as within-subject effects. We found a significant interaction effect of Workplace and Time in heart rate variability indices and in the number of transitions between seated and standing postures. This shows more parasympathetic activity among academic teleworkers during telework than office work, which may indicate more relaxation during telework. They had an overall sedentary behavior at both workplaces but switched between sitting and standing more often during telework, which may be beneficial for their health.
... Still, there are many pressures associated with this work model, leading to isolation and deprivation of leisure. The studies of Taskin & Edwards (2007), Mann & Holdsworth (2003), Valsecchi (2006), Limburg & Jackson (2007), Lai & Burchell (2008) all affirm that online work intensification can leave employees with a feeling that they have to be available online all the time as the traditional style of management control dogma is based on the presence and visibility of employees. The present COVID-19 situation has bought to surface the online work intensification, which will also mirror the challenges discussed by previous scholars. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the work strategies adopted by leading Indian IT companies post COVID-19 and their institutional and individual level implications. Following the exploratory sequential mixed-method approach, in the first phase, the data were collected from 8 leading IT companies in India to understand the work strategies implemented post COVID -19 to ensure employees’ safety without disrupting client deliverables. In the second phase, the primary qualitative interviews were conducted and selected IT companies’ financial statements with a systematic analysis of financial indicators were used to gauge the impact of new work strategies. The study reveals the selected IT companies were embracing Work-From-Home or Work-From-Anywhere as their work strategies by ensuring little to no disruption, were armed with a host of technology tools that allowed employees’ swathes to new work-norm within hours. The study findings manifold implications of the new work-norm are that it has no negative impact on the companies’ client deliverables and profitability. The paper confirms that the remote-working approach has resulted in reduced carbon footprint, work-life balance, and de-urbanization while identifying the flip side of this approach as the negative impact on team cohesiveness and employee emotional wellbeing. This research confirms the critical lesson learned from COVID-19 is agile companies must plan for a range of incomprehensible contingencies to ensure business continuity and growth. The research findings contribute towards understanding the Indian IT sector experiences in adopting the remote-work strategies and taken as lessons that can be useful for other global IT sectors.
... Se ha documentado igualmente que los teletrabajadores enfrentan presiones normativas a estar disponible para las exigencias y necesidades de la organización, forzando a acomodarse a horarios variables, trabajando más horas y más intensamente, y reportan aumentos de la carga de trabajo (Kelliher & Anderson 2010), creando además un sentimiento de necesidad de estar siempre conectados, y eventualmente adicción al trabajo a través de la tecnología (Taskin & Edwards, 2007). Estos fenómenos eventualmente gatillarían procesos de autorregulación necesarios para sostener la realización del trabajo (Taskin & Devos, 2005). ...
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Resumen: Con base a la revisión de la literatura científica disponible, se presenta una perspectiva de análisis del teletrabajo en el contexto de pandemia COVID-19. Se discute desde la ergonomía cognitiva, de la Teoría Histórico-Cultural de la Actividad, y de la teoría de procesos auto y co-regulatorios, la necesidad de integrar los factores estructurales, de las exigencias laborales, los recursos disponibles, así como de los potenciales conflictos entre el trabajo y el hogar, para comprender las estrategias de enfrentamiento empleadas y los efectos del teletrabajo. Se plantea la necesidad de soluciones que se hagan cargo de la diversidad de situaciones presentes. Palabras clave: Teletrabajo, COVID-19, procesos regulatorios, carga de trabajo. Abstract: Based on the review of the scientific literature available, a perspective of analysis of teleworking in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is presented. The need to integrate structural factors, work demands, available resources, as well as potential work-home conflicts, for the understanding of coping strategies, and telework effects, is discussed from cognitive ergonomics, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, and the self and co-regulatory processes theory. The need for solutions that take care of situations diversity arises. Introducción El teletrabajo estaría esencialmente definido por la distancia espacial entre trabajadores y la actividad mediada por TIC, incorporando grados variados de interdependencia entre tareas, trabajos de distinta naturaleza, diversos entornos tecnológicos y distancias temporales, en donde la virtualidad y la distribución del trabajo entre distintos actores, podrían presentarse en distintos continuos (Henry et al., 2021). El paso desde el trabajo presencial al teletrabajo, ha implicado para los trabajadores, transitar desde una situación de distribución del trabajo basado en la diferenciación de roles, y secuencias temporales, a una en que se ha introducido además de una amplia distribución espacial de los trabajadores, una extensa mediación instrumental del trabajo basado en TIC (Ruiller et al., 2017). También ha significado un giro
... Remote work, as a research topic, has been studied from diverse angles often separately for employers (Farrer, 2020) and employees (Baruch & Nicholson, 1997). For employers, remote work has been studied for organizations from diverse sectors; thus, the existence of benefits (e.g., availability of data) and limits (e.g., lack of trust) of remote work in a bureaucratic environment (Taskin & Edwards, 2007) or the public sector (De Vries et al., 2019) is already known. However, overall, it seems to be a favored way of working for startups and tech conglomerates (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) (Hopwood, 2019). ...
Chapter
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has initiated an important remote work transformation, opening a debate on its effects on the labor market, workplace, and organizational practices. This scoping review analyzed academic and gray literature to investigate the benefits and challenges created by remote work and the strategies related to the ways in which these challenges could be potentially addressed. The published research on remote work is interdisciplinary, non-sector-specific, and often atheoretical. Remote work was reported to bring benefits and challenges for companies and employees; some of which are shared between these stakeholders. Several recommendations emerged on maximizing the benefits of remote work. The results provide an overview of the field to date, indicating the directions for future developments and scholarly and market demands. This aspect will guarantee future research and provide a base for practitioners and policymakers to design more tailored and evidence-informed strategies.
... Remote work, as a research topic, has been studied from diverse angles often separately for employers (Farrer, 2020) and employees (Baruch & Nicholson, 1997). For employers, remote work has been studied for organizations from diverse sectors; thus, the existence of benefits (e.g., availability of data) and limits (e.g., lack of trust) of remote work in a bureaucratic environment (Taskin & Edwards, 2007) or the public sector (De Vries et al., 2019) is already known. However, overall, it seems to be a favored way of working for startups and tech conglomerates (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) (Hopwood, 2019). ...
Chapter
The objective of this study is to describe and analyze Human Governance analytics to face the Digital Economy. Based on the purpose of this study, the following research questions were formulated: Which are the main Human Governance analytics for Public Organizations to face the Digital Economy? The main findings are based on bibliometric analysis and two case studies applied to Public Organizations, the analytics regarding talent search and acquisition, talent development, and talent performance appraisal were identified by the bibliometric analysis and tested in the case studies. The goal is to help organizations to transform their processes and contribute to higher efficiency and effectiveness, based on digital technologies.
... This may help employees to have a better work-life balance and spend more time with their family and friends and on recreational activities (Kreiner et al., 2009;Raghuram & Wiesenfeld, 2004;Taskin & Edwards, 2007). ...
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Laburpena: Teknologiak aurrera egitearen ondorioz enplegu publikoak izan dituen eraldaketak aztertzen dira artikulu honetan, baina, batez ere, enplegatu publikoek gaitasun digitalen arloan duten prestakuntza-beharra, horrek Administrazio Publikoan eskatuko dituen lanbide-profilak eta telelana hedatzeko aukera. Azken horri dagokionez, berariaz zehazten dira Espainian COVID19a etorri arte izan duen garapen eskasaren arrazoiak, lan-modalitate horrek dakartzan abantailak eta arriskuak, eta administrazio publikoetan normalizatzeko eskakizunak eta inplikazioak: I) oinarri gisa balioko dion arrazoi baliotsu baten beharra, II) administrazio publikoari berari eskatzen dion berrantolaketa, eta III) antolamenduari lotutako kultura aldatzea, bai eta eredu berria ezartzea, plataforma duena, lanbide-nortasuna galtzen duena eta enplegatu publikoak funtzioaren eta galera-mailaren arabera bereiztea dakarrena. Resumen: En este artículo se analizan las transformaciones del empleo público como consecuencia del avance de la tecnología, especialmente la necesidad de formación en competencias digitales de las y los empleados públicos, los perfiles profesionales que ello demandará en la Administración pública y la posibilidad de expansión del teletrabajo. Respecto de este último se explicitan las razones de su escaso desarrollo en España hasta la COVID19, las ventajas y los riesgos que supone esta modalidad de trabajo y cuáles son las exigencias e implicaciones de su normalización en las administraciones públicas: I) la necesidad de un motivo valioso que le sirva de fundamento, II) la reordenación que exige de la propia Administración pública y III) el cambio de cultura organizativa, así como el avance hacia un modelo de plataformización, la pérdida de identidad profesional y la posibilidad de segregación del personal empleado público en función de su sexo y su nivel de estudios. Abstract: This article analyzes the transformations in public employment as a result of the advance of technology, especially the need for training in digital skills for public employees, the professional profiles that this will require in the Public Administration and the possibility of expanding teleworking. Regarding telework, the reasons for its scarce development in Spain until COVID19 are explained, as are the advantages and risks involved in this type of work and the demands and implications of its standardization in the Public Administrations by: I) the need for it to have valid reason; II) the reorganization demanded of the Public Administration; and III) the change in organizational culture, as well as the move towards a model of platformization, the loss of professional identity and the possibility of segregating public employees according to their gender and level of education.
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La gestion des ressources humaines est une discipline paradoxale. Alors qu’elle est considérée comme théoriquement pauvre—Watson (2007) rappelle qu’il n’y a pas à proprement parler de « théories de la GRH », mais bien que la GRH s’alimente de théories issues du management stratégique, de la psychologie, de la sociologie, de l’économie—elle occupe une place importante au sein d’autres disciplines telles que le management international, interculturel, stratégique ou le comportement organisationnel (Keenoy, 2009). De même, alors que la rhétorique propre à la GRH annonce une performance supérieure de la firme grâce à la mise en œuvre de certaines pratiques (rassemblées sous le label des HPWS-High Performance Work Systems) alignées avec la stratégie d’entreprise, ce lien entre une fonction RH stratégique source d’avantage concurrentiel et la performance de l’entreprise demeure empiriquement non-établi ou, du moins, incertain (Taskin et Pichault, 2012 ; Truss, 2001). C’est à partir de ces paradoxes—et d’un scepticisme à l’égard des modalités et desseins de la GRH—qu’une critique des discours, pratiques, modèles, finalités et fondements de la gestion des ressources humaines s’est développée et affirmée à partir des années 1990. Cette perspective critique fait partie intégrante du champ de la gestion des ressources humaines et alimente les recherches, les enseignements mais également la pratique dans le domaine. La critique porte souvent sur des pratiques particulières de GRH et d’organisation du travail, telles que la flexibilité (télétravail, nouvelles formes d’organisation du travail et de gouvernance, rémunération variable, etc.), la gestion des connaissances et des compétences, la sélection, l’appréciation ou la culture d’entreprise. Elle dénonce alors les effets de ces pratiques (souffrance, désengagement, individualisation, résistance…) en mobilisant des théories et des méthodologies diverses et variées et peut aussi questionner la rhétorique selon laquelle la GRH serait autant au service du bien-être des salariés que de l’intérêt des propriétaires de l’entreprise, par le déploiement de « bonnes pratiques » universelles. Un point commun rassemble toutefois ces différentes entreprises critiques : la volonté d’exprimer les rapports de pouvoir, de domination et d’émancipation, de rendre compte de la diversité d’intérêts des acteurs mais aussi de la nécessité de contextualiser l’étude de la GRH et de ses pratiques. Toutes les critiques ne prennent donc pas la même forme : certaines sont factuelles (on peut critiquer la méthodologie employée par Lawler et Boudreau pour évaluer le positionnement stratégique de la fonction RH), d’autres sont thématiques (on peut rapporter les effets observés de telle pratique de GRH sur différentes dimensions individuelles et organisationnelles), d’autres portent sur les fondements ou les finalités de la GRH et seraient davantage théoriques (on peut questionner la conception de l’Humain sous-jacente aux principaux modèles de GRH). Ces formes de critique sont poreuses entre elles (une critique thématique peut être factuelle mais aussi théorique) car elles sont liées à la nature de la problématisation, à l’épistémologie et aux méthodologies déployées, ainsi qu’aux référents théoriques mobilisés. C’est pourquoi, dans ce chapitre, nous avons reconstitué deux postures différentes de la critique en GRH qui se caractérisent par des objets, finalités, problématiques et modalités différents. La première posture « programmatique » dénonce le programme (capitaliste) que poursuivrait la GRH en l’incarnant, par le biais de pratiques, de discours ainsi que de modèles. Cette posture rassemble la majorité des travaux critiques en GRH qui, partant de l’étude de dispositifs spécifiques (la formation, le coaching, le travail par projet ou en équipe, p.ex.), dénoncent leur projet disciplinarisant ou les rapports de domination qui leur sont sous-jacents. Cette perspective est le fruit d’une critique politique du capitalisme et de ses institutions (t.q. l’entreprise mais aussi les écoles de commerce) et repose sur un appareil méthodologique de la critique en gestion qui s’articule autour des principes de dé-naturalisation, de réflexivité et de (re)considération des rapports de pouvoir. Cette perspective « programmatique » emprunte assez fidèlement les balises des perspectives critiques en management telles qu’institutionnalisées par les anglo-saxons depuis le début des années 1990 et dont l’École de Francfort et la Labour Process Theory en sont les inspirations originelles. La seconde posture « éthique-disciplinaire » se veut davantage performative et questionne la GRH en tant que discipline. Les travaux issus de cette posture proposent des cadres et modèles alternatifs à la GRH, le plus souvent émargeant d’une critique morale amenant à identifier des modes de gestion des personnes et du travail souhaitables, au-delà de la dénonciation. Cette seconde posture peut être riche d’une réflexion anthropologique à partir des sujets centraux de la GRH—l’Humain et le travail, qui demeurent étonnamment indéfinis dans la plupart des recherches et manuels de GRH. Cette posture éthique-disciplinaire présente des perspectives nouvelles et fécondes autorisant, par exemple, la compréhension des rapports de travail dans les registres du don, de la réciprocité et du « bien » (bien-être, bienveillance, bien commun…), au prix d’inspirations pluridisciplinaires. Ce chapitre présente les caractéristiques de ces postures critiques, les concepts et inspirations théoriques majeures qui les rassemblent ainsi qu’un certain nombre de travaux qui les illustrent. Au terme de cette présentation détaillée, les enjeux que ces approches critiques posent pour la recherche, l’enseignement et la pratique de la GRH sont abordés, offrant au lecteur quelques balises utiles s’il décidait de s’aventurer dans une critique de la GRH.
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Information and communication technology (ICT) challenges traditional assumptions about the capacity to manage work beyond organizational and physical boundaries. A typology connects a variety of non‐traditional work organizations made possible by ICT, including offshoring, outsourcing, remote work, virtual companies and platforms. A model illustrates how new technology serves as a proximate cause for a revision of social contracts between capital, labour and government reached through bargaining and how external shocks such as the COVID‐19 pandemic, the institutional environment and limitations in practice influence how technology changes the organization of work. An historical case study of the New Deal Industrial Relations System illustrates the general features of the model for tackling major transformations in the organization of work. A review of the outsourcing and offshoring literature provides examples of how features of the model will potentially influence the future of post‐pandemic remote work.
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The increasing diffusion of remote working puts organizational control in the foreground. As employees work at a distance from traditional offices and/or are geographically dispersed, companies are called upon to influence their willingness to act in accordance with a company's vision, values, and objectives. To date, a comprehensive understanding of how organizational control is implied in remote work arrangements (RWAs) is still lacking. To fill this gap, a research synthesis—that is, a systematic review of 131 studies that empirically investigated this issue—is carried on. The analysis is not limited to direct forms of control (e.g., output control) but also includes managerial practices as well as actions enacted by employees that influence the dynamics of control, acting as indirect levers of control. Findings were presented and discussed in relation to five “control domains”: control systems, supervisory management styles, trusting relationships, organizational identification, and work identity in RWAs.
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This paper is available for free from Wiley https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ntwe.12173 The outbreak of COVID‐19 is having a drastic impact on work and employment. This review piece outlines the relevance of existing research into new technology, work and employment in the era of COVID‐19. It is important to be retrospective and undertake both a historically and theoretically informed position on the impact of new technologies in the current crisis and beyond. Issues of control, surveillance and resistance have been central to work on the impact of technology on work and employment and these themes have been identified as central to the experience of work in the current crisis.
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L’individualisme est souvent invoqué pour expliquer la désyndicalisation et le manque présumé d’engagement des travailleurs dans des projets collectifs. Cet ouvrage propose une alternative à cette lecture fataliste. La thèse défendue ici est que le lien social dans le travail n’est pas en train de se dissoudre dans un individualisme croissant. La nature et les formes de ce lien social s’expriment différemment. Toutefois, si l’on reste prisonnier des catégories héritées de l’époque industrielle, on continuera à voir que du vide social là où se tissent de nouveaux réseaux. Cette transformation du lien social dans le travail s’explique à la fois par une nouvelle donne industrielle mais également par une évolution individus eux-mêmes : leur manière de s’engager dans le travail et de se lier aux autres change.
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À l'image d'une vague silencieuse, le télétravail concerne aujourd’hui un nombre croissant d’organisations et de travailleurs. Longtemps pensé comme un projet technologique au service d’une multitude d’objectifs, le télétravail est en train de s'imposer comme un outil de flexibilité au même titre que d'autres dispositifs. L'ouvrage s'attache à sortir le télétravail de son carcan technologique et à l'envisager à la lumière des transformations organisationnelles. Ce nouvel éclairage permet de faire la part entre le mythe et la réalité et de mettre en exergue les enjeux socio-économiques actuels. Quels sont ces nouveaux enjeux liés au télétravail ? Qu'est-ce qui pousse les entreprises et les travailleurs à s'engager dans ce nouveau mode d'organisation du travail ? Le télétravail est-il aujourd'hui dans une phase transitoire ou définitive ? L'ouvrage propose des réponses à ces questions fondamentales.
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This paper presents the results of a preliminary study to determine attitudes towards teleworking at a leading IT organization in Singapore. The impact of teleworking on the propensity to leave the organization, events influencing the decision to telework, perceived advantages and disadvantages of teleworking to individuals and organizations, supervisor and work colleague support, and equipment and bill support are examined. Issues and recommendations pertaining to organization, individual and work environment perspectives are discussed.
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Hopes that senior managers attach to programs of empowerment are often dashed in practice. Yet, little research has been conducted into whether lower level managers embrace the language of empowerment, and if not, how they view efforts to develop employee commitment. Case study research in six named organizations in the United Kingdom reveals that managers did not use the term empowerment and that they distinguished its claims to give substantial freedom to employees from more meaningful concepts such as autonomy and involvement. Empowerment meant little because of the financial and other constraints on autonomy, whereas more specific efforts to improve involvement had clear effects on employee behavior. The language of empowerment is not used to mislead workers and hence theories that see empowerment as an insidious form of labor control are not sustained.
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Teleworking is a work practice that entails remote working for at least some of the time. Common arrangements include work done at home or in the field, by teleworkers in a range of occupations. As such, telework is one of the most radical departures from standard working conditions in the suite of flexible work practices now gaining widespread acceptance. In this paper, we develop an explanatory model of organizational adoption of teleworking. We do this as a means of integrating the current literature on the incidence of teleworking and to provide a theoretical grounding and framework for understanding differentials in the growth of teleworking in different organizations, industries and countries. We begin by developing an appropriate framework for conceptualizing teleworking. We propose a multivariate approach that is able to differentiate the various forms of teleworking. We then use this framework to develop a model and a series of propositions concerning the adoption of different forms of teleworking. Neo-institutional theory, as well as recent empirical evidence on teleworking informs this model.
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Technological change has permitted organizations to design jobs in different ways and control work performed in remote locations. This article examines how telework can be used to provide benefits to organizations and their members. In it I present the findings of a study of a large Canadian financial services organization preparing to introduce telework into its sales and customer service operations. These findings highlight the role of expectancy in forming attitudes toward telework, most importantly: the extent to which face-to-face communication prevents important social needs from being satisfied and prevents workers from developing a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization; and the belief that telework will bring improved performance results by creating a work environment with fewer distractions and new, more objective performance measures based on output. This exploration of individuals’ willingness to telework is apt because it points to potential sources of resistance to the implementation of new technologies of production and control in the workplace.
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Interest in paid work performed in the home increasingly focuses on the concept of telework but debate over definitions continues. This paper discusses aspects of this debate and argues that project-specific definitions are useful and inevitable. The assertion that a single definition should be used by all research in this area is challenged.
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Advances in communication and information technologies, changing managerial strategies and changing cultural expectations about the location of (paid) work, have meant that paid work is increasingly conducted from home. Home then becomes the place where the discourse of industrial production meets with the discourse of household production. We analyse the relationship between these two traditionally separate discourses, which, through the disintegration of the time/space compression, increasingly come to bear on each other. We report on the experiences of home-workers and their families coping with the co-presence of the sometimes conflicting and sometimes competing demands and values embedded in such discourses. In doing so, we contribute to current understandings of the complexities inherent in emergent forms of organization, as the relationship between work and home is recast. Theoretically and methodologically, this empirical study is located within a discursive framework, and we emphasize the usefulness of such approaches to studying organizational realities.
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Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate. Notably, work-related factors like managers' willingness are most predictive of which employees will telework. Employees' motivations for teleworking are also unclear, as commonly perceived reasons such as commute reduction and family obligations do not appear instrumental. On the firms' side, managers' reluctance, forged by concerns about cost and control and bolstered by little perceived need, inhibits the creation of telework programmes. As for outcomes, little clear evidence exists that telework increases job satisfaction and productivity, as it is often asserted to do. We suggest three steps for future research may provide richer insights: consider group and organizational level impacts to understand who telework affects, reconsider why people telework, and emphasize theory-building and links to existing organizational theories. We conclude with lessons learned from the telework literature that may be relevant to research on new work forms and workplaces. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In the context of change to the “new modernity” described in Beck’s work, companies develop management modes and methods that focus more and more on individuals. Constitutive of the individualization process, human resources practices have become ambivalent as the process itself. This contribution examines how a managerial and organizational innovation as telework contributes to the process of individualization, and the paradoxes it addresses to management. At the interface of the social and the technical, teleworking appears as a flexible arrangement, meeting employees’ and employer’s demands – which is a characteristic of the process of individualization – by simultaneously fragmenting collectivity, exposing individuals to social risk, and producing exclusion. The authors focus on two consecutive paradoxes of such individualized managerial practices: the individual–collective dilemma and the autonomy–control paradox. Finally, the paper reveals HRM as a new institution of individualization in a world where regulation functions are more and more transferred to individuals themselves.
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Companies are sometimes reluctant to implement telework in their teams because managers may lose control over their teleworking employees. The question we try to answer in this paper is: Does telework have an impact on the manager-employee relationship and, if so, what sort of impact is it? We first propose a literature review on this theme. We then restitute the empirical results of a case study realised in a salespeople team of home-based teleworkers. Through the analysis of e-mails, in-depth interviews, and direct observation, we show that: Telework reduces formal communication between employees and their direct manager while it develops interpretation bias. It facilitates communication between distant hierarchical levels, reducing the importance of professional and social status. Telework increases employees’ autonomy towards their manager. One of the only ways for the manager to evaluate teleworkers is to devote their accountability to results. Overall, telework reduces the importance of the manager in the employee’s professional concerns.
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Total quality management has been a central element in many efforts directed towards organizational change. Theories tend to fall into two extreme camps, which hold either that TQM transforms attitudes and behaviour or that it is nothing but a means to intensify work and tighten managerial control. More recent analysis is more balanced, but lacks quantitative data on employee responses and also neglects the varying contexts in which TQM exists. This study addresses these issues by taking six named organizations from different sectors of the UK economy and by blending qualitative interviewing with a survey of 280 employees. Findings show a wide acceptance of quality principles but (in contrast to the transformation view) little evidence of substantial empowerment of workers. Compared with the intensification view, growing work effort was not widely disliked, and, crucially, favourable views of quality were strongest, not weakest, where the monitoring of workers was most intense. Multivariate analysis supports the 'disciplined worker' thesis, that quality is most accepted where there is a controlled work environment. Case material indicates that the conditions for success in quality programmes are notably high job security and a co-operative relationship with trade unions.
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Advances in communication and information technologies, changing managerial strategies and changing cultural expectations about the location of (paid) work, have meant that paid work is increasingly conducted from home. Home then becomes the place where the discourse of industrial production meets with the discourse of household production. We analyse the relationship between these two traditionally separate discourses, which, through the disintegration of the time/space compression, increasingly come to bear on each other. We report on the experiences of home-workers and their families coping with the co-presence of the sometimes conflicting and sometimes competing demands and values embedded in such discourses. In doing so, we contribute to current understandings of the complexities inherent in emergent forms of organization, as the relationship between work and home is recast. Theoretically and methodologically, this empirical study is located within a discursive framework, and we emphasize the usefulness of such approaches to studying organizational realities.
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This article examines a case of advanced teamwork in a Canadian aluminum smelter. It demonstrates a pattern of high commitment at work and acceptance of change combined with a robust independence of workers from management. Control is no longer exerted at the level of work execution but is moved a step higher in the conception and monitoring of production, thus opening the way for workers' self-regulation. The explanation for this pattern lies in workers' tradition of group solidarity, which was expressed through a strong role for the trade union. Comparison with other cases underlies the centrality of worker collective organization if teamwork is to meet workers' as well as managers' expectations.
This paper analyses the environmental impacts of teleworking. Some empirical studies indicate a positive relationship between the use of teleworking and the reduction of commuting and pollution. The article discusses the variables that impact on the use of teleworking in urban environments, and shows a case estimation for a Spanish city.
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As home-based teleworking grows in the UK, more evidence is needed of how working from home shapes the employment relationship and the implications this may have for those line managers responsible for a home-based workforce. The reported experiences of a sales team and their line managers at one large international drinks manufacturing company of teleworking during its first year of operation revealed the importance of developing understanding of the complex interface between the domains of work and home life. The findings suggest individual circumstances require close attention before implementing home-based working with line managers recalibrating perceptions of the boundaries between home and work for positive employee relationships to develop within a new paradigm of “home-work” relations.
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This research examines the impact of technology design on the acceptance and long-term use of telecommuting systems. Specifically, we compare employee acceptance and sustained use of a traditional system designed based on the common “desktop metaphor,” with a virtual-reality system designed to enhance social richness and telepresence. This 1-year study incorporated a within- and between-subjects examination of 527 employees across 3 locations of a large organization. Results showed much higher telecommuter acceptance and use of the virtual-reality system. Strong support emerged for the hypotheses that higher social richness and higher telepresence leads to higher telecommuter motivation and higher sustained use of the system.
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This article examines the introduction of teamworking in the pharmaceutical industry. It was found that the organisation of work contained a mix of benefits and costs. The balance between the two was not random; employees' response was influenced by and connected to prior experiences and expectations, management's business strategies and approach to industrial relations and HRM. The article argues that there was a new dynamic, but one cast within the familiar terrain of management seeking to maintain control and generate consent.
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Popular images of teleworkers' autonomy, such as 'the electronic cottage', give unrealistic pictures of the control exercised over teleworkers, particularly when these are call centre operators and highly integrated information and communication technology systems facilitate pervasive forms of control. However, this study of Italian home-located call centre operators demonstrates that extensive and multifaceted monitoring practices cannot 'solve' the controversial issue of control. © 2006 The Authors; Journal compilation
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Contemporary changes in patterns of work and management are alleged to have given rise to the post-modern organisation and the diminishing importance of traditional bureaucracy. This paper is concerned with the changing nature of labour control in new ‘multi-enterprise’ settings in the international automotive sector. Rather than eliminating bureaucracy, the tools of industrial bureaucracy are becoming more sophisticated.
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This study employs a grounded theory methodology to compare the impact telecommuting has on public and private employees perceptions of professional isolation. It relied on 93 semi-structured interviews with telecommuters, non-telecommuters, and their respective supervisors in two high technology firms and two city governments. These organizations had active telecommuting programmes and a strong interest in making telecommuting a successful work option, providing an opportunity to investigate the challenges of telecommuting that existed even within friendly environments. The interviews demonstrated that professional isolation of telecommuters is inextricably linked to employee development activities (interpersonal networking, informal learning, and mentoring). The extent to which telecommuters experience professional isolation depends upon the extent to which these activities are valued in the workplace and the degree to which telecommuters miss these opportunities. Public respondents appeared to value these informal developmental activities less than private employees. Therefore, we stipulate that telecommuting is less likely to hinder the professional development of public sector employees than that of employees in the private sector. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In an empirical study of teleworking practices in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in west London, organisational factors such as management attitudes, worker autonomy and employment flexibility were found to be more critical than technological provision in facilitating successful implementation. Consequently, we argue that telework in most SMEs appears as a marginal activity performed mainly by managers and specialist mobile workers.
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This paper looks at various ways teleworking can be linked to surveillance in employment, making recommendations about how telework can be made more acceptable. Technological methods can allow managers to monitor the actions of teleworkers as closely as they could monitor "on site" workers, and in more detail than the same managers could traditionally. Such technological methods of surveillance or monitoring have been associated with low employee morale. For an employer to ensure health and safety may require inspections of the teleworkplace. When the teleworkplace is in the home, there may be an invasion of privacy associated with such inspections, that could be perceived and resented as surveillance. A problem of telework is that teleworkers may feel isolated. Methods to counter this could be associated with further forms of surveillance, and fear of such surveillance may inhibit them from reaching their potential as methods to counter isolation. The idea that teleworking may also allow communications to be intercepted by third parties is also looked at. Some, but not all, of the issues considered are applicable, to some extent, in non-teleworked employment situations. The overall conclusion of the paper is that the potential exists for surveillance to be associated with telework. Fears of such surveillance may turn actors against telework. However, much can be done to reduce such fears.
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Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book's coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields.Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including 'tips' that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing tableCase Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.
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The large-scale implementation of teleworking has not yet occurred in the industrialized world. This fact is in contrast to earlier predictions that viewed teleworking as the main organizational form of the electronic age that would largely eliminate work-related commuting. The slow adoption of the teleworking practice calls for a careful analysis of all elements that may influence the implementation of teleworking. The present article reports the empirical findings of a survey conducted among firms in Brussels, the Belgian and EU capital. The article's main objective is to identify the drivers and constraints relevant to the implementation of teleworking in the Brussels business environment. Furthermore, some insights are provided into the perceived social and economic advantages and disadvantages of teleworking implementation. Finally, the potential effectiveness of various policy tools to promote teleworking is assessed.
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This study uses three separate models for the opportunity, preference, and practice of telecommuting to analyze employee telecommuting adoption. Explanatory clusters relate to organizational, job, household, and individual characteristics derived from the combined insights from literature on telework management and employees’ telecommuting decisions and behavior. Data was collected from 849 employees using a personal computer at the workplace, selected from a representative sample of the Dutch labor force. Multivariate analyses were applied. Opportunity largely depended on organizational and job characteristics. Preference was dependent on all explanatory clusters. Practice was especially dependent on job and individual characteristics.
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Today's telecommuting workforce encompasses all categories of workers including managers, professionals and other knowledge workers. While organizations have the choice of mandating telecommuting or offering it as an option, individuals also have the choice of participating or not when telecommuting is optional. This research investigated whether individual factors, such as age, skills, identification with organization, or job category influenced these individuals' decisions to telecommute or not. A survey of telecommuters and non-telecommuters was conducted in two large work groups working for a high technology organization. Job category and gender showed a significant difference between telecommuters and non-telecommuters. Age, years with organization, and computer skills did not show significant differences. Reasons provided by respondents for opting not to telecommute are discussed. In addition, a comparison of perceived productivity, performance, sense of personal control, and satisfaction between telecommuters and non-telecommuters was performed. Differences were found between telecommuters and non-telecommuters in their ratings of personal control and productivity. The paper concludes with suggestions for practitioners and recommendations for future research.
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While there are over 7 million telecommuters in the U.S. today, there has been little empirical research and virtually no theoretical work on telecommuting. Drawing from the literatures on contingent employment, job design and social isolation, this article presents a theoretical framework for understanding how different constellations of telecommuting arrangements and job characteristics lead to different patterns of employee attitudes and behaviors. After presenting a series of propositions, the article concludes with suggestions for the empirical testing of these propositions and a discussion of the implications for management practice.
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Developments in organization studies downplay the role of bureaucracy in favour of more flexible arrangements and forms of organizational control, including socio-ideological control. Corporate culture and regulated social identities are assumed to provide means for the integration and orchestration of work. Knowledge-intensive firms, which typically draw heavily upon socio-ideological modes of control, are often singled out as organizational forms that use social identity and the corporatization of the self as a mode for managerial control. In this article we explore and discuss social identity and identification in a large IT/management consultancy firm with a strong presence of socioideological or normative control, but also with strong bureaucratic features. Structural forms of control-formal HRM procedures and performance pressures are considered in relation to socio-ideological control. We identify organizational and individual consequences of identification in a context of social, structural, and cultural "closures" and contradictions, including the tendency to create an "iron cage of subjectivity." [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
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Places of work constitute processes of management by facilitating 'visibility' (the possibility for supervisors and others to observe workers) and 'presence' (the ability for workers to participate in relations with co-workers and others). Working at home creates problems for both these aspects of managerial control. We suggest that managers seek to compensate for the relative lack of visibility and presence of home-located workers by generating a range of devices and social disciplines that together comprise loose networks of control. However, these responses are only partially successful since they are founded on contradictory assumptions and practices. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd/London School of Economics 2003..
Management: Systems, Structures and Strategy
  • K Sisson
  • P Marginson
Sisson, K. and P. Marginson (2003), 'Management: Systems, Structures and Strategy', in P. Edwards (ed.), Industrial Relations, Theory and Practice, 2nd edn (London: Blackwell), pp. 157-188.
La transformation de la fonction administrative en Belgique: Administration publique et société
  • A Stenmans
Stenmans, A. (1999), La transformation de la fonction administrative en Belgique: Administration publique et société (Brussels: Crisp).
New Forms of Work Organisation in the Workplace: Transformative, Exploitative, or Limited and Controlled
  • P Edwards
  • J Geary
  • K Sisson
Edwards, P., J. Geary and K. Sisson (2002), 'New Forms of Work Organisation in the Workplace: Transformative, Exploitative, or Limited and Controlled?' in G. Murray, J. Bélanger, A. Giles and P.-A. Lapointe (eds), Work and Employment Relations in the High Performance Workplace (London: Continuum), pp. 72-119.
Le changement dans l'administration publique: le plan Copernic
  • L Thunus