The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwash

Australian Dental Journal (Impact Factor: 1.1). 11/2008; 53(4):302 - 305. DOI: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00070.x


Worldwide, oral cancer represents approximately 5 per cent of all malignant lesions, with over 800 new intra-oral squamous cell carcinomas registered in Australia each year. Despite recent advances in therapy, the five-year survival rate remains around 50 per cent and the sequelae of treatment can be seriously debilitating. It has been long established that smoking and alcohol consumption are risk factors linked to the development of oral cancer. This review assesses the epidemiological evidence, supportive in vitro studies and mechanism by which alcohol is involved in the development of oral cancer. Further, we review the literature that associates alcohol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer. On the basis of this review, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to accept the proposition that alcohol-containing mouthwashes contribute to the increased risk of development of oral cancer and further feel that it is inadvisable for oral healthcare professionals to recommend the long-term use of alcohol-containing mouthwashes.

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Available from: Camile Farah, Jun 30, 2014
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    • "The emergence of resistant bacteria is due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics. Besides, some mouthwashes used to prevent dental caries contained high concentration of alcohol and can lead to oral cancer (Lachenmeier, 2008; McCullough and Farah, 2008). This problem has led researchers and the current study to discover new alternative medicines for prevention and treatment of oral diseases especially dental caries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: This study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Melastoma malabathricum stem bark acetone extract (MMSBAE) against Streptococcus mutans. Methodology and results: Antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), biofilm formation, adherence inhibition, time kill studies and effect on S. mutans membrane integrity. MIC and MBC values of MMSBAE were 1.25 and 5 mg/mL, respectively. Time kill studies showed that reduction of colony forming unit in treated cells is 3 log10 after 10 h of treatment (p ˂ 0.05). The extracts reduced 50% biofilm and adherence activity of S. mutans at 1.88 mg/mL. The effect on S. mutans membrane integrity after exposure to MMSBAE for 90 and 120 min was determined by measuring leakage of cell content at 2 different wavelengths of 260 nm and 280 nm. In leakage assay, the percentage of absorbance (260 nm) in treated cell material showed 57% at 90 min and 60% at 120 min which is higher than negative control (<20%) but less than positive control (100%). The percentage absorbance of treated cell material (280 nm) was 61% at 90 min and 63% at 120 min. Identification of compound in MMSBAE was done by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Ten compounds were identified in the MMSBAE with some of them important in antimicrobial activity such as ethyl ester, undecene, and gamma sitosterol. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: MMSBAE showed excellent bactericidal and antibacterial activities against S. mutans. The antibacterial mode of action of MMSBAE is suggested to be the disruption of the S. mutans membrane structure. The MMSBAE significantly inhibited biofilm and adherence activities of S. mutans in dose dependent manner (p ˂ 0.05). MMSBAE has potential in the development of antibacterial agent with anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    • "Chlorhexidine is the most useful mouthwash, but because of tooth and tongue staining and its unpleasant taste, it is not acceptable for the patients (18). Listerine is another mouthwash, which although it does not have the side effects of chlorhexidine, it has high levels of alcohol that results in mouth dryness and subsequent complications (19). Most patients prefer natural plants rather than synthetic medications. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major diseases affecting the oral health is periodontal disease. Various therapeutic methods have been introduced to eliminate the periodonto-pathic subgingival microflora. Among these, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has a major role in the pathogenesis of different forms of periodontal diseases. The present study investigated the antimicrobial effect of the essential oil of Myrtus communis on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) as the most destructive periodontal pathogens. The subjects included 27 male and 3 female patients with advanced chronic periodontitis. The mean age of the patients was 47.6 ± 2.0 years old. P. gingivalis was isolated from the samples and identified by various diagnostic tests, including Gram staining, Indol test, and fluorescent test. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil against isolated P. gingivalis was determined by broth micro-dilution method. In this study, 0.12 - 64 μL/mL Myrtus communis essence were used for 30 P. gingivalis isolates and the MIC50 and MIC90 concentration of Myrtus communis essence against the isolates was equal to 1 and 8 μL/mL respectively. The results showed that Myrtus communis has antimicrobial effects against P. gingivalis. Further studies are suggested to include this essence in therapeutic protocols of periodontal disease.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products
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    • "enough concentrations of alcohol (22%) to cause such side-effects with time and CHX is known to cause the same sensation even without its alcohol content [43]. In this respect, the repeated use of mouthwashes with high alcohol content has been questioned since it has been suggested to increase the risk of developing oral mucous membrane disorders like oral cancer [18] [44] [45]. The data collection team was blinded to the group allocation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Studies have reported commercially available essential oils with convincing plaque and gingivitis preventing properties. However, no tests have compared these essential oils, i.e. Listerine®, against their true vehicle controls. Objective. To compare the plaque and gingivitis inhibiting effect of a commercially-available essential oil (Listerine® Total Care) to a negative (22% hydro-alcohol solution) and a positive (0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX)) control in an experimental gingivitis model. Materials and methods. In three groups of 15 healthy volunteers, experimental gingivitis was induced and monitored over 21 days, simultaneously treated with Listerine® Total Care (test), 22% hydro-alcohol solution (negative control) and 0.2% chlorhexidine solution (positive control), respectively. The upper right quadrant of each individual received mouthwash only, whereas the upper left quadrant was subject to both rinses and mechanical oral hygiene. Plaque, gingivitis and side-effects were assessed at day 7, 14 and 21. Results. After 21 days, the chlorhexidine group showed significantly lower average plaque and gingivitis scores than the Listerine® and alcohol groups, whereas there was little difference between the two latter. Conclusion. Listerine® Total Care had no statistically significant effect on plaque formation as compared to its vehicle control.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Acta odontologica Scandinavica
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