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Thought self-leadership: The influence of self-talk and mental imagery on performance

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Abstract

Self-leadership theory can be described as the ‘process of influencing oneself ’as opposed to the influence of leaders over followers (Manz, 1983, 1986). We focus on and develop a model for a particular aspect of self-leadership — thought self-leadership — emphasizing two primary elements, self-talk and mental imagery. The major thrust of this model is that employees can influence or lead themselves by utilizing specific cognitive strategies that focus on individual self-dialogue and mental imagery. It is proposed that constructive thought management through the effective application of cognitive strategies can lead to enhanced individual and organizational performance.

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... Effective thought pattern strategies are devised to enable a positive stream of recurring thoughts and construction thinking habits that can enhance a person's performance (Manz and Neck 2004;Neck and Manz 1992). Positive thought pattern strategies include: ...
... 1. Acknowledging and replacing dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions-A person should scrutinize thoughts that are not helpful to achieving goals and exchange them for more rational and productive thoughts and beliefs (Ellis 1977;Manz and Neck 2004;Neck and Manz 1992). 2. Practicing positive self-talk-What we quietly say to ourselves should be positive Manz 1992, 1996a), including our self-evaluations and reactions to events (Ellis 1977;Neck and Manz 1992). ...
... 1. Acknowledging and replacing dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions-A person should scrutinize thoughts that are not helpful to achieving goals and exchange them for more rational and productive thoughts and beliefs (Ellis 1977;Manz and Neck 2004;Neck and Manz 1992). 2. Practicing positive self-talk-What we quietly say to ourselves should be positive Manz 1992, 1996a), including our self-evaluations and reactions to events (Ellis 1977;Neck and Manz 1992). Negative and unhelpful self-talk should be acknowledged and exchanged with helpful internal monologues. ...
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Decision making by nurses is complicated by the stress, chaos, and challenging demands of the work. One of the major stressors confronting nurses is perceived time pressure. Given the potential negative outcomes on nurses due to perceived time pressures, it seems logical that a nurse manager's ability to lead nurses in moderating this time pressure and in turn to make better decisions could enhance nurse well-being and performance. Paralleling research in the nursing literature suggests that, in order to improve patients' judgement of the care they received, nurse managers should embrace ways to lower nurses' perceived time pressure. In this conceptual paper, we propose a model to help mitigate time pressure on nurse managers and their frontline nurses based on the research regarding time pressure, psychosocial care, time management, and self-leadership. Three metaconjectures and suggested future studies are given for further consideration by organizational and psychological researchers.
... Regarding the last characteristic, the concept of self-efficacy (i.e., the self-estimation of being successful) is of particular importance to self-leadership (Neck and Houghton 2006). Indeed, according to self-leadership studies (Manz 1986;Manz and Sims 1986;Manz and Neck 2004;Neck and Manz 1992, 2007Prussia et al. 1998), one of the most important goals of self-leadership strategies is to increase self-efficacy perceptions in order to reach high performance levels. However, in recent years, self-efficacy has been rediscovered as a main personality trait that is part of a more complex construct strongly influencing the behavior of organizational agents at the workplace as well as their decision-making processes, i.e., Core Evaluations (Judge et al. 1998). ...
... This latter study suggested that the most effective external leaders of self-managing work teams are those that engage in behaviors that facilitate self-leadership strategies, such as self-observation, self-goal setting, and self-reward-therefore firstly proving the positive effect of self-leadership in management and organizational activities. A few years later, self-leadership's 'thought pattern strategies' were more fully developed and expanded under the label "thought self-leadership", which is the method that facilitates employees in reaching goals of wellbeing and superior efficiency, especially when facing dynamic work scenarios through focusing on the beneficial sides of a diversified labor force (Manz and Neck 1991;Neck and Manz 1992). The practical usefulness of the more fully developed thought self-leadership strategies was later demonstrated in a training-intervention based on field study (Neck and Manz 1996). ...
... The third category is designed to group all the methods aimed to promote the creation of constructive thought patterns and automatic shortcuts that can effectively affect performances (Manz and Neck 2004;Neck and Manz 1992). Constructive thought pattern strategies concern the analysis of defective knowledge, mental symbolism, and positive self-talk. ...
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The self-leadership construct has received great attention from scholars over the last 40 years due to its capacity to influence personal effectiveness. However, despite strongly influencing individuals' self-efficacy, performed studies did not determine whether self-leadership is connected, and how, with the Core-Self Evaluation (CSE) trait-a complex personality disposition based on self-efficacy, self-esteem, locus of control, and emotional stability-that has been found impacting decision-making processes within organizations. Moreover, it has not been identified whether individuals with a high level of self-leadership are more prone to be victims of some cognitive biases in decision-making processes, such as the internal attribution of successes and external attribution of failures (i.e., Self-Serving Bias, SSB) that are usually led by the strong belief of individuals in their own capacities. The outlined gaps can be substantiated by the following two research questions: "How is self-leadership related with CSE?" and "How does self-leadership influence the attribution of successes/failures?". To answer these questions, the following were identified and analyzed for 93 executives: (i) the tendency in the attribution of successes and failures, (ii) the CSE, and (iii) their self-leadership level. Results show that: (i) a high level of CSE is connected with high levels of self-leadership; (ii) high levels of self-leadership bring individuals to the internal attribution of successes and external attribution of failures. This work reinforces the stream of (the few) studies that considers a high level of CSE and self-leadership as not always being desirable for managerial decision-making processes and consequent performance. This paper aims to enrich the debate concerning the relations between, on the one hand, self-leadership and, on the other hand, personality traits between self-leadership and decision making.
... Consequently, organizations all over the world have spent quite a substantial amount annually, on self-leadership development initiatives aimed at improving leader performance and effectiveness (Ross, 2015). Although the concept of self-leadership seems difficult to grasp because it is rarely taught in schools and people have to rely on self-help books, seminars and conference to learn about it However preliminary research into the concept shows that the practice of selfleadership has phenomenal positive effects (Manz, , 1992Prussia et al., 1998, Alves et al., 2006Wang, Xie & Cui, 2016). Manz (2015) stated that self-leadership can significantly increase individual productivity, health, efficacy, career success, self-esteem and personal well-being. ...
... Self-talk reinforces confidence and helps motivate an individual into maintaining the right behavior and higher performance. Evidence in sports psychology suggests that athletes who engage in positive self-talk had successful performance (Megheirkouni, 2018;Neck & Manz, 1992) and in clinical psychology those who engage in positive affirmation or self-talk quit from negative life style such as alcoholism and smoking (Neck & Manz, 1992). The third dimension is visualization of successful performance which implies the creation of mental imagery and seeing in ones mind's eye how events pan out even before they occur. ...
... Self-talk reinforces confidence and helps motivate an individual into maintaining the right behavior and higher performance. Evidence in sports psychology suggests that athletes who engage in positive self-talk had successful performance (Megheirkouni, 2018;Neck & Manz, 1992) and in clinical psychology those who engage in positive affirmation or self-talk quit from negative life style such as alcoholism and smoking (Neck & Manz, 1992). The third dimension is visualization of successful performance which implies the creation of mental imagery and seeing in ones mind's eye how events pan out even before they occur. ...
... De um modo geral, os indivíduos podem adaptar padrões de pensamento construtivos ou destrutivos, que afetam o seu estado emocional e comportamental, assim como as suas reações (Manz, 1992, citado em Carmeli et al., 2006Neck & Manz, 1992). Neste contexto, as crenças e pressupostos disfuncionais têm o potencial de levar a processos disfuncionais de pensamento, depressão, infelicidade e ineficácia pessoal (Burns, 1980, citado em Houghton et al.;Ellis, 1977, citado em Houghton et al., 2014. ...
... Como o seu nome indica, as estratégias deste tipo são desenhadas para facilitar a formação de padrões de pensamento construtivo e formas habituais de pensamento, que podem ter um impacto positivo no desempenho (Neck & Manz, 1992 podem fomentar a autoeficácia, a fixação de objetivos desafiadores e a persistência no trabalho, possibilitando, também, o aumento da eficácia (Stewart et al., 2011). ...
... Neste quadro, os indivíduos devem examinar os seus padrões de pensamento, confrontá-los e substituir as crenças e pressuposições irracionais e disfuncionais por processos de pensamento mais construtivo (Neck & Houghton, 2006). Ou seja, através de um processo de autoanálise, os indivíduos podem identificar, confrontar estas crenças e substituí-las por outras mais racionais e otimistas (Ay et al., 2015;Houghton & Neck, 2002;Neck & Manz, 1992). ...
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O Turismo é uma área económica onde a qualidade de desempenho dos recursos humanos assume uma importância preponderante. No caso específico dos estabelecimentos hoteleiros e das agências de viagens, estes possuem diversas características que se convertem em desafios à sua gestão e, em particular, à gestão dos seus colaboradores. Paralelamente, estas atividades, correspondem a áreas de serviços onde o relacionamento interpessoal é muito relevante e onde é elevada a exigência em relação ao trabalho e ao profissionalismo. Neste sentido, na presente investigação, desenvolvida no âmbito daquelas organizações turísticas, estudam-se constructos relacionados com os recursos humanos e que têm sido apontados como positivamente influenciadores dos resultados organizacionais, sendo eles: o PsyCap, a self-leadership e a satisfação no trabalho. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo geral analisar as relações existentes entre o PsyCap, a self-leadership e a satisfação no trabalho, no setor do Turismo, sendo o estudo destas relações feito através da análise das ligações diretas existentes entre elas. Paralelamente, definiu-se como objetivo secundário explorar se alguns parâmetros sociodemográficos (área de trabalho, sexo, idade, formação académica, tempo de experiência de trabalho e localização geográfica) influenciam os níveis do PsyCap, da self-leadership e da satisfação no trabalho. Para concretização destes objetivos foi utilizado um modelo de análise que abrangeu as estatísticas descritiva, exploratória e inferencial, assim como diversas técnicas estatísticas (univariada, bivariada e multivariada). Em particular, aplicaram-se as técnicas de correlação, regressão linear, Teste T para Amostras Independentes e Análise de Variância (ANOVA). A recolha de dados primários foi concretizada através de um inquérito por questionário, aplicado a uma amostra de 390 trabalhadores na área do Turismo em Portugal, sendo 235 diretores de estabelecimentos hoteleiros e 155 dirigentes de agências de viagens. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que os valores médios das três variáveis em estudo são relativamente elevados. Mais ainda, foi possível verificar que o PsyCap e a self-leadership têm influência nos níveis de satisfação no trabalho. Para além disso, constatou-se a existência de um relacionamento positivo, bidirecional, entre o PsyCap e a self-leadership, havendo uma influência positiva do PsyCap em todas as dimensões da self-leadership. Por seu turno, a análise da influência de parâmetros sociodemográficos nos níveis do PsyCap, da self-leadership e da satisfação no trabalho, não identificou qualquer correlação estatisticamente significativa entre os parâmetros sociodemográficos e o PsyCap e a satisfação no trabalho. Já no domínio da self-leadership, os resultados obtidos indiciaram que, globalmente, esta não é influenciada pelas variáveis sociodemográficas. Contudo, em algumas subescalas e em relação a alguns parâmetros, identificaram-se diversas correlações (positivas e negativas) tendo sido encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre grupos. Uma ideia final a reter, como súmula deste trabalho, é que as três variáveis em estudo são fatores importantes para a gestão, uma vez que PsyCap, self- -leadership e satisfação no trabalho se influenciam positivamente entre si, favorecem comportamentos adequados, combatem efeitos indesejados e, por consequência, suscitam melhores resultados organizacionais. Esta investigação contribui com orientações práticas, do ponto de vista da gestão, que visam a melhoria da qualidade de desempenho das pessoas e das organizações. Enquadram-se neste âmbito, designadamente, a sugestão de inclusão das variáveis nos processos de recrutamento e de seleção, assim como em programas de formação e de manutenção dos recursos humanos, com vista ao reforço da organização com pessoas mais adequadas à sua missão, à sua visão e aos seus valores, assim como às exigências de uma nova dinâmica global. A montante destas contribuições, encontram-se outras de cariz teórico, que permitem colmatar lacunas de investigação e desenvolver o conhecimento no âmbito do Turismo e, em particular, no domínio da gestão de empresas turística.
... Self-leadership strategies such as mental imagery and selftalk have been found to improve the individual's performance in a variety of tasks and activities (Neck & Manz, 1992). These strategies assist an employee to utilize personal reflection and imagine the success that comes with completing an activity/task before its actual execution, which further translates into higher levels of performance (Neck & Manz, 1992;Alnakhli et al., 2020;Marques-Quinteiro et al., 2019). ...
... Self-leadership strategies such as mental imagery and selftalk have been found to improve the individual's performance in a variety of tasks and activities (Neck & Manz, 1992). These strategies assist an employee to utilize personal reflection and imagine the success that comes with completing an activity/task before its actual execution, which further translates into higher levels of performance (Neck & Manz, 1992;Alnakhli et al., 2020;Marques-Quinteiro et al., 2019). ...
... Cranmer et al., 2019), and self-leadership and performance (e.g. Neck & Manz, 1992). The results of this study reinforce the belief that the use of self-leadership techniques by employees makes them more involved in their jobs and contributes to an increase in the feeling of not leaving the company in distress and morally work for organizational gain, thereby increasing work performance and normative engagement. ...
Article
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Leadership and its connection with social sustainability are frequently prescribed for effective management. Integrating self-leadership among the employees is an emerging area to focus on empowering an organization. The principal objective of this study was to empirically investigate the impact of self-leadership on normative commitment and work performance through the mediating role of work engagement. This phenomenon of self-leadership was explained by using the theoretical lens of the social cognitive theory and intrinsic motivation theory. Data was collected from 318 employees who worked in the telecom sector in Pakistan and analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) AMOS. The findings revealed that in the presence of self-leadership, employee’s work engagement, commitment to the organization, and overall work performance elevated significantly. Furthermore, the results also illustrated the occurrence of two significant mediating paths. First, the mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between self-leadership and normative commitment, and second, the mediation of work engagement in the relationship between self-leadership and work performance. The findings of the study significantly contribute practically, and theoretically to the existing literature.
... Examples of the application of natural reward strategies could include the gamification of tasks -essentially turning aspects of work into games (e.g., Robson et al., 2015). Mental imagery or visualizing successful performance (Neck & Manz, 1992) involves visualizing or mentally practicing successful outcomes before engaging in the actual task. Constructive mental visualizations tend to result in a greater likelihood of successful task performance when compared to visualizations focused on potential failures and negative outcomes (Finke, 1989). ...
... Constructive mental visualizations tend to result in a greater likelihood of successful task performance when compared to visualizations focused on potential failures and negative outcomes (Finke, 1989). The concept of self-talk refers to internal mental dialogues -what people covertly say to themselves (Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2011;Neck & Manz, 1992). This strategy strives to increase an individual's awareness of such internal dialogues in order to identify and eliminate irrational or pessimistic self-dialogues, replacing them with more functional and optimistic ones (Seligman, 1991). ...
... Perceptions of a discrepancy between a set standard and one's actual performance triggers action aimed at reducing the discrepancy (Manz, 1986). Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986;Neck & Manz, 1992;Wood & Bandura, 1989) proposes a dual control process in which discrepancy production is followed by discrepancy reduction. This perspective contends that people set their own performance standards based on previous performance experiences to create discrepancies, which in turn motivate efforts and actions aimed at eliminating the discrepancy. ...
Article
Whereas the predominance of leadership research has focused upon top-down influence processes, we examine the process of leading from the inside out, i.e., self-leadership. Based on a meta-analysis of 57 effect sizes and 16,493 observations, the overall results suggest that self-leadership is positively and strongly related to individual outcomes (ρ = .38). Results also help to clarify when self-leadership is most effective relative to outcome type, showing a stronger relationship between self-leadership and creativity/innovation than between self-leadership and task performance. We further explore the incremental value of cognitive self-leadership strategies over and above basic behaviour-focused self-leadership. Our findings suggest that when individuals engage in cumulative self-leadership involving both behavioural and cognitive strategies, relationships with individual outcomes are stronger than when people employ behaviour-focused self-leadership alone. Finally, we explore a meta-analytic path model examining mediating mechanisms to clarify not only how but also why self-leadership influences outcomes of interest. Implications regarding the nature and importance of the mechanisms through which self-leadership is linked to outcomes and future directions for further advancing self-leadership theory and research are delineated.
... Thomas et al. (1991) present empirical evidence of the need to set organizational goals and the importance of human behavior in improving performance, corroborating the PI typology. Neck and Manz (1992) discuss performance, reinforcing that the individuals can influence the environment in which they are situated through both their behavioral and cognitive capacities. Mcgivern and Tvorik (1997) discuss organizational performance by listing its determining variables and emphasizing the economic nature of organizations. ...
... The authors noted that perceived self-efficacy affected organizational achievements directly and indirectly through its influence on personal goal challenges, i.e., when people internalized organizational goals, they became easier to achieve, consequently enhancing organizational performance Thomas et al. (1991) The Performance Impact of Strategy-Manager Coalignment-an Empirical Examination This research develops a theoretical model that explains the impact of the adjustment between administrative characteristics and strategic orientation on organizational performance. As a result, the authors find that organizations enjoying a higher degree of alignment between their strategy and the profiles of their top managers, outperformed others in which the managers do not share this personal alignment with the strategic goals of their employer Neck and Manz (1992) Thought Self-Leadership-the Influence of Self-Talk and Mental Imagery on Performance The authors explain how individual behavioral aspects affect performance. They examine how internal selfdirection and the exertion of personal influence are facilitated by the internalization of managerial self-talk and related mental imagery. ...
Article
This article presents a new typology called Productive Intelligence (PI) that identifies the individual and organizational factors that can impact workers' performance. To achieve the proposed objective, we use a Systematic Mapping of Literature (SLM) protocol, with robust analyzes, based on three bibliometric laws. The initial sample consisted of 13,564 articles published between 1960 and 2018, selecting 93 documents eligible to compose the textual corpus. The proposed typology was developed through the proposition of an analytical framework with the identification of four dimensions of analysis: (I) Human Behavior, (II) Competences, (III) Physical Resources and (VI) Organizational Objectives. The relationship between these four constructs constituted the new typology. This study shows a theoretical evolution on workers' performance, with the proposal of a tool that contributes to the construction of innovative standards to analyze the influence of diversified factors in organizations' work environment. This study brings an essential contribution to the literature in the context of the worker. It provides a theoretical-empirical basis for future studies aligned with the achievement of organizational objectives.
... Enhancing eustress, entrepreneurship and reflective practice demands self-leadership, which is described as a process of influencing oneself (e.g. Neck & Manz, 1992). Self-leadership skills facilitate behavioural management, using strategies of intrinsic motivation and reward as well as constructive thought patterns. ...
... Self-leadership also relates to optimism, happiness, conscientiousness, as well as an open personality, high internal locus of control, self-monitoring and need for autonomy (D'Intino, Goldsby, Houghton & Neck, 2007). In one form of self-leadership-thought self-leadershipthe emphasis is on self-talk, beliefs/assumptions and mental imaginary in performance (Neck & Manz, 1992;Neck et al., 1999), echoing the idea of a reflective practice toolset presented here. D' Intino et al. (2007) characterised self-leadership among entrepreneurs in the following way: 'The goal of increased self-leadership for entrepreneurs is for these individuals to more effectively lead themselves by learning and applying specific behavioural and cognitive strategies to improve their lives and their entrepreneurial business ventures'. ...
... Self-leadership is a process of self-influence that allows people to achieve a level of self-direction and self-motivation needed for optimal performance (Houghton, Neck and Manz, 2003;Neck and Manz, 1992, 1996a, 1996bNeck, Stewart and Manz, 1995;Neck and Milliman, 1994;. Self-leadership is a normative model of behavior and cognition that operates within a social cognitive theoretical context and prescribes specific behavioral and cognitivestrategies designed to increase individual effectiveness . ...
... Visualization, or mental imagery, refers to imagining successful performance of a task before it is actually completed. Research in management, sports psychology, counseling education, clinical psychology, and other fields has suggested that visualization can serve as a very effective performance enhancement technique (Neck and Manz, 1992). In terms of healthcare, positive visualizations may lead to better patient interaction, nursing supervision, and processes for improving unit operations. ...
Chapter
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As social media proliferates, this platform provides multiple entry points for organizational and consumer communication. Social media are Internet sites where people interact freely, sharing and discussing information about each other and their lives, using a multimedia mix of personal words, pictures, videos and audio” (Kodish, 2015). Walaski’s (2013) social media categories include blogs, microblogs, social net working sites, professional networks, video sharing, and content-driven communities (i.e. crowd sourcing). Customer relations managers using social media to communicate with their colleagues and clients must navigate various opportunities and constraints (Haenlein and Libai, 2017). In 2016, The Gartner Group, among others, argued that organizations need to consider how to best augment or retrofit data analytics and IT systems for the digital age in relation to social media, particularly within a big data context (Smilansky, 2015). Big data is high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enableenhanced decision-making, insight discovery and process optimization (Moorthy, Lahiri, Biswas, Sanyal, Ranjan, Nanath and Ghosh, 2015). Big data is fast-paced and includes large amounts of data or information that is accumulating. In this study, big data that is used by companies in their organizational development included crowd sourcing from social media platforms and enterprise level data, as well as analytics approaches. These three types of big data are used to enhance organizational agility and inform strategy at the intersections of their economic, political, and social place and space (Bhimani, Mention and Barlatier, 2018).
... Constructive cognitive pattern strategies are strategies that focus on modification or building one's thinking patterns which in turn will affect how one process information and make decisions. Strategies in this category include identifying and displacing dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions, mental imagery, and positive self-talk [21]. In Islam, the correct beliefs are to be learned. ...
... Muraqabah (mental imagery) can also work as mental form of practice that is said to have same effect as physical practice in perfecting real performance [15]. In Western philosophy, positive self-talk includes monologues that help one to feel more confident about one's ability to carry out a task [21]. In Islam however, du'a (praying) and zikr are suggested as Muslims believe in Quran and one of the verses says; "And your Lord says "Make du'a to Me and I will respond to you. ...
... Once critical cognitive biases are convincingly prioritized and contextualized, future approaches will keep trying to figure them out. To find validations and hints, several attempts, with different aims, have already addressed biases to improve organizational and individual performances relying on models (Neck and Manz, 1992;D'Intino et al., 2007), third-party intervention (Caputo, 2016), theories (Cristofaro, 2020) and "nudges" (Thaler and Sunstein, 2008). In this direction, our theoretical framework may be confirmed, modified according to the cases considered or even revised to develop a new one. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: to provide a clear picture on the cognitive biases affecting managers’ decision-making process of implementing a performance management system (PMS), and to identify managerial practices, measures and the key challenges to manage the cognitive biases in the corporate strategy. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews, based on theoretical milestones of performance management and cognitive psychology, gathered from 104 experienced professionals’ evaluations on the likelihood and impact of managers’ cognitive biases in PMS implementation, potential solutions as well as drivers and connected criticalities. Findings Recurring cognitive biases, together with considerable impacts, emerged in the first, and most strategic, phases of the PMS implementation. The authors developed a roadmap to support corporate transition to integrate behavioral strategy into the PMS implementation aiming to achieve economically and efficiently sound performance. Research limitations/implications From the view of proper behavioral strategy affirmation in performance management literature, in a small way, the authors contribute to a desirable taxonomy of cognitive biases so differentiated decision-making scenarios may be built to compare results and draw new observations. Behavioral studies could transversally connect the cognitive biases of performance management to actors’ sociodemographic features and personality types. Practitioners may check biases affecting their organizations by means of the questionnaire and, consequently, adopt the framework illustrated to reduce them. Originality/value Performance management literature has constantly investigated positive and negative behavioral factors related to the PMS. This study, instead, makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the PMS implementation as a decision-making process. The authors propose a theoretical framework that integrates cognitive psychology insights and applies measures to reduce biases.
... Mental practice is the process of creating a cognitive experience that resembles a "real world" one (Finke, 1989). It involves visualizing the steps required to perform a task, including successful performance (Neck & Manz, 1992). Latham and Seijts (1997) advocated the integration of mental practice to advance transfer of training, and meta-analytic findings support its usefulness for both physical and cognitive tasks (Driskell, Copper, & Moran, 1994). ...
Article
This study expands the work–family enrichment literature by integrating enrichment theory (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006), social–cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001), capitalization theory (e.g., Gable, Reis, Impett, & Asher, 2004), and creative cognition theory (e.g., Smith, Ward, & Finke, 1995), in order to advance a novel conceptual model of the effects of resource transfer training on enrichment and job satisfaction. The model was tested by developing and evaluating a work-to-family enrichment training program, the Resource Transfer Training, which was based on Greenhaus and Powell’s (2006) enrichment theory and interpersonal capital- ization theory (Ilies, Keeney, & Scott, 2011). The training was administered to 163 administrative employees using a longitudinal prepost experimental design. Consistent with hypotheses, findings indicated that, com- pared to a control training condition, the Resource Transfer Training increased development-based enrichment from work to family (the transfer of skills, knowledge and values). Furthermore, the effect of the training on both development-based and affect-based enrichment (the transfer of positive affect) was mediated by enrichment self-efficacy, and the indirect effects of the training on enrichment were moderated by initial social–emotional work resources. Finally, as hypothesized, enrichment self-efficacy and enrichment experi- ences sequentially mediated the effect of the training on job satisfaction. This work advances theory by demonstrating that human agency can facilitate enrichment experiences across roles, and by exploring new antecedents of enrichment through theoretically driven training components. It advances practice by devising and testing a work-to-family enrichment intervention that can serve as a tool for organizations to increase positive synergy between work and nonwork roles.
... Finally, constructive-thought-pattern strategies are about facilitating the formation of thought patterns and ways of thinking that can positively impact performance [21,24,25]. They include positive self-talk; mental imagery, such as envisioning a successful perfor-mance of an activity in advance of the actual performance; and identifying and replacing dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions with more constructive ones [22]. ...
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This study examines the relationship between self-leadership strategies and occupational well-being and whether psychological safety has moderated these relationships in the context of enforced remote work caused by COVID-19. Altogether, 2493 higher education employees, most of whom were working entirely remotely due to the pandemic, responded to an electronic survey in May 2021. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted as the main method of analysis. The results showed that goal-oriented and well-being-related self-leadership strategies as well as psychological safety were positively related to meaningfulness of work and negatively to job burnout. Psychological safety moderated the relation between goal-oriented self-leadership strategies and meaningfulness of work. The study presents much-needed novel knowledge about self-leadership and psychological safety in the context of remote work and sheds light on the interrelatedness between self-leadership strategies, psychological safety, and occupational well-being. It presents a novel category of well-being-related self-leadership strategies and contributes to the measurement of both self-leadership and psychological safety. In order to both enable sufficient well-being and facilitate flourishing at work, it is imperative to support employees in learning and applying diverse self-leadership strategies as well as ensure psychological safety at workplace, especially in post-pandemic multi-locational work. Published in the special issue: Challenges in Work and Employment during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
... In addition to the level of education, gender and experience [14], the steps of the counselor's internal dialogue can be a predictor of counselors' performance. Counselors who have self-leadership will pay attention to self-talk and mental image in improving performance [15]. ...
... If we believe that it requires an inherent aptitude 52 --such as boldness where we are shy, high intelligence where we are average, or a large accumulation of knowledge that we do not possess--we will never persuade ourselves that it is doable. 53 Self confidence too is a soft skill, and should be inculcated early, right at engineering school by continual assessment to have performed rightly in various professional skills. These are further imparted as dedicated practice sessions by way of finishing school at the eve of culmination of undergraduate programme, so that the students finally get a job. ...
... Natural reward strategies help people build pleasant and enjoyable features into activities without any external effect (Houghton, Bonham, Neck, & Singh, 2004;Mahembe, Engelbrecht, & De Kock, 2013;Manz, 1986;Manz & Neck, 2004). Constructive thought pattern strategies help in the formation of constructive thought patterns and habitual ways of thinking that can positively impact performance (Manz & Neck, 2004;Neck & Manz, 1992). These strategies are executed through identification and replacement dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions, mental imagery and positive self-talk (Manz, 1992;Neck, 1996;Neck & Houghton, 2006;Neck & Manz, 1996). ...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the perceived extent of competence of self-leadership as well as the extent to which the participants exercise self-leadership strategies in physical activities (competitive and recreational). Additionally, the existence of potential individual differences in gender-and form of physical activity-related self-leadership strategies. Three hundred seventy-three undergraduate students from a Greek university (n = 197 men, and n = 176 women) with age range were between 18-24 years (M = 20.12, SD = 2.35) participated. All participants participated in physical activities. They filled out a validated Greek version of the Revised Self-leadership Questionnaire (RSLQ). Results revealed that participants reported (a) some positive self-leadership tendencies and (b) higher scores in the strategies such as self-goal setting, natural rewards and self-talk. Additionally, the findings demonstrated that self-leadership strategies may interact with gender and type of physical activity.
... This notion posits that constructive thought management, through effective application of these cognitive strategies, can enhance individual cognitive processes, behaviors and affective states (Manz and Neck, 1991;Neck and Manz, 1992). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate salespersons’ self-monitoring and its effect on adaptive selling behavior. As salespeople are constantly facing different customers with various needs and want and engaging in a different sales situation, salespeople must deploy their inner capabilities in practicing adaptive selling behavior during and across sales interactions. This study also investigates the impact of salesperson’s intrapersonal leadership – where leadership stems from the individuals with the purpose to influence oneself. Design/methodology/approach Authors draw on the social cognitive theory of self-regulation to develop our model and examine the relationship between self-monitoring, thought self-leadership and adaptive selling behavior. We empirically test the model using data from 335 pharmaceutical salespeople working across several countries in Asia. Findings The results support the role of self-monitoring and thought self-leadership as antecedents to adaptive selling. Further, the results suggest that self-monitoring positively moderates the relationship between thought self-leadership and adaptive selling behavior. In light of these results, we explore implications and limitations and conclude by suggesting directions for further research. Research limitations/implications The sampling method used was convenience sampling, which may limit the theoretical generalization of our results across all emerging markets. Moreover, this study examines the direct impact of self-management mechanism on adaptive selling behavior and the way it interacts with salesperson's thought self-leadership to strengthen adaptive selling behavior. However, the research model does not include organization-level drivers. Originality/value This study makes an important and original contribution to sales literature by demonstrating the direct and interaction effects of self-monitoring mechanism on a critical component of a business to business sales process, adaptive selling behavior. Results from this study highlight the critical importance of cognitive processes that drives positive selling behavior.
... Constructive Thought Strategies are based on the individual's influencing and orienting oneself using certain cognitive strategies (Godwin, Neck & Houghton, 1999;Manz & Neck, 1991;Neck & Manz, 1992). These strategies consist of visualising successful performance, self-talk and evaluating beliefs and assumptions (Tabak, Sigri & Turkoz, 2013). ...
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The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between pre-service preschool teachers’ self-leadership skills and motivation to teach. The study group included 186 pre-service preschool teachers who are senior students at Department of Preschool Education at three universities in Istanbul in spring semester of 2015–2016 school year. ‘Self-Leadership Scale’ and ‘Motivation to Teach Scale’ were used as data collection tools. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H analysis were conducted for data analysis. Results have shown that there is a significant positive correlation between pre-service teachers’ Self-Leadership Scale total scores and Motivation to Teach Scale total scores (p < 0.01). It was also found that Behaviour-Focused strategies and constructive thought strategies of Self-Leadership Scale were in a significant positive relationship with both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation dimensions of Motivation to Teach Scale. In addition, students’ mean scores of Self-Leadership Scale significantly differ according to their GPAs on behalf of students with higher GPA. Keywords: Motivation, preschool, pre-service teachers, self-leadership.
... Thus, the positive Identifying accustomed internal drivers manipulation of thoughts can lead to strategically develop appealing patterns in the mind that makes desired circumstances appear real as if they are already established or accomplished, whether positive or negative (Velez and Hanus, 2016). Thus, the trained ability of an entrepreneur to visualize a goal or a specific task, and positively affirming a positive result of the circumstance will lead to much better and relaxed task execution (Neck and Manz, 1992;Velez and Hanus, 2016). However, for visualization and affirmation techniques to properly serve their cause it requires a particular individual or entrepreneur in this instance to be present and mindful of all processes at all times (Lindsay et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to identify how mind-power ability and its underlying elements, acting as drivers, impact managerial, and individual performance levels among achieving entrepreneurs in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted a qualitative approach and included 15 male entrepreneurs who were purposively selected based on the study’s requirements. The primary data was collected through semi-structured one-on-one interviews, and interpretative phenomenological analysis served as the primary method of data analysis. Findings Findings from this study suggest that mind-power ability as an accustomed performance factor does indeed exist – and consists of a unique group of accustomed underlying elements – that significantly affects and contributes to both the managerial and individual performance levels of achieving entrepreneurs in South Africa. Research limitations/implications The strategic implementation of mind-power ability as a performance enhancer serves as a valuable aspect in the arsenal of achieving entrepreneurs. However, this study was limited to the opinion of a small sample of participants in a specific field. Also, the phenomenological nature of this study requires the researcher’s interpretation of results to be viewed as the truth. Practical implications The study provides a new perspective and validates how the strategic implementation of mind-power techniques can boost entrepreneurial performance all-round. The study also proves new insights into the relationship between mind-power ability and cognitive and motivational processes, and further contributes beyond existing theory. Originality/value The study is novel and provides new insight into the strategic implementation and powerful effects of mind-power ability in entrepreneurship.
... 1 Self-Leadership: Theoretical Foundations Self-leadership refers to a pattern of self-influence to preserve and increase individual effectiveness by "establish[ing] the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform" (Neck and Manz 1992, p. 682). By adopting theoretical considerations from behavioral reinforcement (Bandura 1977), goal setting (Locke and Latham 2002), intrinsic motivation (Deci 1975), and constructive thought pattern strategies (Ellis 1977;Neck and Manz 1992) self-leadership helps to improve individual self-regulation. Self-leadership consists of (1) behavior-focused, (2) natural reward, and (3) constructive thought strategies (Manz and Neck 2004;Neck and Houghton 2006;Prussia et al. 1998). ...
Article
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Positive psychology interventions have been shown to increase individual well-being and happiness at a nomothetic level. We expand our understanding of their potential impact on individual’s self-leadership by adopting an idiographic approach. Moreover, we compare that effect with that of a goal-setting intervention. In a diary study using a randomized controlled design, 60 undergraduates were surveyed daily for 14 consecutive days before an exam and were assigned to one of three conditions: a “three good things” (TGT) intervention in which participants wrote down three positive things they had experienced during the day before going to bed; a “goal-setting” (GS) intervention in which they wrote down three learning goals for the next day; or a placebo control condition. Dynamic modeling of time series revealed that students in the TGT and the GS intervention significantly increased their self-leadership across time at a small to medium effect size. Students in the placebo control group showed no significant change. Contrary to expectations, the TGT intervention was not more strongly associated with self-related strategies, and the GS intervention was not more strongly associated with task-related strategies. This study demonstrates the value of a brief positive psychology intervention, which is comparably effective as a goal-setting intervention in fostering individual self-leadership in academic achievement settings.
... Constructive thought pattern strategies are to cultivate and promote the formation of constructive thought mode [33], so as to improve the degree of self-leading. In the following, it will analyze self-talk and visualizing successful performance which are its subdivisions. ...
... Thought pattern strategies These strategies facilitate the formation of constructive cognitive patterns, which have a positive effect on the desired behavioral outcome (Neck and Manz 1992). Self-efficacy research has shown that high levels of task-specific self-efficacy-an individual's belief in their ability to perform a certain behavior (e.g., exercising, losing weight)-determines the confidence, effort, and perseverance with which individuals pursue a change in behavior (Bandura 1986(Bandura , 1991. ...
Article
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Physical inactivity is a global public health problem that poses health risks to individuals and imposes financial burdens on already strained healthcare systems. Wearables that promote regular physical activity and a healthy diet bear great potential to meet these challenges and are increasingly integrated into the healthcare system. However, extant research shows ambivalent results regarding the effectiveness of wearables in improving users’ health behavior. Specifically important is understanding users’ systematic behavior change through wearables. Constructive digitalization of the healthcare system requires a deeper understanding of why some users change their behavior and others do not. Based on self-leadership theory and our analysis of narrative interviews with 50 long-term wearable users, we identify four wearable use patterns that bring about different behavioral outcomes: following, ignoring, combining, and self-leading. Our study contributes to self-leadership theory and research on individual health information systems and has practical implications for wearable and healthcare providers.
... In this context, SL is increasingly gaining importance. This is because SL is a process of self-influence to achieve an optimum state of motivation, as well as self-discovery, self-regulation and self-direction that give strength, purpose, meaning and direction to the effort toward effectiveness during task performance (Manz 1986;Neck and Manz 1992;Manz and Sims 2001;Stewart et al. 2011). According to Manz (1986) and Unsworth and Mason (2012), the combination of SL strategies is likely to improve performance above and beyond the individual strategies alone, as well as helps individuals to maximize personal and professional strengths and minimize personal and professional weaknesses. ...
Article
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Innovative work behavior has been one of the essential attribute of high performing firms, and the roles of entrepreneurial orientation and self-leadership have been important for promoting innovative work behavior. This study advances research on innovative work behavior by examining the mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between perceived entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Structural equation modelling is employed to analyze data from a survey of 404 employees in banking sector. The results of reliability measures and confirmatory factor analysis strongly support the scale of the study. The results from an empirical survey study in the deposit banks reveal that participants’ perceptions about high levels of entrepreneurial orientation have a positive impact on innovative work behavior. The results also provide support for the full mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between participants’ perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Additionally, this study provides some implications for practitioners in the banking sector to facilitate innovative work behavior through entrepreneurial orientation and self- leadership.
... Similar positive trends were found only in athletes without physical disability in visualizing and self-talk strategies, and in athletes with physical disability in evaluating beliefs strategy. This finding indicates that athletes without physical disabilities exhibit a stronger tendency than athletes with physical disabilities in the use constructive thought strategies that positively influence their performance [12,37]. ...
Article
Introduction: Self-leadership is a psychological concept that display an impressive potential in the enhance of individual performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived levels of use of self-leadership strategies by athletes and to explore the existence of potential individual differences in self-leadership strategies by athletes with and without physical disability. Material and methods: Participants were a sample of 469 athletes, 245 with physical disability and 224 without physical disability (n = 312 men, and n = 157 women). Participants’ ages were 16-51 years old (age 24.82±7.32 yrs). The subjects filled a validated Greek version of the Revised Self-leadership Questionnaire (RSLQ). Results: Results showed some positive self-leadership tendencies, and significant individual differences in the use of self-leadership strategies (self-reward p<0.001; ES=0.029, self-punishment p<0.01; ES=0.017, natural rewards p<0.001; ES=0.026, visualizing p<0.001; ES=0.023, and self-talk p<0.001; ES=0.032) between athletes with and without physical disability. Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings of the present study support that athletes with different physical abilities are not exactly alike in the self-leadership abilities. It is considered useful when a coach is concerned about their athletes’ self-leadership training.
... Education, work experience and societal interaction are necessary to help a person to act as an entrepreneur and achieve entrepreneurial success (C. C. Chen, Greene, & Crick, 1998;Guth & Arun, 1991;Neck & Manz, 1992;Norris F. Krueger & Brazeal, 1994). Such competencies will increase the chances of a person to become a successful entrepreneur (Jain & Ali, 2013). ...
Thesis
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Poverty is one of the main issues faced by countries across the world. Over the last three decades, governments and international organizations such as the World Bank, the IMF, etc. have been trying to reduce poverty. Despite this, today almost 2.5 billion people are still living in poverty. Entrepreneurship is often seen as a way to reduce poverty. Moreover, the role of entrepreneurship facilitators is very important in creating a suitable business environment for entrepreneurs which increases the capacity of entrepreneurial activities. The purpose of this thesis is to provide an insight into how entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurship facilitators (Government, Incubators, and Financial Institutions) help in improving the business environment in all countries and hence in poverty alleviation, examining the impact in case of high-income, high medium- income, medium-income, low-income countries and, as a result, reduce poverty. To investigate this, the Human Development Index (HDI) has been used to measure poverty. Secondary data for Entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Facilitators, Entrepreneurial Activities, and Economic Factors) and Poverty (HDI)) from the period of 2005 to 2016 are used for high-income countries, high medium-income countries, medium-income countries and low-income countries. The study has found that there is a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial activity and the changes in Human Development Index (HDI) in all countries studied over the 12 years period. It also finds that the presence of good entrepreneurial facilitators improves the capacity of entrepreneurial activity which reduces poverty as measured by the HDI. It adds to the body of knowledge by using HDI as a new tool to analyze the impact of entrepreneurial activity country wise. It also suggests that governments need to make better business related regulations which will motivate entrepreneurs and create ease of business doing. Finally it suggests that trade openness bring foreign investments in a country which create employment for people.
... 133). Self-talk is a kind of relief mechanism for individuals and they have a chance to increase their self-efficacy with a self-talk combined with mental imagery (Neck & Manz, 1992). ...
Chapter
The aim of the chapter is to advance the framework of meaningful work under the new normal of COVID-19. The conceptualization of meaningful work is defined by the extensive literature review and current research findings. Future of work and its meaning are shaped by the crucial internal and external triggers as human resource practices, job-demand resources model, leadership, job crafting, playful work design, strengths used by individuals, and self-leadership. The meaning at distance work is reinforced by the fulfillment of individual needs. Within this context, new conceptualization of needs for meaning-based person job fit has emerged. The understanding of the relationship between variables and new meaningful work were enlightened by the theoretical framework of self-determination theory, social exchange theory, job-demand resources theory, work identity theory, social learning theory, social cognitive theory, and self-leadership theory. The chapter explores the possible outcomes of COVID-19 and its possible opportunities for employees, organizations, and education sectors.
Article
During the lockdown period of this pandemic, online retailing is getting the place of offline retail. This study provides an insight about the mental imagery of customers toward the new developing technology: virtual try-on. This descriptive study provides empirical evidence that virtual try-on technology influences the customer’s mental imagery toward the product presented on an online platform. Primary data were collected from 142 online customers of the Delhi NCR region. Various journals, websites, and reports were used to collect secondary data. Mean, standard deviation, and one sample t-test were used to study the significance of different dimensions on mental imagery toward virtual try-on technology in this pandemic period. Three dimensions of mental imagery have been studied, namely “vividness, quantity, and elaboration.” The findings of this study show that virtual try-on technology positively influences all the dimensions of mental imagery. E-tailers might get help from these findings and fame their strategies accordingly to attract more traffic on their website, increase sales outcomes, and get competitive advantages during and after this pandemic.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of a salesperson’s psychological capital (PsyCap) on sales performance through the interplay of work engagement and performance feedback. This study examines the role of thought self-leadership (TSL) as an antecedent of a salesperson’s PsyCap. Design/methodology/approach Grounded in the social cognitive theory and job demands–resources theory, a hypothesized model is proposed. To test the hypothesized model, data on sales professionals were collected from B2B sales organizations, and a structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. Findings The results demonstrate that TSL drives PsyCap in salespeople. The results also suggest an interesting relationship between salesperson’s PsyCap and their sales performance through work engagement as a mediator for PsyCap and sales performance. The moderating effect of performance feedback on work engagement was not significant and thus counterintuitive. Practical implications The results suggest that organizations should invest in training to develop the TSL of their salesforce, which will lead to enhanced performance through personal resources such as PsyCap. Further, the findings have implications for sales organization designs and structure. Originality/value This study augments the extant information on the linkage between a salesperson’s PsyCap and sales performance by suggesting mediation mechanisms and proposing an integrated framework with work engagement. Further, the authors establish TSL as an important cognitive mechanism to strengthen PsyCap in salespeople.
Chapter
Self-leadership skills are a construct that has generated considerable research efforts over the past decade (e.g. Manz, 1992; Manz & Neck, 1999; Manz & Sims, 2001), but a new area of research has focused on how academicians uses their leadership skills and innovativeness during COVID-19.
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This three-wave study examined the training-to-work transfer process of a self-leadership skills training programme for crime scene investigators working for the Dutch police force. The transfer process is complex and depends on numerous factors. Two important steps forward are taken in the present study. First, we take into account all transfer steps in one study to gain insights into the transfer process, and second, by being specific about the work situation in which transfer outcomes should occur, we address the “criterion problem” that is often mentioned in transfer research. Based on the Ability Motivation Opportunity model, we hypothesised that the posttraining transfer process starts with being motivated to transfer and that this motivation increases the use of self-leadership during work. Another aspect that may facilitate the use of trained skills is supervisor support, as it offers opportunities to use self-leadership skills during work. In turn, self-leadership skills at work were hypothesised to lead to increased work performance. We tested our transfer model in two different work situations experienced by crime fighters. Our findings show that the use of self-leadership skills is positively related to the detached concern of crime fighters in specific situations. Additionally, our findings show that the use of self-leadership skills mediates the relation between the motivation to transfer and work performance in specific situations. Finally, our findings show that including different transfer steps (i.e. the motivation to transfer, use of skills, and performance), different performance measures, and different work situations in the transfer process provides more insight into when and how transfer-to-work after training occurs. These findings suggest that if organisations aspire to improve such transfer, then they should be specific about the intended posttraining behaviours and performance and the situations in which these outcomes should emerge.
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The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-leadership perceptions and job satisfaction of teachers working at Anatolian high schools. The study was based on survey model among descriptive research methods. During the data collection process, the study group including 477 teachers working at Anatolian high schools in Gaziantep were administered “Self-Leadership Scale”, “Job Satisfaction Scale” and self-description form. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the variables while multiple regression analyzes were performed to examine the effect of independent variable on the dependent one. In addition, path analysis was conducted to confirm the model that was created through regression analysis. According to the findings of the study, it was concluded that there was a moderate, positive and significant relationship between selfleadership perceptions and job satisfaction of teachers. The results of regression analysis yielded that teachers' self-leadership perception was a significant predictor of their level of job satisfaction. Moreover, it was confirmed that the goodness of fit indices of the obtained model were within acceptable limits based on the path analysis. As a result of research, it can be claimed that job satisfaction levels of individuals increase together with the rise in self-leadership perceptions and that trainings to enhance teachers’ self-leadership behaviors will contribute to individual and organizational development.
Article
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Self‐leadership has been the subject of dozens of empirical investigations over the past several decades and has emerged as a pivotal construct in the self‐influence literature. Despite the interest in the construct, the myriad of disparate variables studied and the absence of a quantitative systematic review summarizing findings have combined to limit our ability to cohesively interpret and draw meaningful conclusions from this large literature. To address this, we carried out a meta‐analysis of the nomological network of self‐leadership, encompassing effect sizes from 101 studies and 111 independent samples. Drawing on social cognitive theory to frame our research questions and hypotheses, we evaluate global self‐leadership and its constituent strategies (i.e., behaviour‐focused, constructive thought, natural rewards) as predictors of job performance, self‐efficacy, and job attitudes. In addition to evaluating zero‐order correlations, we use regression and relative‐weight analyses to evaluate the three strategies’ effects on the various outcomes simultaneously, delineating their relative contributions. Our meta‐analysis examines the Five‐Factor Model of personality traits as antecedents. We also observed evidence suggesting that self‐leadership’s relationships were moderated by national power distance. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Self‐leadership is meaningfully associated with conscientiousness, openness, extraversion, and transformational leadership. Fostering employee self‐leadership may promote productive cognition, attitudes, and behaviors. Self‐leadership training programs can target specific strategies for training based on the desired outcome.
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Due to the high workload, working within the healthcare industry can be quite demanding. This often results in high rates of absenteeism, unfulfilled vacancies, and voluntary turnover among healthcare workers. We expect that job autonomy is an important resource for work engagement and health of healthcare workers because it satisfies the basic need for autonomy. However, we propose that this relationship between job autonomy and work engagement and health can be explained by self-leadership. Self-leading individuals take initiative and responsibility and are assumed to use self-influencing strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-observation, creating natural rewards) as a way to improve motivation and general well-being. Employees from two healthcare organizations (N = 224 and N = 113) completed a questionnaire containing measures of job autonomy, work engagement, general health, and self-leadership. The hypothesized model was tested using a series of regressions, and the results confirmed the indirect relationships between job autonomy and work engagement and general health, respectively, through natural rewards strategies. The behavior-focused and cognitive self-leadership strategies were, as mediator, marginally significant: positively for work engagement and negatively for general health. Self-leadership behavior was not related with work engagement and general health. Implications of the findings for theory and practice on healthy healthcare workers are discussed.
Article
Procrastination has been recognized as the quintessence of self-regulatory failure. Self-leadership strategies operate within the broader theoretical context of self-regulation and represent a complementary set of strategies designed to improve the self-regulation process. This study is the first to investigate the association between self-leadership with academic procrastination in a sample of 533 Chinese college students. We included the three primary self-leadership strategies in multiple regression models as well as various demographic variables, self-efficacy, trait anxiety, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. All the three primary self-leadership strategies of behavior-focused strategies, natural reward strategies, and constructive thought pattern strategies significantly predicted the students' academic procrastination, in addition to increased neuroticism and lower conscientiousness. Further, the multivariate regression showed that the self-leadership sub-strategies of self-reward, self-goal setting, self-talk, task-based natural rewards, and task-relation-based observation significantly predicted the students' academic procrastination. The findings of this study suggest that practicing relative self-leadership strategies may reduce students' procrastination.
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As COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, health researchers and practitioners have focused attention on identifying the factors that may help to shape health-protective behaviors, protecting individual health and well-being, and helping to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study explores the potential role of self-leadership and psychological capital (PsyCap) as key cognitive resources for shaping health-protective behaviors. Using multiple theoretical frameworks (social cognitive theory, psychological resources theory, and the health belief model), this paper develops and tests a hypothesized serial mediation model in which PsyCap and coping self-efficacy mediate the relationship between self-leadership and health-protective behaviors including hand washing, wearing face masks, and social distancing. Results suggest that PsyCap and coping self-efficacy mediate the positive relationship between self-leadership and health-protective behaviors. These results yield valuable insights regarding the usefulness of self-leadership and PsyCap as cognitive resources for shaping health-protective behaviors and for possible self-leadership and PsyCap interventions, potentially tailored to at-risk populations, which should have practical benefits for both the current and future pandemics and health crises.
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Bu bilimsel kitapta; geçmişten günümüze liderlik kavramı, liderlik teorileri, liderlik tarzları, klasik liderlik tarzları, modern liderlik tarzları, post-modern liderlik tarzları, liderliğin yeni paradigmaları, değerler yönünde liderlik tarzları, destekleyici liderlik tarzları, insan odaklı liderlik tarzları, kaotik liderlik tarzları, negatif liderlik tarzları derli toplu, geniş bir şekilde gruplandırılarak paylaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Kitap içeriği; Liderlik Kavramına Genel Bir Bakış, Liderlikle İlgili Temel Teoriler, Otokratik Liderlik, Demokratik Liderlik, Bürokratik Liderlik, Dönüşümcü Liderlik, Etkileşimci Liderlik, Karizmatik Liderlik, Durumsal Liderlik, Holistik (Bütünleştirici) Liderlik, Stratejik Liderlik, Vizyoner Liderlik, Öğretimsel Liderlik, Siyasi Liderlik, Girişimci Liderlik, Yenilikçi Liderlik, Kültürel Liderlik, Teknolojik Liderlik, Çift Yetenekli Liderlik, Kuantum Liderlik, Etik Liderlik, Manevi Liderlik, Otantik Liderlik, Koçluk Stili Liderlik, Mentorluk Tarzı Liderlik, Güçlendirici Liderlik, Takım Liderliği, Kolaylaştırıcı Liderlik, İlham Verici Liderlik, Hizmetkâr Liderlik, Empatik Liderlik, Paternalist (Babacan) Liderlik, Dağıtımcı Liderlik, Öz Liderlik, Kriz Liderliği, Adaptif Liderlik, Toksik Liderlik, Saldırgan Liderlik, Karanlık Liderlik, Yıkıcı Liderlik, Diktatör Liderlik, Narsistik Liderlik, Örneklerle Liderlik Becerileri ve Liderlik Tarzlarının İş Davranışlarına Etkisi olmak üzere 44 bölümden oluşmaktadır.
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Organizations today continue to seek new and effective ways to engage and motivate their workers. Gamification is an emerging means for enhancing employee engagement and motivation at work. Self-leadership is a comprehensive self-influence process that has the potential to help employees find meaning and purpose from their jobs. This paper develops and presents a conceptual model of the relationships between gamification, self-leadership, and valued workplace outcomes. The model suggests that gamification elements trigger multiple self-leadership processes and states that interact in a multiplicative fashion leading to a state of self-concordance in which individuals perceive a close alignment between their work tasks and their personal interests and core values. This serial mediation model helps to explain how and why gamification operates through the mediating mechanisms of self-leadership and self-concordance to effect important individual and organizational outcomes. Future research directions and implications for the proposed conceptual model are also discussed.
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The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has already had serious worldwide health, socio-economic, political, and educational consequences. In the present study, we investigated what factors can motivate young adults to comply with the recommended preventive measures against coronavirus infection. Even though young people are less likely to suffer severe medical consequences from the virus, they can still transmit it to more vulnerable individuals. Surprisingly, we found no significant effects of previously successful experimental manipulations (i.e., positive mental imagery, enhancing selfefficacy, and visual aids) that aimed to improve risk understanding and impact COVID-19 related behavioral intentions. Instead, intentions toward preventive behaviors were predicted by self-reported worry, perceived controllability of the pandemic, and risk perception. Interestingly, worry about health, and worry about restricting personal freedom predicted behavioral intentions in diverging directions. In particular, participants who were worried about health, were more willing to obey strict hygiene and social distancing restrictions. In contrast, participants who were worried about personal restrictions, were less ready to adopt these preventive actions.
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This study examined how women faculty in one research university enacted agency via perspectives that facilitated their career advancement amidst gendered organizational practices. Archer's (2003) critical realist theory of agency and inner conversations and Acker's (2006) work on gendered organizations guided analysis. Four perspectives adopted by women associate and full professors to achieve their goals are described and analyzed. These four perspectives contributed toward agentic actions, as well as women's satisfaction and well-being. The strengths and the limitations of supporting agentic perspectives as a way to advance gender equity and organizational change are presented.
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Abstract Introduction: Attention to critical thinking is one of the higher educationُ s goals and is a key component in studentsُ mental health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of critical thinking strategies on constructive thinking and self-efficacy of students. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The sample consisted of 40 students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2017-2018 who were selected by available sampling method and were randomly divided into two control and case groups. Before and after the Critical Thinking training, Emotional Productivity Strategies of Spain and Meyer (1990) and Morris Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (2001) were used to measure the emotional productivity of both validity and reliability indices. Critical thinking training was administered to the case group separately, for 10 sessions of 90 minutes and from the two post-test groups. Finally, the data obtained from pre-test and post-test scores of the case and control groups were analyzed by SPSS software using covariance analysis. Results: The results showed that the correlation coefficient between constructive thinking strategies and self-efficacy was 0.241. The results also showed that between the mean scores of constructive thinking strategies (8.81) and self-efficacy (83.3) in control group also in the mean scores of constructive thinking strategies (86.1) and self-efficacy (76.4) in the experimental group no significant differences was observed. Findings indicated that between the mean scores of constructive thinking strategies (0.78) and self-efficacy (81.6) in the control group and the mean scores of constructive thinking strategies (88.4) and self-efficacy (99.05) there was a significant differences in the experimental group (F = 12.57, P <0.001). Conclusion: Therefore, considering the use of Critical Thinking training has a positive effect on increasing students 'constructive and self-efficacy thinking strategies and enhances students' constructive and self-efficacy thinking strategies, training courses in this field in educational centers Recommended. Keywords: Critical Thinking, Constructive Thinking, Self-Efficacy, Students, Medical Sciences
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Purpose The purpose of the study is to investigate how mental imagery evoked from sensory in-store experience influences consumer anticipatory emotion, perceived ownership and decision satisfaction which eventually impact positive consumer responses such as behavioural intent. In this study, gender difference is proposed as a moderator to completely understand the role of mental imagery in the in-store decision-making process. Design/methodology/approach Using a market research agency in South Korea, an online survey was employed to collect data. A total of 455 useable respondents (men = 224 and women = 231) largely living in the two most populous provinces in South Korea (i.e. Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces) completed the survey. A number of path analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Findings The results of the study showed that mental imagery evoked from sensory product experience played a critical part in facilitating the consumer decision-making process by influencing anticipatory emotion and perceived ownership. The relationship among anticipatory emotion, perceived ownership, decision satisfaction and behavioural intent was significant except for the relationship between perceived ownership and behavioural intent. This study further indicated that the way mental imagery influences the in-store decision-making process differs between men and women. Originality/value The effect of mental imagery in a physical retail context is largely ignored. This study addressed the crucial role of mental imagery in a physical apparel retail setting and examined its impact on consumer decision-making processes. By exploring how to enhance consumers' in-store sensory shopping experiences through mental imagery to influence their positive shopping outcomes, this study offers vital insights into how retailers operating physical stores can successfully utilize their stores.
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As COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, health researchers and practitioners have focused attention on identifying the factors that may help to shape health-protective behaviors, protecting individual health and well-being, and helping to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study explores the potential role of self-leadership and psychological capital (PsyCap) as key cognitive resources for shaping health-protective behaviors. Using multiple theoretical frame-works (social cognitive theory, psychological resources theory, and the health belief model), this paper develops and tests a hypothesized serial mediation model in which PsyCap and coping self-efficacy mediate the relationship between self-leadership and health-protective behaviors including hand washing, wearing face masks, and social distancing. Results suggest that PsyCap and coping self-efficacy mediate the positive relationship between self-leadership and health-protective behaviors. These results yield valuable insights regarding the usefulness of self-leadership and PsyCap as cognitive resources for shaping health-protective behaviors and for possible self-leadership and PsyCap interventions, potentially tailored to at-risk populations, which should have practical benefits for both the current and future pandemics and health crises.
Book
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Approaching occupational health psychology from a Healthy Healthcare perspective is important to generating new knowledge on the necessary pathways or interventions that could retain healthcare workers, and to maintain or positively influence the quality of healthcare service delivery. This book with relevant research, therefore, aims to: (i) introduce the concept of Healthy Healthcare and how it relates to occupational health psychology; (ii) summarize the accepted papers in this special issue and discuss how they relate to the concept of Healthy Healthcare; and (iii) to present a new research agenda, drawing on occupational health psychology research to further advance our understanding of the concept of Healthy Healthcare.
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Kerr [1976] has coined the term "substitutes for leadership" in reference to nonleader sources of task structure and direction. We focus on one such substitute, the capability of the follower for self-management. Individuals manage their own behaviors by setting personal standards, evaluating their performance in terms of these standards, and by self-administering consequences based on their self-evaluations. Specific techniques such as self-observation, goal specification, cueing strategies, incentive modification, and rehearsal can be used to exercise self-management behavior. Organizational leaders can help subordinates develop self-management skills.
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This paper presents the results of two studies designed to investigate the characteristics of the concepts of threat and opportunity used by organizational decision makers to describe and understand issues. The first study identified the issue characteristics that managers associate with the concepts of threat and opportunity, and the second used an experimental design to demonstrate that the characteristics of issues lead to their being perceived as threats or opportunities. The results suggest the presence of a threat bias, which results in managers being more sensitive to issue characteristics associated with threats than to those associated with opportunities. The implications of the results for understanding how threats and opportunities are identified are discussed, and future research directions are indicated.
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40 male first-line supervisors were randomly assigned to a behavioral modeling training program or to a control group. The training was designed to improve supervisors' interpersonal skills in dealing with their employees. The training program produced highly favorable trainee reactions, which were maintained over time. Moreover, the performance of the trainees was significantly better than that of supervisors in the control group on a learning test administered 6 mo after training, on behavioral simulations collected 3 mo after training, and on performance ratings collected on the job 1 yr after training. After the control group received the training, they achieved significant improvement in their supervisory skills and did not differ from the trainees who had originally undergone the training on any of the measures. The modeling films, developed by M. Sorcher (A. Goldstein and M. Sorcher, 1974) were based primarily on A. Bandura's (1977) principles of social-learning theory. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the effectiveness of various cognitive mental training techniques (relaxation and imagery) on the basketball free throw shooting performance of 40 boys (aged 10.2–12.4 yrs) who were subjectively rated as good free throw shooters by staff members at a 6-wk summer sports camp. Ss were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: mental imagery (MI), arousal adjustment (AA), MI/AA, and no-strategy. Results suggest that relaxation combined with MI was a useful preshot cognitive strategy to enhance free throw shooting performance, with the best performance found in the MI/AA group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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The thesis behind this book is that American industry cannot compete in the marketplace because its organizational structure and management style has become pathologically narcissistic. The theory is illustrated with real-life examples such as the DeLorean automobile business failure. The author develops his argument by saying that American corporations have consistently shifted their attention away from the business of coping in the real world towards a self-conscious, narcissistic presentation of their own perfection in what is essentially a fantasy world. The tangible results, he claims, are striking - the Challenger disaster, near meltdowns in the nuclear industry and bankruptcies in private industry. Using a Freudian concept, that of the desire to return to the infant, egotistical state, the author argues that this is an impossible desire, that the pursuit of the "ego ideal" on the part of workers, business people and organization members in America can lead to all sorts of disasters.
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Vicarious learning and modeling are important processes in the acquisition, development, and alteration of behavior in organizations. The authors argue that a primary basis for vicarious learning is a cognitively held "script" on the part of the observer of a model. A script is a procedural knowledge structure or schema for understanding and enacting behaviors. The close parallels are drawn between scripts and vicarious learning as vehicles for both understanding and influencing organizational behavior.
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After first reviewing the existing theoretical frameworks for human behavior, we present a social learning theory approach that incorporates the interactive nature of all the variables of organizational behavior - the behavior itself, the environment, and the person (internal cognitions). We differentiate social learning theory from operant theory, highlighting the processes of modeling, cognitions, and self-control. We suggest self-management techniques as a way to apply the social learning framework in order to enhance managerial effectiveness.
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Although organizations invest heavily in training programs to enhance managerial effectiveness, little attention is paid to the transfer of such training from the workshop to the workplace. This paper describes a cognitive-behavioral model that offers a systematic approach to the maintenance of behavior. Relapse prevention strategies are discussed, and implications for management training and research are considered.
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The considerable attention devoted to individual self-influence processes in organizations has been limited to scope, focusing primarily on self-management that facilitates behaviors that are not naturally motivating and that meet externally anchored standards. In this paper, individual self-control systems are viewed as the central control mechanisms within organizations. An expanded "self-leadership" view is developed that includes (a) self-imposed strategies for managing performance of tasks of low intrinsic motivational potential and (b) self-influence that capitalizes on the "natural"/intrinsic motivational value of task activity. Implications for theory and practice are addressed.
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The concept of a "script" is presented as a framework for understanding the cognitive dynamics underlying many organizational behaviors and actions. A script is a schematic knowledge structure held in memory that specifies behavior or event sequences that are appropriate for specific situations. "Script processing" is the performance of the behaviors or events contained in the knowledge structure. Many facets of organizational behavior can be effectively described, analyzed, and understood by using the script concept and processing notion.
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An experiment investigated the effect of procedures designed to induce mood (and previously demonstrated to influence social interaction such as helping) on subsequent evaluation of positive, negative, and neutral slides. Results showed main effects of both mood and slide type. This indicates that mild mood-inducing events that are sufficient to affect social interaction also affect evaluation, but they do not rely for their effect on directing attention away from the stimuli themselves. Implications for cognitive processes involved in the relationship between mood and evaluation are discussed.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study assessed the effects of three types of imagery techniques on the performance of basketball foul shooting. A sample of 93 university students, not currently participating in any type of basketball program, were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions including: control, physical practice only, passive imagery, active imagery, and imagery with physical practice. Results indicated that two of the imagery groups performed better than the traditional physical practice group. Mean scores were then adjusted for years of prior basketball experience. The analysis indicated that the two groups with the least prior basketball experience demonstrated a greater improvement in performance from pre- to posttest than did the traditional physical practice group. Implications for future avenues of research integrating imagery, prior experience, knowledge of results, and attentional focus are discussed.
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Neophyte counselors trained in the use of their own imagery to practice counseling interviews were compared with a similar group not receiving the training. The mental practice was hypothesized to have experiential value for neophyte counselors resulting in positive effects upon selected behaviors commonly found with counseling experience. Results indicated that the ability to discriminate differing levels of empathic responses, the ability to evaluate accurately one's own performance, and the amount of preinterview confidence were significantly higher for the mental practice group. However, the communication of empathy and the subjective evaluations of the counselors during the interview did not prove significantly higher. This article discusses the potential value of mental practice as a supplementary experiential training technique and some considerations for its use and further study.
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Sixty subjects, 40 of them blockers, provided over 5000 examples of self-talk accompanying the initiation and completion of writing sessions. An inductive procedure of sorting those thought-list cards into reliable and discrete categories produced 7 cognitive components of blocking (listed in descending order of importance): (1) work apprehension, (2) procrastination, (3) dysphoria, (4) impatience, (5) perfectionism, (6) evaluation anxiety, and (7) rules. Blockers were more likely than nonblockers to list negative thoughts and less likely to evidence “psych-up” thoughts during writing sessions.
Two studies conducted simultaneously investigated the influence of positive affect on risk taking. Results of the study, which employed an actual measure of subjects' willingness to bet something of value, supported the prediction of an interaction between level of risk and positive affect: subjects who had reason to be feeling elated bet more than control subjects on a low-risk bet, but wagered less than controls on a high-risk bet. At the same time, in contrast, a study involving hypothetical risk-taking showed that in general subjects were more willing to take the chance as probability of success went up; but that elated subjects were more daring than controls on a “long shot.” Differences in hypothetical vs real risk taking were noted, and the complexity (the interaction) of the influence of positive feelings on real risk taking was emphasized. The results were related to other research suggesting an influence of feeling states on cognitive processes and decision making.
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Problem-solving procedures and processes are a major concern to people working with groups and organizations. Some attention has been paid to the phases and steps involved. The authors report that predictable affec tive responses are evoked during each phase of a generic problem-solving process: needs assessment (hopeful, energetic); goal setting (confusion, dissatisfaction); action planning (involvement, accomplishment); im plementation (stage fright, joy); evaluation (pride, sadness). There are also particular interventions that a consultant or leader can make that are helpful in relation to the task and affective climate; these vary from phase to phase relative to the affective climate.
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Current models on self-management in organizations generally have taken a bivariate perspective. This paper proposes a more complex conceptualization of self-management in which its control mechanisms are examined. It is argued that the self-managed employee is far from loosely supervised; such employee is closely controlled. It is argued further that the clientele's active participation in the operation of the organization mediates the widely held relationship between self-management and structure.
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25 female and 15 male counselors across a range of skill levels (14 students in graduate-level counseling laboratory classes, 13 doctoral or advanced master's degree students who had completed at least 1 practicum experience, and 13 professional counselors working as therapists in community agencies) conducted 25-min counseling interviews with 1 of 4 female undergraduate clients and then completed instruments measuring the frequency of task-facilitative and task-distractive self-talk and the quality of clinical hypothesis formulation. It is hypothesized that these measures of counselor internal dialog would be predictive of counselor performance (clients' and trained raters' evaluations) once the effects of counselor gender, education level, and years of experience were accounted for. Cognitive variables were assessed, using standard multiple regression techniques, for their combined and unique contributions to the overall prediction equation. A positive relationship between higher quality clinical hypothesis formulation and higher levels of facilitative performance during counseling sessions was found. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested A. Ellis's (1962) theory that there is a significant relationship between certain types of self-verbalizations and behavioral efficiency in performance situations. 72 male undergraduates performed a trial of mirror tracing and then concentrated on rational, irrational, or neutral sentences prior to performing 3 subsequent trials. In all cases, Ss were led to believe that concentrating on these sentences would help them reduce errors. In line with Ellis, the rational sentences group reduced errors and completed their tracings more quickly over trials than the other 2 groups. The irrational sentences group performed poorest. The degree to which Ss endorsed irrational ideas on the Ellis Irrational Values Scale prior to the experiment was not related to efficiency of performance in the study. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Subjects made same/different judgments concerning the pitches of two successive tones. In Experiment 1, the two tones were played on either the same instrument (guitar, flute, trumpet) or on different instruments. When the two pitches were indeed the same, people were faster to respond "same" when the instrumental timbres also matched than when two different instruments played the tones. In Experiment 2, the first tone was always a sine wave and the second was one of the same three instrumental tones. Following the sine wave, but before presentation of the second tone, people were asked to form an image of what an assigned instrument would have sounded like playing that pitch. A match between this imagined timbre of the first tone and the timbre of the second tone produced faster reaction times to identical pitches than a mismatch. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent research has supported the application of cognitive-behavioral theory to the field of counselor training and supervision. The present study examined the effects of teaching counselor trainees a cognitive self-instruction strategy vs clinical hypothesis knowledge. Ss were 32 students in graduate prepracticum courses. Three training conditions and a placebo control were compared on dependent measures of Ss' internal dialog and quality of clinical hypothesis formulation. Results indicate that acquiring a cognitive self-instruction strategy increased Ss' ability to perform the conceptual portion of selected counseling tasks. However, there was no evidence that clinical hypothesis knowledge was associated with similar increases in conceptual ability. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traces the development of the cognitive approach to psychopathology and psy hotherapy from common-sense observations and folk wisdom, to a more sophisticated understanding of the emotional disorders, and finally to the application of rational techniques to correct the misconceptions and conceptual distortions that form the matrix of the neuroses. The importance of engaging the patient in exploration of his inner world and of obtaining a sharp delineation of specific thoughts and underlying assumptions is emphasized. (91/4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
49 college wrestlers competing in the 1980 Big Ten championship tournament completed a psychological skills inventory assessing psychological factors used in training and competition. The relationships between 22 cognitive variables and 2 performance measures (tournament placement and seasonal win–loss record) were examined. Findings reveal that self-confidence, maximum potential, and use of attentional focusing were the most important variables separating the groups. Specifically, successful Ss as compared to less successful Ss were more self-confident, indicated that they were closer to achieving their maximum wrestling potential, and more frequently focused their attention only on wrestling-related thoughts prior to competition. Unlike the previous studies, few differences in anxiety level or in coping responses to anxiety were evident between the successful and less successful Ss. ( 15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effects of mental practice that utilized a slow-motion rate of imagery. 66 male university students were randomly assigned to a standard mental practice group, a slow-motion mental practice group, and an attention placebo control (APC) group. Pre- and postperformance comparisons on a flying-disc golf game indicate that although there appeared to be some performance change in the predicted direction for the 2 treatment groups, this change was not significantly different from the change demonstrated by the APC group. These results are not consistent with prior research by E. D. Ryan and J. Simons (see record 1981-22669-001) and by S. G. Zucker (see record 1982-24821-001), which suggests that mental practice, in and of itself, is an effective motor performance enhancement technique. Reasons for the demonstrated ineffectiveness of both mental practice procedures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)