Article

Burnout Contagion Processes Among Teachers1

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Abstract

This study of 154 Dutch high school teachers examined processes by which occupational burnout may transfer from one person to another. Two conditions that may increase the probability of burnout contagion were investigated; namely, individual teachers' susceptibility to emotional contagion, and the frequency with which teachers are exposed to colleagues with student- and work-related problems. Consistent with hypotheses derived from theories about emotional contagion, the results suggest that bumout contagion was most pronounced under these 2 high-risk conditions. Specifically, the prevalence of perceived burnout among participants' colleagues was most strongly related to individual teachers' burnout (i. e., emotional exhaustion and depersonalization), when the teachers were highly susceptible to the emotions of others and when they frequently communicated with each other about work-related problems.

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... In this process, a person or group influences the emotions or behaviour of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and attitudes and behaviours (Kelly and Barsade, 2001). Crossover of stress, strain, negative and positive experiences, including WFC, happens through emotional contagion (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Baral and Sampath, 2019). For instance, when a supervisor in a dyad or in a team experiences role overload, work pressure, time constraints, stress, which might augment his/her level of WFC, he/she might transfer negative feelings to the other person in the dyad (subordinate) through emotional contagion. ...
... WFC not only transfers from one domain (work) to another (family), it transfers from one partner to another (Hammer et al., 1997;Lu et al., 2016;Westman, 2005) and among colleagues (Van Emmerik and Peeters, 2009). Based on the process of contagion as explained earlier and prior research evidence (Baral and Sampath, 2019;Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Carlson et al., 2011), we expect that since in the work settings, supervisor and subordinates interact very often, share close ties, there are greater chances of WFC crossover through both conscious and unconscious process of emotional contagion. In a supervisor-subordinate dyad, the level of WFC of the supervisor because of the role demands placed on him/her may hinder the time and support a supervisor may provide to his/her subordinates which may augment the pressures on the latter resulting in higher WFC (Baral and Sampath, 2019). ...
... Concerning the primary objective of the study, we found supervisor's WFC to significantly influence the subordinate's WFC showing strong support for the crossover model, assumptions of emotional contagion and role stress theory. The results are similar to the findings of earlier research studies examining the crossover of stress, strain, job tension and WFC between partners/married couples (Hammer et al., 1997;Lu et al., 2016;Westman, 2005;Zhang et al., 2013), among teachers (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000), between dyads of co-workers (Baral and Sampath, 2019;Carlson et al., 2011;Lieke et al., 2010). This finding illustrates that the effect of WFC, as could be reflected in the workplace behaviour, tension, stress and strain, may enhance the anxiety and tension among subordinates through Interaction plot with LMX as moderator explicit and unintentional emotional contagion process (Baral and Sampath, 2019). ...
... The research conducted by , Bakker and Schaufeli (2000), and Bakker et al. (2003b;2003c; provided important information regarding the concept of job resources and demands, and how the various resources can mitigate or buffer the emotional and physical impact that job demands can have on individuals in the workplace. Exhaustion and burnout seem to be real issues that the employee face, due to increasing demands related to change, complexity, and conflict between work-and home roles. ...
... Exhaustion and burnout seem to be real issues that the employee face, due to increasing demands related to change, complexity, and conflict between work-and home roles. Other constructs identified by Bakker and Schaufeli (2000) are exhaustion together with depersonalisation, which could impact a construct called emotional contagion, which refers to employees influencing each -resilience. Avey et al. (2009) suggested that psychological capital is a positive resource for dealing with employee stress and employee turnover in an organisation. ...
... Furthermore, the study conducted by Bakker et al. (2000) found that a relationship exists between team-level engagement and the burnout dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The higher the team level engagement is, the lower these dimensions will be. ...
Thesis
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This study focused on the development and empirical validation of a comprehensive engagement prediction model. It was a continuation of the Management Value Chain developed by Joubert (2010). That study identified 57 management practices that could be linked to employee engagement. Subsequently, Joubert and Roodt (2011) developed a comprehensive engagement predictive model that describes five levels of engagement that could potentially be relevant to organisations. This model presents a more detailed understanding of the relationship between management practices and the concept of employee engagement.
... In this process, a person or group influences the emotions or behaviour of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and attitudes and behaviours (Kelly and Barsade, 2001). Crossover of stress, strain, negative and positive experiences, including WFC, happens through emotional contagion (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Baral and Sampath, 2019). For instance, when a supervisor in a dyad or in a team experiences role overload, work pressure, time constraints, stress, which might augment his/her level of WFC, he/she might transfer negative feelings to the other person in the dyad (subordinate) through emotional contagion. ...
... WFC not only transfers from one domain (work) to another (family), it transfers from one partner to another (Hammer et al., 1997;Lu et al., 2016;Westman, 2005) and among colleagues (Van Emmerik and Peeters, 2009). Based on the process of contagion as explained earlier and prior research evidence (Baral and Sampath, 2019;Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Carlson et al., 2011), we expect that since in the work settings, supervisor and subordinates interact very often, share close ties, there are greater chances of WFC crossover through both conscious and unconscious process of emotional contagion. In a supervisor-subordinate dyad, the level of WFC of the supervisor because of the role demands placed on him/her may hinder the time and support a supervisor may provide to his/her subordinates which may augment the pressures on the latter resulting in higher WFC (Baral and Sampath, 2019). ...
... Concerning the primary objective of the study, we found supervisor's WFC to significantly influence the subordinate's WFC showing strong support for the crossover model, assumptions of emotional contagion and role stress theory. The results are similar to the findings of earlier research studies examining the crossover of stress, strain, job tension and WFC between partners/married couples (Hammer et al., 1997;Lu et al., 2016;Westman, 2005;Zhang et al., 2013), among teachers (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000), between dyads of co-workers (Baral and Sampath, 2019;Carlson et al., 2011;Lieke et al., 2010). This finding illustrates that the effect of WFC, as could be reflected in the workplace behaviour, tension, stress and strain, may enhance the anxiety and tension among subordinates through Interaction plot with LMX as moderator explicit and unintentional emotional contagion process (Baral and Sampath, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose This study investigated the crossover of work–family conflict (WFC) from supervisors to subordinates employed in conventional work settings. The authors hypothesized that the supervisor’s WFC would impact the subordinate’s level of WFC, and the level of crossover would vary with relationship quality or LMX. Design/methodology/approach The authors surveyed a matched set of 150 supervisors and 193 subordinates from several services organizations who were recruited using a snowballing technique. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses and moderation testing. Findings Results confirmed a significant direct crossover path. Further, the crossover was found to be lowered in the event of higher LMX quality. Research limitations/implications The findings provide significant insights into the conditions under which transmission of WFC takes place by broadening crossover research in the work–family area. Future studies must explore the crossover of work–family enrichment and the role of leadership styles, empathy and perspective taking of subordinates in the crossover. Practical implications Supervisors must endeavour to reduce the level of WFC of subordinates by trying to build high-quality LMX by regularly interacting with them and by providing them a supportive climate. Employees in turn must support supervisors in various means, which will help them gaining manager’s trust and support. Originality/value Examination of the potential mitigating effect of high-quality LMX in the crossover of WFC in supervisor–subordinate dyads has rarely been investigated in the past.
... Furthermore, previous studies have shown that social interrelations play a crucial role in the development of teacher burnout (Byrne, 1999;Hakanen et al., 2006;Santavirta et al., 2007;Gavish and Friedman, 2010). For example, the previous studies suggest that teacher burnout can spread in schools through social interrelations (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Meredith et al., 2020;Pietarinen et al., 2021), which might further contribute to differences in teacher burnout experiences between schools. However, the school-level differences in teacher burnout and how they change over time have been rarely studied. ...
... More specifically, friction in professional interactions such as leadership issues, pupil misbehavior, challenging interrelations with pupils' parents, and unsolved problems with colleagues increase the risk of teacher burnout (Dorman, 2003;Hakanen et al., 2006;Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2007Pyhältö et al., 2011;Aloe et al., 2014;Richards et al., 2018). Teacher burnout is also suggested to cross over between teachers via professional community interactions (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Kim et al., 2017;Meredith et al., 2020;Pietarinen et al., 2021). Teacher burnout can cross over in professional interactions directly via emotional contagion (Buunk and Schaufeli, 1993;Hatfield et al., 1993;Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker et al., 2003Bakker et al., , 2006 and indirectly, through the negative influence of burned-out teachers on the working conditions of others and the quality of interaction in the school community. ...
... Teacher burnout is also suggested to cross over between teachers via professional community interactions (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Kim et al., 2017;Meredith et al., 2020;Pietarinen et al., 2021). Teacher burnout can cross over in professional interactions directly via emotional contagion (Buunk and Schaufeli, 1993;Hatfield et al., 1993;Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker et al., 2003Bakker et al., , 2006 and indirectly, through the negative influence of burned-out teachers on the working conditions of others and the quality of interaction in the school community. For example, co-ruminating about negative work experiences can induce negative emotions about the professional community and pupils among those teachers who have not been involved in original experience (see Boren, 2013;Meredith et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Differences in teacher burnout between schools are likely to occur due to differences in the quantity and quality of interaction within the schools. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses of burnout symptoms were performed on three-wave longitudinal data collected from 2,619 teachers in 75 schools in Finland. The results showed that differences in teacher burnout between schools were pronounced in cynicism, followed by emotional exhaustion. Organizational factors were not strong predictors of differences in teacher burnout. Proactive co-regulation strategies were related to lower levels of teachers’ cynicism about the professional community, implying that they might be useful in preventing the teachers’ cynicism at the school level.
... Moreover, there is tentative evidence that burnout may spread within teaching communities (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Meredith et al., 2020), as well as within students' close relationships with their friends , suggesting that burnout is an inter-individual phenomenon. This implies that burnout can cross over not only from one teacher to another, but also from a teacher to their students via classroom interaction. ...
... Earlier research on the crossover of burnout has focused on crossover between spouses and within work teams or dyads outside the school context (e.g., Bakker et al., 2001;Westman & Etzion, 1995;Westman & Vinokur, 1998). It has been shown that the crossover of burnout is most likely to occur in environments characterized by frequent and friendly interaction (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Hakanen et al., 2014). Due to the socially embedded nature of teaching, it is not surprising that burnout has been shown to cross over from one teacher to another (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Meredith et al., 2020). ...
... It has been shown that the crossover of burnout is most likely to occur in environments characterized by frequent and friendly interaction (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Hakanen et al., 2014). Due to the socially embedded nature of teaching, it is not surprising that burnout has been shown to cross over from one teacher to another (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Meredith et al., 2020). A link between teacher burnout and student stress regulation has been identified (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016), which implies that burnout can cross over in classroom settings as well. ...
Article
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It has been proposed that well-being or lack of it can spread within tightly knit communities, including classrooms. Yet, to our knowledge, no studies have explored the crossover of burnout between the teachers and the students. In this study, we explored the relationship between teacher exhaustion and students’ study burnout symptoms. We hypothesized that teacher exhaustion is likely to be transmitted to students in classroom interaction both directly and via students’ perceptions of reduced social support from the teacher. A total of 1550 Finnish fifth-grade students from 104 classes and their teachers (N = 104) participated in the study. Multilevel structural modeling was applied to explore whether teacher exhaustion can cross over within classroom settings, i.e., whether it is related to their students’ study burnout levels and students’ perceptions of decreased social support. The findings indicated that teacher exhaustion contributed to higher levels of cynicism among the students. Interestingly, the teacher exhaustion was not related to the teacher support reported by their students. The perceived teacher support buffered the students’ study burnout at both individual and classroom levels. The findings imply that teachers’ well-being and the perceived social support from teachers play important roles in student well-being.
... Previous research shows that work-related stress is not only caused by individual experiences, but that it can also spill over to others within a workplace, meaning that collective experiences within a workplace also may affect the individuals within that setting [31,32]. Prior studies have also demonstrated how work-related factors at the workplace level interact with the individual, indicating that contextual features of the work environment cause stress to the individual [33][34][35]. ...
... There was less support of an 'effect' of the proportion of colleagues reporting high job strain, meaning that we found no support in the data for the assumption that strain can spill over to colleagues within the same workplace. concerning the investigated contextual effects, we can, based on the results from this study, partly confirm previous findings that have shown that collective experiences within a workplace may affect the individuals within that workplace [31][32][33]43]. The wide range of school-level SOc indicates substantial differences in the levels of this contextual aspect across schools. ...
Article
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Abstract Background: Teachers constitute an occupational group experiencing high levels of stress and with high sick-leave rates. Therefore, examining potentially protective factors is important. While prior research has mainly focused on the link between teachers’ own experiences of their work environment and stress-related outcomes, it is also possible that colleagues’ perception of the work environment and their possibilities for dealing with work-related stress contribute to influencing individual teachers’ stress. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how teachers’ reports of high job strain (i.e. high demands and low control) and sense of coherence (SOC), as well as the concentration of colleagues reporting high strain and high SOC, were associated with perceived stress and depressed mood. Methods: The data were derived from the Stockholm Teacher Survey, with information from two cross-sectional web surveys performed in 2014 and in 2016 (N=2732 teachers in 205 school units). Two-level random intercept linear regression models were performed. Results: High job strain at the individual level was associated with higher levels of perceived stress and depressed mood, but less so for individuals with high SOC. Furthermore, a greater proportion of colleagues reporting high SOC was associated with lower levels of perceived stress and depressed mood at the individual level. Conclusions: High SOC may be protective against work-related stress among teachers. Additionally, the proportion of colleagues reporting high SOC was related to less individual stress, suggesting a protective effect of school-level collective SOC.
... Therefore, from this theory it is considered that burnout occurs in work groups, since there are shared beliefs and emotions that are developed throughout social interaction [38]. This burnout contagion has been evidenced especially in teaching and health personnel [45], as well as between spouses (outside work). Thus, emotional contagion influences the development of burnout both inside and outside the workplace [26,46]. ...
... Likewise, employees suffering from burnout influence the rest of the organization, causing greater conflicts or interrupting work tasks, thus reducing production and increasing production times [67]. Therefore, as indicated in the emotional contagion theory, burnout can cause a "contagion effect", generating a bad working environment [45]. This syndrome also usually generates significant economic losses as a consequence of absenteeism, loss of efficiency and counterproductive behaviors [76]. ...
Article
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A growing body of empirical evidence shows that occupational health is now more relevant than ever due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review focuses on burnout, an occupational phenomenon that results from chronic stress in the workplace. After analyzing how burnout occurs and its different dimensions, the following aspects are discussed: (1) Description of the factors that can trigger burnout and the individual factors that have been proposed to modulate it, (2) identification of the effects that burnout generates at both individual and organizational levels, (3) presentation of the main actions that can be used to prevent and/or reduce burnout, and (4) recapitulation of the main tools that have been developed so far to measure burnout, both from a generic perspective or applied to specific occupations. Furthermore, this review summarizes the main contributions of the papers that comprise the Special Issue on “Occupational Stress and Health: Psychological Burden and Burnout”, which represent an advance in the theoretical and practical understanding of burnout.
... The individual exposed to EE feel unable to act as constructive and responsible workers toward their peers and performed effectively in before (Allam, 2017) A second dimension of burnout is depersonalization. Bakker and Schaufeli (2000) conceptualized the term depersonalization as "the development of negative, cynical attitudes towards the recipients of one's services or towards work in general". Inspired from the explanation it is noticed that the individual begin to show such unusual behaviour when he/she is unable to manage the other problem in an amicable manner. ...
... The findings pointed that emotional exhaustion influenced job satisfaction. Emotional exhaustion is part of burnout and due to certain negative aspects of behaviour of the individual, which leads into dangerous situation (Simanjuntak, Sadalia, & Nazaruddin, 2020), but emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction have proven significant effects on the performance (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004;Qureshi & Sajjad, 2015;Simanjuntak, Sadalia, & Nazaruddin, 2020) The F change (F = 31.559, p < 0.01) existed in the job satisfaction among bank employees, which indicates the null hypothesis (HO 2 ) has been rejected. ...
Article
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The main aim of this investigation is to explore the relationships between emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment, and job satisfaction among employees working in the banking sector. A total of 214 respondents were surveyed for the purpose of this investigation and selected randomly from different banks located in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A.). Job Burnout Inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) was taken into consideration to assess emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of personal accomplishment, and job satisfaction scale was used to measure the degree of satisfaction level of the employees. The collected data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The most eye-catching findings of the investigation revealed that emotional exhaustion had the greater mean as compared to depersonalization and personal accomplishment. The inverse significant correlation has been observed between emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and job satisfaction while positive and significant relationship was observed between personal accomplishment and job satisfaction. Further, the result of the investigation from regression test indicates that the relationship existed between emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment, and job satisfaction among employees working in the banking sector in the Kingdom.
... Studien zeigen, dass sich in Teams von Mitarbeitenden oder Sportlerinnen und Sportlern soziale Dynamiken entwickeln können, in denen sich die Gruppenmitglieder gegenseitig mit positiven oder negativen Gefühlen anstecken (z.B. Bakker, Le Blanc, Schaufeli, 2005;Bakker & Schaufeli, 2009;Totterdell, 2000 Ein dritter Prozess, der Peereinfluss auf internalisierendes Verhalten in Gruppen unterliegen könnte, ist, dass sich Jugendliche in ihrer Klasse an der vorherrschenden deskriptiven Norm in Bezug auf internalisierendes Verhalten orientieren. Eine deskriptive Norm repräsentiert die dominierende Ausprägung eines bestimmten Verhaltens in einer Gruppe, die den Mitgliedern der Gruppe als Referenzpunkt und Information darüber dient, welches Verhalten als "normal" gilt (Henry et al., 2000). ...
... Ebenso ist bekannt, dass sich in Gruppen Prozesse der emotionalen Ansteckung mit negativen Gefühlen vollziehen können (z.B. Bakker et al., 2005;Bakker & Schaufeli, 2009 Klassenkameradinnen nicht zwangsläufig auf enge Freundschaftsbeziehungen angewiesen ist. Vielmehr scheint das Niveau internalisierenden Verhaltens unter den Mädchen in der Klasse grundsätzlich eine wichtige Orientierungsfunktion für Schülerinnen zu haben. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mehrere Studien zeigen, dass sich Jugendliche innerhalb von Freundschaftsdyaden in ihrer Ausprägung internalisierenden Verhaltens beeinflussen. Offen ist hingegen, inwieweit sich Peereinfluss auf internalisierendes Verhalten, beispielsweise durch Prozesse emotionaler Ansteckung, auch auf Ebene der Schulklasse vollzieht. Es wurde deshalb untersucht, inwiefern die Ausprägung internalisierenden Verhaltens unter den Klassenkameradinnen und -kameraden die individuelle Entwicklung internalisierenden Verhaltens beeinflusst. Angesichts der Geschlechtsunterschiede im Bereich internalisierenden Verhaltens wurde weiter geprüft, ob Mädchen und Jungen unterschiedlich durch ihre Peers beeinflusst werden. Es wurde erwartet, dass höhere Ausprägungen internalisierenden Verhaltens in der Klasse zu mehr individuellem internalisierenden Verhalten über die Zeit beitragen. Zusätzlich wurde erwartet, dass Mädchen generell stärker durch die Peers beeinflusst werden als Jungen und dass sowohl Mädchen als auch Jungen eher von gleichgeschlechtlichen Peers beeinflusst werden. An der Längsschnittstudie mit vier Messzeitpunkten von der 7. bis zur 9. Klasse nahmen 864 Schülerinnen und Schüler (M Alter zu T1 = 13.12 Jahre; 48% Mädchen) teil, die über ihr internalisierendes Verhalten berichteten. Mehrebenenanalytische Längsschnittmodelle zeigten, dass das Niveau internalisierenden Verhaltens in der Gesamtklasse keinen Einfluss auf die individuelle Entwicklung internalisierenden Verhaltens hatte und Mädchen nicht generell stärker beeinflusst wurden. Mädchen wurden jedoch durch das internalisierende Verhalten unter den Mädchen ihrer Klasse beeinflusst, wohingegen Jungen weder von anderen Jungen noch von Mädchen beeinflusst wurden. Die Bedeutung dieser Befunde für das Verständnis von Peereinflussprozessen auf internalisierendes Verhalten in der Schule wird diskutiert. Several studies suggest that adolescents' development of internalizing behaviors is influenced by friends' levels of such behaviors. However, it is an open question whether peer influence on internalizing behaviors can occur on the classroom level, for example through processes of emotional contagion. It was therefore investigated in how far the level of internalizing behaviors among the classmates has an effect on adolescents' individual development of such behaviors. Given the differences in girls' and boys' internalizing behavior development, this study further investigated gender differences in classmates' influence on internalizing behaviors. It was expected that higher levels of internalizing behaviors in the classroom predict more individual internalizing behavior in the future. Further, we expected that girls are more influenced by their classmates than boys and that both girls and boys are more influenced by same-gender peers. A sample of 864 participants (M age at T1 = 13.12 years; 48% girls) was followed across four measurement occasions from seventh to ninth grade. Students self-reported on their internalizing behaviors. Longitudinal multilevel models indicated that classmates' levels of internalizing behaviors did not predict individual internalizing behaviors across time and girls were not more susceptible than boys. However, there was a significant effect of female (but not male) class-mates' mean internalizing behaviors on girls' internalizing behaviors. No effect of either female or male classmates' internalizing behaviors on boys' behavior was found. Implications for understanding peer influence on internalizing behavior development are discussed.
... Prior to the last five years, much of the research completed in the educational environment has focused on both the antecedents and consequences of burnout. Past research has focused on factors such as the work environment (Fejgin, Ephraty, & Ben-Sira, 1995), perceived and real social support (Brouwers, Evers, & Tomic, 2001), susceptibility to emotional contagion and exposure to colleagues with many problems (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000), special needs students (Fejgin, Talmor, & Erlich, 2005) and the ability to cope with disruptive behaviour (Evers, Tomic & Brouwers, 2004) which have all influenced burnout among teachers. Research has documented the influences of teacher commitment and motivation ( More recently, research has begun to investigate engagement specifically in the education context. ...
... These opportunities for 'hands-on' learning within the educational setting would allow for students to experience the material being learned inside of a controlled and safe context. 5. Provide more research opportunities (7%): Some students suggested that increasing opportunities to conduct research (especially in SPED, ADVL and HEAL) would be beneficial for those moving forward not only in graduate work but in a number of health professions outside of teaching. ...
Article
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Notre étude se propose d’examiner le rapport entre l’estime de soi globale et l’engagement au travail chez les enseignants d’éducation physique et des matières théoriques du lycée selon l’âge, l’ancienneté dans le travail et le genre. Cette étude a pour cadre conceptuel les travaux de Duchesne (2004) et Duchesne, Zajac et Germain, (2005) qui tentaient d’étudier le processus de développement et du maintien de l’engagement ainsi ceux de Alem (2003) qui a étudié le concept d’engagement, son développement et son maintien chez les enseignants tout au long de leurs carrières et les difficultés rencontrées dans leur parcours professionnel. Un échantillon composé de N= 136 enseignants du secondaire de la région de Tunis, dont 58 enseignants d‘EPS et 78 enseignants des matières théoriques a participé à cette étude. Les tests utilisés sont l’échelle d’estime de soi de Rosenberg (1965) et le test d’engagement dans l’enseignement traduit et adapté par Loadhal et Kejner(1965), réadapté par Alem, Bujold et Bertrand (2003). Les réponses aux libellés des items sont évaluées sur une échelle de Lickert à 4 niveaux. Les données obtenues ont été soumises à deux tests statistiques : le test T de Student pour la comparaison des moyennes indépendantes et le coefficient de corrélation de Pearson. Les résultats démontrent que tous les enseignants ont un niveau d’estime de soi élevé. Cette estime de soi est identique pour les deux genres (T=1 .39, p = 0 .17). Le niveau d’engagement au travail de la quasi-totalité des enseignants est moyen (27 sur 40) et ce niveau ne diffère pas selon le genre (T= -0.05, p=0.96). Les enseignants d’EPS ont un niveau d’estime de soi plus élevé que leurs homologues des matières théoriques (T= 2,29, p=.02), par contre, ces derniers sont davantage engagés dans leur travail (T= -2.09, p=.04). D’autre part, le coefficient de corrélation de Pearson a révélé que l’âge et les années d’ancienneté sont positivement corrélés avec l’estime de soi. (Respectivement r(136)= .22, p= .01) et r(136)= .28, p=.001). On peut donc croire qu’avec le temps et avec l’ancienneté, les enseignants ont un niveau d’estime de soi de plus en plus élevé. Enfin, notre étude démontre que l’âge et les années d’ancienneté ne sont pas reliés à l’engagement au travail (r(136)= -0.1, p=.27) et r(136)=-1.01, p=.24), ce qui n’est pas conforme aux résultats rapportés par Huberman (1990) qui avait démontré que l’engagement professionnel des enseignants diminuait avec le temps. Mots-clés : estime de soi, engagement au travail, enseignants tunisiens.
... Denkbar wäre natürlich auch eine entgegengesetzte Richtung, bei der sich gestresste Schüler*innen Burnout-steigernd auf Lehrkräfte auswirken. Auch zwischen Lehrenden konnten erste Anzeichen für Burnout-Ansteckungsmechanismen gefunden werden (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000). Anhand der vielseitigen Auswirkungen sowohl auf Lehrende als auch auf Unterrichtsqualität und Schüler*innen wird deutlich, dass Burnout bei Lehrkräften nicht zu unterschätzen ist. ...
... Neben der Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung stehen laut Baumert und Kunter (2006) die Kontrollüberzeugungen. Weiterer Bestandteil der motivationalen Orientierungen sei die intrinsische Motivation im Sinne des "Lehrerenthusiasmus" (Baumert & Kunter, 2006, S. 502 (Hakanen et al., 2006), speziell die Herzsymptomatik, und depressive Verstimmungen (Burke et al., 1996) (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000) querschnittlich andeuteten, würden bei geringeren Burnout-Prävalenzen seltener. Die potenziellen Folgen einer verringerten Burnout-Symptomatik bei Lehrkräften lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen: Es ist mit positiven Auswirkungen auf die psychische und physische Verfassung der Lehrenden zu rechnen. ...
Book
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde das Programm RefueL zur Förderung der Resilienz von Lehramtsstudierenden im Vorfeld des Praxissemesters entwickelt und positiv evaluiert. Mit dem Programm wurde die fachliche und didaktische Berufsvorbereitung angehender Lehrkräfte während ihres Studiums um ein Angebot zur Ausbildung der psychischen und sozialen Widerstandsfähigkeit ergänzt. Das erarbeitete Programm besteht aus fünf Modulen zu den Themen Resilienz im Lehrkontext, soziale Beziehungen gestalten, Wohlbefinden, Ziele setzen und Probleme lösen sowie Emotionen regulieren. Diese Module enthalten vielfältige praktische Übungen zur Resilienzförderung und werden im face-to-face-Setting realisiert. Für die Evaluation wurde ein längsschnittliches Kontrollgruppen-Design gewählt. Es wurden u.a. hierarchische Regressionen gerechnet. Das Programm erwies sich auf vier verschiedenen Evaluationslevels als wirksam. Maßgeblich zeigte sich, dass Teilnehmende nach dem Praxissemester unter Kontrolle der Ausgangswerte eine geringere Burnout-Symptomatik, mehr positiven Affekt und eine höhere lehrbezogene Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung aufwiesen als Studierende der Kontrollgruppe. Die Studienergebnisse sprechen dafür, Resilienzförderungsprogramme an Universitäten mit Praxissemester im Curriculum zu verankern und so zur Professionalisierung angehender Lehrkräfte beizutragen. Verfügbar unter https://www.klinkhardt.de/verlagsprogramm/2351.html
... It is suggested that individuals unconsciously mimic the expressions and behaviours of those they directly interact with in conversations (e.g., Bavelas, Black, Lemery, & Mullett, 1987;Bernieri, Reznick, & Rosenthal, 1988). Contagion can also happen through a conscious cognitive process as individuals become sensitive to the feelings of others (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000). ...
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Panic buying emerged as a significant phenomenon during the COVID‐19 pandemic. This study draws on the scarcity principle, crowd psychology, and contagion theory to investigate the antecedents and consequences of panic buying. The antecedents included in this study are government measures, media and peer influence, and the fear of missing out. The consequences are founded on a sense of security and guilt. Retailer intervention is included as a moderator to the proposed main effects. Data were collected from 341 consumers who engaged in panic buying and were residents of the United States and Australia during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Structural equation modelling (PLS‐SEM) was employed to test the proposed model. The results show that the proposed antecedents (except fear of missing out) were significantly related to panic buying, which in turn had a significant influence on panic buyers’ psychological outcomes. The moderating effects of retailer intervention varied across different product categories. Discussion and implications of these findings are provided for policy makers, customers, and practitioners.
... As a positive psychological experience, it is thus likely that the contagious effect also applies to flow. Many empirical studies found support for emotional contagion, among them studies in the work context (Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2003;Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker, Schaufeli, Sixma, & Bosveld, 2001;Westman, 2001). Accordingly, and although the reported findings on contagious flow originate from the educational context, it is likely that they also occur in the work context, as they generally underline the transferability of flow between individuals. ...
Chapter
Flow can be experienced both during leisure activities and during work and research shows that flow is even more often experienced at work. Considering its positive consequences, fostering flow is a relevant topic for employees and organizations. The consequences and antecedents of flow at the workplace as described in the literature can be conceived as falling into three spheres—the individual sphere, the job/task sphere and the organizational/social sphere—and their intersections. Regarding the consequences, studies find consistently positive effects of flow on measures of well-being and performance, making flow a positive experience relevant to both individuals and organizations. Regarding the antecedents, flow was found to be facilitated by individual resources (such as self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resilience), by specific task characteristics (such as those described in the Job Characteristics Model, e.g., autonomy, skill variety and task identity) and by organizational/social factors such as the organizational climate, the leadership style of the supervisor and the interactions with colleagues. It is noticeable that many of the effects are bi-directional, with flow affecting resources that affect flow at a later point in time. Referring to person-environment fit theory, the chapter also highlights the important role of the person-environment interaction, which includes a fit of an individual’s attributes with the attributes of the job/task as well as with attributes of the organizational/social environment.
... Although, it is worth noticing that high levels of frustration and distress were found in men employed in female-type occupations [74]. Particularly interesting, in this regard, is the consideration that burnout and its corollarial symptoms are more likely to be observed in some professions than others (e.g., helping professions) [75][76][77][78], on one hand, and to be affected by gender stereotypes, on the other [79]. Past research on this matter has been particularly difficult due to several caveats, e.g., recruiting gender-balanced samples, controlling for socio-cultural variables, etc. ...
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The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace bullying and personal burnout both directly and indirectly via work-life conflict. Furthermore, the moderating role of gender in these relations was examined. Traditional research on stress at work focuses on the role of dimensions related to job tasks, demands, and organizational support in influencing the risks for stress-related problems in employees. At the same time, other experiences at work may reduce employees' well-being, such as workplace bullying and family life. Specifically, considering the detrimental role of work-life conflict, it is possible to hypothesize that it would exacerbate workplace bullying's harmful effects on employees' health. Moreover, since previous studies have reported mixed or inconsistent results when considering gender differences with the above-mentioned dimensions, it seems worth investigating the role of employee gender in representing (and response to) the bullying experiences. Building on these considerations, this work verifies whether: (1) work-life conflict mediates the relationship between workplace bullying and burnout; (2) gender moderates all the possible relationships among the constructs. Such hypotheses are verified on a sample of school principals, in light of their peculiar job role. Overall, our findings showed that: (1) Workplace bullying and burnout are associated, both with and without the perception of a concurring work-life conflict; (2) Gender does not moderate all the possible relationships among workplace bullying, work-life conflict and burnout. Overall, being female heightens the risk to perceive work-life conflict in general, as well as to be burnt out, when bullied, with and without the presence of work-life conflict; being male heightens the risk to perceive work-life conflict when bullied. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that family demands may influence school principals' feelings of exhaustion regardless of gender. These findings confirm and expand previous literature, especially concerning a less studied occupation, namely school principals, shedding a new light on their work experiences. Furthermore, the present study offers interesting implications for trainings on principal's skills and professional identity.
... Moreover, burned out teachers might have negative effects on their school"s reputation (Schwab, 2001). Most importantly, burned out individuals could influence others in the work place negatively by causing personal conflicts and problems in work-related tasks (Leiter & Maslach, 1988), which suggests that burnout can be contagious in a social network of relationships (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Maslach, et al., 2001). In light of this information, it is reasonable to say that teachers can experience burnout as other human service professionals do because of stressful conditions in their jobs. ...
Thesis
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The importance of the relationship between burnout and teacher efficacy has been widely known in the literature especially in the last decade. However, the relationship between teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy has been the focus of a limited number of studies, and the interrelationship among burnout and individual and collective teacher efficacy has not been specifically investigated in an EFL setting. Taking this gap as an impetus, this study explored the experiences of burnout and perceptions of individual and collective teacher efficacy among EFL teachers. The study also examined the direct interrelationship among burnout and individual and collective teacher efficacy. This study gathered data from 123 EFL teachers in an intensive English language education program at a Turkish state university. The data were collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Later, the data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using descriptive statistics and correlation tests. v Analysis of the data revealed that the feeling of emotional exhaustion was more frequent than depersonalization and the feeling of personal accomplishment was the most frequent feeling. In the interviews, it was also revealed that workrelated factors, work environment, and administrative issues were the major sources of burnout among the participants. In addition, analysis of the perceptions of teacher efficacy showed that teachers‟ sense of personal teaching efficacy was stronger than general teaching efficacy. The qualitative data from the interviews suggested that work environment and work-related factors were the major sources of efficacy beliefs among the teachers who participated in the study. Moreover, it was seen that the participants‟ sense of collective teacher efficacy was lower than their sense of personal teaching efficacy, but higher than general teaching efficacy. Again, it was revealed that work-related factors, work environment, and administrative issues were the major sources of collective efficacy beliefs among the participants. It was also seen that personal teaching efficacy was positively correlated with personal accomplishment, but negatively with depersonalization. However, it did not correlate with emotional exhaustion. Likewise, general teaching efficacy did not correlate with any dimension of burnout. The findings also showed that individual and collective teacher efficacy were positively correlated. Moreover, collective teacher efficacy correlated positively with personal accomplishment, but negatively with depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. This study implied that in order to cope with burnout and increase teacher effectiveness, teachers‟ working conditions should be improved and specific intervention programs should be designed to meet the needs of the participants. Furthermore, the study also revealed the need for a more carefully planned vi curriculum renewal workshop by paying more attention to the teachers‟ views and provision of a higher number of academic development and in-service training opportunities to increase the instructional efficacy in the setting of the study.
... How does emotional labor in the family spread to the organization over time? Moreover, the emotional contagion process [109] may explain the crossover of emotional labor. If an employee's partner engages in surface acting at home, it is more likely that she/he performs this type of emotional labor as a negative reaction to the lack of authenticity or an automatic imitation. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Despite the obvious importance of emotional labor for employees, organizations, and customers, a lack of coherence and clarity around the construct has impeded its development. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to provide a comprehensive review of emotional labor spanning about 40 years. METHODS: Our study used a qualitative literature review method along with a theoretically derived path diagram of key emotional labor constructs. We also used meta-analysis to explore the relationship between emotional labor and outcomes in different national contexts. RESULTS: We expect our research to expand the field in five different ways. First, we review contemporary theoretical conceptualizations of emotional labor and its dimensions. Second, we summarize seven existing measures of emotional labor in light of their contents. Third, we map the theoretical and nomological network of emotional labor about its antecedents, outcomes, moderators, mediators. Fourth, we use meta-analysis to explore the relationship between emotional labor and other variables in different contexts. Finally, we conclude by showing a detailed future research agenda to bring the field forward from different perspectives, including theoretical and empirical advancement. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our review provides a whole picture of where the literature has been and where it should go.
... This is exactly what we find for female workers, whose labor situation is worse on average than that of men. This pervasive outcome of coping appeared also, at a minor scale, when the analysis was carried out at couple level, which could be explained by contagious processes (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000) in a couple. From an applied perspective, this study has important practical implications. ...
Article
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Despite the amount of research on family-work conflict and burnout, there persist questions about their relations and which coping strategies are the most effective. In this paper we address this issue from a gender perspective with a sample of 131 dual-earner couples developing both individual and couple analyses. The results at the individual level yield gender differences when each of the two burnout components is explained. The main predictor of emotional exhaustion is work-family conflict while family-work conflict is the main predictor of depersonalization, especially for men. Regarding coping strategies, behavioural coping is negatively related to male depersonalization. However, behavioral and emotional coping increases both burnout dimensions in women, particularly if family-work conflict is high. At couple level, findings confirm the relationship between conflicts and burnout and the moderating role of behavioural coping to explain emotional exhaustion.
... One further mechanism may explain how teacher burnout may affect their students. This is via a contagion effect, whereby burnout passes from teachers to their students (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000). Research in this area has explored the potential for individuals to pick up and imitate emotional cues, and there is evidence that students may be particularly astute in this regard (Sutton & Wheatley, 2003). ...
Article
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We provide the first systematic review of studies examining the consequences of teacher burnout for students. In doing so, we focused on academic achievement and student-reported outcomes. A systematic literature search returned 14 studies including 5,311 teachers and 50,616 of their students. The findings provided some evidence that teacher burnout is associated with worse academic achievement and lower quality student motivation, but little evidence that it is associated with student wellbeing. There is a clear need for more studies in this area, especially those adopting more robust designs, exploring moderating factors, and examining the mechanisms that explain these relationships. Nonetheless, the present findings provide preliminary evidence that teacher burnout can affect the students they teach.
... Authors propose that emotional contagion is an important mechanism for crossover in couples (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000). Couples communicate with each other about their daily events and experiences, especially when those experiences are negative. ...
Article
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Modern technologies can aid working processes as well as provide individuals with an opportunity to connect and form interpersonal relationships. However, they can also create a context for displaced aggression. In this study, we examine whether people experiencing work stressors may engage in online antisocial behavioral as a means of venting their negative emotions. Specifically, we investigate whether experiencing stressors at work fuels anger in the private context and whether this anger triggers subsequent displaced aggression in the form of antisocial online behavior (AOB) throughout the evening. Additionally, we examine the crossover of anger to AOB in couples in their private context. We conducted a diary study amongst 95 dual‐earner couples, twice a day, during five consecutive working days. Results confirmed that men’s daily work stressors spilled over to their private context in the form of anger after work and AOB throughout the evening. No crossover effects were found from their partner. For women, a crossover effect was found of their partner’s work stressors and anger on their own AOB. These results demonstrate gender differences in displaced online aggression. Data available at: https://doi.org/10.34894/X5JORL
... They found that strains such as work (dis-)engagement and emotional exhaustion crossed over from subordinates to their leaders. The crossover of these stress variables between individuals can be explained by using mechanisms such as social exchange (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000) and crossover of psychological states (Bakker, Westman, & van Emmerik, 2009), which reflect an empathic mechanism. ...
... For example, in Polish teachers, in the research by H. Sęk (2000b), the value of the emotional exhaustion component was 22.0, J. Pyżalski (2002) obtained the value of 16.40, in the research by S. Tucholska (2003) -21.07, and in J. Kirenko and T Zubrzycka-Maciąg (2011) -18.24. Higher values concerning the area of emotional exhaustion compared to the results of the authors' research were also observed in Greek primary school teachers -30.86 (Kokkinos, 2007), Dutch teachers -16.83 (Brouwers, Tomic, 2000) and 17.84 (Bakker, Schaufeli, 2000), American agriculture teachers -18.20 (Croom, 2003) and in the results obtained by Norwegian educators -27.51 (Skaalvik, Skaalvik, 2007). The compared results may suggest that the studied preschool teachers, to a lesser extent than those presented in the studies by other authors -teachers of primary and secondary schools -experience emotional exhaustion as well as indifference towards various subjects in their educational activities (depersonalisation). ...
Article
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Preserving and improving human health potential is fostered by a healthy lifestyle, in particular a rational diet, recreational physical activity, effective coping with psychological stress, avoidance of psychoactive substances and risky sexual contacts, and the use of preventive examinations. The aim of the study was to assess health-related behaviours and professional burnout of pre-school teachers from Kraków. Anonymous research, by means of diagnostic survey, was conducted in 2018 among a randomly selected group of teachers from public (n = 139) and non-public (n = 43) preschools in Kraków. The Occupational Burnout Questionnaire (MBI) based on the concept of Ch. Maslach was used to assess the structure of professional burnout (emotional depletion, depersonalisation and sense of professional achievement). Using the Inventory of Pro-health Behaviours (IZZ) by Z. Juczyński, four categories of pro-health behaviours were assessed: correct eating habits, preventive behaviours, positive mental attitude and health practices. The results of correlation analysis using Pearson’s r showed a relationship between three out of four scales of the Inventory of Pro-health Behaviours (preventive behaviours, positive mental attitude, health practices) and a general indicator of health behaviours and the results of the MBI questionnaire. The obtained data suggest that people who present health-related behaviours to a lesser extent are characterised by a higher level of burnout components.
... Bernieri et al. (1988) highlighted that persons unconsciously mimic the behaviours and expressions of people they often interact with in their daily engagements. Bakker and Schaufeli (2000) also disclosed that contagion can exist through a process of conscious cognition as persons become conscious of the others' feelings. further underscored that peer generated social media content is more acceptable among consumer's social circles. ...
Article
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During the Covid-19 pandemic, some government restrictions to curb the spread of corona virus rendered print media obsolete. Social media became a convenient channel of communication. However, social media was awash with false and alarming information about the pandemic and government initiatives. This led to infodemic as consumers accessed misrepresented information on social media. As a result of social media infodemic, some consumers engaged in panic banking through withdrawal rush due to uncertain future expectation. This study aimed to examine the effect of social media infodemic during the Covid-19 pandemic on consumers' panic intention behaviour in the banking industry. Data for the study was collected from 230 consumers of the baking industry in Oman using a questionnaire. A social media infodemic model was developed using a deductive approach. The study found out that social media infodemic was responsible for panic banking intention behaviour in Oman. The four determinants of social media panic behaviour were all statistically significantly impacting on panic banking behaviour. The study concluded that social media infodemic is a key determinant of panic banking in the banking sector. In light of the above findings, the banking industry should monitor social media so as to dilute misinformation with factual corporate communications so as to minimise panic banking behaviour.
... Research studies related to burnout in educational institutions have been mainly conducted on teachers (Akçamete, Kaner & Sucuoğlu 2001;Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000;Cemaloğlu & Kayabaşı, 2007;Farber & Miller, 1981;Friedman, 1999;Grayson & Alvarez, 2008;Greenglass, Fiksenbaum, & Burke, 1994;Russell, Altmaier & Van Velzen, 1987;Suçuoğlu & Küloğlu 1996;Tatar & Horenczyk, 2003), school psychologists (Huebner, 1992;Ross, Altmaier & Russell, 1989;Sandoval, 1993) and school managers (Aksu & Baysal, 2005;Koçak, 2009). Research studies conducted on school personnel point out that the school itself is a stress factor (Chang, Rand & Strunk, 2000). ...
Article
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The current research examines whether school burnout, which may be seen in high school students, varies or not in relation to such variables as gender, grade point average, grade level and the students’ status of attending to private tutoring. The study is designed in survey research model and the study group consists of 728 students studying in 3 different types of high schools located in 4 different regions of Turkey. Findings show that the school burnout which students experience varies in relation to such variables as gender, grade point average, grade level and the students’ status of attending to private tutoring (dershane). Based on these findings, male students are a higher-risk group in terms of school burnout. Students with low grade point averages are a higher-risk group in terms of school burnout. The risk of school burnout increases as the grade level is higher. Attending to private tutoring causes school burnout in students in some respects while it also protects students against school burnout in other respects. According to these findings loss of interest in school, burnout due to doing homework and burnout due to studying grade averages are higher in the students who attend to private tutoring while burnout due to family and deficiencies in school and need for relaxation and entertainment grade averages are higher in the students who do not attend to private tutoring
... Within the classroom, teachers juggle numerous responsibilities, gently guide the complex behaviors of a variety of children, cater to the needs of each individual child, grapple with time constraints, and engage in sometimes stressful parent-teacher interactions in an effort to provide quality care to the children in their classrooms (Kelly & Berthelsen, 1995). In addition, there is evidence that teachers' stress levels may be "contagious," i.e., teacher's own emotional exhaustion is highly related to emotional exhaustion they perceive amongst their professional peers (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000). Li Grining et al. (2010) found a negative correlation between number of work-related and personal stressors and engagement with disruptive studentsthose experiencing the greatest amount of stress were least likely to engage in empathic relationships with disruptive students. ...
Article
Early childhood teachers’ social emotional well-being is important for their quality of life, and is associated with their classroom practices, their relationships with children, and with child functioning. This study examines the impact of an intervention; a brief, online course to support teachers’ use of stress-management and resiliency practices. Sixty-three, center-based, early childhood teachers completed pre- and post-surveys to assess their knowledge of stress and stress reduction, use of prevention strategies, use of emotion regulation strategies, self-reported stress, and their social and emotional responsiveness to children. Participants also provided feedback about the course design, content, and applicability. Research Findings: After the intervention, teachers demonstrated greater knowledge of stress, stress-reduction and use of prevention strategies, and greater use of reappraisal emotion regulation. Teachers indicated the course was useful, positively affected their work with children, and demonstrated positive changes in their self-reported responsiveness to children. However, after the intervention, they also reported higher levels of personal stress and negative reactions to children’s emotions. Practice or Policy: This research provides some evidence that a low-dose intervention delivered online can affect teachers’ knowledge and use of resiliency practices. Differences in effects based on teachers’ social identities and experiences, and updates to the original course content, are discussed.
... That is, if the partner does not feel overloaded with family responsibilities, this is likely to magnify the partner's perception that additional resources exist in the family that support the partner's work including emotional support (indexed here in terms of family support for the partner's work). A parallel explanation from the emotion literature (e.g., Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker et al., 2001) is that when the partner feels less overloaded at home, this generates positive emotions, perceptions, and reactions such that she/he views the provision of support in the family for his or her work more positively. Thus, we expect that the partner's family overload negatively relates to his or her perceptions that she/he receives family support for work: ...
Article
We propose and test a Resource-Based Spillover-Crossover-Spillover Model (RB-SCSM) of how an employer's provision of family support resources to an employee ultimately relates to his or her partner's improved experiences at his or her work as part of a mesosystem-to-mesosystem resource transmission process. Based on a dyadic examination of 262 full-time dual-earner couples, consistent with prior research, we found that when employees perceive their organization is family supportive, they experience less work-to-family conflict, and in turn, less burnout. Building on these individual-level effects in novel ways, we demonstrate that when an employee reports less burnout, their partner perceives the employee as less burned out. Moreover, when partners perceive less employee burnout, they perceive the employee provides more emotional support for the partner's work, directly and indirectly through the family overload that the partner experiences. Finally, when the partner receives more family support for his or her work, this spills over to and is related to the partner's greater investment in his or her relationships at work. Thus, our findings empirically demonstrate a resource-based transmission from one organization to another through dynamics occurring in the family. Suggestions for practical implementation are provided, as are suggestions for future theoretically grounded research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... According to the job demands-resources model, the interaction between job demands and job resources plays a major role in the development of job strain, which, in turn, is linked to raised chances of job burnout (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). Bakker and Schaufeli (2000) noted that prolonged exposure to job demands raises psychological strain (which, in turn, heightens the level of burnout). Job resources, on the other hand, aid employees in pursuing their jobs productively and make them feel appreciated in the workplace (Hu et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Using the job demands–resources model, the association of job demands (dangerousness, role underload, role overload, role ambiguity, and role conflict) and job resources (instrumental communication, formalization, input into decision-making, views on training, and job autonomy) with the burnout dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced sense of accomplishment was studied among of 827 police officers in the State of Haryana in India. Multivariate regression indicated that dangerousness, underload, ambiguity, and conflict were associated with higher emotional exhaustion, while input, training, and job autonomy were negatively related. Underload, ambiguity, and conflict were related to higher depersonalization, while overload, instrumental communication, training, and autonomy were related to lower levels. Ambiguity was linked with a reduced sense of accomplishment, while dangerousness, instrumental communication, and training had negative associations. Overall, the results support the job demands–resources model; however, curiously, overload was linked to lower depersonalization and dangerousness was linked to an enhanced sense of accomplishment. The implications for Indian police administrators are lower the significant job demands and raise the significant job resources to reduce job burnout among officers. What is not clear is if the results of the current and past studies apply to officers across the world or vary by nation/culture. The implication for police scholars is the need to conduct research among officers in a wide array of nations to help answer the question of which job demands and resources are universal in their association with the burnout dimensions and which ones are contextual, varying across nations.
... Aslında örgütsel iletişim literatürünün ilk odak noktası yöneticilerin kişilerarası iletişim becerileridir (özellikle konuşma ve yazma). Firmalar daha fazla iletişim temelli hale geldikçe, tüm üyelerinin örgütsel iletişim becerilerini geliştirmeye daha fazla önem vermiştir (Bakker, 2007). Bir firmanın kurulmasında, faaliyetlerin ortaklaştırılmasında ve işlerliğin sürekliliğini korumasında yeterli ve etkili düzeyde örgütsel iletişime gereksinim duyulmaktadır. ...
... Consequentemente, os professores necessitam reconhecer o poder das suas emoções e que o ensino envolve mais do que a aprendizagem do programa curricular, onde muitos investem uma quantidade substancial de tempo na preparação de aulas e descuidam a sua IE, evidenciado pelas taxas de stress e burnout frequentemente relatadas na profissão docente (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Schoeps, Tamarit, Barrera & Barrón, 2019). De salientar, que primeiramente este reconhecimento terá de ser feito pelas Instituições de Ensino Superior, que formam professores, visto os mesmos não receberem ao longo da sua formação académica estratégias de gestão emocional, que os prepare para as vivências futuras da atividade profissional. ...
Article
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O aperfeiçoamento das capacidades da inteligência emocional auxilia o professor a gerir as solicitações emocionais em sala de aula, sendo fundamentais para encontrar a ordem e o equilíbrio na orientação das decisões durante o conflito. Este estudo investigou a influência da inteligência emocional na gestão de conflito em sala de aula, dando suporte conceitual e evidência factual sobre a relação manifesta entre os dois constructos na relação professor-aluno(s). Foi objetivo desta investigação conhecer qual a influência da inteligência emocional do professor na gestão do conflito, em sala de aula. Analisou-se ainda a relação entre algumas variáveis pessoais e profissionais dos professores com a inteligência emocional. Foram usados os instrumentos: Questionário de Inteligência Emocional do Professor, Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II-Portuguese Version in School Context, e uma Ficha de Dados Pessoais e Profissionais, numa amostra constituída por 745 professores dos ensinos básico e secundário, de Portugal. Utilizando a técnica de modelação de equações estruturais, os resultados indicaram que os professores que tendem a ter níveis mais elevados de inteligência emocional utilizam estratégias de gestão de conflito mais integrativas e de compromisso, gerindo o conflito em sala de aula de modo construtivo. Face aos resultados encontrados, considera-se a importância do desenvolvimento de práticas pedagógicas, ao longo da formação académica, que valorizem a dimensão emocional do futuro professor, pelos benefícios que apresenta na gestão de conflito na relação professor-aluno(s). Palavras-chave: inteligência emocional, gestão de conflitos, relação professor-aluno(s)
... It is normally the end-state of stress that come into the existence by the virtue of exceed demands followed by deficient resources (Brill, 1984). A consensus on threefold facets of burnout explicitly depersonalization/ cynicism, "emotional exhaustion, and lack of personal accomplishment" has been affirmed by myriad of studies in the existing literature and also evident in in teaching profession (Aluja et al., 2005;Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Iwanicki & Schwab, 1981). ...
Article
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The idea behind this research is to empirically examine relationship between causes (Work-Family Conflict & Job Stress) and consequences (Job Satisfaction & Turnover Intention) of Job Burnout along with its mediating effects in higher educational context of Punjab, Pakistan. The professors, associate professors, assistant professors and lecturers that belongs to different universities in province Punjab of Pakistan were targeted population. Structured and selfadministered questionnaire was used to collect the data from six hundred and ten teachers. SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) was used to analyze data. The current study concludes significant relationships between all the aforesaid causes and consequences of Job Burnout except relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job Stress. Furthermore, Job Burnout portrayed its mediating effects between them. This study imparts the management and administration of the higher education institutions in uncovering and eliminating the harms of Job Burnout.
... As a general definition it is defined as distrust to organization (Efeoğlu and İplik, 2011). Cynicism refers to the development of negative, cynical attitudes towards the recipients of one's services or towards work in general (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000) Organizational cynicism is an attitude consisting of negative behavioral tendencies, beliefs, and effects. Because it rnediates the relationship between the emotions that the employee feels a negative event in his/ her workplace and the behaviors that the employee performs this same event (Eaton, 2000). ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this study is to establish the level of organizational cynicism of teachers and administrators in primary institutions by considering their organizational perception. The research applied in 2010-2011 education year to 518 persons in total that contains 456 teachers and 62 administrators who are charred in the primary schools in Gaziantep, Turkey. The questionnaire that is used in the research is formed with two sections. The first section is formed from questions that are used for gathering demographic transmitting. "Organizational Cynicism Measure" is used in the second section which is improved by Brandes, Dharwadkar and Dean (1999) that contains thirteen materials of which validity and reliability studies made with explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis. The results revealed that organizational cynicism level in primary schools is high. The variables of gender, title, working years, age account for a meaningful difference in organizational cynicism level.
... This inter-individual transmission of stress is called crossover in a wider sense (Westman 2001). Crossover effects can be divided into two different types: Firstly, if emotions, stress, or strain, which an individual experiences in the moment (Hatfield et al. 1992) or over time (Bakker and Schaufeli 2000), are transmitted to another person of the same life domain, we are talking of emotional contagion or same-domain crossover. Secondly, if stress or emotions experienced in one life domain by an individual leads to stress or similar emotions experienced by a close person in another life domain, this is called crossover in a narrower sense or cross-domain crossover. ...
Article
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Everyone has experiences that make them feel upset, disappointed, or fatigued. When these types of feelings are combined with certain life events or situations, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns, they often lead to mounting tension and stress. A crisis is a disruption or breakdown in a person’s or a family’s normal or usual pattern of functioning. The aims and objectives of this study are to explore how lockdown and social distancing had an impact on family relations in Cyprus and to what extent affected stress level of participants. By examining the impact of social distancing among adults 18 and older (N = 160), valuable conclusions were extracted. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to strengthen the idea of using alternative approaches in social preventions and/or interventions in crisis in order to deal with stress. The study argues that the disruption of usual patterns of functioning, in addition to other psychosocial and economic factors, diminishes the quality of life, resulting in tension and stress in a family environment. On the other hand, findings from the current study indicate an enhancement of relationships in challenging times, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
... The spread of emotions can be as contagious as the spread of a virus (Von Scheve and Salmella, 2014) and, depending on the nature of the emotion and the social context, emotional contagion can be detrimental or beneficial. For instance, in Barsade (2002), it has been shown that the spreading of positive emotions in human groups improved cooperation and decreased conflict in a working setting, while in Bakker and Schaufeli (2000) it was observed that burnout spreading was more likely if teachers frequently shared with each other work-related problems. ...
Article
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Seeking to match our emotional state with one of those around us is known as emotional contagion-a fundamental biological process that underlies social behavior across several species and taxa. While emotional contagion has been traditionally considered to be a prerogative of mammals and birds, recent findings are demonstrating otherwise. Here, we investigate emotional contagion in groups of zebrafish, a freshwater model species which is gaining momentum in preclinical studies. Zebrafish have high genetic homology to humans, and they exhibit a complex behavioral repertoire amenable to study social behavior. To investigate whether individual emotional states can be transmitted to group members, we pharmacologically modulated anxiety-related behaviors of a single fish through Citalopram administration and we assessed whether the altered emotional state spread to a group of four untreated conspecifics. By capitalizing upon our in-house developed tracking algorithm, we successfully preserved the identity of all the subjects and thoroughly described their individual and social behavioral phenotypes. In accordance with our predictions, we observed that Citalopram administration consistently reduced behavioral anxiety of the treated individual, in the form of reduced geotaxis, and that such a behavioral pattern readily generalized to the untreated subjects. A transfer entropy analysis of causal interactions within the group revealed that emotional contagion was directional, whereby the treated individual influenced untreated subjects, but not vice-versa. This study offers additional evidence that emotional contagion is biologically preserved in simpler living organisms amenable to preclinical investigations.
... For instance, one's positive states (e.g. happiness and work boundary flexibility) are related to one's spousal relationship or marital satisfaction (Ferguson et al., 2015;Montes-Maroto et al., 2018), and one's burnout, distress, anxiety and depression are linked to partner reports of various outcomes related to strain (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker, Westman, & van Emmerik, 2009;Howe et al., 2004). ...
Article
Mindfulness has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners, and considerable research has demonstrated the intrapersonal effects of mindfulness at work or at home. Research to date, however, has overlooked potential interpersonal effects of mindfulness across the work and family domains. Drawing on the spillover‐crossover model and the mindfulness literature, we investigate the effects of spouse mindfulness at home on employee work and family outcomes. We test our model using dyadic experience‐sampling data collected from 125 focal employees and their spouses over ten consecutive workdays. The results indicated that, at the within‐person level, spouse mindfulness at home was positively associated with employee authentic emotional sharing at home, which, in turn, was positively associated with employee positive effect at home but negatively associated with employee negative affect at home. The results also indicated that spouse mindfulness at home had a positive indirect effect on family satisfaction at home and work engagement during the next morning through enhancing employee authentic emotional sharing at home. We discuss the implications of these findings and directions for the mindfulness research.
... We have a limited understanding as to whether athlete burnout is "contagious". That is, whether burnout can pass from one athlete to another (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000). Research in sport has explored the possibility for athletes to pick up and imitate others' emotions (see e.g., Friesen et al., 2013), and there is evidence that athletes are particular astute at doing so. ...
Chapter
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Burnout is highly problematic for athletes. It is unsurprising that, like outside of sport, there is growing interest in this area of research. However, while we know a lot about the correlates of athlete burnout, there are few guidelines for how to deal with burnout in practice. In the present chapter, my aim is to diagnose problems that are preventing progress in this regard. In doing so, I have identified nine key problems that I think are the most important issues currently facing athlete burnout research. These include conceptual (e.g., whether burnout is the same as depression), methodological (e.g., whether self-report is a sufficient means to measure burnout), and practical problems (e.g., whether current interventions work). I have also prescribed possible solutions. It is hoped that my proposed solutions can help advance the development of evidence-based guidelines and, in doing so, aid prevention and intervention of burnout in athletes.
... In a sample of teachers, Bakker and Schaufeli (2000) also found that the frequency of exposure to colleagues who talked about work-related problems increased the probability of employees experiencing burnout. In trying to understand their colleagues' problems, the teachers had to tune in to the negative emotions expressed. ...
Chapter
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This chapter describes the interpersonal transfer process of stress, emotions, and experiences, known as crossover. It defines and differentiates between spillover and crossover and discusses the three main theoretical explanations of the crossover process. It also explains how the crossover process includes the transfer of both positive and negative emotions and experiences, and how recent work has demonstrated the transmission of resources (e.g., self-esteem and social support), between spouses. The chapter also discusses the impact of culture and gender on the crossover process. Finally, it reviews emerging research assessing how crossover operates between team members and how team leaders “affect” their team members via crossover (and vice versa).
... Firstly, when employees interacted with others, it might be there are the affects where the element of affective, motivation and collective behavior among employees are leveraged, included the performance related attributes such as the benefits of perceived collective and higher group potencies (Bakker and Schaufeli, 2000). ...
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It is generally believed that by orchestrating a nomological network to leverage COE which strongly supported by transformative leadership style, Practices in HRM, leadership style and working design could lead to condusive organizational performance. This research is to empirically analyze the antecedents of green organizational performance mediated through Collective Organizational Engagement (COE) and work engagement. Current study deployed Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with Amos 24 to statistically investigate proposed hypotheses. Survey is also conducted with questionnaires to collect data with non-probability sampling. Upper-Echelon Leaders, Top-Mid Level Managers and long-Level Employees present as sample from 100 organization as population. Statistical outputs demonstrated that Green Working Design, Green Leadership Behavior and Green HRM Practices significantly showed as the antecedent of COE, GWD and Green HRM Practices also proved as the key factors on Work Engagement. Furthermore, COE and WE play crucial moderating variable on Green Organizational Performance. The study also provided theoretical, research limitation and further research..
... For example, in crossover, stress experienced in the workplace by the individual leads to stress being experienced by the individual's spouse at home (Westman, 2001). Research documents evidence that the following affective phenomena may crossover from one person to another: anxiety (Westman et al., 2004), burnout (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2000;Bakker et al., 2001;Pavett, 1986), depression (Katz et al., 1999;Vinokur et al., 1996;Westman & Vinokur, 1998), dissatisfaction (Westman et al., 2004), and physical health (Jones & Fletcher, 1993). Empathic crossover is also possible for positive emotions such as intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, absorption (Bakker, 2005), and vigor (Westman et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
With the increasing pressure to innovate, companies are led to find solutions how to increase the creativity of the teams working on innovation projects in a sustainable way. Research has shown that the flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975-2000), the optimal psychological experience of hyperfocused human functioning has benefits on subjective eudaemonic well-being as well as objective performance. However, the topic is poorly explored when it comes to flow experience in social settings. Therefore we decided to address the concept of collective flow. Funded by a French company SBT Human(s) Matter, this research project has also an applicative goal of gathering more knowledge about flow and team creativity in order to improve sustainable well-being and reach optimal collaboration for SBT's clients. We define collective flow as a state manifesting when a group acts as a whole. The members of the group are absorbed in the common activity, are coordinating efficiently and feel good together. Subsequently, we have built a sociocognitive model that conceptualizes collective flow as a process mainly relying on motivational and social identification processes, and triggered by specific preconditions such as team members' empathy, collective ambition and shared group identity. Six laboratory studies and few field tests allowed us to test our theoretical model and therefore test our hypotheses. The research was mainly conducted with French engineering students working on innovation projects. Results of the first study show that average level of Theory of Mind of group members does not predict neither the collective flow nor the creative output of the groups. This challenges previous findings related to collective intelligence of teams. However, analyses indicate that collective flow can be predicted by intrinsic motivation and social identification relative to group membership. Moreover, we have found that creativity of groups is predicted by individual flow experience. Results of the second, experimental study, which manipulated the level of action identification (high versus low) showed that high level action identification boosts social identification, intrinsic motivation, and flow of individual group members. Also, mediation analysis indicates that the effect of action identification on flow experience is mediated by social identification and intrinsic motivation. Third, experimental study testing the impact of social identity showed that, contrary to our expectations, the salience of social identity cues (wearing special T-shirts) neither impacts collective flow nor the creative output of the teams. Just like in the first study we found that intrinsic motivation and social identification are significant predictors of both individual and collective flow. However, collective flow did not seem to be predicted by the individual flow of group members. Finally, the fourth experimental study exploring flow experience in a Computer-Mediated Communication setting, relying on Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects, tested online group creativity in anonymous, identified, synchronous and asynchronous virtual environment. Our results show that asynchronous mode of collaboration is not a flow-killer and that synchronous mode is not a flow booster. This means that individuals engaged in a collective task can indeed experience flow even when working remotely and asynchronously. Consistent in all four studies, our results show that flow in group settings is predicted by intrinsic motivation and social identification. Collective team ambition is also likely to considerably increase the experience of flow in team context. Lastly, our results concerning the impact of collective flow on creativity are less clear, indicating that in some cases the experience of individual flow boosts the creativity. However, this might be more complex and therefore provides a good reason to seek further refinement and better understanding.
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Does emotional exhaustion cross over between employees? Departing from the traditional within‐person view, we draw on the crossover model to argue and test an interpersonal model of emotional exhaustion. We conducted a sociocentric social network study in a U.S. construction company and found that employees had similar levels of emotional exhaustion to co‐workers with whom they had interaction and advice ties and structurally equivalent network positions, but that they did not have similar emotional exhaustion to friends or supervisors. We advance scholarly understanding of emotion crossover by theorizing and simultaneously testing important organizationally structured patterns of interaction and transfer previously unexamined, examined only in isolation or examined in a piecemeal manner. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the influence of structural and relational patterns embedded in the organization’s formal and informal structures and provide a theoretical and methodological platform to advance our understanding of crossover, emotional contagion and important outcomes at work.
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Purpose: Groups’ perceptions of their supervisors’ conflict management styles (CMSs) can have important implications for well-being. Rather than being examined in isolation, supervisor CMSs need to be considered in the context of supervisors’ emotional ability and the amount of conflict in workgroups. This paper aims to investigate the three-way interactions between group-level perceptions of supervisor CMSs (collaborating, yielding, forcing), supervisor emotion recognition skills and group relationship conflict in predicting collective employee burnout. Design/methodology/approach: Group-level hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted with 972 teaching professionals nested in 109 groups. Findings: The positive association between supervisor yielding climate and collective employee burnout was evident when supervisor emotion recognition was low but absent when supervisor emotion recognition was high. Groups with high supervisor forcing climate and high supervisor emotion recognition experienced lower group burnout, an effect evident at high but not low relationship conflict. Practical implications: Supervisors have a critical – and challenging – role to play in managing conflict among group members. The detrimental effects of supervisor yielding and forcing climates on collective employee burnout are moderated by personal (supervisor emotion recognition) and situational (the level of relationship conflict) variables. These findings have practical implications for how supervisors could be trained to handle conflict. Originality/value: This research challenges traditional notions that supervisor yielding and forcing CMSs are universally detrimental to well-being.
Chapter
This paper aims to show some general considerations about burnout syndrome like a labor psychopathology approached from psychosociology.
Article
: Burnout has been a prominent topic in the management research for over thirty years. Yet few studies have explored the conditions that foster burnout from managers to employees (indirect crossover). Based on the principle of behavioral plasticity, we propose that self-efficacy is an adaptive resource that enables employees to counter the potentially crossover effects of burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism). This proposal is partially supported by the results of a longitudinal analysis of educators (principals and teachers): A moderating effect of employee self-efficacy was found, but only for emotional exhaustion, which is considered the basic individual stress dimension of burnout. More specifically, managerial emotional exhaustion was associated with lower emotional exhaustion over time in employees who reported higher self-efficacy, with the inverse association for employees with lower self-efficacy. This suggests that managers' emotional exhaustion can indirectly affect the experience of a congruent emotional state in their subordinates. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Recent meta-analytic studies imply that groups often find ways of neutralizing turnover’s harmful effects and that important moderators of the turnover–performance relationship must be missing from the literature. Building on theory and findings related to the threat–rigidity effect, we suggest that groups tend to respond maladaptively to turnover when group norms promote the idea that turnover is threatening. Specifically, we suggest that prevention climate—that is, a climate focused on minimizing mistakes and costs—largely determines the degree to which group norms encourage members to view turnover as threatening and, in turn, the degree to which groups become less adaptive and perform worse in response to turnover. Across a sample of 232 groups, we found evidence that turnover is indeed more negatively related to performance for those groups with a strong prevention climate. Further, in a controlled laboratory context where we manipulated turnover and prevention climate, we found causal evidence supporting our full conceptual model. Our work advances research on turnover by identifying an important moderator and an underlying mechanism of the turnover–performance relationship.
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The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether there is a crossover effect from teacher’s general (trait-level) work engagement to their pupils’ weekly positive affect in school and to examine whether pupils’ weekly autonomous motivation for school functions as an underlying mechanism that may explain this crossover effect. Building upon the self-determination theory and the emotion contagion theory, we argue that teachers’ general work engagement can be a strong resource for pupils, which can foster their psychological investment and interest in school-related activities, skills, and tasks (i.e. autonomous motivation), and, in turn, their positive affect. To test our hypotheses, we employed a weekly diary methodology by following 50 teachers and their 916 pupils in six different countries for three consecutive work weeks, which yielded 2735 reports from pupils and their teachers. The results of multilevel modeling provided support for the hypothesised research model. When teachers were generally more engaged in their work, their pupils reported more weekly positive affect in school, and this positive crossover effect was mediated by pupils’ weekly autonomous motivation for school. These findings extend current literature by revealing the potential underlying mechanism that can explain how teachers’ work engagement transmits to pupils’ positive affect in school.
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There is provisional evidence that burnout may be contagious within professional communities via the crossover effect, referring to an inter-individual transmission of stress or strain. However, our understanding of effective means for tackling stressors is scarce. We tested a two-level path model to explore the interrelation between teachers’ proactive self- and co-regulative strategies and experienced burnout. The study sample comprised 1531 Finnish in-service teachers from 75 schools. The results showed that burnout symptoms varied both between individual teachers and between professional communities. Self- and co-regulative strategies serve partly different functions in regulating teacher burnout symptoms.
Conference Paper
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Esse artigo apresenta uma relação entre a comunicação da estratégia na média gerência, e o aumento do comprometimento, do engajamento e do desempenho organizacional. A execução da estratégia alicerçada no comprometimento e engajamento das pessoas, a partir das competências da liderança, pode levar a empresa a maximizar o seu desempenho.
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Previous studies have found that burnout is to some extent contagious and have argued it is a socially induced phenomenon. However, until now, actual social interactions and the long‐term effect of this contagion have remained largely unexplored. This study aimed to expand earlier findings on burnout contagion through the application of a social network approach. This approach assumes that some relationships provide more information on the feelings and attitudes of others. This study therefore not only identified interaction partners, but also examined how characteristics (multiplexity, frequency, and embeddedness) of the relationship with those partners relate to burnout contagion. Using (temporal) network autocorrelation models, burnout contagion was empirically investigated in the context of secondary school teams. Cross‐sectional analyses were performed on data obtained from 931 teachers working in 14 schools. Long‐term effects of burnout contagion were assessed among 578 teachers working in 12 schools. The results showed that interpersonal interactions act as conduits for burnout contagion, especially when relations are strong in terms of frequency, embeddedness, and multiplexity. The results also showed that features of relationships play a differential role in the contagion of different components of burnout. Moreover, long‐term effects were found for emotional exhaustion. This study thus provided evidence for the importance of interpersonal relationships in burnout contagion. Negative feelings are transmitted through personal interaction: As such, the importance of positive (social) experiences within the school team is stressed. Co‐rumination should be avoided as it may impact negatively on employees’ well‐being in both the short term and the long term. Given the contagious nature of burnout, interventions for preventing and reducing burnout should not be solely focused on increasing social support within the school team. External support might be necessary to disrupt a potential negative cycle within this team.
Conference Paper
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
Book
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Burnout is a common metaphor for a state of extreme psychophysical exhaustion, usually work-related. This book provides an overview of the burnout syndrome from its earliest recorded occurrences to current empirical studies. It reviews perceptions that burnout is particularly prevalent among certain professional groups - police officers, social workers, teachers, financial traders - and introduces individual inter- personal, workload, occupational, organizational, social and cultural factors. Burnout deals with occurrence, measurement, assessment as well as intervention and treatment programmes.; This textbook should prove useful to occupational and organizational health and safety researchers and practitioners around the world. It should also be a valuable resource for human resources professional and related management professionals.
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Burnout is a unique type of stress syndrome, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and diminished personal accomplishment. Although burnout has been shown to be potentially very costly in the helping professions, such as nursing, education, and social work, little work has been done thus far to establish its generalizability to industry. This article reviews the literature on burnout and provides a conceptual framework designed to improve the understanding of burnout. Propositions are presented that are aimed at clarifying the dynamics of burnout, including determinants of and interrelationships among the three burnout components.
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Two studies were conducted to examine the relationships among different dimensions of empathy, communication, and prosocial behavior. Study one provides a test of three models hypothesized to explain this process. Results of this study indicated support for altruism as a motivator of prosocial behavior and suggest that the egoism and dual‐process models are unlikely explanations. Study two was conducted in hopes of identifying additional support for the model that emerged from study one. The second study fully replicated the findings of the first study. Results from both studies suggest that prosocial behavior is motivated primarily by concern for others. Moreover, emotional reactions to the perceived distress of others are preceded by a concern for others. Together, these findings strongly support an altruistic interpretation of prosocial behavior and suggest that the egoistic model be reformulated.
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This study investigated whether or not factors of teacher burnout were associated with adaptive and maladaptive coping behaviour. It was found, in a sample of 365 US (north Texas) school teachers, that many physical and psychological problems (e.g., stomach aches and depression) were related to teacher burnout factors. Furthermore, the data showed that certain maladaptive coping mechanisms (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption) were associated with higher teacher burnout, while adaptive coping strategies (e.g., hobbies) were related to lower burnout levels among school teachers. An association was also revealed between certain demographic factors (e.g., gender) and coping behaviour.
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This study explored two questions: Do people tend to display and experience other people's emotions? If so, what impact does power have on people's susceptibility to emotional contagion? We speculated that the powerless should pay more attention to their superiors (than their superiors pay to them) and should thus be especially likely to “catch” their superion' emotions as well. College students, given the role of “teacher” (powerful person) or “learner” (powerless person), observed videotapes of another (fictitious) subject relating an emotional experience. They were asked what emotions they felt as they watched their partner describe the happiest and saddest event in his life. In addition, they were videotaped as they watched the tape. As predicted, clear evidence of emotional contagion was obtained in this controlled laboratory setting. However, a direct (rather than inverse) relation between power and emotional contagion was found. Powerful subjects were more likely to display their subordinate's feelings than subordinates were to display those of the powerful other. Several possible explanations for these unexpected results were proposed.
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Health care workers (N=307) completed measures of burnout and depression as part of a study of personal and occupational sources of distress. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for differentiating burnout and depression. The analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and s multiple factor structure for depression measures. The analysis also provided support for the existence of second-order factors of burnout and depression that accounted for the correlations among the primary factors within each syndrome. The implications of study for the construct validity of burnout and depression are discussed.
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10 published studies indicating that manipulated facial expressions do produce corresponding emotional experience are contrasted with R. Tourangeau and P. C. Ellsworth's (see record 1981-00499-001) failure to demonstrate this relation. Six other studies using a different but theoretically consistent paradigm also demonstrate facial feedback effects. Related results in many of these 16 studies effectively rule out experimental demand as an explanation and instead suggest similarities in process between facial feedback and hunger, attitude change, and self-evaluation. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We examined a new method for studying synchrony (i.e., the coordination of movement between individuals in social interactions) in two studies. Raters viewed video clips of interactions and judged the level of synchrony occurring between a mother and a 14-month-old child. Some of the video clips were genuine interactions, but most were pseudointeractions artificially constructed from the genuine interactions via split-screen editing techniques. For mothers interacting with their own children, genuine synchrony was significantly higher than pseudosynchrony, a difference that increased with time. When mothers interacted with an unfamiliar child, however, genuine synchrony was not higher than pseudosynchrony. In fact, mothers with unfamiliar children showed a state of dissynchrony (levels of genuine synchrony significantly lower than levels of pseudosynchrony). Our results suggest that synchrony can be reliably rated, thus allowing future investigations to include such measurements when studying social interaction processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The paper attempts to bring concepts developed in cognitive approaches to stress and coping to a model which predicts burnout as a function of organizational demands and resources. Workers in a mental hospital (N = 177) provided information regarding coping patterns, burnout, and organizational commitment as well as various demands and resources in the work environment. A LISREL analysis confirmed that burnout is best considered a function of coping patterns as well as a function of organizational demands and resources. Control coping cognitions and actions were associated with decreased burnout, while escapist coping strategies were associated with increased burnout. The analysis indicated relationships of coping patterns with organizational commitment could be operating indirectly through the relationships of both coping patterns and commitment with the burnout. The paper discusses implications of these findings for interventions designed to alleviate or prevent burnout. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Organizational Behavior is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment). We hypothesized that perceived burnout complaints among colleagues and susceptibility to emotional contagion would make an independent contribution to explaining variance in negative attitudes through their influence on emotional exhaustion. The findings of a series of LISREL-analyses support this burnout contagion model. In addition, susceptibility to the emotions expressed by others had a moderating effect on the relationship between perceived burnout complaints among colleagues and individual GPs' emotional exhaustion: Burnout contagion was most pronounced among those GPs who were, in general, highly susceptible to emotional stimuli. These findings, as well as possible routes to burnout contagion are discussed in terms of recent theoretical work on emotional contagion. (aut.ref.)
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
Article
This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five‐year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP–patient relationship, which, in turn, depletes GPs' emotional resources and initiates the burnout syndrome. More specifically, structural equation analyses confirmed that—both at T1 and T2—lack of reciprocity mediates the impact of patient demands on emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, evokes negative attitudes toward patients (depersonalization), and toward oneself in relation to the job (reduced personal accomplishment). Moreover, this process model of burnout was confirmed at T2, even after controlling for T1‐scores on each of the model components. Finally, T1 depersonalization predicted the intensity and frequency of T2 patient demands, after controlling for T1 patient demands. This major finding suggests that GPs who attempt to gain emotional distance from their patients as a way of coping with their exhaustion, evoke demanding and threatening patient behaviors themselves. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Emotions have ubiquitous effects in human affairs. Vivian Gornick, in Fierce Attachments,^ recounts a typ-ical exchange with her mother. Gor-nick always begins these encounters with high hopes. "Somehow," de-spite her best intentions, the conver-sations always spiral downward: Today is promising, tremendously prom-ising I go to meet my mother. I'm flying. Flying! I want to give her some of this shiningness bursting in me, siphon into her my immense happiness at being alive. Just because she is my oldest inti-mate and at this moment I love every-body, even her. "Oh, Ma! What a day I've had," I say. "Tell me," she says. "Do you have the rent this month?" "Ma, listen ..." I say. "That review you wrote for the Times," she says. "Ifs for sure they'll pay you?" "Ma, stop it. Let me tell you what I've been feeling," I say. "Why aren't you wearing something warmer?" she cries. "It's nearly winter." The space inside begins to shimmer. The walls collapse inward. I feel breath-less. Swallow slowly, I say to myself, slowly. To my mother I say, "You do know how to say the right thing at the right time. Ifs remarkable, this gift of yours. It quite takes my breath away." But she doesn't get it. She doesn't loiow I'm being ironic. Nor does she Elaine Hatfield is a Professor of Psychology and Richard L. Rapson is a Professor of History at the Uni-versity of Hawaii. John T. Ca-cioppo is a Professor of Psychology at the Ohio State University. Ad-dress correspondence to Elaine Hatfield, 2430 Campus Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822; BITNET: psych@uhunix; INTERNET: psych@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu. know she's wiping me out. She doesn't know I take her anxiety personally, feel annihilated by her depression. How can she know this? She doesn't even know I'm there. Were I to tell her that it's death to me, her not knowing I'm there, she would stare at me out of her eyes crowd-ing up with puzzled desolation, this young girl of seventy-seven, and she would cry angrily, "You don't under-stand! You have never understood!" (pp. 103-104)
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Teachers in correctional schools are exposed to stress because of the general demands of teaching and the peculiar constraints of correctional education. This study is an attempt to discover whether stressed teachers differ from nonstressed teachers in their work-related characteristics and in their pattern of somatic complaints and illnesses. A total of 17% of the teachers in this study were classified as burned out. It was concluded that burnout represented some potential health risks for stressed teachers.
Article
This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient relationship, which, in turn, depletes GPs' emotional resources and initiates the burnout syndrome. More specifically, structural equation analyses confirmed that - both at T1 and T2 - lack of reciprocity mediates the impact of patient demands on emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, evokes negative attitudes toward patients (depersonalization), and toward oneself in relation to the job (reduced personal accomplishment). Moreover, this process model of burnout was confirmed at T2, even after controlling for T1-scores on each of the model components. Finally, T1 depersonalization predicted the intensity and frequency of T2 patient demands, after controlling for T1 patient demands. This major finding suggests that GPs who attempt to gain emotional distance from their patients as a way of coping with their exhaustion, evoke demanding and threatening patient behaviors themselves. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (aut.ref.)
Article
The study investigates the internal consistency as well as the factorial and discriminant validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) in a sample of 326 Dutch secondary teachers. Compared to other teacher samples, the internal consistency of the three subscales (Emotional Exhaustion-EEX, Depersonalization-DEP, Reduced Personal Accomplishment-PAC) is relatively high. Using confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis with LISREL, it is shown that the three-factor oblique model fits relatively well compared to various alternative models. As in some other studies, one ambiguous item was identified ("I feel very energetic") that loads on two factors simultaneously (i.e., EEX and PAC). Moreover, burnout can be distinguished successfully from self-reported psychological strain as well as from somatic complaints. Nevertheless, EEX is substantially related to these more general symptoms. Finally, levels of EEX, psychological strain, and somatic complaints are significantly higher compared to Dutch reference groups, whereas levels of DEP and reduced PAC are significantly lower. It is concluded that the MBI is a valid and reliable self-report instrument to assess burnout in a non-English-speaking country like the Netherlands.
Article
This longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of psychological burnout among human service professionals. Antecedents of psychological burnout included individual and situational characteristics, work stressors, and measures of social support. Consequences of psychological burnout emphasized satisfaction and emotional and physical well-being variables. Participants in the study were 362 school-based educators (teachers and administrators) employed by the same school board. Respondents completed questionnaires sent to them at their schools at two points in time, 1 year apart. Regression analyses of time-lagged data replicated many empirical findings from cross-sectional studies.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of psychological burnout among 362 teachers and school administrators. Antecedents included red tape, disruptive students and lack of supervisor support. Consequences of burnout included heart symptoms and depressive mood. Respondents completed questionnaires sent to them at their schools at two points in time, one year apart. LISREL analyses indicated that the predictors had significant relationships with burnout levels one year later, and that burnout served as a mediator between the predictors and emotional and physical health outcomes.
Article
With just 59 percent of teachers lasting more than four years on the job, American's education system is in grave jeopardy. "Crisis in Education" shows that unless the problems of teacher stress and burnout are understood and addressed, current efforts to restructure American education cannot succeed. Drawing on the results from his own extensive study of New York public school teachers, and using data taken from research, public surveys, and critical reviews of the literature, Farber reveals the contradictions at the root of America's attitude toward the teaching profession. He shows how our ambivalence, coupled with increasing public criticism and low pay, often make the job of teaching untenable. Farber looks at the burnout problem from both a social and historical angle and shows how events of the past thirty years—teacher strikes, the civil rights movement, the women's movement, and changing demographic patterns—have indelibly altered the image of teachers and intensified stress and burnout on the job. He describes the three most common ways these frustrations manifest—in worn-out, frenetic, and underchallenged teachers. Most important, he uses the voices of teachers themselves to show how burnout happens. There are no easy solutions, but Farber offers alternatives to combat teacher burnout, including such individual coping strategies as stress management, and school based solutions, like workshops and teacher centers. He also reviews and critiques the major school reform reports, revealing how many of the suggestions, made without teacher input, have diminished teacher autonomy and power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evidence from 4 studies with 584 undergraduates demonstrates that social observers tend to perceive a "false consensus" with respect to the relative commonness of their own responses. A related bias was shown to exist in the observers' social inferences. Thus, raters estimated particular responses to be relatively common and relatively unrevealing concerning the actors' distinguishing personal dispositions when the responses in question were similar to the raters' own responses; responses differing from those of the rater, by contrast, were perceived to be relatively uncommon and revealing of the actor. These results were obtained both in questionnaire studies presenting Ss with hypothetical situations and choices and in authentic conflict situations. The implications of these findings for the understanding of social perception phenomena and for the analysis of the divergent perceptions of actors and observers are discussed. Cognitive and perceptual mechanisms are proposed which might account for distortions in perceived consensus and for corresponding biases in social inference and attributional processes. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The main focus of the study was the crossover of burnout and of coping resources from husbands to wives and vice versa. The study was carried out on 101 couples, male military officers and their wives, who were randomly selected by the Israel Defense Force computer. They filled out questionnaires that measured their level of burnout, job stress, work support, family support concerning work problems, and their sense of control. Findings reveal that the husbands' sense of control and burnout were positively related to the corresponding variables measured for their wives. To establish the crossover effect, the theoretical model was tested by structural equation analysis (LISREL), which showed a positive effect of wives' burnout on husbands' burnout, after controlling for the husbands' own job stress and coping resources. The husbands' burnout likewise affected their wives' burnout. Thus, a crossover of burnout was exhibited from husbands to wives and vice versa. Furthermore, for both sexes, sense of control had the highest impact on their own burnout and on their spouse's burnout, after controlling for their own job stress and resources. Thus, the spouse's sense of control was found to be an additional resistance resource working to the benefit of the other partner. The relevance of these findings to burnout prevention is discussed.
Article
Cette étude explore la relation entre la dépression, le stress professionnel et les réactions positives chez du personnel scolaire des deux sexes. Les résultats indiquent que les hommes présentent un score significativement plus élevé que celui des femmes à l‘échelle de dépersonnalisation du “Mas-lach Burnout Inventory”. Alors que les hommes sont plus que les femmes victimes de stress au travail et cela de façon significative, ils ont aussi une plus faible probabilité de faire appel à des techniques de compensation en particulier dans la qualité de Ieur vie quotidienne (les investissements dans les relations amicales et les activités culturelles). D'autres données suggèrent que les femmes sont plus que les hommes capables d'utiliser des stratégies susceptibles de contrecarrer l'effondrement. Chez les hommes, la dépression reléve à la fois du stress professionnel et des enfants: la présence d'enfants élève significativement le niveau de dépression d'un homme. This study examines the relationship between burnout, work stress, and coping in female and male school personnel. Results indicated that men, compared to women, scored significantly higher on depersonalisation, one of the subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Men were experiencing significantly greater work stress than women, but were less likely than their female counterparts to employ coping techniques, particularly with regard to their quality of daily life, investment in friends, and cultural activities. Further results suggested that women were better able to use coping strategies to reduce burnout than men. In men, burnout appeared to be a joint function of work stress and children, with the presence of children significantly raising a man's level of burnout.
Article
Research studies focusing on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples were reviewed for the years 1961 through June, 1986. A meta-analysis of the BDI's internal consistency estimates yielded a mean coefficient alpha of 0.86 for psychiatric patients and 0.81 for nonpsychiatric subjects. The concurrent validitus of the BDI with respect to clinical ratings and the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were also high. The mean correlations of the BDI samples with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0. 72 and 0.73, respectively, for psychiatric patients. With nonpsychiatric subjects, the mean correlations of the BDI with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0.60 and 0.74, respectively. Recent evidence indicates that the BDI discriminates subtypes of depression and differentiates depression from anxiety.
Article
Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were periodically obtained from the roommates of college students who exhibited a persistent mild depression over a 3-month period. For comparative purposes, BDI scores were also obtained from roommates of individuals who were transiently depressed and from subjects with nondepressed roommates. In comparison with control subjects, the roommates of persistently depressed persons displayed a progressive increase in BDI score over the course of the study.
Article
This study prospectively examined the phenomenon of contagious depression in 96 pairs of college roommates during 2 assessment sessions separated by 3 weeks. Depression, anxiety, negative and positive affect, negative life stress, and reassurance seeking were assessed. Consistent with prediction, roommates of depressed target students became more depressed themselves over the course of the 3-week study. The effect persisted when baseline levels of roommate depression and roommate negative life events were controlled. Furthermore, these findings were specific to depressed symptoms. Finally, as predicted, reassurance seeking served as a vulnerability factor for the contagion effect: High-but not low-reassurance-seeking roommates of depressed target students became more depressed themselves. However, the moderating effects of reassurance seeking were not specific to depressed symptoms.
Article
Depression, burnout, and perceived job control (PJC) were assessed in 162 nurses. Depression accounted for over 19% of the variance associated with emotional exhaustion--an index of burnout--and PJC accounted for another 6%. Factor analysis of the scales used to measure depression and burnout documented their discriminant validity. Perceptions of uncontrollability were significantly related to higher levels of depression and burnout. Structural equations modeling suggested that perceived uncontrollability is associated with burnout, which, in turn, is related to depressive affect. Against a criterion of actual job control, non-burned-out subjects overestimated their control, whereas burned-out subjects approached complete agreement with criterion. Despite evidence for a "depressive realism effect," greater perceptual accuracy was not attributable to depression among the more burned-out nurses.
De stan van de leiding: Een onderzoek naar her leader-member-exchange model in de verpleging [Leader's support: A study of the leader-member-exchange model among nurses]. Amsterdam, The Nether-lands
  • P M Leblanc
LeBlanc, P. M. (1994). De stan van de leiding: Een onderzoek naar her leader-member-exchange model in de verpleging [Leader's support: A study of the leader-member-exchange model among nurses]. Amsterdam, The Nether-lands: Thesis Publishers.
A meta-analytic examination of the corre-lates of the three dimensions of job burnout Coping patterns as predictors of burnout: The function of control and escapist coping patterns The discriminant validity of burnout and depression: A confirmatory factor analytic study
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Empathy, communication, and prosocial behavior Crossover of stress, strain, and resources from one spouse to another
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Het besmettingsgevaar bij burnout: De rol van sociale vergelijkingsprocessen [The danger of burnout contagion: The role of social comparison processes
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Groenestijn, E., Buunk, B. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1992). Het besmettingsgevaar bij burnout: De rol van sociale vergelijkingsprocessen [The danger of burnout contagion: The role of social comparison processes]. In R. W. Meertens, A. P. Buunk, P. A. M. van Lange, & B. Verplanken (Eds.), Socialepsychologie & beiirvloeding van intermenselijke en gezondheidsproblemen @p. 88-103).
Professional burnout Handbook of work and health psychology Burnout among Dutch teachers: An h4BI validity study. Educational and Psychological Measure-ment
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Schaufeli, W. B., & Buunk, B. P. (1996). Professional burnout. In M. J. Schabracq, J. A. M. Winnubst, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of work and health psychology (pp. 3 11-346). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Schaufeli, W. B., Daamen, J., & Van Mierlo, H. (1994). Burnout among Dutch teachers: An h4BI validity study. Educational and Psychological Measure-ment, 54,803-812. 81, 123-133. 123-144.
Interviewer-interviewee nonverbal communications: An interactional approach Interaction rhythms: Periodicity in communicative behavior
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The effect of power on susceptibility to emotional contagion Contagious depression: Existence, specificity to depres-sive symptoms, and the role of reassurance seeking
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Das burnout-syndrom: Theorie der inneren Erschophng [The burnout syndrome: A theory of inner exhaustion
  • M Burisch
Burisch, M. (1989). Das burnout-syndrom: Theorie der inneren Erschophng [The burnout syndrome: A theory of inner exhaustion]. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Motor mimicry as primitive empathy Empathy and its development Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation
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Bavelas, J. B., Black, A., Lemery, C. R., & Mullett, J. (1987). Motor mimicry as primitive empathy. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 317-338). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psy-chology Review, 8,77-100.
Stress in organizations: TowarriS aphase model of burnout
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Golembiewski, R. T., Munzenrider, R. F., & Stevenson, J. G. (1986). Stress in organizations: TowarriS aphase model of burnout. New York, NY: Praeger.
Socially induced affect
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  • R B Zajonc
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