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Adult sibling relationships: Validation of a typology

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Abstract

The goals of the two studies reported here were to examine the nature of sibling typologies and to describe a new measure designed to classify the type of sibling relationship. In the first study, participants (N= 172) ranging in age from 18 to 65 years described their current sibling relationships using a new measure (Sibling Type Questionnaire; STQ). Principal components analysis reduced these data to five dimensions (mutuality, criticism, apathy, competition, and longing), which were used in a cluster analysis to partition the sample into five groups (supportive, longing, competitive, apathetic, and hostile). The second study was conducted to validate the classifications provided by the STQ by obtaining descriptions of sibling relationships from a representative sample of adults (N= 658) ranging in age from 18 to 86 years. Factorial congruence was established with each of the five dimensions previously identified, and cluster analyses again were employed to partition the sample into supportive, longing, apathetic, hostile, and competitive groups. Respondents completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ) and a brief interview to provide a means of validating the cluster solution. Differences in the nature of sibling relationships associated with phases of adult life were also assessed.

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... Murphy distinguishes three types of siblings in childhood based on interviews with the parents of preschool children (1992, as cited in Stewart et al. 1998): the first is the Caretaker, who often takes parental and caring activities, the second is the Buddy, behaving as a friend and partner in common play and the third is the Casual, seeming to be disengaged in the everyday functioning of their sibling. Regarding the developmental changes that take place across the lifespan, Stewart et al. (2001) developed an adult sibling typology that consisted of five, diverse types: Supportive, Longing, Competitive, Apathetic and Hostile. Similar profiles were drawn up by Walęcka-Matyja (2018) and for the elderly by Gold (1990). ...
... The STQ-Now (Stewart et al. 1998(Stewart et al. , 2001) is used to evaluate the quality of sibling relationships during adulthood. The original version of the tool comprises 50 items within five subscales (mutuality, criticism, apathy, competition and longing). ...
... Based on our current findings, and some previous studies, the Supportive or Friendly type appears to be characterised by the highest level of mutuality and closeness, and lowest level of conflict, dominance and rivalry with siblings. Partial evidence suggests also it is connected with low levels of social and romantic loneliness (Stewart et al. 2001;Szymańska 2019;Walęcka-Matyja 2018). High involvement in the relationship, together with a sense of belonging and unity, seem to fulfil the need for affiliation by an individual and may increase the level of contentment. ...
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The main aim of the study was to explore the relationship between life satisfaction and sibling bond quality, with gender playing a moderating role. The sample consisted of 276 young adults with a single biological sibling. The participants completed three questionnaires: a sociodemographic survey, the STQ-Now (quality of the sibling relationship) and the SWLS (level of life satisfaction). No difference was observed between men and women regarding life satisfaction; however, the gender constellation in a sibling dyad was found to be statistically significant. Same-sex pairs scored higher on life satisfaction than cross-sex siblings. A positive relationship with a brother or a sister based on mutuality correlated with high overall satisfaction with life, while criticism, competition and apathy were associated with lower general satisfaction. Additionally, two of these relations (i.e. mutuality and apathy) were moderated by gender. Lastly, representatives of the Supportive type of relationships obtained higher levels of life satisfaction than the Ambivalent or the Reluctant types. The findings suggest that siblings play an essential role in shaping psychological well-being. As early adulthood is a stage characterised by multitasking and various challenges, the formation of positive, adaptive and supportive sibling bond may maintain good life satisfaction. The findings also underline the significance of gender combination in the relationship.
... Up to adolescence, a good sibling relationship is characterized by great warmth, scant conflict, and low rivalry (16), and can be an important protective factor for mental health (17). In adulthood, sibling relationships are generally more elective and therefore more peaceful (less warmth, but also less conflict and rivalry) than they are in childhood (18)(19)(20)(21). ...
... Each sibling relationship is unique, shaped by a shared history and the particular composition of the sibling and family groups. Nevertheless, the variance in these sibling relationships can be partly explained by various inherent characteristics of the sibship, including birth order (22), number of brothers and sisters (15,21), sex composition (15,21), ages (15,19), and age gaps (15). ...
... Regarding participant's age, results surprisingly showed that older participants with nonclinical siblings reported greater rivalry in their relationships, even though literature findings all indicate that these relationships grow less conflictual with age (18)(19)(20)(21). Although this result is at odds with the literature, we can postulate that previous rivalries are reignited when a parent falls ill or dies (60). ...
Article
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Background: Good sibling relationships in adulthood are known to be a protective factor for mental health. The quality of these relationships is influence by the sibship's inherent characteristics (e.g., birth order, number of brothers and sisters, sex composition, age gaps). The present study explored whether these same determinants can help to explain how individuals experience their relationship with a sibling who has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Method: A total of 374 adults completed the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, a scale that probes the quality of these relationships on three dimensions: warmth, conflict, and rivalry. We also collected sociodemographic data and information about family structure from each of the participants. Participants were divided into two matched groups: nonclinical sibling group (n = 187) or schizophrenia sibling group (n = 187). Regression analyses were conducted to extract possible predictors of sibling relationship quality for each group. Further regression analyses then focused exclusively on relationships with an ill sibling, in order to study the role of disease-related variables in explaining each of the three dimensions. Results: Results showed that sociodemographic and family structure data explained a significant proportion of variance in the sibling relationship, but solely for nonclinical siblings. When participants had a sibling with schizophrenia, we found that disease-related variables (symptom severity, frequency of treatment) also had to be included to predict the conflict dimension. Conclusions: Our results suggest that feelings of conflict experienced by the schizophrenia sibling group were fueled by the symptoms the ill person displayed. Healthy brothers and sisters probably have only a poor understanding of these symptoms. This could be improved by supporting them and helping them learn more about the disease. Future research will have to prove that providing such support for siblings does indeed improve the quality of their sibling relationships and, by so doing, enhance the wellbeing of both members of a sibling dyad.
... In order to analyze and comprehend developmental changes in sibling relationships, more recent research has focused on two main fields of investigation: (1) factors related to sibling relationship quality, taking into account variables such as gender, birth order, family size, and siblings' age differences (e.g., Floyd, 1995;Lee, Mancini, & Maxwell, 1990;Stocker, Lanthier, & Furman, 1997); and (2) features and function of the adult sibling relationship, such as closeness, frequency of contact, social support, and comparison between the sibling bond and other significant adult close relationships (e.g., Floyd, 1995;Riggio, 2000;Stewart et al., 2001;Stocker et al., 1997;Voorpostel & van der Lippe, 2007). ...
... Secondly, during late adolescence and the transition to emerging adulthood (e.g., Arnett, 2000;Aleni Sestito & Parrello, 2004), with all the specific developmentalrelated tasks entailed therein (e.g., leaving home, completing education, becoming employed, getting married, and having children), and the ensuing focus on new social relationships rather than on family relationships (e.g., Roisman, Masten, Coatsworth, & Tellegen, 2004;Tanner, 2005), sibling ties are generally characterized by less conflict (especially for siblings further apart in age; e.g., Stocker et al., 1997), more warmth, but also less contact and proximity (e.g., Conger & Little, 2010;White, 2001). Moreover, reduced contact between siblings, due to leaving home and the construction of different adult ties, renders sibling relationships more voluntary and more symmetric (e.g., Cicirelli, 1995;Scharf, Shulman, & Avigad-Spitz, 2005;Stewart et al., 2001). As stated by Whiteman, McHale, and Soli (2011), these changes do not reflect the beginning of a fracture in the sibling bond. ...
... Rather, they may be related to the physiological developmental phase of the transition to adulthood, where the sibling bond may act as a protective factor for well-being and life satisfaction (e.g., Conger & Little, 2010;Waite et al., 2011). In line with this perspective, the literature findings suggest that emerging adults reported a lower general level of conflict between siblings, with lower levels of quarreling, antagonism, and competition (e.g., Scharf et al., 2005;Stewart et al., 2001) that may favor an increased sense of closeness and warmth (e.g., Collier Portner & Riggs, 2016;Stewart et al., 1998). These data could be interpreted as a reflection of less daily time spent together (e.g., Scharf et al., 2005;Stocker et al., 1997) as well as a greater ability to negotiate disagreement typical of this new phase of the life span (e.g., Laursen, Finkelstein, & Betts, 2001). ...
Article
To deepen our understanding of young adults’ sibling relationships in the Italian context, this study examines the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation and validation of the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS) in a sample of 350 Italian university students (68.6% females, 31.4% males; ages 19–30 year, M = 23.6, SD = 3.2). Confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected six-factor structure and a close correlation between factors and scales. Internal consistency was adequate and correlation analysis with the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ) confirmed the theoretical relations among the constructs. The findings confirm the transcultural validity of the LSRS. Moreover, results are consistent with research findings, indicating that women show a more positive attitude toward sibling relationships, especially when reporting their relationship with sisters, older siblings show a more positive attitude toward sibling relationships, and perception of current maternal and paternal partiality is related to negative attitudes toward sibling relationships.
... The Sibling Type Questionnaire -Now (STQ-Now) [21] is the third questionnaire created to enable a description of the relationship between siblings in adulthood. The American version consists of five scales: mutuality, criticism, apathy, competition and longing, and is characterized by a high psychometric performance, which is well suited for a multidimensional analysis of the link between adult brothers and sisters. ...
... The process of constructing the questionnaire proceeded in several stages. First, Robert Stewart and his colleagues [21] conducted interviews with a group of 100 subjects (48 men and 52 women) aged 18 to 58. Each respondent was asked to indicate 3 statements describing his or her current relationship with their siblings. ...
... For a more comprehensive analysis, the authors conducted another study (n=658) [21] and, using a cluster analysis, distinguished 5 types of siblings: supportive, longing, apathetic, hostile, and competitive. These types were used for further research and verification of the theoretical model. ...
Article
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Aim: The main aim was to develop a Polish version of the STQ-Now, an American questionnaire created by Stewart and colleagues to evaluate the current sibling relationship. Method: The sample of 416 adults, 18 to 36 years old, completed a survey that consisted of a sociodemographic form, the STQ-Now and one of three questionnaires: the ASRQ, the SWS or the UCLA. Results: The five-factor structure of the STQ-Now was validated using confirmatory factor analysis, however, because of the low level of reliability of one of the scales (Longing) some changes were introduced: items included in Longing were distributed between Mutuality and Apathy and 7 items from Criticism formed a new factor – Predominance. The new model was well-fitted to the data. The internal consistency of all scales was high (Cronbach’s α 0.719 to 0.935). The Pearson correlation coefficients for STQ-Now and ASRQ, SWS and UCLA showed a satisfactory level of concurrent and discriminant validity. Discussion: STQ-Now consists of 48 items examining the sibling relationship. Statistical and theoretical analyses led to a five-factor model with the following scales: Mutuality, Criticism, Predominance, Apathy and Competition. Some limitations of the questionnaire are also mentioned in the paper. Conclusions: In spite of some differences with regard to the original version, STQ-Now is a valid and reliable questionnaire and can be used in the Polish population.
... However, the relationship between economic condition, religiosity, and sibling relationships in emerging adulthood has yet to be examined in the literature. The second focus of research on the sibling relationships of emerging adults is on the various characteristics of the relationship, such as the functions and descriptions associated with sibling relationships (Dolgin & Lindsay, 1999; Riggio, 2000; Stewart, Kozak, Tingley, Goddard, Blake, & Cassel, 2001; Stocker, Lanthier, & Furman, 1997), the quantitative aspects of sibling relationships such as frequency of contact (White & Riedmann, 1992), and the importance of sibling relationships compared to other close relationships (Cicirelli, 1980a; Floyd, 1995; Pulakos, 1989 ). Emerging adult sibling relationships have been described as supportive , longing, competitive, apathetic, and hostile (Stewart et al., 2001). Stocker et al., (1997) identified three factors underlying the sibling relationships of young adults: warmth, conflict and rivalry. ...
... However, the relationship between economic condition, religiosity, and sibling relationships in emerging adulthood has yet to be examined in the literature. The second focus of research on the sibling relationships of emerging adults is on the various characteristics of the relationship, such as the functions and descriptions associated with sibling relationships (Dolgin & Lindsay, 1999; Riggio, 2000; Stewart, Kozak, Tingley, Goddard, Blake, & Cassel, 2001; Stocker, Lanthier, & Furman, 1997), the quantitative aspects of sibling relationships such as frequency of contact (White & Riedmann, 1992), and the importance of sibling relationships compared to other close relationships (Cicirelli, 1980a; Floyd, 1995; Pulakos, 1989 ). Emerging adult sibling relationships have been described as supportive , longing, competitive, apathetic, and hostile (Stewart et al., 2001). Stocker et al., (1997) identified three factors underlying the sibling relationships of young adults: warmth, conflict and rivalry. ...
... The second intent of the current study was to provide a description of the sibling relationships of emerging adults using both quantitative and qualitative accounts. Although previous studies have identified several factors underlying the sibling relationships of young adults (Stewart et al., 2001; Stocker et al., 1997) the current study assessed more specific types of support perceived from siblings. Additionally, the current study used descriptive methods to provide a more qualitative look at the nature of sibling relationships in emerging adulthood. ...
Article
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The current study is an examination of the familial and contextual variables correlated with sibling relationships and a quantitative and qualitative description of sibling support in emerging adulthood. Participants were 247 college students in a northeastern rural state university and 58 non-college students (M = 22.41, SD = 3.25). Participants were given surveys regarding their family constellation, economic and religious status, and sibling relationships. Additionally, participants responded to an open-ended question about their sibling relationship.Age, gender, size of sibship, work status, financial situation, and religiosity were found to influence sibling relationships. The most positive sibling relationships were reported by older participants, participants with older siblings, participants with siblings who were apart from them by more than two years in age, females, participants with a female as their most important sibling, participants with smaller sibships, participants under no economic stress, and participants who were not working. Additionally, nonreligious participants scored lower on sibling support and warmth than other participants. In terms of the descriptive nature of sibling relationships, participants reported relying on their siblings for immediate help and for care if they were ill. Finally, the most salient theme emerging from the qualitative component of the survey was that geographic and age differences accounted for some variability in these relationships. The current findings highlight the importance of examining contextual variables in the broader interest in sibling relationships and the significance of siblings as providers of social support during emerging adulthood.
... This period of the life cycle is related to important changes in family relationships and dynamics (Oliveira et al., 2020). Siblings may enjoy spending more time together (Milevsky & Heerwagen, 2013) and remaining connected with each other even if they no longer live in the same household (Stewart et al., 2001). The autonomy experienced during emerging adulthood may provide less conflict and more negotiation and closeness among siblings. ...
... The size of the sibling group is another feature influencing sibling relationship quality, although it is rarely explored (Newman, 1991;Stewart et al., 2001). The limited studies on family size generally report higher quality relationships in larger families compared with smaller families (Bat-Chava & Martin, 2002). ...
Article
Objective This study aimed to explore sibling relationship quality and empathy of women in emerging adulthood. Background The gender composition of siblings is a significant feature affecting their relationship dynamics. In particular, women, compared with men, report closer sibling relationships with their sisters and brothers. Similarly, women are better at understanding and experiencing empathy. However, it is unclear whether these empathic tendencies displayed by women are connected to their sibling relationship quality or whether affective and cognitive empathy skills may relate to sibling relationship dynamics. Methods A mixed-method explanatory sequential design was used to evaluate sibling relationships of emerging adult women (N = 284) with standardized questionnaires and explain the reasons behind the results by interviewing a subsample of the participants (n = 9). Results Results indicated that affective empathy and cognitive empathy were linked to sibling relationship quality of women, and major issues in the family play a crucial role in sibling closeness and empathy. Conclusion The current study expands our understanding of the association between empathy and sibling relationship dynamics for emerging adult women. Implications Programs designed to improve sibling relationship quality may facilitate empathy development, particularly during family crises such as divorce, death, or disease.
... When individuals reach adulthood, life events such as finishing their formal education, entering the world of work, meeting new people, marrying, and starting a family often lead them to pursue fresh aspirations beyond the family circle [30,31]. Unsurprisingly, most studies show that all three dimensions of sibling relationships are expressed less intensely in adulthood [32][33][34][35], although warmth prevails over both conflict and rivalry [21,33,36,37]. Research on sibling relationships in adulthood is nevertheless particularly relevant, as these are the longest relationships that individuals have in their lifetime, outlasting those between parents and children or between spouses [21,38,39]. ...
... When individuals reach adulthood, life events such as finishing their formal education, entering the world of work, meeting new people, marrying, and starting a family often lead them to pursue fresh aspirations beyond the family circle [30,31]. Unsurprisingly, most studies show that all three dimensions of sibling relationships are expressed less intensely in adulthood [32][33][34][35], although warmth prevails over both conflict and rivalry [21,33,36,37]. Research on sibling relationships in adulthood is nevertheless particularly relevant, as these are the longest relationships that individuals have in their lifetime, outlasting those between parents and children or between spouses [21,38,39]. ...
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Background : Good sibling relationships in adulthood are known to be a protective factor for mental health. The present study examined and compared the relationships of siblings with either a healthy brother or sister or one experiencing schizophrenia. Methods : In the first phase, we ran a statistical comparison of the two sibling groups on the quality of their sibling relationships (warmth, conflict, and rivalry), emotional distress, and self-esteem. In the second phase, we looked at whether the quality of the sibling relationship modifies the impact of having a brother or sister with schizophrenia on emotional distress and self-esteem. Results : Results showed that sibling relationships in schizophrenia are less warm and are characterized by heightened rivalry and conflict. In addition, analysis revealed a mediating effect of sibling relationship on the emotional distress of siblings with a brother/sister diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion : More needs to be done to enhance the mental health of adults who have a brother or sister with schizophrenia, notably via their sibling relationships.
... When individuals reach adulthood, life events such as finishing their formal education, entering the world of work, meeting new people, marrying, and starting a family often lead them to pursue fresh aspirations beyond the family circle [30,31]. Unsurprisingly, most studies show that all three dimensions of sibling relationships are expressed less intensely in adulthood [32][33][34][35], although warmth prevails over both conflict and rivalry [21,33,36,37]. Research on sibling relationships in adulthood is nevertheless particularly relevant, as these are the longest relationships that individuals have in their lifetime, outlasting those between parents and children or between spouses [21,38,39]. ...
... When individuals reach adulthood, life events such as finishing their formal education, entering the world of work, meeting new people, marrying, and starting a family often lead them to pursue fresh aspirations beyond the family circle [30,31]. Unsurprisingly, most studies show that all three dimensions of sibling relationships are expressed less intensely in adulthood [32][33][34][35], although warmth prevails over both conflict and rivalry [21,33,36,37]. Research on sibling relationships in adulthood is nevertheless particularly relevant, as these are the longest relationships that individuals have in their lifetime, outlasting those between parents and children or between spouses [21,38,39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Good sibling relationships in adulthood are known to be a protective factor for mental health. The present study examined and compared the relationships of siblings with either a healthy brother or sister or one experiencing schizophrenia. Methods: In the first phase, we ran a statistical comparison of the two sibling groups on the quality of their sibling relationships (warmth, conflict, and rivalry), emotional distress, and self-esteem. In the second phase, we looked at whether the quality of the sibling relationship modifies the impact of having a brother or sister with schizophrenia on emotional distress and self-esteem. Results: Results showed that sibling relationships in schizophrenia are less warm and are characterized by heightened rivalry and conflict. In addition, analysis revealed a mediating effect of sibling relationship on the emotional distress of siblings with a brother/sister diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion: More needs to be done to enhance the mental health of adults who have a brother or sister with schizophrenia, notably via their sibling relationships.
... This communal orientation of interdependent cultures may buffer against sibling rivalry and negative family dynamics such as differential parental treatment (McHale et al., 2013). European American emerging adults also develop positive sibling relationships albeit in a different context: siblings experience decreased contact and increased maturity during emerging adulthood (Stewart et al., 1998) despite having experienced sibling rivalry early in life (Nuckolls, 1993). In addition, interdependence within Confucian-based Asian cultures is practiced via filial piety-a core theme absent from European American families-such that older children (especially the oldest son) are morally obligated to carry out family duties that they "owe" their parents (Yee et al., 2009). ...
... Data from European American samples also show that, compared with adolescents, emerging adults report a decreased level of antagonism and competition with their siblings (Stewart et al., 1998) and perceive their sibling relationships to be positive and emotionally close (Myers & Bryant, 2008). Although past studies have provided some insights into the sibling relationships of Asian American emerging adults (Pyke, 2005), additional research is needed to further understand how these relationships are similar to or different from those of non-Hispanic European Americans. ...
Article
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Drawing from an ecological systems framework, we qualitatively explored how Confucian-heritage Asian American emerging adults compared with non-Hispanic European American emerging adults on views of sibling relationships and birth order. Thematic analysis of 48 semi-structured interviews revealed positive sibling relationship themes for both ethnocultural groups: mutual support, companionship, and appreciation; comfort from shared burden of negative parental interactions; and pride in one another. Birth-order themes were also similar across the groups. First- borns reported a strong pressure to be a role model to later-borns, provide sibling care, assume family responsibilities, and not expect to rely on younger siblings. Despite these similarities, Asian American first-borns were unique in taking comfort in having siblings who share a less traditional Asian cultural perspective than their parents. They also described additional pressure from being the oldest within an immigrant family.
... Research has consistently shown that males and females report similar levels of sibling conflict during late adolescence (with the exception of Parker et al. (2012), who found females to engage in more conflict than males), and that for both males and females, sibling conflict decreases significantly from middle and late adolescence through the beginning of emerging adulthood (Furman & Buhrmester, 1992;Kim et al., 2006;Parker et al., 2012;Scharf et al., 2005;Stewart et al., 2001). Whiteman et al. (2011) investigation of the initial transition from high school to college revealed that this decrease in sibling conflict may be perceived especially strongly by brothers, but only when first-born siblings actually move out of the family home to attend college. ...
... Sibling rivalry over parental attention and resources is relatively low throughout both late adolescence and emerging adulthood (Scharf et al., 2005;Stewart et al., 2001). Conger and Little (2010) noted, however, that due to the relative "normlessness" that is characteristic of emerging adulthood, siblings may experience key milestones of emerging adulthood at similar times (e.g., entering college, gaining full-time employment), potentially re-opening the gates of sibling rivalry since older siblings should theoretically experience such milestones before their younger siblings. ...
Article
As adolescents move into emerging adulthood, their social networks shift toward a focus on peers and romantic partners, yet parents and siblings remain important sources of support. The present review takes a family systems approach to integrate the growing body of literature examining longitudinal continuity and change in both positive (e.g., intimacy, support) and negative (e.g., conflict, rivalry) qualities of parent-child and sibling relationships as adolescents transition to emerging adulthood. In general, contact with family members decreases, yet the quality of family relationships appears to improve or, at the very least, stabilize across this transition. These pathways are interpreted within the lens of several prominent theories, and a discussion of the limitations of the current literature and ideas for future research are presented.
... These provide interesting, personoriented analyses that capture the multidimensional nature of interactions for siblings across the life span. Typically they characterize relationships along the dimensions of positivity, negativity and engagement [14][15][16][17][18][19]. For instance, using cluster analysis Brody, Stoneman and McCoy [20] found three typologies when children were between the ages of 7 and 12-years (harmonious, conflicted and typical which was characterized by both warmth and conflict) and two when children were 11-16 years-old (harmonious and moderately conflicted). ...
... This is based on past findings of a harmonious typology [14]. Past typology research has identified a somewhat negative sibling interaction style for some children [14][15][16][17][18][19]. However, since that research was based on aggregate data, we speculate that this group could be made up of different subgroups of children including one group of children whose interaction deteriorates and a second group who are able to recover from deterioration in their interactions. ...
Article
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We explored whether young children exhibit subtypes of behavioral sequences during sibling interaction. Ten-minute, free-play observations of over 300 sibling dyads were coded for positivity, negativity and disengagement. The data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM). Younger (18-month-old) children's temporal behavioral sequences showed a harmonious (53%) and a casual (47%) class. Older (approximately four-year-old) children's behavior was more differentiated revealing a harmonious (25%), a deteriorating (31%), a recovery (22%) and a casual (22%) class. A more positive maternal affective climate was associated with more positive patterns. Siblings' sequential behavioral patterns tended to be complementary rather than reciprocal in nature. The study illustrates a novel use of GMM and makes a theoretical contribution by showing that young children exhibit distinct types of temporal behavioral sequences that are related to parenting processes. © 2015 Perlman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
... Most research has focused on sibling relationships in childhood, early or middle adolescence, and older adulthood with fewer studies on siblings in late adolescence or emerging adulthood (Stewart, Kozak, Tingley, Goddard, Blake, & Cassel, 2001;Tucker et al., 1997). Buhrmester (1992) hypothesized that siblings in adolescence experience a decrease in support and companionship as they spend more time with peers and experience various life transitions related to education, career, or romantic relationships. ...
... With regard to sibling relationship characteristics, Stewart et al. (2001) described emerging adult siblings as "on-call aides and supporters" (p. 301) creating a typology of sibling relationship types, such as supportive, longing, competitive, apathetic, and hostile. ...
Article
The primary goal of the current study was to explore who emerging adults consult regarding their identity issues and to explore the characteristics of emerging adults who consult siblings. Another goal was to examine the advice and support of siblings and peers related to the career and educational goals of emerging adults. A mixed method approach was used. The sample consisted of 396 students with a smaller subsample asked to participate in an online discussion forum with their sibling (N = 43) or peers (N = 24). Online discussions were analyzed for concepts and themes related to types of advice or informational support given to aid a sibling or peer in their identity formation process. Participants reported seeking the most advice from friends, parents, significant others, and siblings regarding long term goals and careers. Participants reported seeking advice from siblings the most regarding long term goals. Regarding the demographic and identity formation characteristics of participants who reported frequently consulting siblings, the number of siblings reported was the strongest predictor followed by the normative and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. Related to patterns found in sibling and peer advice, no differences were found with both groups providing cognitive-emotional and behavioral advice in their feedback posts. Student participants and related siblings ascribed a more important role to siblings over peers in their identity formation processes. The need for further research on siblings as identity agents was discussed.
... This is paralleled by decreased intensity of interactions with family members (Bedford, 1989;White & Riedmann, 1992). The nature of sibling interaction is voluntary rather than dictated by parental wishes or other external conditions (Stewart et al., 2001). Emerging adults reported lower levels of conflict with their siblings than adolescents, evinced in less quarreling, less antagonism, less competition, and less conflict related to power (Stewart et al., 2001). ...
... The nature of sibling interaction is voluntary rather than dictated by parental wishes or other external conditions (Stewart et al., 2001). Emerging adults reported lower levels of conflict with their siblings than adolescents, evinced in less quarreling, less antagonism, less competition, and less conflict related to power (Stewart et al., 2001). These results probably reflect the little time that emerging-adult siblings spend together, or show that emerging-adult siblings who do not get along well may simply choose to have little contact (Stocker, Lanthier, & Furman, 1997). ...
Article
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In this study, 116 emerging adults and adolescents completed questionnaires and were interviewed about their relationship with a sibling. Respondents’ siblings and their mothers also rated the quality of the sibling relationship. Emerging adults were found to spend less time and to be less involved in joint activities with their siblings than adolescents, but they reported being more involved in emotional exchanges with and feeling more warmth toward their siblings. Conflict and rivalry were also reported by emerging adults to be less intense than by adolescents. Narrative analyses showed that emerging adults had a more mature perception of their relationship with their siblings. Unlike in adolescence, the quality of emerging adults’ relationships with their siblings was less related to their relationship with their parents. The results are discussed in the framework of changes in close relationships from adolescence to emerging adulthood.
... Другим примером типологического изучения взаимоотношений между взрослыми братьями и сестрами может служить проект Р.Стиварда с коллегами [Steward et al., 2001]. Авторы провели масштабное исследование, в котором приняли участие более 500 человек. ...
Article
Анализируются взаимоотношения взрослых сиблингов, их специфика и многообразие. Дан краткий обзор современных зарубежных исследований в этой области. В эмпирическом исследовании приняли участие 208 взрослых, у которых есть хотя бы один сиблинг. Выделено и описано четыре типа взаимоотношений: близкие и неконфликтные (33% выборки); умеренно близкие и средне конфликтные (38%); безразличные (22%); дистантные и конфликтно-конкурирующие (7%). Изучены особенности образа сиблинга, свойственные каждому типу взаимоотношений. Установлено, что при близких и теплых отношениях с сиблингом брат или сестра, как правило, воспринимается значимо позитивнее (умнее, внимательнее, организованнее), чем в случае конфликтных, безразличных или (особенно) враждебных отношений. Для углубления изучения особенностей взаимоотношений сиблингов было проведено сравнение сиблинговых отношений с дружескими, которое показало: образ друга обычно позитивнее образа сиблинга, при этом около половины респондентов считают, что более похожи на сиблинга, чем на друга.
... Several scales regarding sibling relationships in adulthood exist in the literature, including the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ; C. M. Stocker et al., 1997), the Sibling Type Questionnaire (STQ; Stewart et al., 2001), the Adult Sibling Familial Relationship Scale (ASFRS; Walęcka-Matyja, 2015), and the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS; Riggio, 2000). To fully understand the impact siblings may have on each other throughout their lives, the childhood relationships of siblings should be considered. ...
Article
The Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale (LSRS) is the most comprehensive self-report questionnaire available to evaluate the quality of sibling relationships based on feelings, behaviors, and opinions across child and adult periods of development. To the best of our knowledge, the psychometric properties of the LSRS have not been assessed or reported in an English-speaking population since this assessment tool was introduced 20 years ago. The current study examined the internal reliability and construct validity of the LSRS with a sample of 370 young adults living in the United States. Results indicated that the original six-factor model of the LSRS is plausible with minor modifications to measure the sibling relationship quality and with its close correlation between factors and scales.
... Some studies have revealed that emerging adults spend less time with their siblings than adolescents do and participate in shared activities less often, yet they feel closer to their siblings and experience more emotional exchange (Cicirelli 1995;Scharf et al. 2005). At the same time, researchers have reported that there is less conflict and competition in emerging adulthood compared to adolescence (Scharf et al. 2005;Stewart et al. 2001;Whiteman et al. 2011). Relationships among siblings tend to be more positive in childhood, and this positivity decreases somewhat during adolescence but improves in adulthood (Cicirelli 1995). ...
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As a developmental turning point, emerging adulthood has been a recent focus for researchers investigating both resilience and psychopathology. The aim of this study was to examine the roles of negative experiences and the nature of the relationship with parents and siblings in the resilience of college students as emerging adults. The study group included Turkish college students as emerging adults (199 females and 101 males) who lived apart from their parents, had at least one sibling and had experienced at least one negative event. Data were collected from Child and Youth Resilience, Adverse Life Events Form, Parent-Adolescent Relationship Scale, and Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to determine the extent to which the independent variables explained the resilience variance. The results revealed that negative life experiences were significant factors in explaining resilience. Moreover, neither a positive nor a negative relationship with the mother had an effect on explaining the resilience, while a positive relationship with the father was an important factor in explaining resilience. Meantime, the role of protective factors in terms of family relationships and the quality of sibling relationships sustained in this period were significant relational strengths for resilience. All these results are considered to be significant contributions to the culturally meaningful family functionality and the resilience of college students as emerging adults.
... From the limited literature on sibling relationships in adulthood, it seems that the connection between siblings undergoes a transformation from an imbalanced older sibling-younger sibling model prevalent in childhood and adolescence to a more balanced and egalitarian relationship (Dew, Llewellyn, & Balandin, 2004;Laursen, Finkelstein, & Betts, 2001). Furthermore, in contrast to the parent-governed sibling relationship pervasive in childhood and adolescence, the sibling relationship during adulthood is self-driven and independent (Stewart, Kozak, Tingley, Goddard, Blake, & Cassel, 2001). ...
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Research on sibling dynamics throughout the life span has gradually increased over the past several years. However, limited work has been conducted on the sibling relationship dynamics of adults particularly using qualitative methods. The current study is a phenomenological examination of the nature of sibling relationships in adults using a sample of forty adults, 24 females and 16 males, between the ages 29 and 70 (M = 50.55, SD = 12.03) from a large Northeastern city in the United States. Participants were interviewed using semi-structured questions about past and current sibling relationship dynamics. Results were analyzed using the phenomenological method. Themes emanating from the interviews included: (1) impact of age, gender, and geography on the relationship, (2) topology of support provided by siblings, (3) content of conversations/information sharing and taboo items, (4) contact frequency and method of contact (phone, electronic), (5) factors contributing to sibling closeness, and (6) negative aspects of the relationship. Findings highlight the continued and unique importance of this bond even as adult are occupied with their daily life and the diversity found in sibling dynamics during adulthood.
... -поведенческий компонент, который в супружеских отношениях представлен суп-ружескими ролями и профилями брака (Але- шина, 2004; Дорошина, 2010; Лидерс, 2006; Эйдемиллер, Юстицкис, 2015); в детско-родительских отношениях -включает стиль воспитания и родительскую позицию (Тока- рева, Овчарова, 2010), в родственных -соот-ветствующие роли, функции и модели взаи-модействия (Aizenberg, Treas, 1985;Stewart, 2001;Шнейдер, 2006). ...
... No systematic attempts have been made to capture the construct through qualitative information about its dimensions. Many scales (e.g., the Sibling Type Questionnaire and Grandparent-Grandchild Family Capital and Grandparent-Parent Relationship) assess family harmony by one or two items (Stewart, Kozak, Tingley, & Casse, 2001) and/or measure harmony categorically as present or absent (Lou, Lu, Xu, & Chi, 2013). Such response options ignore the possibility of a multifaceted construct and/or that harmony may be present in varying degrees on a dimensional scale (Keyes, 2002). ...
Article
Culture plays a role in mental health, partly by defining the characteristics that are indicative of positive adjustment. In Chinese cultures, positive family relationships are considered central to well-being. The culturally emphasized characteristic of family harmony may be an important factor associated with psychopathology. This article presents the development and psychometric examination of the Family Harmony Scale (FHS), an indigenously developed 24-item instrument tapping family harmony in 17,461 Hong Kong residents from 7,791 households. A higher-order model with 1 second-order factor and 5 first-order factors fit the data well and showed factorial invariance across sex and participants in different family roles. A 5-item short form (FHS-5) was also developed, with 1 item from each first-order factor. The short scale showed, as expected, a single-factor structure with good fit. Both scales demonstrated high internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, and good convergent and discriminant validity. The 24-item FHS was negatively associated with depressive symptoms after accounting for individual risk factors and general family function. Family harmony moderated the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms such that those individuals who reported low family harmony had stronger associations between life stress and depressive symptoms. This study adds to the literature a systematically developed, multidimensional measure of family harmony, which may be an important psychological protective factor, in a large urban Chinese sample. The FHS-5 minimizes operational and respondent burdens, making it an attractive tool for large-scale epidemiological studies with Chinese populations in urban settings, where over half of China's 1.4 billion people reside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... Consistent with normative developmental trend towards greater autonomy and independence from the family, results from early, largely cross-sectional studies suggested that positivity in sibling relationship qualities declined from middle childhood to adolescence (Brody, Stoneman, & McCoy, 1994;Buhrmester & Furman, 1990). Following increases in sibling conflict in early adolescence (Brody et al., 1994), some investigations found that conflict also declined from middle adolescence through early adulthood (Buhrmester & Furman, 1990;Cole & Kerns, 2001;Stewart et al., 2001). Longitudinal studies have largely substantiated these findings. ...
Article
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.
... These include that closeness can continue over the life span, that very few negative outcomes are attributed to sibling relationships in later life and that the perception of the sibling relationship as a crucial social support increases in later life (Cicirelli, 1991;White, 2001). Moreover, sisters and brothers report relying increasingly on sisters as confidants, and experiencing enhanced wellbeing from this trusting dynamic in later life (Stewart et al., 2001). Other research addressing older adult siblings concentrates on intergenerational dynamics, such as the consequence of parental death, including mourning, financial management and changing roles (i.e. ...
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Through the lens of a case study of a sibling caring for an unmarried sister affected by dementia, the article explores a phenomenon of growing social importance, late life care for those ageing without a spouse, partner or adult children. The purpose of the article is to describe the experience of sibling care partnering, to highlight the needs of sibling care partnerships and discuss how the support group model can address some of the challenges faced by this population. This article addresses the caregiving sibling's experience of participating in a support group of adult children caregivers of parents with Alzheimer's. Ultimately, the article argues for the development of services geared specifically for older adult siblings caring for each other for the first time in later life.
... Researchers assessing the adult sibling relationship have found that, in general, sibling relationships change over time. Specifically, compared to sibling relationships during childhood or adolescence, sibling relationships during adulthood are characterized by a decrease in conflict (Riggio, 2001;Stewart et al., 2001). In addition, sibling relationships become a source of friendship and social support during adulthood (Riggio, 2001(Riggio, , 2006. ...
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There has been much research on the influence of parental divorce on children, but less is known about whether and how a later-life parental divorce influences the lives of adult children. Through qualitative interviews with 40 adult children of divorce—those whose parents divorced after they were 18 years of age—adult sibling relationships were explored to determine if a mid- to late-life parental divorce affects the adult sibling relationship. The majority of participants reported that their sibling relationships were not negatively affected by the parental divorce; however, a minority of participants noted that their adult sibling relationships were negatively affected, especially if they “took sides” during the parental divorce.
... Relationship quality between heterosexual individuals and an LG sibling during adulthood may influence the heterosexual sibling's acceptance of their LG sister or brother, with higher relationship quality being related to more acceptance. Although researchers posit that, over time, sibling relationships change and develop ( Cicirelli, 1985;White & Riedmann, 1992), researchers have found that adults who report having a supportive and emotionally close relationship with their sibling also report having had a positive relationship with their sibling in childhood ( Stewart et al., 2001), especially during various critical life events ( Conger, Stocker, & McGuire, 2009). Toomey and Richardson (2009) assessed 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth on their perceived closeness to their siblings and perceived acceptance of their sexual behavior. ...
Article
Research has shown that lesbian and gay (LG) individuals are coming out not only to their parents, but also to their siblings. Eighty percent of individuals in the United States are raised with one or more siblings; however, researchers have frequently underestimated the importance of the sibling bond. This study examined potential correlates of heterosexual siblings’ acceptance of their LG sister or brother using an online survey format (N = 189). In addition, psychometric properties for the Acceptance of Sibling Sexual Orientation Scale are provided. Results revealed that greater sibling relationship quality in adulthood, more contact with LG individuals, greater knowledge of LG communities, more support for LG civil rights, and various demographics (being female, having higher educational levels, not having an orthodox/fundamentalist religious orientation, less church attendance, and more liberal political ideology) are related to heterosexual siblings’ acceptance of their LG sister or brother. However, when these variables were examined together in a regression model, only sibling relationship in adulthood, contact with LG individuals, support for LG civil rights, and religious attendance were significant unique predictors of acceptance.
... Several researchers have successfully classified types or patterns of sibling relationships. This approach has been used with adult siblings (Stewart et al., 2001;Stewart, Verbrugge, & Beilfulls, 1998). Efforts to identify types of sibling relationships during childhood and adolescence have produced typologies typically focused on two primary relationship dimensions: warmth and conflict. ...
Article
Research Findings: This study examines patterns of sibling relationship qualities or interactional types and their association with family characteristics, parenting, and the characteristics of 1 of those children. Participants were 65 children (34 boys; Time 1 mean age¼51 months), their mothers, fathers, and Head Start teachers. Approximately 95% of the mothers and 92% of the fathers were of Mexican descent. Measures of parenting and children’s problem behavior were completed during the spring (Time 1) of the 1st year of the study. Sibling relationships were assessed twice the next year (Times 2 and 3). Family emotional expressivity and cultural values were obtained at Time 2. Three clusters emerged from analyses: warm, average, and affect-intense. Results revealed that the sibling relationship type characterized by high warmth and low agonism was associated with supportive and democratic parenting and positive family expressivity as reported by mothers. Mothers’ simpatı´a and fathers’ familism were associated with sibling warmth. Reports of externalizing behaviors achieved the highest mean values for the affect-intense group. Practice or Policy: Results demonstrate the feasibility of a multidimensional approach to the study of young children’s sibling relations as well as add to researchers’ understanding of sibling relations in families of Mexican descent.
Chapter
Intellectual disability is sub-average intellectual functioning with impaired adaptive functioning. The limitations in their adaptive skill hampers the ability to cope with stressful life events. There are many issues which require attention while dealing with them like parental level, peer groups, schools, presence of comorbid conditions, etc. Interventions at right stage under efficient supervision can lead to healthy and smooth functioning of cases with ID and with good outcomes. Difficulties like lack of human resources, quality training of clinical psychologists in India, scarcity of effective clinical guidelines, conflicts among the team approach, acceptance in the family and society requires attention in current scenario. There are many things that can be offered but what we need is their acceptance in our society and awareness towards Intervention. This chapter aims at acknowledging these issues to create awareness amongst the responsible caregivers. Timely recognition of treatable causes of intellectual disability can be very rewarding and prevent a lifelong disability.
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Although siblings may differ considerably, the similarities between them are often an important source of emotional support in one's life and influence one's life course trajectories. In this review on the topic of sibling relationship and cross‐sibling effect interactions, we aim to encourage research interest and facilitate knowledge building. We begin our review by highlighting how the parental home may induce differentiation between siblings. Next, we illustrate the theories explaining sibling similarities and differences and discuss the factors that stimulate these. Throughout the review, we do not only highlight the complex mechanisms by which siblings imitate yet differentiate themselves, but also mutually relate to their life courses and education. New understandings of how similarities between siblings can simultaneously act as powerful influences and negative examples are provided.
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This study explores the effect of CEO birth order on corporate innovation. Using hand-collected data, we find that firms led by firstborn CEOs are less innovative. This finding survives a number of robustness checks. When firms are more risky, non-state owned, or less financially constrained, the association between birth order and innovation is stronger, suggesting that the negative impact of firstborn CEOs is larger when their innovative personality is more demanding or influential. Meanwhile, firstborn CEOs have larger impact on corporate innovation when they are born in cities where Confucian culture are more influential or grow up in a low-income family, consistent with our argument that sibling competition makes firstborns less innovative. Overall, our results suggest that firstborn CEOs have negative effect on corporate innovation because they are less innovative intrinsically. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Family background has a significant impact on family firms’ strategies, such as innovation investments. Going beyond prior studies that exclusively focus on how family governance and management factors determine R&D investment decisions, this study investigates a family science factor: family firm owner’s birth order, defined as the relative rank of the owner in terms of the age hierarchy among siblings in the family. Joining the family‐niche model of birth order and socioemotional wealth perspective, we propose that later‐born family firm owners tend to be risk‐takers and invest more in R&D projects compared with their earlier‐born counterparts. We further examine how the two other powerful decision‐makers within family firms (i.e., chairperson of the board and CEO) enable or constrain the owner’s birth order‐R&D investment relationship. We contend that the positive birth order impact on R&D investment is weaker when a family member is the chairperson of the board, while such a relationship is stronger in the presence of owner–CEO duality. We confirm our hypotheses using a sample of 605 firm‐year observations from Chinese listed family firms between 2006 and 2014. This study demonstrates the important impact of family science factors on innovation heterogeneities, which is understudied in the family firm innovation literature.
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Siblings are key actors in the social network of young people in care. This paper explores young people's perceptions of changes in the quality of sibling relationships and the pathways relationships follow during the transition from the biological family into care. A thematic analysis of interviews with young Norwegian people (n = 25) in care showed that, in the biological family, sibling relationships are characterized by alliances, parentification, conflicts or nonexistence. After admission to child welfare services care, sibling relationships developed along multiple pathways. Their sibling relationships reshaped into either close and supportive, conflictual or completely broken relationships. Sibling relationships were dynamic, complex, with the pathway, and its impact on well‐being, being unique to each young person. Sibling relationship quality in the biological home did not predict relationship quality after admission to child welfare services. The implications for social worker practice are discussed.
Chapter
Birth order is an intuitively appealing explanation for why genetically similar siblings are so different. The neo‐Freudian psychotherapist Alfred Adler was a vocal proponent of the idea that birth order was a significant determinant of personality. Evidence that birth order is a systematic predictor of personality is weak. When adequate tests of birth‐order effects are performed, the evidence usually fails to support strong birth‐order effects on personality. The idea that birth order accounts for a substantial amount of the variation in personality differences is a myth. Although the literature is somewhat inconsistent, the effect sizes from the very best studies are small (at best). This indicates that other factors are likely to be much more important than birth order for understanding why people are different from one another (in general) and why children in the same family often have different personalities.
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The aim of the present study was to know the level of warmth and conflict in Sibling Relationship and the psychological quality of life of adolescents in educational institutions. The aim of the study was to know the relation between warmth and conflict in Sibling Relationship with the psychological quality of life among adolescents in educational institutions. A sample consisting of 250 students of educational institutions in the state of Chlef, It was selected Accidentally. The study was based on the questionnaire of the sibling Relationship by Furman & Buhrmester (1985) and the psychological quality of life Scale (1989). The results showed a high level of warmth and low conflict in sibling Relationship, and a high level of psychological quality of life among adolescents in educational institutions was found. The study also found that there is no correlation between warmth and conflict in sibling Relationship with the psychological quality of life among adolescents of students of educational institutions. These results were discussed in the context of theoretical and previous studies as well as the characteristics of the study sample. key words: Sibling Relationship, psychological quality of life, adolescents.
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Few studies have examined birth order effects on personality in countries that are not Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD). However, theories have generally suggested that interculturally universal family dynamics are the mechanism behind birth order effects, and prominent theories such as resource dilution would predict even stronger linear effects in poorer countries. Here, we examine a subset of up to 11 188 participants in the Indonesian Family Life Survey to investigate whether later‐borns differ from earlier‐borns in intelligence, educational attainment, Big Five, and risk aversion. Analyses were performed using within‐family designs in mixed‐effects models. In model comparisons, we tested for linear and non‐linear birth order effects as well as for possible interactions of birth order and sibship size. Our estimated effect sizes are consistent with the emerging account of birth order as having relatively little impact on intelligence, Big Five, and risk aversion. We found a non‐linear pattern for educational attainment that was not robust to imputation of missing data and not aligned with trends in WEIRD countries. Overall, the small birth order effects reported in other studies appear to be culturally specific. © 2020 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology
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Although the literature implies that rebelliousness can be a precursor of creative behaviour, this assumption has rarely been empirically tested. In the present study, we hypothesized that trait-level rebelliousness may have an inverted U-shaped relationship with creativity. Additionally, we expected that the effect is pronounced under two conditions, namely, when individuals strive for success (i.e., high promotion focus) or when they are not failure-avoidant (i.e., low prevention focus). We conducted a three-wave weekly survey study among a heterogeneous sample of 156 employees. The results suggested that the expected nonlinear relation rebelliousness-creativity occurred under high promotion focus, but we did not find a direct link between rebelliousness and creativity. Furthermore, prevention focus did not moderate the nonlinear link. Additional analyses revealed that rebelliousness has a linear link with creativity when promotion focus is high and, at the same time, prevention focus is low. Our study reveals that rebelliousness in itself is not sufficient to unlock creativity. Instead, we uncover promotion focus as the condition that amplifies the link between moderate rebelliousness and creativity. Additionally, when employees simultaneously focus on promotion and refrain from prevention, the more rebellious they are, the more creativity they report.
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The aim of the paper is to review recent literature and introduce a systemic approach to the nature of sibling relationships during the first years of life. A growing body of evidence suggests that siblings play considerable roles in each other’s development, and that the quality and the character of the sibling bond may have far-reaching effects. The present review elucidates the interactions between subsystems, particularly the functioning of the sibling subsystem; it also considers influences from other internal and external factors. It discusses siblinghood between children with regard to three main domains: warmth and support, rivalry and jealousy, and conflict. The final part of the article suggests some implications considering the influence of child siblinghood on adolescent and adult life.
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Sibling Attachment Inventory (SAI) to the Italian context and to examine its psychometric properties. Method Using an Internet‐based survey, data were collected from 500 Italian young adults (aged 18–30). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to explore the factorial structure of the SAI. Correlations with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale were carried out to verify convergent and predictive validity. Results The instrument had good levels of internal consistency and a monodimensional structure, also providing evidence for validity. By comparing three models proposed in the literature, the results indicate that the three‐factor model had the best fit indices. Further, secure attachments were linked to high levels of self‐esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusion The Italian version of the SAI has good psychometric properties, suggesting its ability to assess young adults' sibling attachment in the Italian cultural context. It is expected to be a useful self‐report measure in research aimed to study individual differences in young adults' sibling attachment.
Chapter
Intellectual disability is sub-average intellectual functioning with impaired adaptive functioning. The limitations in their adaptive skill hampers the ability to cope with stressful life events. There are many issues which require attention while dealing with them like parental level, peer groups, schools, presence of comorbid conditions, etc. Interventions at right stage under efficient supervision can lead to healthy and smooth functioning of cases with ID and with good outcomes. Difficulties like lack of human resources, quality training of clinical psychologists in India, scarcity of effective clinical guidelines, conflicts among the team approach, acceptance in the family and society requires attention in current scenario. There are many things that can be offered but what we need is their acceptance in our society and awareness towards Intervention. This chapter aims at acknowledging these issues to create awareness amongst the responsible caregivers. Timely recognition of treatable causes of intellectual disability can be very rewarding and prevent a lifelong disability.
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This study explored the role of sibling modeling and differentiation in young adults’ beliefs about marriage and expectation of marriage in reference to their perception of their closest aged sibling’s marital centrality. Siblings play an important role in socialization, yet their role in young adulthood, and in relation to attitudes about marriage, has received limited attention. Marriage is an important aspect of development for young adults; therefore, this study specifically examined the role of sibling modeling and differentiation in young adults’ formation of expectation of marriage and marital centrality. Data came from 1,258 unmarried young adults (age 18–29 years) from across the U.S. ( M = 25.02; SD = 2.60; 47% female). Models for marital centrality were tested using hierarchical ordinary least squares regression, and models for the expectation of marriage were examined using binary logistic regression. Findings revealed that siblings’ beliefs and expectations to marry were more closely related in conditions of high modeling. For those with only one sibling, greater differentiation was linked to less similarity between siblings’ marital centrality. Siblings therefore may play an important role in young adults’ expectation of marriage and beliefs about marital centrality.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the family resilience and the role of sibling relations among family members who have lost their father in the last five years. Criterion sampling method was employed in the study, which is considered one of the purposeful sampling methods. 10 people was included in the study chosen based on the following criteria: (I) having lost the father in the last five years (II) continuing the university education (III) having at least one sibling in the house (IV) having a living parent; (V) the fact that the living parent is not remarried. In the study, data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through descriptive methods. The results show that the management styles and family belief systems in the family, as well as the close, supportive relationships, are important and powerful qualities in the positive development of the family in cases of a father loss. These results are particularly of importance about the identification of characteristics of family strenghts and the understanding of sibling relationships. Specific interventions, plans, and suggestions in the cultural context were introduced to strengthen positive family life and family resilience.
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Sibling relations are typically close but ambivalent, including both altruism and competition. Full siblings are often assumed to exhibit more altruism and less competition than half-siblings. However, previous empirical findings indicate that this assumption may not hold for sibling conflicts in contemporary humans. We study self-reported occurrence of sibling conflicts among adults in two generations with nationally representative data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland surveys in 2012. Respondents represent an older generation (born between 1945 and 1950, n = 2,015) and their adult children (born between 1962 and 1993, n = 1,565). Based on kin selection and parent–offspring conflict theory, we expect reports of any conflict to be more likely between full siblings than half-siblings, between maternal half-siblings than paternal half-siblings, and among the younger generation compared to the older generation. Results mostly support our hypotheses. Full siblings were more likely to report conflicts than were maternal and paternal half-siblings in the younger generation. In the older generation, full siblings were more likely to report conflicts with paternal but not maternal half-siblings. The younger generation was also more conflict-prone than the older. Results held when controlling for contact frequency, emotional closeness, unequal parental treatment, and several socioeconomic variables, as well as for within-family effects. Thus, although full siblings are typically closer and have more contact in adulthood than half-siblings do, they also appear to have more conflicts. We suggest that this can be explained by diluted resource competition over parental investment between half-siblings in societies with serial monogamy.
Chapter
The current chapter will examine the shift that is common during emerging adulthood in sibling relationship dynamics. Sibling relationships in emerging adulthood tend to be warmer and have fewer conflicts than the relationships of siblings in adolescence. Although emerging adults tend to spend less time on average with their siblings than do adolescents, considering the proximity between siblings often away at college, overall, emerging adults described having more positive relationships with siblings than adolescents. This closeness can be seen in fewer conflicts, confrontations, and rivalries. Furthermore, qualitative data from a recent phenomenological study in the US is used to illustrate unique aspects of the sibling relationship during emerging adulthood.
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Die Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Geschwisterbeziehung im Erwachsenenalter. Im theoretischen Teil wird die Bedeutsamkeit dieser Beziehungen, sowohl im normativen Kontext als auch in Familien von Menschen mit geistiger Behinderung, dargelegt. Dabei werden Besonderheiten und Merkmale erörtert und Veränderung über die Lebensspanne betrachtet. Der zweite inhaltliche Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit liegt auf der Lebensphase „Mittleres Erwachsenenalter“ von Menschen mit einer geistigen Behinderung und damit verknüpften Herausforderungen. Diese liegen sowohl im familiären als auch im institutionellen und gesellschaftlichen Rahmen. Die Planung der Zukunft mit und von Menschen mit einer geistigen Behinderung ist ein hochaktuelles Thema in der Rehabilitationspädagogik. Der internationale aktuelle Forschungsstand wird dargestellt und reflektiert. Im empirischen Teil wird die durchgeführte Fragebogenstudie vorgestellt. Beteiligt haben sich 93 Geschwister und 53 Eltern aus Familien von Menschen mit einer geistigen Behinderung. Bislang gab es noch kein vergleichbares Instrument im deutschsprachigen Raum. Die quantitativen Ergebnisse werden denen aus internationalen Studien gegenüber gestellt. Die aktuelle Beziehungsgestaltung der Geschwister mit moderierenden Einflüssen sowie Prädiktoren werden präsentiert. Unterschiede hinsichtlich des Planungsstandes, sowohl seitens der Geschwister, der Eltern, aber auch auf Familienebene, werden herausgearbeitet. Die Fragebogenerhebung greift hierbei auf Daten von mehreren Geschwistern innerhalb einer Familie und auch der Eltern zurück. Übereinstimmungen sowie Diskrepanzen werden erörtert und unterschiedliche Familientypen klassifiziert.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adult siblings' use of relational maintenance behaviors and communication channels differ among the five adult sibling relationship types (i.e., intimate, congenial, loyal, apathetic, and hostile) identified by Gold (1989). Participants were 606 individuals whose ages ranged from 18 to 82 years. Results indicated that intimate siblings generally use relational maintenance behaviors at a higher rate and use several communication channels more frequently than congenial, loyal, or apathetic/hostile siblings. These findings suggest that when it comes to maintaining their sibling relationships, adults may consider the extent to which they experience emotional interdependence and psychological closeness with each other. Future research should consider examining whether sibling types and relational maintenance function as a result of attachment style (i.e., secure, dismissive, fearful, preoccupied).
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First- and second-born adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of adolescents' decision-making autonomy were compared from ages 12 to 19 in a longitudinal sample of 145 predominantly White, middle class families. Utilizing a multivariate, multilevel modeling approach, differences in perceptions of adolescents' autonomy between parents and each adolescent, as well as by social-cognitive domain were examined. The present study found that when comparing parents' perceptions of their children at the same age, second-borns were granted more autonomy regarding conventional issues than first-borns during early adolescence, but by later adolescence first-borns were granted more autonomy regarding prudential issues than second-borns. However, comparisons between adolescents' and siblings' perceptions showed no differences. Potential reasons for, and implications of, differences in perceptions of adolescent autonomy are discussed.
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This research examines social support from siblings following parental divorce, based on retrospective interviews and ratings obtained from adult children of divorced parents. Sibling relationships were diverse in the extent, form, and direction of support, as reflected in seven types of sibling support relationships (separates, pals, allies, opponents, parent, protector, encourager). Availability/companionship with siblings predicted improved adjustment to divorce, whereas multiple dimensions of maternal support predicted adjustment. Qualitative analyses suggested that the company of a sibling provided reassurance and promoted resilience, even in the absence of explicit support messages or tangible assistance. Supportive siblings appeared to buffer children by providing a sense of continuity and shared experience during family reorganization. Sibling support typically served a complementary role to parental support. However, siblings sometimes provided more extensive and direct compensatory support in situations where competent parental support was unavailable. Such assistance helped children to weather especially stressful family breakups but did not mitigate bad feelings about the divorce. The results illustrate the situational and relational nature of effective social support in families.
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A study of siblings tested a relational dynamics model set in the family and based largely on Belief Systems Theory. Participants (N = 351) in a 3 (biological relatedness) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (other sibling sex) quasi-experimental design evaluated their relationship with their sibling. Path analysis was used to track the effects of the independent variables on verbal aggression and verbal comforting. Mediating variables completed two distinct processes. The egocentric assertion of power and hostility between siblings mediated a sequence related to selfish emotions within the individualistic affect system. This sequence is anchored in parent–child verbal aggression and culminates in sibling verbal aggression. Empathy and strength of sibling bond mediated a sequence related to prosocial emotions within the cooperative affect system. This process is anchored in parent–child closeness and ends with expressions of comfort between siblings. The results provide an explanation for the emotional ambivalence of sibling relationships.
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This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale. Position adjacency and family size were related to attitudes toward sibling relationships, including more positive recalled childhood sibling relationships in adjacent dyads and larger families and less positive sibling relationships recalled from childhood and in adulthood experienced by individuals with only one sibling. Results for respondent and sibling ordinal position were consistent, with individuals in the youngest-of-two ordinal position and those describing eldest siblings reporting less positive attitudes toward adult siblings. Implications for future research on the quality of adult sibling relationships throughout the life span are discussed.
Article
The present investigation was undertaken to identify the type of sibling relationship prevalent during middle adulthood years on a sample of 120 married adults (40-60 years) having at least one living biological sibling with the age difference of 1-4 years from purposively selected nuclear families of Udaipur city of district Udaipur of Rajasthan state. Adult Sibling Relationship Scale was developed, standardized, and used to identify the type of relations middle-aged adults have with their siblings. Five type of sibling relationship i.e. Intimate, Congenial Loyal, Apathetic, Hostile were identified based on contact among siblings, emotional closeness, confiding and conflict. The results revealed that majority of the respondents i.e. (33.34%) have Loyal type of relationship followed by Apathetic (29.17%) Congenial (24.16%) and Intimate (7.50%). Only 5.83 per cent of respondents depict Hostile style of relationship pattern. Z-test revealed a significant difference with respect to gender regarding quality of sibling relationship None of the male respondent fall in the Intimate and Hostile category, only female respondents had Hostile and Intimate kind of relationship with their siblings. Higher number of male respondents i.e. 38.33 per cent had Apathetic type of relationship with their siblings. Whereas 33.34 per cent of female respondents have Loyal type of sibling relationship.
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Sibling interactions in old age have received limited attention in social science literature. This article examines the different kinds of relationships which exist between siblings in old age and the ways in which each type meets or ignores the social and psychological needs of older people. Five types of sibling relationships emerged from data collected in open-ended, exploratory interviews with thirty men and thirty women over the age of sixty-five who had at least one living sibling. Each type reflects a discrete pattern of instrumental support, emotional support, and contact, as well as a different degree of closeness, envy, resentment, approval, and involvement with the sibling. The distribution of same-sex and cross-sex dyads among the types suggests gender differences in sibling interactions based on the gender composition of the sibling dyad rather than on the gender of the respondent.
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Socioemotional selectivity theory claims that the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals. According to the theory, social motives fall into 1 of 2 general categories--those related to the acquisition of knowledge and those related to the regulation of emotion. When time is perceived as open-ended, knowledge-related goals are prioritized. In contrast, when time is perceived as limited, emotional goals assume primacy. The inextricable association between time left in life and chronological age ensures age-related differences in social goals. Nonetheless, the authors show that the perception of time is malleable, and social goals change in both younger and older people when time constraints are imposed. The authors argue that time perception is integral to human motivation and suggest potential implications for multiple subdisciplines and research interests in social, developmental, cultural, cognitive, and clinical psychology.
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Self-report measures of adult attachment are typically scored in ways (e.g., averaging or summing items) that can lead to erroneous inferences about important theoretical issues, such as the degree of continuity in attachment security and the differential stability of insecure attachment patterns. To determine whether existing attachment scales suffer from scaling problems, the authors conducted an item response theory (IRT) analysis of 4 commonly used self-report inventories: Experiences in Close Relationships scales (K. A. Brennan, C. L. Clark, & P. R. Shaver, 1998), Adult Attachment Scales (N. L. Collins & S. J. Read, 1990), Relationship Styles Questionnaire (D. W. Griffin & K. Bartholomew, 1994) and J. Simpson's (1990) attachment scales. Data from 1,085 individuals were analyzed using F. Samejima's (1969) graded response model. The authors' findings indicate that commonly used attachment scales can be improved in a number of important ways. Accordingly, the authors show how IRT techniques can be used to develop new attachment scales with desirable psychometric properties.
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Emerging adulthood is proposed as a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25. A theoretical background is presented. Then evidence is provided to support the idea that emerging adulthood is a distinct period demographically, subjectively, and in terms of identity explorations. How emerging adulthood differs from adolescence and young adulthood is explained. Finally, a cultural context for the idea of emerging adulthood is outlined, and it is specified that emerging adulthood exists only in cultures that allow young people a prolonged period of independent role exploration during the late teens and twenties.
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This article reviews theories of concept structure proposed since the mid- 1970s, when the discovery of typicality effects led to the rejection of the view that instances of a concept share necessary and sufficient attributes. To replace that classical view, psychologists proposed the family resemblance and exemplar views (and hybrids of the 2), which argue that instances of a concept share a certain level of overall similarity, rather than necessary and sufficient attributes. These similarity-based views account for much of the typicality data but fail to provide an adequate explanation of the coherence of conceptual categories and of various context effects. Recently proposed explanation-based accounts address these issues but raise further questions about the distinction between concept-specific information and general knowledge and about the relationship between conceptual knowledge and various forms of inference.
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Data from a sample of 60 sibling dyads (120 respondents) aged 25 to 89 are used to examine the effect of life transitions on the adult sibling tie. The life events of a respondent or his or her sibling(s) include: marriage, having children, divorce, widowhood, and the death or health problems of family members. Among those reporting change, modal responses for each life event are: marriage—closer ties, improved relations, less closeness, and less frequent contact; children—emotionally closer, more frequent contact; divorce and widowhood—emotionally closer, more frequent contact, support from sibling, improved tie; family members' death or poor health—emotionally closer.
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We use a National Survey of Families and Households sample of 7,730 adults with siblings to test a model of perceived and actual social support among adult siblings. Despite low levels of actual exchange, nearly 30% of the sample would call on a sibling first in an emergency. Social support among siblings was higher for those with living sisters and for those without adult children, but African Americans and respondents with lower education and family income levels were less likely to be involved in actual exchange with siblings. Although weak support from siblings may simply represent a contraction of the support network to the "inner circle" of parents and children, these findings suggest caution in assuming that disadvantaged groups can rely on stronger extended family networks.
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This article focuses on issues pertaining to describing and making causal inferences about close relationships. It begins by considering the features that define relationships, and particular attention is drawn to the concept of "interdependence." Two levels of interdependence—the interpersonal and the psychological—are differentiated, and issues having to do with gathering data regarding each level are identified. The reader is taken through the steps necessary to go from conceptualizing the phenomena of interest to the measurement of those phenomena. Sources of unreliability and threats to construct validity are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of various measurement strategies are indicated, with the idea of setting forth the issues that bear upon the choices researchers make regarding data collection strategy. Finally, problems pertaining to conducting research on the causes of relationship features are examined.
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Based on a review of research, this article outlines the developmental tasks of siblingship in the United States from a life-cycle perspective. The sibling support bond typically persists throughout the life cycle. Some siblingship tasks are constant, weaving threads of consistency from birth to death, while others stand out as idiosyncratic to the context of the particular stage in the life cycle.
Article
Sixty-nine maritally intact, middle-class Caucasian families rearing their 15-month-old firstborn male child participated in a study of fathering. Two 1-hr naturalistic home observations per family were conducted near dinnertime to record father-child interactions, which were then used to rate father involvement. Cluster analysis of fathering ratings revealed 4 groups of dads: caretakers, playmates-teachers, disciplinarians, and disengaged fathers. Information on demographics, personality, marital quality, relatedness, moods and hassles, and infant emotionality was gathered via parental reports. Analysis of antecedent variables indicated that the caretaker and playmate-teacher fathers were more educated, had more prestigious occupations, were less neurotic, had more confidence in the dependability of others, and experienced fewer daily hassles than the disciplinarian and disengaged fathers. Discriminant analysis demonstrated the collective ability of the antecedent variables to distinguish the 4 groups of fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Motives for achievement, affiliation, power as fear of weakness, and power as hope of power were assessed using thematic apperception in 2 representative national surveys of adults by G. Gurin et al (1960), and the other by J. Veroff et al (1976). Comparison of the results indicates changes and stable features of national character over the 19-yr period. Controls for education and age differences were introduced into the year comparisons for men and women separately. Among men, the achievement motive has remained stable, the affiliative motive has decreased, and both power motives have increased. Among women, both the motives for achievement and power as fear of weakness have increased, but there has been no change in the other 2 motives. Results are interpreted in terms of large-scale social changes (e.g., the women's movement, the shrinking opportunity for jobs) that have dominated recent social history in the US. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews research concerning the way siblings (SIBs) get along in different developmental periods, with particular emphasis on SIB conflict and SIBs as playmates and helpers. Findings indicate that overt conflict between SIBs in childhood is so common that it is often taken for granted; nevertheless, conflict apparently coexists with positive inter-SIB feelings and periods of calm. Parental reports tend to stress overt stress; direct observations by researchers reveal that peaceful coexistence characterizes most of the time SIBs are together. Studies of SIB attitudes toward each other show predominantly positive feelings together with intermittent rivalry. The review shows there is a need for continued research into SIB relationships, especially regarding longitudinal stability and change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purposes of this study were to describe the nature of sibling relationships in young adulthood and to examine correlates of individual differences in adults' sibling relationships. A new measure, the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ; R. P. Lanthier & C. Stocker, 1992), was developed with 2 samples ( N = 383). The factor structure of the ASRQ indicated that sibling relationships in early adulthood were characterized by 3 independent dimensions: warmth, conflict, and rivalry. Individual differences in adults' warmth, conflict, and rivalry with siblings were somewhat associated with family structure variables and were linked to the amount of contact between siblings and to siblings' mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Interviews with 60 US adults (aged 65+ yrs) revealed that interactions with sisters and brothers took on new meaning in late life. A shared history of lifetime experiences made the sibling relationship unique in social networks in old age. Ss who had positive relationships with siblings found that interactions decreased feelings of loneliness, provided emotional support and validation of earlier life experiences, and built feelings of closeness and sibling solidarity. Even Ss who had negative sibling relationships indicated a shift in feelings. The intensity of feeling about siblings in old age suggests that further study of the later-life sibling bond might increase understanding of ways in which the social and emotional needs of older people can be met. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the extent to which sibling relationship is viewed as one of friendship in older age. Interview data from 298 Canadian siblings (aged 65–92 yrs) involved in 783 sibling ties were used to test hypotheses for greater closeness between same-sex siblings and greater closeness between sisters than brothers or brother–sister pairs. Frequency of face-to-face contact was significantly related to gender, marital status, geographic proximity, mutual confiding, and considering siblings close friends. Despite more frequent contact, sisters appeared no more likely than brothers or brother–sister dyads to be close friends or mutual confidants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
3 questions regarding family interaction in the second year of life are addressed in this report on 69 families rearing firstborn sons. Question 1 concerns the identification, via cluster analysis, of families having difficulty managing their child, using codings of narrative records of family interaction when children were 15 and 21 months of age. Parents in families identified as “troubled” at each age tried to control their toddlers most often, were least likely to rely upon control-plus-guidance management strategies, had children who defied them most frequently, and experienced the greatest escalation of negative affect in these control encounters. Families identified as “troubled” at both 15 and 21 months had children who received the highest “externalizing” problem scores at 18 months and mothers who experienced the most daily hassles during the second year. Question 2 concerns the antecedents of “trouble in the second year.” Discriminant function analyses indicated that membership in the groups of families that appeared troubled at both ages of measurement (n=15), at only one age (n = 28), or never (n= 26) could be reliably predicted (hit rate = 71%) using a set of 9 measurements of parent personality, child emotionality/temperament, marital quality, work-family relations, and social support, suggested by Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting, and social class. Question 3 concerns the proposition that extensive nonmaternal care in the first year is a risk factor for troubled family functioning in the second year. As hypothesized, prediction analysis showed that families at moderate and high contextual risk (based on 10 antecedent variables pertaining to Question 2) were significantly more likely to experience trouble in the second year when children experienced 20 or more hours per week of nonmaternal care in their first year, and these results could not be attributed to “selection effects.”
Article
Children in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 were administered the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire. Relationships were rated as progressively more egalitarian across the 4 grade groups, with adolescents reporting less dominance and nurturance by their older siblings than younger participants. Adolescents also reported less companionship, intimacy, and affection with siblings than younger participants reported. Levels of perceived conflict with younger siblings were moderately high across all 4 grades, whereas ratings of conflict with older siblings were progressively lower across the 4 grades. The findings suggested that sibling relationships: (a) become more egalitarian and less asymmetrical with age, (b) become less intense with age, and (c) encompass experiences that are partially determined by the child's standing in the family constellation.
Article
For over three decades, critics of the developmental and psychometric paradigms have argued that individual differences are neither stable, coherent, nor clinically significant. The present studies extend a long line of research demonstrating the coherence of individual development in attachment security. They make it clear that attachment security can be stable from infancy through early adulthood and that change in attachemnt security is meaningfully related to changes in the family environment. The task now is to better understand the roles of cross-age consistency in caregiver behavior and the structure of mental representations of early experience in stability and change.
Article
Compared to other cognitive measures, social problem solving has received little attention in research on gender differences. In the present study, the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Procedure and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 207 adolescents to examine social problem-solving skills as a function of subject gender, PAQ type, and gender of protagonist. Hypotheses were that superior problem solving would occur (a) for androgynous and masculine PAQ types and (b) when subject gender and/or PAQ type corresponded with protagonist gender. Results failed to corroborate these patterns, but indicated a clear overall advantage for females over males. A follow-up multiple-regression analysis showed this effect to be stable after controlling for English level. In a supplementary analysis, PAQ breakdowns were compared for the present sample and for one tested in a different region seven years earlier. Overall, the research findings imply that fewer adolescents today are likely to identify with traditional feminine roles, and that sex-related personality traits have, in general, a relatively limited impact on social problem-solving skills.
Article
This article reviews theories of concept structure proposed since the mid- 1970s, when the discovery of typicality effects led to the rejection of the view that instances of a concept share necessary and sufficient attributes. To replace that classical view, psychologists proposed the family resemblance and exemplar views (and hybrids of the 2), which argue that instances of a concept share a certain level of overall similarity, rather than necessary and sufficient attributes. These similarity-based views account for much of the typicality data but fail to provide an adequate explanation of the coherence of conceptual categories and of various context effects. Recently proposed explanation-based accounts address these issues but raise further questions about the distinction between concept-specific information and general knowledge and about the relationship between conceptual knowledge and various forms of inference.
Article
Inferred latent entities, whether those of psychoanalysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis, have declined in value for many clinical psychologists, both as tools of practice and as objects of theoretical interest. Behavior modification, rational-emotive therapy, crisis intervention, psycho-pharmacology, and actuarial prediction all tend to minimize reliance on latent entities in favor of purely dispositional concepts. Behavior genetics is, however, a powerful movement to the contrary. As regards categorical entities (types, taxa, syndromes, diseases), history reveals no impressive examples of their discovery by cluster algorithms; whereas organic medicine and psychopathology have both discovered many taxonic entities without reliance on formal (statistical) cluster methods. I offer eight reasons for this strange condition, with associated suggestions for ameliorating it. Adopting a realist instead of a fictionist approach to taxonomy, I give high priority to theory-based mathematical derivation of quantitative consistency tests for all taxometric results. I urge a large scale cooperative survey of taxometric methods based on Monte Carlo runs, biological pseudoproblems where the true axon is independently known, and live problem in genetics, organic medicine, and psychopathology. An empirical example of taxometric bootstrapping and consistency testing was presented from my own current research on schizotypy.
Article
This study investigated the feelings and concerns of 64 elderly persons, as revealed by a projective instrument, in relation to number of sex of siblings. Partilal correlations, with effects of age, education, and occupation removed, were computed separately for each sex. The number and proportion of female siblings were found to have a greater influence than male siblings on the elderly's feelings and concerns. For men, sisters appeared to be emotionally supportive, while for women sisters appeared to be more challenging, as indicated by greater social concerns.
Article
Children in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 were administered the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire. Relationships were rated as progressively more egalitarian across the 4 grade groups, with adolescents reporting less dominance and nurturance by their older siblings than younger participants. Adolescents also reported less companionship, intimacy, and affection with siblings than younger participants reported. Levels of perceived conflict with younger siblings were moderately high across all 4 grades, whereas ratings of conflict with older siblings were progressively lower across the 4 grades. The findings suggested that sibling relationships: (a) become more egalitarian and less asymmetrical with age, (b) become less intense with age, and (c) encompass experiences that are partially determined by the child's standing in the family constellation.
Article
We adopted a multidimensional approach to the study of the social support convoys of older adults. We distinguished between age and gender differences in four specific dimensions of the social support convoy: (a) existence versus functioning of relationships in the convoy, (b) kinds of relationships (i.e., those with children, siblings, and friends), (c) types of social support (i.e., emotional support, respect, and health support), and (d) receipt versus provision of support. Using a national survey of 718 adults, multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were performed to determine age and gender differences in these four dimensions of social support. The multidimensional approach was useful in pinpointing those aspects of the social support convoy affected by aging. We anticipated that the social support convoy would be devastated by aging. Instead, we found that older people received less support (i.e., emotional and health support) in the absence of sibling relationships. Otherwise, the effects of aging had more to do with what the older person contributed to the convoy than with what he or she received. Women had better social support resources than men, particularly within their friendships. We found no evidence, however, that women's social support advantage counterbalanced the effects of aging on the convoy.
Article
Although many studies of family constellations exist, only recently have investigators begun to examine the qualities of sibling relationships. The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a systematic framework for describing and assessing such relationship qualities. In the first study, upper elementary school children were interviewed about their perceptions of the qualities of their sibling relationships. These interviews yielded a list of 15 salient qualities. In the second study, a self-report questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of these qualities was administered to a sample of 198 fifth- and sixth-grade children. A principal components analysis yielded 4 underlying factors: (a) Warmth/Closeness, (b) Relative Status/Power, (c) Conflict, and (d) Rivalry. Relative Status/Power was found to be strongly related to the relative ages of the child and sibling. The other 3 factors were also related to various family constellation variables, but these relations were modest in size. Because family constellation variables and the qualities of sibling relationships are not isomorphic with one another, it is important to study relationship qualities directly, rather than simply examining family constellation variables. Some of the determinants of such qualities are discussed.
Article
Classification in psychopathology is a problem in applied mathematics; it answers the empirical question "Is the latent structure of these phenotypic indicator correlations taxonic (categories) or nontaxonic (dimensions, factors)?" It is not a matter of convention or preference. Two taxometric procedures, MAMBAC and MAXCOV-HITMAX, provide independent tests of the taxonic conjecture and satisfactorily accurate estimates of the taxon base rate, the latent means, and the valid and false-positive rates achievable by various cuts. The method requires no gold standard criterion, applying crude fallible diagnostic "criteria" only in the phase of discovery to identify plausible candidate indicators. Confidence in the inference to taxonic structure and numerical accuracy of latent values is provided by multiple consistency tests, hence the term coherent cut kinetics for the general approach. Further revision of diagnostic systems should be based on taxometric analysis rather than on committee decisions based on clinical impressions and nontaxometric research.
Article
3 questions regarding family interaction in the second year of life are addressed in this report on 69 families rearing firstborn sons. Question 1 concerns the identification, via cluster analysis, of families having difficulty managing their child, using codings of narrative records of family interaction when children were 15 and 21 months of age. Parents in families identified as "troubled" at each age tried to control their toddlers most often, were least likely to rely upon control-plus-guidance management strategies, had children who defied them most frequently, and experienced the greatest escalation of negative affect in these control encounters. Families identified as "troubled" at both 15 and 21 months had children who received the highest "externalizing" problem scores at 18 months and mothers who experienced the most daily hassles during the second year. Question 2 concerns the antecedents of "trouble in the second year." Discriminant function analyses indicated that membership in the groups of families that appeared troubled at both ages of measurement (n = 15), at only one age (n = 28), or never (n = 26) could be reliably predicted (hit rate = 71%) using a set of 9 measurements of parent personality, child emotionality/temperament, marital quality, work-family relations, and social support, suggested by Belsky's model of the determinants of parenting, and social class. Question 3 concerns the proposition that extensive nonmaternal care in the first year is a risk factor for troubled family functioning in the second year. As hypothesized, prediction analysis showed that families at moderate and high contextual risk (based on 10 antecedent variables pertaining to Question 2), were significantly more likely to experience trouble in the second year when children experienced 20 or more hours per week of nonmaternal care in their first year, and these results could not be attributed to "selection effects."
Article
On prothetic continua (apparent length, duration, area, etc.) the ratio scale of subjective magnitude approximates a power function of the physical stimulus. The category scale is concave downward relative to the ratio scale for discrimination which is better at one end of the continuum than at the other. On metathetic continua (visual position, inclination, pitch, etc.) discrimination (in subjective units) is constant over the range, although differential familiarity may introduce nonuniformities. Additional aspects of the continua and scales are discussed. 75 references.
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