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Review of flavonoids and other phenolics from fruits of different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Tomato, one of the most important vegetables worldwide, contains a range of flavonoids and phenolic acids in addition to lycopene, which are regarded as potentially useful compounds with respect to health benefits. Composition data in fresh tomatoes vary due to genetic and environmental factors and cultural practices. Breeding programs aim to produce tomatoes with enhanced levels of flavonoids and other phenolics.RESULTS: The present paper gives an overview of flavonoids, stilbenoids and other phenolics reported to occur in tomato fruits. Contents are reported for a wide range of cultivars and types. Metabolism of phenolics during fruit maturation and tissue location are described, and an overview of measured contents is given. Effects of environmental conditions and cultural practices are estimated using available literature. Recent literature on transgenic tomatoes is included, and possibilities for regulating phenolic contents in tomatoes are discussed.CONCLUSION: The literature review clearly discloses a rapidly growing interest in flavonoids and other phenolics in tomato fruits and products made thereof. This is particularly connected to the antioxidant properties of these compounds as well as other possible health effects. Choice of cultivar and effects of environment and agronomic practices are important factors with respect to phenolic qualities and quantities of tomatoes. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry

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... However, the flavonoid content in tomato fruits was significantly enhanced by the amendment of Fe7(PO4)6 NMs with 5 and 50 mg kg −1 (Figure 2c-e). It was reported that naringenin, quercetin and rutin were three kinds of main flavonoids in tomato fruits [42], Besides, quercetin and rutin belong to flavonol (a subclass of flavonoids) and the latter is a vital downstream metabolite of the former [42,43]. More importantly, flavonol contains a hydroxyl group at the C3 position, which makes flavonols excellent antioxidants in tomatoes [43]. ...
... However, the flavonoid content in tomato fruits was significantly enhanced by the amendment of Fe7(PO4)6 NMs with 5 and 50 mg kg −1 (Figure 2c-e). It was reported that naringenin, quercetin and rutin were three kinds of main flavonoids in tomato fruits [42], Besides, quercetin and rutin belong to flavonol (a subclass of flavonoids) and the latter is a vital downstream metabolite of the former [42,43]. More importantly, flavonol contains a hydroxyl group at the C3 position, which makes flavonols excellent antioxidants in tomatoes [43]. ...
... However, the flavonoid content in tomato fruits was significantly enhanced by the amendment of Fe 7 (PO 4 ) 6 NMs with 5 and 50 mg kg −1 (Figure 2c-e). It was reported that naringenin, quercetin and rutin were three kinds of main flavonoids in tomato fruits [42], Besides, quercetin and rutin belong to flavonol (a subclass of flavonoids) and the latter is a vital downstream metabolite of the former [42,43]. More importantly, flavonol contains a hydroxyl group at the C3 position, which makes flavonols excellent antioxidants in tomatoes [43]. ...
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Flavonoids contribute to fruit sensorial and nutritional quality. They are also highly beneficial for human health and can effectively prevent several chronic diseases. There is increasing interest in developing alternative food sources rich in flavonoids, and nano-enabled agriculture provides the prospect for solving this action. In this study, triiron tetrairon phosphate (Fe7(PO4)6) nanomaterials (NMs) were synthesized and amended in soils to enhance flavonoids accumulation in tomato fruits. 50 mg kg−1 of Fe7(PO4)6 NMs was the optimal dose based on its outstanding performance on promoting tomato fruit flavonoids accumulation. After entering tomato roots, Fe7(PO4)6 NMs promoted auxin (IAA) level by 70.75 and 164.21% over Fe-EDTA and control, and then up-regulated the expression of genes related to PM H+ ATPase, leading to root proton ef-flux at 5.87 pmol cm−2 s−1 and rhizosphere acidification. More Mg, Fe, and Mn were thus taken up into plants. Subsequently, photosynthate was synthesized, and transported into fruits more rapidly to increase flavonoid synthesis potential. The metabolomic and transcriptomic profile in fruits further revealed that Fe7(PO4)6 NMs regulated sucrose metabolism, shi-kimic acid pathway, phenylalanine synthesis, and finally enhanced flavonoid biosynthesis. This study implies the potential of NMs to improve fruit quality by enhancing flavonoids synthesis and accumulation.
... Simple phenolic acids glucosides were found in the TP and the TPE, including the glucosides of caffeic (3,6,16), homovanilic (4), coumaric (10), and ferulic acids (12,15), as previously reported in tomato [27]. The presence of vanillic acid glucoside in whole tomatoes has been reported previously [27], although in our study this was not confirmed by fragmentation pattern due to its low concentration. ...
... Simple phenolic acids glucosides were found in the TP and the TPE, including the glucosides of caffeic (3,6,16), homovanilic (4), coumaric (10), and ferulic acids (12,15), as previously reported in tomato [27]. The presence of vanillic acid glucoside in whole tomatoes has been reported previously [27], although in our study this was not confirmed by fragmentation pattern due to its low concentration. Different isomers of caffeic and ferulic acid glucoside were determined based on their expected masses, fragmentation patterns, and elution times. ...
... In addition, coumaryl quinic acid (17) was also only present in the TP at the retention time 6.9, with a typical fragmentation pattern. Finally, dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers (26,27,30) were identified with m/z 515 with typical fragmentation patterns. The first two with retention times 7.9 and 8.0 (26,27) were found in all three extracts, while the third was found only in the TPS (30). ...
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The conversion of raw fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes into processed food products creates side streams of residues that can place a burden on the environment. However, these processed residues are still rich in bioactive compounds and in an effort to valorize these materials in tomato by-product streams, the main aim of this study is to extract proteins and identify the main phenolic compounds present in tomato pomace (TP), peel and skins (TPS) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF. Forty different phenolic compounds were identified in the different tomato extracts, encompassing different groups of phenolic compounds, including derivatives of simple phenolic acid derivatives, hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid, flavones, flavonones, flavonol, and dihydrochalcone. In the crude protein extract (TPE) derived from tomatoes, most of these compounds were still present, confirming that valuable phenolic compounds were not degraded during food processing of these co-product streams. Moreover, phenolic compounds present in the tomato protein crude extract could provide a valuable contribution to the required daily intake of phenolics that are usually supplied by consuming fresh vegetables and fruits.
... Another strategy to control this pest, is the development of resistant varieties, however, the resistance traits against Tuta absoluta are not yet identified in local tomato germplasm grown in Algeria. Tomato leaves produces several bioactive metabolites [steroidal alkaloids (11), phenolic compounds and flavonoids (10,25)]. These substances are involved in the host-plant defences and also have several pharmacological and nutritional functions in humans (11). ...
... Several phenolic compounds are identified in tomato leaves by HPLC-MS including the trans and cis-p-coumaric, caffeic, trans-ferulic, sinapic, protocatechuic and vanillic acids (4,5,22,28). Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin and quercetin were found as predominant phenolic compounds in tomato leaves (23,25). The inducible or constitutive expression of these phenolic compounds was not investigated in the tomato leaves. ...
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We investigated the qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill L.) leaves with and without infestation of tomato borer (Tuta absoluta Meyrick). Infested and healthy leaves of tomato were extracted with aqueous methanol, which was partitioned with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Infested leaves contained higher levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and tannins. The HPLC analysis of the n-butanol fraction indicated that the leaves contained the catechin and two unknown compounds, which are likely to be phytoalexins. The protective role of these molecules need to be investigated, to incorporate this finding in the tomato breeding programmes against the tomato borer.
... Our study also showed that different levels of water deficit treatment promoted the accumulation of various components of polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, to different degrees. According to Slimestad and Verheul [43], naringin is the main flavonoid found in tomatoes, followed by quercetin and kaempferol. However, in this study, the highest content of quercetin was observed in tomato fruits among the five treatments, which may be due to differences caused by different tomato varieties. ...
... Phenolic acids, as small molecule metabolites, can be divided into two categories: hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, etc.) and hydroxybenzoic acids (paraben, vanillic acid, syringic acid, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, etc.) [44]. Chlorogenic acid is the main phenolic acid in tomato [43]. Similarly, in this study, the highest tomato phenolic acid content among the five treatments was chlorogenic acid. ...
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Tomatoes have high nutritional value and abundant bioactive compounds. Moderate water deficit irrigation alters metabolic levels of fruits, improving composition and quality. We investigated the effects of water deficit (T1, T2, T3, and T4) treatments and adequate irrigation (CK) on tomato polyphenol composition, antioxidant capacity, and nutritional quality. Compared with CK, the total flavonoid content increased by 33.66% and 44.73% in T1 and T2, and total phenols increased by 57.64%, 72.22%, and 55.78% in T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The T2 treatment significantly enhanced antioxidant’ capacities (ABTS, HSRA, FRAP, and DPPH). There were multiple groups of significant or extremely significant positive correlations between polyphenol components and antioxidant activity. For polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, the classification models divided the treatments: CK and T4 and T1–T3. The contents of soluble solids, soluble protein, vitamin C, and soluble sugar of the treatment groups were higher than those of CK. The soluble sugar positively correlated with sugar–acid ratios. In the PCA-based model, T3 in the first quadrant indicated the best treatment in terms of nutritional quality. Overall, comprehensive rankings using principal component analysis (PCA) revealed T2 > T1 > T3 > T4 > CK. Therefore, the T2 treatment is a suitable for improving quality and antioxidant capacity. This study provides novel insights into improving water-use efficiency and quality in the context of water scarcity worldwide.
... All compounds were identified by comparison of full MS and fragmentation patterns with literature data, except for chlorogenic acid (3a and 3b isomers), rutin (7), and naringenin (9), confirmed by injection of reference standards (Table 1). Results were in agreement with the phenol composition in tomato peels previously reported [21][22][23]. an in vitro model of sarcopenia. Firstly, human skeletal muscle cells (HSMM), for their capacity to reproducibly differentiate into multinucleated myotubes, were examined. ...
... All compounds were identified by comparison of full MS and fragmentation patterns with literature data, except for chlorogenic acid (3a and 3b isomers), rutin (7), and naringenin (9), confirmed by injection of reference standards (Table 1). Results were in agreement with the phenol composition in tomato peels previously reported [21][22][23]. Phenolic acids are caffeoyl/p-coumaroyl glucosides and caffeoylquinic derivatives, all revealed as cis/trans isomers. Among flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, having quercetin and kaempferol as aglycones, were found, as well as flavanone derivatives with naringenin as aglycone. ...
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Tomatoes and their derivates represent an important source of natural biologically active components. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of tomato peel extracts, grown in normal (RED-Ctr) or in drought stress (RED-Ds) conditions, on an experimental model of sarcopenia. The phenolic profile and total polyphenols content (TPC) of RED-Ctr and RED-Ds were determined by Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) analyses coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HR-MS). Human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were differentiated in myotubes, and sarcopenia was induced by dexamethasone (DEXA) treatment. Differentiation and sarcopenia were evaluated by both real-time PCR and immunofluorescent techniques. Data show that myosin heavy chain 2 (MYH2), troponin T (TNNT1), and miogenin (MYOG) were expressed in differentiated myotubes. 5 μg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE/mL) of TPC from RED-Ds extract significantly reduced muscle atrophy induced by DEXA. Moreover, Forkhead BoxO1 (FOXO1) expression, involved in cell atrophy, was significantly decreased by RED-Ds extract. The protective effect of tomato peel extracts depended on their qualitative polyphenolic composition, resulting effectively in the in vitro model of sarcopenia.
... The composition of tomato depends on the variety and developmental stage: Naringenin chalcone, chlorogenic acid, and organic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic) are commonly found in tomato fruit, being rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside) the main flavonoid in ripened tomatoes of most cultivars (Slimestad & Verheul, 2009). ...
... Tomato fruit nonexposed to cold stress shows increased levels of phenolics after ripening (Slimestad & Verheul, 2009) in tomato fruit cv. Micro-Tom exposed to cold stress (4°C/28 days) . ...
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Hot water treatment (HWT) of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit reduces the symptoms of chilling injury (CI). The aim of this study was to identify metabolites associated with HWT-induced CI tolerance in tomato fruit cv. Imperial. Mature green tomatoes with HWT (42°C/5 min) and control were stored under chilling conditions (5°C/20 days) and then ripened (21°C/7 days). Methanol extracts from pericarp were analyzed for total phenolics (TP), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and metabolic profiling by UPLC-DAD-MS and GC-MS. After cold storage and ripening, HWT fruit showed less CI, higher TP, and AoxA than control. It also showed an increased accumulation of phenolics, sugars, and some alkaloids that may be mediated by azelaic acid, glutamine, and tryptophan. The levels of N-feruloyl putrescine, esculeoside AII, and hydroxy-α-tomatine II were reduced. The better metabolic performance of HWT fruit under cold storage was associated with a higher accumulation of several metabolites (e.g., antioxidants and osmolytes) in ripening fruit. Practical application The identification of metabolites associated with the reduction of chilling injury (CI) symptoms in HWT tomato fruit extends the understanding of the mechanisms involved in CI tolerance. This information provides targets that could be used to develop strategies for preventing CI (e.g., genetic improvement of tomato, direct application of key metabolites). The application of such strategies will increase the economic value and decrease postharvest losses.
... The most frequent anthocyanin in tested plum cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside. A similar level of cyanidin-3-rutinoside was obtained in our previous study on plum cultivars selected in Serbia (Tomić et al., 2019) and agree with previous reports of Slimestad andVerheul (2009) andUsenik et al. (2009). Interestingly, ʻČačanska Lepoticaʼ cultivar with dark blue fruits contained a lower level of anthocyanins than less colored cultivar ʻJojoʼ. ...
... The most frequent anthocyanin in tested plum cultivars was cyanidin-3-rutinoside. A similar level of cyanidin-3-rutinoside was obtained in our previous study on plum cultivars selected in Serbia (Tomić et al., 2019) and agree with previous reports of Slimestad andVerheul (2009) andUsenik et al. (2009). Interestingly, ʻČačanska Lepoticaʼ cultivar with dark blue fruits contained a lower level of anthocyanins than less colored cultivar ʻJojoʼ. ...
Article
The study was aimed at assessing chemical composition of fruits of plum cultivars ʻČačanska Lepoticaʼ and ʻJojoʼ grafted on four rootstocks with different mechanisms of resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV): sensitivity, ʻWavitʼ and ʻWeiwaʼ and hypersensitivity, ‘Docera 6’ and ‘Dospina 235’. The cultivar significantly influenced on content of sugars and organic acids, with the highest values in cultivar ʻJojoʼ. The highest content of sucrose, sorbitol and total sugars were found in ʻWeiwaʼ, and all individual and total acids were higher in fruits from trees grafted on ʻWavitʼ. On the one hand ‘Čačanska Lepotica’ had a high content of malic acid, but on the other hand a low content of citric and fumaric acids, regardless of the rootstock. The most abundant phenolic compounds, phenolic acids and flavanols, were shown to be at the highest level in the combinations ʻČačanska Lepoticaʼ/ʻDocera 6ʼ and ʻJojoʼ/ʻWavitʼ, whereas less abundant phenolic compounds, flavonols and anthocyanins, were the highest in the combinations ʻČačanska Lepoticaʼ/ʻWavitʼ and ʻJojoʼ/ʻWeiwaʼ. In order to improve nutritive fruit quality and the technology of growing, as well as to delay the spread of PPV, rootstocks ʻWavitʼ and ʻWeiwaʼ can be recommended for further promotion in modern plum plantations.
... The organic and conventional production practices would not influence the concentration of total polyphenols. [15] in a study on two varieties of tomato Llado and Antillas reported that the total phenol content was not significantly affected by the production method. ...
... Organic and conventional production systems would therefore not influence the levels of β-carotenes and Lycopene in the studied tomato varieties. A similar result was obtained by [15] on two tomato varieties (Llado and Antillas) produced organically and conventionally in Galicia (Spain). This author found carotene contents for conventional production of 4.44 ± 0.77 mg/100g FW and 1.30 ± 0.08 mg/100g FW for Llado and Antillas respectively and 3.90 ± 0.35 mg/100g FW and 2.02 ± 0.65 mg/100g FW for organic production for these two varieties respectively. ...
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Nowadays, organic foods are recognized for having a better nutritional quality than those from conventional agriculture, which explains the growing demand for organic vegetables. For the present research, three tomato cultivars, Mongal F1, Roma VF and F1 Cobra 26 were grown using conventional and organic methods, to assess the impact of cultivation practices and drying method on the micronutrient content of these cultivars. Samples were compared for micronutrient content of lycopene, β-carotene, flavonoids, vitamin C and total content of phenolic compounds using the FRAP and DPPH methods. The results show a high antioxidant activity (5901.338 mmol TE/100g and 6020.545 mmol TE/100g) and a high content of total polyphenols (1595.046 mg EAG/100g DM) for organic growing. The average contents of flavonoids (121.572 mg/100g DM and 129.053 mg/100g DM), β-carotene (39.618 mg/100g DM and 39.751 mg/100g DM), lycopene (169.739 mg/100g DM and 168.894 mg/100g DM) and vitamin C (301.995 mg/100g and 268.252 mg/100g DM) in tomatoes from organic and conventional cultivation show no statistically significant difference. After drying, results report an increase of 188.88% of Flavonoids content (from 62.413 ± 47.285 for mashed tomato to 180.304 ± 72.152 for dried Tomato); a decrease of 34.60%, 27.18% and 47.95% respectively for β-carotene content (from 47.388 ± 1.615 mg /100g DM for mashed tomato to 30.988 ± 0.767 mg /100g DM for dried tomato), lycopene content (from 188.085 ± 7.100 mg/100g DM for mashed tomato to 136.955 ± 2.810mg/100g DM for tomato dried) and vitamin C content (from 385.686 ± 37.825 mg/100g for mashed tomato to 200.743 ± 14.181mg/100g DM for dried tomato). There is variability in the micronutrient content depending on the variety of tomato, the cultivation practice and the processing technique used. Organic cultivation practice improves the micronutrient content. Using gas dryers for drying has the most detrimental effects on the micronutrient content.
... The selection of cultivar and production system is critical to produce tomatoes with high contents of health-promoting phytochemicals (Slimestad et al., 2009). Phytochemicals such as phenolics and other antioxidants are influenced by genotype, growing system, weather conditions, fertilizers, irrigation, and post-harvest handling (Castagna, Dall'Asta, Chiavaro, Galaverna, & Ranieri, 2013;Slimestad & Verheul, 2009;Sturtz, Cerezo, Cantos-Villar, & Garcia-Parrilla, 2011). ...
... The selection of cultivar and production system is critical to produce tomatoes with high contents of health-promoting phytochemicals (Slimestad et al., 2009). Phytochemicals such as phenolics and other antioxidants are influenced by genotype, growing system, weather conditions, fertilizers, irrigation, and post-harvest handling (Castagna, Dall'Asta, Chiavaro, Galaverna, & Ranieri, 2013;Slimestad & Verheul, 2009;Sturtz, Cerezo, Cantos-Villar, & Garcia-Parrilla, 2011). One production system of interest for fruit crops such as tomato involves the use of protective coverings in the field. ...
Article
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a rich source of health-promoting compounds, and epidemiological studies show that tomato consumption may reduce the risk of chronic diseases. This study compared the effect of genotype, production system, and their interaction on eight tomato varieties grown in the open-field (OF) or net-house (NH), a structure completely covered with a 50-mesh screen to reduce pest and wind damage, in South Texas. The NH structure reduced solar radiation up to ∼30% and decreased wind speed by 6.44 km/h compared with conditions measured in the OF. We simultaneously analyzed 16 phenolics and indoleamines using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS). The chemometric analysis showed a distinct difference between NH- and OF-grown tomatoes irrespective of the variety. The melatonin and serotonin contents showed a cultivar-specific effect of the production system. Likewise, the effect of cultivation systems on levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids varied based on tomato cultivar. Among the studied phenolic acids, significantly enhanced levels of sinapic acid were observed in OF-grown tomatoes. Similarly, we detected a considerable genotypic effect on gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and naringin. The interaction of cultivar and production system substantially affected gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, sinapic acid, and apigenin. However, further studies need to be performed to explore the environment-specific effects on the total composition. In summary, our results indicate that the production system plays an important role in tomato composition beyond the natural genetic variation among cultivars.
... Alkaloids in wild-type tomatoes exist at high levels during early developmental stages and decrease gradually at maturity [8]. Phenolic acids in tomatoes are dominated by hydroxycinnamic acid and its conjugates; chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid present in tomatoes are the most extensively investigated [9,10]. Phenolic acids are effective as components of the plant defense system against UV, insects, viruses, and bacteria [11,12], as well as having a remarkable effect on color retention, retarding microbial development, and extending shelf life [13]. ...
Article
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Tomato is abundant in alkaloids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids; however, the effect of transcription factor NOR-like1 on these metabolites in tomato is unclear. We used a combination of widely targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics to analyze wild-type tomatoes and CR-NOR-like1 tomatoes. A total of 83 alkaloids, 85 phenolic acids, and 96 flavonoids were detected with significant changes. Combined with a KEGG enrichment analysis, we revealed 16 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in alkaloid-related arginine and proline metabolism, 60 DEGs were identified in the phenolic acid-related phenylpropane biosynthesis, and 30 DEGs were identified in the flavonoid-related biosynthesis pathway. In addition, some highly correlated differential-expression genes with differential metabolites were further identified by correlation analysis. The present research provides a preliminary view of the effects of NOR-like1 transcription factor on alkaloid, phenolic acid, and flavonoid accumulation in tomatoes at different ripening stages based on widely targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics in plants, laying the foundation for extending fruit longevity and shelf life as well as cultivating stress-resistant plants.
... Tomato is rich in antioxidants and vitamins, playing an important role in reducing harmful cholesterol in the blood, improving metabolism, and preventing cardiovascular disease in the body. [1,2] However, tomato is a berry with a very short storage life due to enhanced ripening and high respiration, leading rapidly reducing fruit quality. Losing tomatoes after the harvest can up to 42 % globally. ...
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This paper presents the modification of chitosan with polyphenols and application the modified chitosan in storage of tomatoes fruits. The ascorbic acid was used as a initiator for the modification reaction. The content of polyphenols was varied from 5 to 20 wt. % in comparison with chitosan weight. Some methods and techniques were used to characterize chitosan and modified chitosan including to infrared (IR) spectroscopy, DPPH assay and inhibition zone diameter by diffusion agar. The obtained results showed that chitosan was modified successfully with polyphenols. The modified chitosan samples have good antioxidant activity and against to E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. Based on the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity results, the most suitable content of polyphenols was found at 10 wt.%. The chitosan modified with 10 wt.% of polyphenols in a combination with nano Ag solution exhibits a significant efficiency on preventing the weight loss as well as remaining color, the firmness, and the soluble solids content (SSC) of tomato fruits during 20 days of testing. Moreover, the modified chitosan/nano Ag also has a great ability in inhibiting the growth of microbial on the skin of tomatoes during post-harvesting storage.
... Martínez et al. [28] and Fuentes et al. [46] observed a similar association between FRAP antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in Solanum chilense fruits and landrace berries, respectively. The antioxidant properties and their potential positive health effects attributable to polyphenols attracted great interest in studies on tomatoes [47][48][49][50]. The Poncho Negro rootstock did not increase the polyphenol content of Old Limachino fruits. ...
Article
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The Old Limachino Tomato is a valuable fruit with exceptional nutritional values and organoleptic sensory properties. However, it suffers from a short shelf-life, compromising post-harvest behavior. As an attempt to improve the fruit’s qualities, Limachino (L) scion was grafted onto rootstock from the rustic landrace Poncho Negro (R). Fruits produced in this graft combination were compared with fruits produced by self-grafted plants (L/L) and from a long-shelf-life cultivar Seminis (LSL). The trials were carried out for 146 days during summer of two consecutive years. Poncho Negro rootstock increased the total number of fruits produced by Limachino scion (L/R). It did not affect the fresh weight of individual fruits but reduced their water content. It has no impact on the Limachino fruit form (quality), a typical characteristic well appreciated by consumers. Fruits produced by LSL exhibited a higher firmness but a lower titratable acidity and antioxidant capacity than L/R and L/L fruits. Panels of 104 untrained final consumers and a trained panel of 13 experts attributed the highest value to L/R fruits and the lowest one to LSL. It was concluded that Poncho Negro rootstock contributes to increasing preferences and the level of acceptability towards Limachino fruits. Further research is needed to develop local technologies in order to expand the production of local tomatoes that are highly valued by consumers.
... Among these, naringenin is a primer for more advanced flavonoid structures but also a substrate in glycosylation reactions. [19] Figure 1 illustrates the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids in tomatoes. ...
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Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) are of great significance in terms of the worldwide consumption of nutritional diets. More than half of the production is sold as fresh products, while the whole fruit is still typically processed into various products, including canned tomatoes, paste, juice, and puree. Tomatoes are rich in phenolic compounds, which are generally present as soluble and bound forms in nature. Large amounts of nutritional and bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and glycoalkaloids have drawn increasing interest in tomato fruits. However, there appears to be a certain anti-nutritional compound that negatively influences human health. As the role of antioxidants in human nutrition has gained increased interest, the bioavailability of tomato fruits is of great importance to be researched and studied, especially due to their associated health benefits for a number of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the processing of tomatoes into various end products, including mechanical and heat treatments, is considered to be one of the most significant factors that are potentially affected by those nutritional properties, anti-nutritional compounds and causing changes in the bioavailability of antioxidants. In this review, the nutritional and antinutritional compounds, and related health and side effects were discussed. The review also focused on the effects of different food processing techniques on the in vivo and in vitro bioavailability of tomato antioxidants.
... These compounds are associated with several individual and synergistic beneficial health effects. Indeed, tomato phytochemistry integrates bioactive compounds whose combinations are known to influence various inflammatory molecular signaling pathways involved in CVD through platelet activity modulation [19][20][21]. Any modification in the composition profile of tomato might hinder its nutritional and health value [22]. ...
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(1) Background: The anthropogenically induced rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and associated climate change are considered a potential threat to human nutrition. Indeed, an elevated CO2 concentration was associated with significant alterations in macronutrient and micronutrient content in various dietary crops. (2) Method: In order to explore the impact of elevated CO2 on the nutritional-health properties of tomato, we used the dwarf tomato variety Micro-Tom plant model. Micro-Toms were grown in culture chambers under 400 ppm (ambient) or 900 ppm (elevated) carbon dioxide. Macronutrients, carotenoids, and mineral contents were analyzed. Biological anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities were assessed in vitro on activated macrophages. (3) Results: Micro-Tom exposure to 900 ppm carbon dioxide was associated with an increased carbohydrate content whereas protein, minerals, and total carotenoids content were decreased. These modifications of composition were associated with an altered bioactivity profile. Indeed, antioxidant anti-inflammatory potential were altered by 900 ppm CO2 exposure. (4) Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that (i) the Micro-Tom is a laboratory model of interest to study elevated CO2 effects on crops and (ii) exposure to 900 ppm CO2 led to the decrease of nutritional potential and an increase of health beneficial properties of tomatoes for human health.
... Since the levels of bioactive compounds can vary by genotype [56], we considered it necessary to study the antioxidant compounds contained in the tomato fruits in the four commercial hybrids in order to analyze their beneficial attributes. Vitamin C is a major natural antioxidant in tomato fruit, which directly reacts with oxygen, thus eliminating it in a closed system. ...
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Increased interest in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production requires breeding to create new cultivars with highly marketable values (e.g., regarding quality, nutrition, and health) and valuable sensorial parameters. The purpose of this research was to compare four tomato commercial hybrids—two newly created and two used as controls in the breeding process, cultivated in a high plastic tunnel, regarding a wide range of physico-chemical properties as well as nutritional and organoleptic components of the fruits, which are relevant for the quality of the tomatoes. The new AS 400 commercial hybrid registered the best results for carotenoids (16.64 mg 100 g−1 FW) and dry matter (6.88%). The highest total ascorbic acid value (28.03 mg 100 g−1 FW) was recorded in the other new hybrid, AS 300, while the highest values of total acidity were recorded on the Precos, used as the control (184.87 mg NaOH 100 g−1 FW). The correlations between the analyzed characteristics and the multivariate analysis provided insight into breeding tomatoes to meet the current fruit quality requirements. Based on the results, hypotheses have been formulated for the creation of new cultivars with anticipatory, prospective character, in order to ensure the future needs of the market and consumers.
... Therefore, the candidate from the database with neither a rutin group nor a hexose group was excluded. Finally, this candidate was tentatively identified as quercetin 3-rutinoside-7-glucoside, which has not previously been reported in tobacco but has been reported in tomato [13]. In addition, eleven potential biomarkers were identified by the methods described above, which were Malate, ouabagenin, taxezopidine K1, taxezopidine K2, taxezopidine K3 and some polyphenol metabolites (quinate, neochlorogenic acid, conjugated chlorogenic acid, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin 3-rutinoside-7-glucoside), whereas the other metabolite is still unknown ( Table 2). ...
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Environmental factors affect plant metabolites, different climates, cultivation conditions, and biotic stresses and genotypes strongly affect their chemical composition and contents. Our aim is to examine the environmental and genetic interaction effects on tobacco metabolite composition. UPLC-QTOF MS/MS coupled with multivariate data analyses were applied for the metabolomics analysis of three tobacco cultivars from different planting regions in China. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that environmental factors have a greater effect on tobacco metabolism compared to genotypes. Twelve biomarkers were screened by orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA). Univariate analysis indicated that Malate, conjugated chlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-rutinoside-7-glucoside, and unknown compound 5 were only influenced by environmental factors (independent of genotype). Quinate, neochlorogenic acid, and ouabagenin, taxezopidine K1, taxezopidine K2, and taxezopidine K3 in tobacco were influenced by the interaction of environmental factors and the genotype. Our results suggest that metabolomics based on UPLC-QTOF MS/MS could be used to analyze the ecological functions of biomarker metabolites and understand the mechanisms of plant adaption to the environment.
... It is the major ingredient for the production of fish sauce. It is rich in health promoting substances such as lycopene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, total phenolic and flavonoid contents (Lana et al. 2006;Lenucci et al. 2006;Slimestad and Verheul 2009;Gokoglu et al. 2012). ...
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The aim of the study was to investigate the preservative effect of turmeric paste on African catfish in tomato sauce with a view to producing ready-to-eat catfish and reduce the stress of processing. The microorganisms associated with the products were enumerated, isolated and identified, lipid oxidation was monitored, and the organoleptic properties were assessed. The microbial load ranged between 0.000 and 2.635 log cfu/g during storage. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans were isolated and there was no presence of patho-genic microorganisms. The range of free fatty acid, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values were 0.3-0.5% oleic acid, 0.00-0.07 meqO2/kg of sample and 0.00-4.69 mg MDA/g respectively. Addition of turmeric had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the taste, texture, aroma, colour and overall acceptability of the canned African catfish in tomato sauce samples. This study therefore established that addition of 3% and 4% turmeric paste to African catfish was effective in limiting microbial growth and reducing hydrolytic rancidity without having negative effect on consumer acceptability.
... It is the major ingredient for the production of fish sauce. It is rich in health promoting substances such as lycopene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, total phenolic and flavonoid contents (Lana et al. 2006;Lenucci et al. 2006;Slimestad and Verheul 2009;Gokoglu et al. 2012). ...
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The aim of the study was to investigate the preservative effect of turmeric paste on African catfish in tomato sauce with a view to producing ready-to-eat catfish and reduce the stress of processing. The microorganisms associated with the products were enumerated, isolated and identified, lipid oxidation was monitored, and the organoleptic properties were assessed. The microbial load ranged between 0.000 and 2.635 log cfu/g during storage. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans were isolated and there was no presence of pathogenic microorganisms. The range of free fatty acid, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values were 0.3 – 0.5% oleic acid, 0.00 – 0.07 meqO2/kg of sample and 0.00 – 4.69 mg MDA/g respectively. Addition of turmeric had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the taste, texture, aroma, colour and overall acceptability of the canned African catfish in tomato sauce samples. This study therefore established that addition of 3% and 4% turmeric paste to African catfish was effective in limiting microbial growth and reducing hydrolytic rancidity without having negative effect on consumer acceptability.
... Researches reported that the TSS in cherry tomatoes was ranged between 3.06 to 8.77% [5,31,32,33]; which is relatively close to our finding of a TSS range from 3.71 to 9.60% (Table 3). Furthermore, tomato is also a source of phenolic compounds which contribute to its antioxidant properties and health benefits [34]. These compounds are important for the detoxification of free radicals [6]. ...
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Nine newly introduced cherry tomato cultivars were evaluated for the yield and yield components and some phytochemical characteristics under high tunnel conditions. The cultivars were Indigo Rose, Oregon II, Indigo Kiwi, Saucy, Oroma, Oregon Cherry, Large German, Gold Nugget, and Indigo Cherry Drops which were developed at Oregon State University breeding programs. A completely randomized block design with three replications was followed in this study. The number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, plant yield, fruit pH, total soluble solids (TSS) of the fruits, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity of the fruits was measured. Gold Nugget showed the highest fruit number per plant (237.89) and yield per plant (2.08 Kg) while Indigo Kiwi expressed the largest fruit weight (50.08 g). In addition, the cultivars showed a wide range of quality characteristics. The fruit pH ranged between (3.73-4.45) for Gold Nugget and Oroma, respectively whereas the TSS ranged between (3.71-9.60) for Indigo Rose and Oregon II, respectively. Also, the cultivars showed a wide range in TPC (0.11-0.56 mg GAE g-1 E) for Gold Nugget and Oregon Cherry, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that the cultivars varied in ABTS Inhibition percentage (14.04-44.95%) in Gold Nugget and Saucy, respectively. Regarding repining time, the earliest cultivars were Gold Nugget, Oregon II, and Oregon Cherry which harvested 66 days after transplanting, while the Indigo Rose cultivar, on the other hand, was extremely late which harvested 112 days after transplanting.
... Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most popular and highly consumed vegetables in the Mediterranean diet; its fruit contains many primary and secondary metabolites with remarkable nutritional and nutraceutical values. Profiling of such metabolites in tomato has been performed in several studies by analysis of the carotenoid [1], phenolic [2], alkaloid [3,4], and volatile [5][6][7] fraction. Many of these components show antioxidant activity and are thus responsible for beneficial effects on human health [8]. ...
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The study describes the alterations in metabolomic profiles of four tomato fruit mutations introgressed into Solanum lycopersicum cv. San Marzano, a well-known Italian traditional variety. Three lines carrying variants affecting the content of all pigments, high pigment-1 (hp-1), hp-2, pigment diluter (pd), and a combination of Anthocyanin fruit and atroviolaceum (Aft_atv), were selected, and characterized. Biochemical analysis of 44 non-polar, 133 polar, and 65 volatile metabolites in ripe fruits revealed a wide range of differences between the variant lines and the recurrent parent San Marzano. Among non-polar compounds, many carotenoids, plastoquinones, and tocopherols increased in the fruit of high pigment lines, as well as in Aft_atv, whose β-carotene levels increased too. Interestingly, pd displayed enriched levels of xanthophylls (all-trans-neoxanthin and luteoxanthin) but, simultaneously, decreased levels of α-and β-/γ-tocopherols. Looking at the metabolites in the polar fraction, a significant decrease in sugar profile was observed in hp-1, pd, and Aft_atv. Conversely, many vitamins and organic acids increased in the hp-2 and Aft_atv lines, respectively. Overall, phenylpropanoids was the metabolic group with the highest extent of polar changes, with considerable increases of many compounds mainly in the case of Aft_atv, followed by the pd and hp-2 lines. Finally, several flavor-related compounds were found to be modified in all mutants, mostly due to increased levels in many benzenoid, lipid, and phenylalanine derivative volatiles, which are associated with sweeter taste and better aroma. Construction of metabolic maps, interaction networks, and correlation matrices gave an integrated representation of the large effect of single variants on the tomato fruit metabolome. In conclusion, the identified differences in the mutated lines might contribute to generating novel phenotypes in the traditional San Marzano type, with increased desirable nutraceutical and organoleptic properties.
... The low caloric value and well-recognized benefits of carotenoids complete the richness in fiber, minerals, and phenolic compounds of tomatoes, making it an excellent functional food [7]. In addition, Slimestada and Verheulb [14] reported about 100 phenolic compounds in tomatoes, of which the most abundant flavonoids are quercetin and kaempferol derivatives (rutin and naringenin), while for phenolic acids it is chlorogenic acid [12,15]. The high bioactivity of phenolic compounds bestows them potent antioxidant activities that can trigger anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-tumor, hepatoprotective, antiviral, and cardioprotective responses; attributes that are increasingly desired in foods [2,16]. ...
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide due to its low caloric intake and high fiber, minerals, and phenolic compounds, making it a high-quality functional food. However, fruit quality attributes can be affected by pre-harvest factors, especially environmental stresses. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of two shading nets (white net −30% and pearl grey net −40% shading degree) on the yield and phytochemical profile of tomato fruits grown in summer under the Mediterranean climate. Mineral and organic acid content (by ion chromatography-IC), phenolic profile (by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-UHPLC coupled with an Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry-HRMS), carotenoid content (by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection-HPLC-DAD), and antioxidant activities DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP (by UV-VIS spectrophotometry) were determined. Tomato fruits grown under the pearl grey net recorded the highest values of total phenolic compounds (14,997 µg 100 g −1 of fresh weight) and antioxidant activities DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP, without affecting either fruit color or marketable yield. The reduction of solar radiation through pearl grey nets proved to be an excellent tool to increase the phytochemical quality of tomato fruits during summer cultivation in a Mediterranean environment.
... In previous studies on tomato saponins, steroidal saponins, such as lycoperosides (1-3), had been isolated from whole fruits [2,[19][20][21]. Furthermore, flavonoids including naringenin (5), astragalin (9), and rutin (10) had been reported to exist in the fruits [22]. On the other hand, as for the constituent study of tomato seeds, these compounds had not been isolated, while hydrophobic compounds, such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and γ-tocopherol, have been found [23]. ...
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Tomatoes are widely consumed, however, studies on tomato seeds are limited. In this study, we isolated 11 compounds including saponins and flavonol glycosides from tomato seeds and evaluated their effects on epidermal hydration. Among the isolated compounds, tomato seed saponins (10 µM) significantly increased the mRNA expression of proteins related to epidermal hydration, including filaggrin, involucrin, and enzymes for ceramide synthesis, by 1.32- to 1.91-fold compared with the control in HaCaT cells. Tomato seed saponins (10 µM) also decreased transepidermal water loss by 7 to 13 g/m2·h in the reconstructed human epidermal keratinization (RHEK) models. Quantitative analysis of the ceramide content in the stratum corneum (SC) revealed that lycoperoside H (1–10 µM) is a promising candidate to stimulate ceramide synthesis via the upregulation of ceramide synthase-3, glucosylceramide synthase, and β-glucocerebrosidase, which led to an increase in the total SC ceramides (approximately 1.5-fold) in concert with ceramide (NP) (approximately 2-fold) in the RHEK models. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of lycoperoside H demonstrated that lycoperoside H is suggested to act as a partial agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects (10 mg/kg in animal test). These findings indicate that lycoperoside H can improve epidermal dehydration and suppress inflammation by increasing SC ceramide and steroidal anti-inflammatory activity.
... Flavonoids are the main polyphenols in tomatoes [31]. As the other phenolic compounds, they exert a protection role from oxidative damages in plants exposed to environmental stress [32]. ...
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The Mediterranean long shelf-life tomato (or long storage tomato) is a plant traditionally cultivated under no irrigation in the Southern regions of Italy, whose fruits have typical high sensory and nutritional quality. However, yield levels are kept low under current cultivation conditions. In this study, the effects of repeated cycles of drying and rehydration on crop productivity and nutritional quality of fruits in terms of polyphenols and carotenoids content were assessed in long shelf-life tomatoes cultivated in a typical semi-arid area of Southern Italy. The three local Sicilian landraces ‘Custonaci’, ‘Salina’ and ‘Vulcano’, and the commercial tomato hybrid ‘Faino’ (control) were submitted to three irrigation treatments: DRY (no irrigation); IRR (long-season full irrigation); REW (drought/rewatering cycles). Total 450, 4710, and 1849 m3 ha−1, were distributed in DRY, IRR, and REW, respectively. At harvest, fruit yield, polyphenols (as total, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids-HCQA), and carotenoids contents (lycopene and β-carotene) were measured. All cultivars benefitted from very limited irrigation in REW, raising their productivity (up to +147% in ‘Vulcano’) with respect to that of plants overstressed in DRY. Irrigation water use efficiency in REW was higher than that in IRR. Water shortage in REW led to a polyphenols content of fruits that was slightly lower (171.1 μg g−1) than that in DRY, but higher than that in IRR (116.8 μg g−1). All local landraces had greater contents (>160 μg g−1) than control (113.0 μg g−1). Under REW and DRY, the two landraces ‘Salina’ and ‘Vulcano’ produced fruits with the same polyphenols and flavonoids contents. Overall, the two water stressed treatments (DRY and REW) did not differ for HCQA content (>66 μg g−1), which was significantly higher than that in the irrigated plots (
... About phenolic compounds, the average value found in tomato fruits during this experiment was 28.7 GAE g -1 FW ( Table 2). Phenolic compounds are also bioactive health compounds involved in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Slimestad and Verheul, 2009) and the results obtained during this study confirm that the studied cultivars contain high quantity of these compounds. ...
... Terrestrial plants grown under elevated CO 2 conditions exhibited a marked increase in total phenolic and flavonoid contents when compared to aquatic ecotypes. The differential responses could be due to the interaction of genetic factors and plant hormones with other environmental factors prevailing in the respective habitats, such as nutrient status, soil properties, and pH (Slimestad and Verheul, 2009;Sobuj et al., 2018). Flavonoids are strongly influenced by plant genotypes, which could influence how they respond to changes in the environment including elevated CO 2 conditions (Lavola et al., 2013). ...
Article
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the vital resources for plants and its concentrations in the atmosphere have been on the increase globally from the 18th century, and continue to rise at approximately 0.4% per year. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment could possibly modify growth and chemical profiles of plants, as well as plant–insect interactions. The present study investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on stem diameters, above-ground biomass and secondary metabolite components of both terrestrial and aquatic forms of Alternanthera philoxeroides. Stem fragments of the weed were grown in six Open Top Chambers (OTCs): three chambers of ambient (~400 ppm) and three chambers of elevated (~1000 ppm) CO2 levels to simulate the current and future CO2 levels, respectively, based on prediction by IPCC (2013). Total dry weights of leaves and stems, as well as stem diameters were measured to evaluate growth and biomass accumulation in A. philoxeroides. Furthermore, chemical analyses were performed on leaf tissues of plants grown under both elevated and ambient atmospheric CO2 treatments to determine the concentration of secondary metabolites (phenolic acids and flavonoids). Results of the analyses revealed that CO2 enrichment significantly increased stem diameters and enhanced above-ground biomass accumulation in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Enriched CO2 atmosphere treatments increased concentration of secondary metabolites in leaf tissues, with leaves of plants grown under elevated CO2 exhibiting remarkably higher concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Total flavonoid content increased by 51.02% in aquatic plants and by 99.03% in terrestrial plants. Total phenolic content increased by 29.57% in aquatic plant leaves while in terrestrial plant leaves the increase was by 61.11%. Above-ground biomass accumulation and increase in stem diameters could enhance competitive ability of the species and its ability to invade and colonize new habitats in response to a future CO2-enriched atmosphere.
... Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most consumed vegetable species because of its contribution to the human nutrition. It represents a valuable source of several healthpromoting compounds due to the balanced mixture of minerals, micronutrients and antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, caro-tenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), potassium, folate, tocopherol and flavonoids such as quercetin (Canene-Adams, Campbell, Zaripheh, Jeffery & Erdman, 2005;Lenucci, Cadinu, Taurino, Piro & Dalessandro, 2006;Slimestad & Verheul, 2009;Pinela, Barros, Carvalho & Ferreira, 2012 The quality of fruits and vegetables represents a complex of the physicochemical properties related to horticultural products and consumer perception . This concept encompasses all who participate in the fresh tomato chain, starting from breeders to production and consumers and includes a number of sensory and physicochemical parameters. ...
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Sensory analysis is the best mean to precisely describe the eating quality of fresh foods. However, it is expensive and time-consuming method which cannot be used for measuring quality properties in real time. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the study of the relationship between sensory and instrumental data, and to define a proper model for predicting sensory properties of fresh tomato through the determination of the physicochemical properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the experimental data to characterize and differentiate among the observed genotypes, explaining 73.52% of the total variance, using the first three principal components. Artificial neural network (ANN) model was used for the prediction of sensory properties based on the results obtained by basic chemical and instrumental determinations. The developed ANN model predicts the sensory properties with high adequacy, with the overall coefficient of determination of 0.859.
... Periago et al. [54] have also reported significant variation ranging from 259.15 to 498.60 mg kg −1 among nine varieties of fresh tomato cultivars. Flavonoids are the main component of total phenolics [55]. They have high antioxidant power that significantly contributes to the health benefit [56]. ...
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Tomatoes are rich in secondary metabolites such as lycopene, β-carotene, phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamin C, which are responsible for their antioxidant activates. A high level of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a health-promoting functional compound, was also found to accumulate in tomato fruit. In addition to the internal quality attributes, the acceptance of the tomato fruit by consumers is highly dependent on appearance and taste. Hence, we conducted this study to evaluate ‘Tori’, ‘TY VIP’, ‘Mamirio’, and ‘Arya’ tomato cultivars based on their physicochemical characteristics, contents of secondary metabolites, and GABA content. The results have revealed that the tested cultivars were very firm, which renders them the best choice for postharvest distribution of fresh market tomatoes as they resist impacts during harvesting and postharvest operations. Based on total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and Brix acid ratio (BAR) the choice of cultivar could be ‘Mamirio’ > ’Tori’ > ‘TY VIP’ > ‘Arya’. Apart from flavor intensity, ‘Mamirio’ and ’Tori’ also revealed the highest content of ascorbic acid while ‘Mamirio’ and ‘Arya’ had the highest carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene) accumulation. On the other hand, the highest total phenolics content was recorded from ‘TY VIP’ and ‘Arya’. Moreover, the highest total flavonoids and GABA contents were recorded from ‘TY VIP’. Nevertheless, the antioxidant activity of ‘TY VIP’ was the lowest of all tested cultivars while the highest was recorded from ‘Mamirio’. Taken together, the findings of the present study could suggest that the consumers’ requirements could be better fulfilled by choosing cultivars for the specific target functional compounds. From the tested cultivars, if the target is ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity then ‘Mamirio’ is the best choice. On the other hand, if the target is total phenolics, flavonoids, and GABA then ‘TY VIP’ is the best choice. One could also label ‘Mamirio’ as an ‘antioxidant tomato’ and ‘TY VIP’ as the ‘GABA tomato’.
... Produce commodities were obtained from commercial growers and packers in the United States. There is some evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that fruit variety (cultivar) can influence the skin characteristics of some fruits (76,118). Cultivars are not always known or reported in many food safety studies but were as follows: blackberry ('Apache'), blueberry ('Chandler'), raspberry ('Latham'), lemon ('Eureka'), mandarin orange ('Clementine'), cherry ('Bing'), tomato ('Red Round' proprietary cultivar), broccoli ('Emerald Crown'), cauliflower ('Flamenco'), and carrot ('Imperator'). ...
Article
Listeria monocytogenes causes relatively few outbreaks linked to whole fresh produce but triggers recalls each year in the United States. There are limited data on the influence of wet versus dry inoculation methods on pathogen growth on whole produce. A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains that included clinical, food, and environmental isolates associated with foodborne outbreaks and recalls was used. Cultures were combined to target a final wet inoculum concentration of 4 to 5 log CFU/mL. The dry inoculum was prepared by mixing wet inoculum with 100 g of sterile sand and drying for 24 h. Produce investigated belonged to major commodity families: Ericaceae (blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry), Rutaceae (lemon and mandarin orange), Rosaceae (sweet cherry), Solanaceae (tomato), Brassaceae (cauliflower and broccoli), and Apiaceae (carrot). Whole intact, inoculated fruit and vegetable commodities were incubated at 2, 12, 22, and 35 ± 2°C. Commodities were sampled for up to 28 days, and the experiment was replicated six times. The average maximum growth increase was obtained by measuring the maximum absolute increase for each replicate within a specific commodity, temperature, and inoculation method. Data for each commodity, replicate, and temperature were used to create primary growth or survival models describing the lag phase and growth or shoulder and decline as a function of time. Use of a liquid inoculum (versus dry inoculum) resulted in a markedly increased L. monocytogenes growth rate and growth magnitude on whole produce surfaces. Temperature highly influenced this difference: a greater effect seen with more commodities at higher temperatures (22 and 35°C) versus lower temperatures (2 and 12°C). These findings need to be explored for other commodities and pathogens. The degree to which wet or dry inoculation techniques more realistically mimic contamination conditions throughout the supply chain (e.g., production, harvest, postharvest, transportation, or retail) should be investigated. Highlights:
... Furthermore, tomato is also a source of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and vitamins such as ascorbic acid. All of these compounds contribute to its antioxidant properties and beneficial health effects [19]. ...
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In light of foreseen global climatic changes, we can expect crops to be subjected to several stresses that may occur at the same time, but information concerning the effect of long-term exposure to a combination of stresses on fruit yield and quality is scarce. This work looks at the effect of a long-term combination of salinity and high temperature stresses on tomato yield and fruit quality. Salinity decreased yield but had positive effects on fruit quality, increasing TSS, acidity, glucose, fructose and flavonols. High temperatures increased the vitamin C content but significantly decreased the concentration of some phenolic compounds (hydroxycinnamic acids and flavanones) and some carotenoids (phytoene, phytofluene and violaxanthin). An idiosyncrasy was observed in the effect of a combination of stresses on the content of homovanillic acid O-hexoside, lycopene and lutein, being different than the effect of salinity or high temperature when applied separately. The effect of a combination of stresses may differ from the effects of a single stress, underlining the importance of studying how stress interactions may affect the yield and quality of crops. The results show the viability of exploiting abiotic stresses and their combination to obtain tomatoes with increased levels of health-promoting compounds.
... Additionally, antioxidant levels in tomatoes depend not only on the cultivar and culture conditions but also on the maturity level of the fruit [65]. In fact, previous investigations have demonstrated a positive correlation between maturity level and phenolic content [66][67][68][69]. In this study, Green Zebra grafted onto Arnold rootstock exhibited the lowest soluble solid percentage, an indicator of fruit maturity, of the Green Zebra cultivars. ...
Article
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Heirloom tomato varieties are in demand by consumers due to high antioxidant levels. However, these varieties are difficult to produce and are prone to disease. To overcome these problems, heirloom tomatoes may be cultivated in hydroponic systems and grafted onto disease-resistant rootstocks. However, it is unknown if the antioxidant content and capacity are affected by grafting. In this study, heirloom (Black Krim and Green Zebra) and standard (Big Beef) varieties were grafted onto wild type (WT) or productive rootstocks (Arnold and Supernatural). The tomatoes were harvested at maturity, freeze-dried, and ground into a powder. Lycopene was extracted using hexane, and the content was determined spectrophotometrically at 503 nm. The antioxidant capacity of methanol extracts was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-di[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonsyr]sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, whereas the phenolic content was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Interestingly, the grafting of Big Beef and Green Zebra onto Supernatural rootstock resulted in an increased antioxidant capacity, as determined by the DPPH assay. Moreover, the phenolic content was changed for Big Beef grafted onto Arnold, and Big Beef and Green Zebra grafted onto Supernatural. Taken together, these results indicate that certain combinations of standard and heirloom tomato varieties and productive rootstocks may influence the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. These results may be used to guide producers when choosing rootstocks for cultivating hydroponic tomatoes.
... The tomato crop (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. Mexico in 2018 ranked ninth worldwide with a production of 4,559,375 tons (Balcha et al., 2015;SIAP-SAGARPA, 2020;FAO, 2020), is valuable because of the flavor and beneficial health properties of its secondary compounds (Slimestad and Verheul, 2009;Shah et al., 2015;Alam et al., 2019;Bailoni, 2020). It is cultivated in open-air and greenhouse conditions, but in both cases, is necessary vigorous seedlings, that guarantee the uniformity in seeds germination, and a fast growth for an efficient production (Herrera et al., 2008;Ozer and Kandemir, 2016). ...
Article
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Tomato production under greenhouse conditions needs vigorous seedlings to reduce the loss of plants after the transplant. Different local substrates such as agave bagasse, pine bark and coconut fiber complemented with peat, expanded clay, vermiculite and pure peat for tomato seedlings production were tested. The seed germination, root ball compaction, height of the seedling, stem diameter, and total dry weight were quantified. The stem diameter observed in Agave - bagasse + peat + expanded - clay + vermiculite (30:60:5:5 v/v) (BMTAEV3), Agave - bagasse + pine - bark + peat + expanded - clay + vermiculite (30:30:30:5:5) (BMCPTAEV4), Agave - bagasse + peat + expanded - clay + vermiculite (50:30:10:10) (BMTAEV5), Sphagnum peat (SUNSHINE® 3) 100% (M3SC), and Agave - bagasse + peat + expanded - clay + vermiculite (40:40:10:10) (BMTAEV6) treatments were in acceptable parameter range to commercial use, but BMTAEV3, BMTAEV5, and BMTAEV6 treatments show better germination, root ball compaction, a bigger height and diameter, getting tomato seedlings with vigor to the transplant. The local substrata overcome the commercial growth medium parameters in seedlings evaluation. It is shown that mixtures of agave-bagasse with expanded clay, and vermiculite are a substrate alternative for tomato seedlings production, reducing the use of expensive and scarce material such as peat by up to between 40 and 60% (v/v). (PDF) Mixtures design of Agave angustifolia Haw (Asparagales: Agavaceae) residue as a growth medium for tomato seedlings. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351232461_Mixtures_design_of_Agave_angustifolia_Haw_Asparagales_Agavaceae_residue_as_a_growth_medium_for_tomato_seedlings [accessed Jul 22 2021].
... These results suggested that the diversity of secondary metabolites largely contributes to the wide diversity of metabolites among tomato cultivars. Our results showed good agreement with a previous study by Slimestad and Verheul (2009), who reported some secondary metabolite diversity in tomato cultivars. ...
Article
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The total number of low‐molecular‐weight compounds in the plant kingdom, most of which are secondary metabolites, is hypothesized to be over one million, although only a limited number of plant compounds have been characterized. Untargeted analysis, especially using mass spectrometry (MS), has been useful for understanding the plant metabolome; however, due to the limited availability of authentic compounds for MS‐based identification, the identities of most of the ion peaks detected by MS remain unknown. Accurate mass values of peaks obtained by high accuracy mass measurement and, if available, MS/MS fragmentation patterns provide abundant annotation for each peak. Here, we carried out an untargeted analysis of compounds in the mature fruit of 25 tomato cultivars using liquid chromatography‐Orbitrap MS for accurate mass measurement, followed by manual curation to construct the metabolome database TOMATOMET (http://metabolites.in/tomato‐fruits/). The database contains 7,118 peaks with accurate mass values, in which 1,577 ion peaks are annotated as members of a chemical group. Remarkably, 71% of the mass values are not found in the accurate masses detected previously in Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula or Jatropha curcas, indicating significant chemical diversity among plant species that remains to be solved. Interestingly, substantial chemical diversity exists also among tomato cultivars, indicating that chemical profiling from distinct cultivars contributes towards understanding the metabolome, even in a single organ of a species, and can prioritize some desirable metabolic targets for further applications such as breeding.
... Flavonoids are essential for human health, and are bioactive in anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, antibacterial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidative [5,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. Fruits are rich in flavonoids, and different kinds of flavonoids have been identified in fruits [13,51,52]. The accumulation of flavonoids displays tissue specificity and natural variation in fruits [7,13,53,54]. ...
Article
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Fruits provide humans with multiple kinds of nutrients and protect humans against worldwide nutritional deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to understand the nutrient composition of various fruits in depth. In this study, we performed LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomic analyses with ten kinds of fruit, including passion fruit, mango, starfruit, mangosteen, guava, mandarin orange, grape, apple, blueberry, and strawberry. In total, we detected over 2500 compounds and identified more than 300 nutrients. Although the ten fruits shared 909 common-detected compounds, each species accumulated a variety of species-specific metabolites. Additionally, metabolic profiling analyses revealed a constant variation in each metabolite’s content across the ten fruits. Moreover, we constructed a neighbor-joining tree using metabolomic data, which resembles the single-copy protein-based phylogenetic tree. This indicates that metabolome data could reflect the genetic relationship between different species. In conclusion, our work enriches knowledge on the metabolomics of fruits, and provides metabolic evidence for the genetic relationships among these fruits.
... Moreover, Lozano-Cavazos et al. (2018) reported higher concentrations of polyphenols in tomato fruits produced under organic fertilisation compared with that in the control, by 36% and 33% for THP and TCP, respectively. In general, it has been noted that organically produced tomatoes exhibited higher levels of polyphenols compared to conventionally produced tomatoes, which may offer potential health benefits because of the antioxidant properties (Slimestad and Verheul 2009). According to the sources of the organic fertilisers and the protein hydrolysate used, the fruit THP, TCP and TSS concentration showed different effects to that observed for the parameters of growth, biomass, and yield, despite the fact that protein hydrolysates have been characterised to improve fruit phytochemicals parameters of fruits and vegetables (carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and lycopene) (Parađiković et al. 2011;Gurav and Jadhav 2013;Ertani et al. 2014;Colla et al. 2017;Rouphael et al. 2017). ...
Article
Agriculture needs to supply food for a growing population whilst also minimising the environmental impact, and the adoption of sustainable agriculture systems has been proposed as a solution to achieve this. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seven fertilisation treatments (FT1-FT6 organic fertilisers, FT7 conventional fertiliser) and two irrigation methods (drenching and non-recirculating subirrigation (NRS)) on plant growth, yield, fruit quality and polyphenol concentrations in grape tomatoes. For plants irrigated by drenching, leaf dry weight (dw), total plant biomass dw, fruit number and total yield were higher in the organic fertilisation treatment FT6 (including fish-derived protein hydrolysate as an N-source), surpassing the conventional treatment (FT7) by 35%, 9%, 21%, and 4% for these parameters, respectively, though the difference was only significant for leaf dw. For plants grown with NRS, the total yield in FT7 was higher than that in any of the organic fertiliser treatments. In the organic treatments FT1, FT3 and FT4 the tomatoes had higher total soluble solids concentrations than the fruit in FT7. With drench irrigation, the concentrations of total hydrolysable polyphenols were highest in FT2, FT5 and FT7, but with NRS, it was highest is FT2. With drenching, the concentration of total condensed polyphenols was highest in FT1, whereas with NRS it was similar in all fertilisation treatments. The results indicated that for the production of grape tomatoes, adding fish derived protein hydrolysates and using the subirrigation system can help reduce the gap between the yields of organic and conventional systems.
... These substances capture free radicals in organisms, preventing cellular oxidative stress, and, consequently, diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular problems, and premature aging (Martí et al., 2016;Ray et al., 2011). Among these elements, the most promising are vitamins; phenolic compounds; and carotenoids, including betacarotene and lycopene, responsible for the color of fruit (Chaudhary et al., 2018;Salehi et al., 2019;Slimestad and Verheul, 2009). ...
Article
The choice of promising parents represents a crucial step in developing improved cultivars in breeding programs for mini-tomatoes— highly demanded miniature vegetables. The association of non-sensory and sensory features of fruit greatly enhances the generation of cultivars that meet the expectations of the productive and commercial chain of tomatoes, focusing on diverse market niches. Thus, in this study, five genotypes of mini-tomatoes were characterized based on physical, biochemical, and sensory attributes. The genetic material encompasses four cultivars (BRS Iracema, BRS Zamir, Iraí, and Sweet Heaven) and one landrace (UEL 238). The fruit were characterized by their dimension, color, firmness, soluble solids content, acidity, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. In the sensorial test, 109 participants, including 27 chefs, evaluated the shape, size, color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking of the fruit. The cultivar Sweet Heaven, with an oblong red fruit, brought together the main desirable physical traits, such as greater mass, pericarp thickness, firmness, and soluble solids content; while BRS Zamir presented superior values for biochemical characteristics, such as total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. Despite the lesser appreciation of the landrace UEL 238, all genotypes were accepted by consumers, especially BRS Iracema (round red fruit), followed by Iraí (oblong yellow fruit). The characterized mini-tomatoes may be explored in breeding programs as promising parents to combine desirable sensory attributes with the highest nutraceutical quality, resulting in superior cultivars that have been increasingly demanded on the market.
... Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most consumed vegetable species because of its contribution to the human nutrition. It represents a valuable source of several healthpromoting compounds due to the balanced mixture of minerals, micronutrients and antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, caro-tenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), potassium, folate, tocopherol and flavonoids such as quercetin (Canene-Adams, Campbell, Zaripheh, Jeffery & Erdman, 2005;Lenucci, Cadinu, Taurino, Piro & Dalessandro, 2006;Slimestad & Verheul, 2009;Pinela, Barros, Carvalho & Ferreira, 2012 The quality of fruits and vegetables represents a complex of the physicochemical properties related to horticultural products and consumer perception . This concept encompasses all who participate in the fresh tomato chain, starting from breeders to production and consumers and includes a number of sensory and physicochemical parameters. ...
Article
Sensory analysis is the best mean to precisely describe the eating quality of fresh foods. However, it is expensive and time-consuming method which cannot be used for measuring quality properties in real time. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the study of the relationship between sensory and instrumental data, and to define a proper model for predicting sensory properties of fresh tomato through the determination of the physicochemical properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the experimental data to characterize and differentiate among the observed genotypes, explaining 73.52% of the total variance, using the first three principal components. Artificial neural network (ANN) model was used for the prediction of sensory properties based on the results obtained by basic chemical and instrumental determinations. The developed ANN model predicts the sensory properties with high adequacy, with the overall coefficient of determination of 0.859.
... Produce commodities were obtained from commercial growers and packers in the United States. There is some evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that fruit variety (cultivar) can influence the skin characteristics of some fruits (76,118). Cultivars are not always known or reported in many food safety studies but were as follows: blackberry ('Apache'), blueberry ('Chandler'), raspberry ('Latham'), lemon ('Eureka'), mandarin orange ('Clementine'), cherry ('Bing'), tomato ('Red Round' proprietary cultivar), broccoli ('Emerald Crown'), cauliflower ('Flamenco'), and carrot ('Imperator'). ...
Article
Listeria monocytogenes was associated with more than 60 produce recalls, including tomato, cherry, broccoli, lemon, and lime, between 2017 and 2020. This study describes the effects of temperature, time, and food substrate as factors influencing L. monocytogenes behavior on whole intact raw fruits and vegetables. Ten intact whole fruit and vegetable commodities were chosen based on data gaps identified in a systematic literature review. Produce investigated belong to major commodity families: Ericaceae (blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry), Rutaceae (lemon and mandarin orange), Roseaceae (sweet cherry), Solanaceae (tomato), Brassaceae (cauliflower and broccoli), and Apiaceae (carrot). A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains that included clinical, food, or environmental isolates linked to foodborne outbreaks was used to inoculate intact whole fruits and vegetables. Samples were incubated at 2, 12, 22, 30, and 35°C with relative humidities matched to typical real-world conditions. Foods were sampled (n = 6) for up to 28 days, depending on temperature. Growth and decline rates were estimated using DMFit, an Excel add-in. Growth rates were compared with ComBase modeling predictions for L. monocytogenes. Almost every experiment showed initial growth, followed by subsequent decline. L. monocytogenes was able to grow on the whole intact surface of all produce tested, except for carrot. The 10 produce commodities supported growth of L. monocytogenes at 22 and 35°C. Growth and survival at 2 and 12°C varied by produce commodity. The standard deviation of the square root growth and decline rates showed significantly larger variability in both growth and decline rates within replicates as temperature increased. When L. monocytogenes growth occurred, it was conservatively modeled by ComBase Predictor, and growth was generally followed by decreases in concentration. This research will assist in understanding the risks of foodborne disease outbreaks and recalls associated with L. monocytogenes on fresh whole produce. Highlights:
... phenolic derivatives among the highest VIP scores). It is well known that tomato fruits, leaves and stems contain a wide range of flavonoids and phenolic acids,15,34 where they exhibit central functions such as protecting the plant against ultraviolet radiation.35 Most of the metabolites were up-regulated in young tomato roots (34 days old) while only compounds 2 (tryptophan) and5 (unknown) were up-regulated in the older roots (62 days old). ...
Article
Introduction: The tomato plant, Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), is one of the most widely consumed vegetables in the world and plays an important role in human diet. Tomato cultivars are hosts for diverse types of pests, implying diverse chemical defence strategies. Glycoalkaloids are the main specialised metabolites produced by tomato leaves and fruits to protect against pests. However, the roots have received little attention, leading to limited knowledge about their phytochemical content. Objective: The main goal of the current study was the development of an untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) based metabolomic approach to study phytochemical variations in tomato roots at two different development stages (i.e. 34th and 62nd day after sowing). Methods: UHPLC-HRMS was used to establish the fingerprint of 24 batches of tomato roots. Statistical analyses were performed to highlight the compounds that discriminated between young and mature tomato roots. A dereplication strategy using molecular networking and HRMS/MS data was set up to identify the metabolites regulated during early root development. Key findings: The main biomarkers were guanidine and adenosine derivatives associated with tryptophan. Secondary metabolites such as glycoalkaloids and steroidal alkaloids were also characterised. Most of the metabolites were up-regulated in young tomato roots (34 days old) while tryptophan was up-regulated in the older roots (62 days old). Conclusion: The metabolic changes observed in this work contribute to a deeper understanding of early-stage root development and may help our understanding of the complex processes involved in the tomato root defence arsenal.
... No differences between coverings were detected for the three flavonol compounds that we studied; however, all three were found to be in the ranges as determined by previous tomato studies [56,[72][73][74][75][76]. The aforementioned tomato studies did not specify the production system and it is possible that their samples came from the open-field. ...
Article
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(1) Background: We assessed the impact of high tunnel coverings and harvest maturity (breaker and light red) on antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid (AsA), lycopene, β–carotene, and phenolic compound (flavonoid and phenolic acid) accumulation in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) at harvest and postharvest. (2) Methods: The two-year study in Olathe, KS, included six different coverings: a standard polyethylene (standard poly), diffuse poly (diffuse), clear poly (clear), UV-A/UV-B blocking poly (block), 55% shade cloth + standard poly (shade), and removal of standard poly two weeks prior to harvest (movable). (3) Results: Antioxidant capacity increased in fruit grown under the clear covering, compared to the shade covering (p < 0.05); similarly, AsA accumulation increased under the standard and clear coverings, relative to the movable and shade coverings (p < 0.001). Postharvest, at the point of consumption (POC), rutin increased in fruit harvested at light red stage versus breaker stage (p < 0.001), and chlorogenic acid increased in light red harvested fruit by 60% under movable, 55% under shade, and 43% under block covering than breaker harvested fruit (p < 0.01). (4) Conclusions: Based on these results, we conclude that both high tunnel covering and postharvest maturation alter antioxidant capacity, AsA, lycopene, and phenolic compound accumulation profiles by the POC.
... Tomatoes and tomato-based food have proven to possess a wide variety of bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human well-being; among these, dietary antioxidants like carotenoids, polyphenols, and vitamins are the most abundant in tomato fruits. Indeed, carotenoids have shown to play an important role in reducing the incidence of some chronic diseases, like cancer and cardiovascular diseases [10], whereas polyphenols in tomatoes have proved to prevent the oxidative damage [11][12][13][14] in human cells. Recently, the influence of the cultivation system on the polyphenols content has been found to depend mostly on variety and year than the cultivation and drying methods [15,16]. ...
Article
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Torpedino di Fondi (TF) is a hybrid tomato landrace developed in Sicily and recently introduced in the south Lazio area along with the classical San Marzano (SM) cultivar. The present study aimed at characterizing TF tomatoes at both pink and red ripening stages, and at comparing them with traditional SM tomatoes. A multidisciplinary approach consisting of morphological, chemical (FT-ICR MS, NMR, HPLC, and spectrophotometric methods), and biological (antioxidant and antifungal in vitro activity) analyses was applied. Morphological analysis confirmed the mini-San Marzano nature and the peculiar crunchy and solid consistency of TF fruits. Pink TF tomatoes displayed the highest content of hydrophilic antioxidants, like total polyphenols (0.192 mg/g), tannins (0.013 mg/g), flavonoids (0.204 mg/g), and chlorophylls a (0.344 mg/g) and b (0.161 mg/g), whereas red TF fruits were characterized by the highest levels of fructose (3000 mg/100 g), glucose (2000 mg/100 g), tryptophan (2.7 mg/100 g), phenylalanine (13 mg/100 g), alanine (25 mg/100 g), and total tri-unsaturated fatty acids (13% mol). Red SM fruits revealed the greatest content of lipophilic antioxidants, with 1234 mg/g of total carotenoids. In agreement with phenolics content, TF cultivar showed the greatest antioxidant activity. Lastly, red TF inhibited Candida species (albicans, glabrata and krusei) growth.
Article
The objective was to evaluate the effect of visible spectrum LED lighting during shelf-life on physicochemical quality and the main bioactive compounds of Kumato® cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were stored 13 days at 5 °C under white (W), blue (B), blue + red (B + R), green + red (G + R), and green + far-red (G + FR) LED lights. Darkness (D) was used as control. Tomatoes under illumination showed higher weight losses and firmness decreases (30–35%). No chilling injury was observed. B + R lighting increased the carotenoid content by ∼27%, while G + R and G + FR reported an increase ∼30% in phenolics. B and B + R showed the highest increase in the phytochemical biosynthesis (lycopene and naringenin, as main carotenoid and flavonoid found) compared to D and W. Conclusively, illumination with B + R or B during shelf-life is recommended to enhance the main bioactive compounds. G + R and G + FR, also reported to be good elicitors of the phenolics and carotenoids biosynthesis.
Article
Tomatoes are globally recognized as an important crop due to their sensory properties and abundant bioactive compounds. However, their susceptibility to contamination by fungus and other pest, has resulted in an increase in pesticide use for crop management. Pesticide can remain in fruits and their products, reducing their functionality. In this review, we discussed the profile of bioactive compounds related to defense mechanisms of tomatoes that could be stimulated in the crop as a friendly strategy to mitigate the risk of fungal and mycotoxin contamination. The beneficial effects of genetic modification and plant management to improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stress have been highlighted in several publications. The effect of crop management on the profile of phenolic compounds, minerals, elicitors, phytoalexins, defense enzymes and amino acids in tomatoes and other fruits was also demonstrated. However, the challenge of developing a model to demonstrate the interaction of these abiotic parameters and vegetable resilience remains, since there are several multivariate relations between defense mechanisms and the fungal susceptibility of tomatoes. The review will be useful to researchers engaged in promoting safer and more sustainable techniques to mitigate fungal contamination in tomato crops.
Article
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Consuming (poly)phenol-rich fruits and vegetables, including tomato, is associated with health benefits. The health effects of tomato (poly)phenolic compounds have been attributed to their metabolites rather than parent compounds and their bioavailability can be modulated by several factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of seasonal consumption of local tomatoes on their (poly)phenol bioavailability. For this, (poly)phenol absorption and metabolism were evaluated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and linear ion trap mass spectrometric (uHPLC-MSn) after chronic tomato consumption in Fischer rats exposed to three photoperiods mimicking the seasonal daylight schedule. Tomatoes from two locations in Spain (LT, local tomatoes and NLT, non-local tomatoes) were used in this in vivo feeding study. The bioavailability of tomato (poly)phenols depended on the photoperiod to which the rats were exposed, the metabolite concentrations significantly varying between seasons. In-season tomato consumption allowed obtaining the highest concentration of total circulating metabolites. In addition, the origin of the tomato administered generated marked differences in the metabolic profiles, with higher serum concentrations reached upon NLT ingestion. We concluded that in-season tomato consumption led to an increase in (poly)phenol circulation, whereas LT consumption showed lower circulating metabolites than NLT ones. Thus, the origin of the tomato and the seasonal daylight schedule affect the bioavailability of tomato (poly)phenols, which could also affect their bioactivity.
Chapter
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An antioxidant is of great interest among researchers, scientists, nutritionists, and the public because of its ability to prevent oxidative damage, as indicated by various studies. This chapter mainly focuses on the free radicals and their types; antioxidants and their mode of action against free radicals; fruits, vegetables, and their byproducts as a source of antioxidants; and various analytical methods employed for assessing antioxidant activity. Antioxidants discussed in this chapter are ascorbic acid, Vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols, and their mechanism of action. Different antioxidant activity assay techniques have been reported. Fruits and vegetables are abundant sources of these secondary metabolites. The waste generated during processing has many bioactive materials, which possibly be used in value-added by-products.
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The use of plant biostimulants is a promising tool to stimulate crop growth and yield, as well as to promote plant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of oligosaccharides and their mode of application (to roots, leaves, or both) on the yield and fruit composition of tomatoes grown under greenhouse conditions. Two set-point temperatures for ventilation were established, resulting in two high-temperature levels, one higher than the other. Oligosaccharins stimulated photosynthesis and improved fruit production at both temperatures, but increased yields were more evident under lower temperature-stress. Treatments that included the application of oligosaccharins to the roots decreased the concentrations of sugars, lutein, lycopene, and most phenolic compounds in the fruit. However, when oligosaccharins were applied via the leaves, the concentration of most of the metabolites of nutritional interest in the fruit did not change. The different effects of oligosaccharins on the concentration of the different compounds may be due to a dilution effect due to increased fruit yield, and/or to the possible role of the biostimulants in reducing the stress situation in tomato plants. The results show that the application of biostimulants such as oligosaccharins can improve tomato yield under stress conditions, with the advantage that they are natural products with no negative effect on the environment.
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of seasonal fluctuations on some metabolites and to explore the correlation between soil and plant analysis in Hyoscyamus boveanus (H.boveanus) at the Wadi El-Sheikh Awad in Saint Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for physical and chemical properties of the soil associated with H. boveanus during 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, which increased most of them during the first depth. All chemical composition contents of H. boveanus are influenced significantly (p < 0.05) by seasons studied, except Na+, glycosides, total phenol, crude protein contents. A substantial increase in mineral composition (Na+, K+, P and Fe2+), total alkaloids, glycosides, total phenol, proline, total carbohydrates and all photosynthetic pigments contents were recorded in H. boveanus during the summer season. While, the mineral composition (Ca2+, Mg2+, S, N and Cl-), water content and crude protein contents appeared to be higher in the winter season. The relationships between soil and plant variables were delineated by performing the principal component analysis (PCA). The PC1 and PC2 displayed differences between the soil and plant variables, also, the variables Mg2+, Cl-, pH, EC, Ca2+ and K+ in the soil associated with H. boveanus are variables with better chemical properties of the soil, which affect the plant distribution in Wadi El-Sheikh Awad during the two seasons. The PCA revealed high positive correlations among soil variables as well as among plant variables. Soil magnesium correlated highly and positively with the plant variables i.e., crude protein, water content, Chl b, Chl a+b, carotein and total pigment contents. The pH, EC, and Ca2+ in soil were positively correlated with all chemical composition contents of H. boveanus. Some metabolites in H. boveanus were significantly increased during the summer season compared to the other season, due to the activation of plant physiological stress tolerance mechanisms.
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Background: Tomato by-products contain a great variety of biologically active substances and represent a significant source of natural antioxidant supplements of the human diet. The aim of the work was to compare the antioxidant properties of a by-product from an ancient Tuscan tomato variety, Rosso di Pitigliano (RED), obtained by growing plants in normal conditions (-Ctr) or in drought stress conditions (-Ds) for their beneficial effects on vascular related dysfunction. Methods: The antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content (TPC) were measured. The identification of bioactive compounds of tomato peel was performed by HPLC. HUVEC were pre-treated with different TPC of RED-Ctr or RED-Ds, then stressed with H2O2. Cell viability, ROS production and CAT, SOD and GPx activities were evaluated. Permeation of antioxidant molecules contained in RED across excised rat intestine was also studied. Results: RED-Ds tomato peel extract possessed higher TPC than compared to RED-Ctr (361.32 ± 7.204 mg vs. 152.46 ± 1.568 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight). All extracts were non-cytotoxic. Two hour pre-treatment with 5 µg GAE/mL from RED-Ctr or RED-Ds showed protection from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and significantly reduced ROS production raising SOD and CAT activity (* p < 0.05 and ** p < 0.005 vs. H2O2, respectively). The permeation of antioxidant molecules contained in RED-Ctr or RED-Ds across excised rat intestine was high with non-significant difference between the two RED types (41.9 ± 9.6% vs. 26.6 ± 7.8%). Conclusions: RED-Ds tomato peel extract represents a good source of bioactive molecules, which protects HUVECs from oxidative stress at low concentration.
Article
Alteration of fruit quality caused by environmental stress is a common but largely unresolved issue for plant cultivation and breeding practices. Phosphorus (P) deficiency may interfere with a variety of metabolic processes whose intermediate products are correlated with important fruit quality traits. However, how low P stress affects fruit quality has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we assessed the contents of major metabolites associated with tomato fruit quality under two low P treatments that started at the seedling or flowering stage. The major pigments and the key organic acids related to fruit sourness were differentially over-accumulated as fruit ripened under two low P treatments compared to those under the control treatment, while the total content of soluble sugars contributing to fruit sweetness was substantially reduced under both treatments. These changes were largely attributed to the alteration of enzyme activities in the relevant metabolic pathways. In particular, we found that low P stress from different developmental stages had differential effects on the activation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt that were likely responsible for the preferential accumulation of different organic acids in tomato fruits. Our study suggested that low P stress strongly affected tomato fruit quality and the effects appeared to be variable under different regimes of low P conditions.
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Protocatechuic acid-4-, gallic acid-4-, caffeic acid-4-, ferulic acid- and p-coumaric acid-O-β-ᴅ-glucoside were synthesized. These substances were characterized by UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FAB-MS. Their proportions in berry fruit and vegetable were determined by means of HPLC and capillary GC.
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Bioactive compounds and their relationship with antioxidant activity were determined in three tomato cultivars (Ronaldo, Siena and Copo) during vine ripening. The lycopene, chlorophyll (total, a and b), total phenolic, flavonoid, vitamin C and folate contents, and the antioxidant activity, by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay and the beta-carotene lineolate system, were determined in the samples. Tomato ripening involved the breakdown of chlorophylls, accompanied by a continuous increase in the lycopene content. Total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C increased significantly during ripening, whereas the folate content fell markedly as tomatoes turned from green to red. The lycopene and flavonoid content was highest in the Copo cultivar, vitamin C and folate highest in Ronaldo, and total phenolics highest in Siena. The antioxidant activity, as measured with the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, increased significantly during ripening in all extracts, and showed a positive correlation with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. However, when measured with the beta-carotene lineolate system, the antioxidant activity decreased significantly during ripening; perhaps due to the antioxidant activity of chlorophylls and the peroxidation activity of vitamin C.
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Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites generally involved in plant adaptation to environmental stress conditions. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds are the main components of the phenolic fraction of green coffee beans, reaching levels up to 14 % (dry matter basis). These compounds have a number of beneficial health properties related to their potent antioxidant activity as well as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and antiviral activities. The main groups of CGA found in green coffee beans include caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids and mixed diesters of caffeic and ferulic acids with quinic acid, each group with at least three isomers. During coffee processing, CGA may be isomerized, hydrolyzed or degraded into low molecular weight compounds. The high temperatures of roasting also produce transformation of part of CGA into quinolactones and, along with other compounds, melanoidins. This review focuses on the chemical characteristics, biosynthesis, and distribution of CGA and related compounds in coffee. The influence of genetic, physiological and environmental factors as well as processing on the chemical composition of coffee beans is discussed. The impact of CGA composition of green coffee on cup quality is also approached. Despite the existence of substantial published information on the total levels of CGA in coffee, more research is needed on the composition of minor phenolic compounds and specific CGA isomers (and related substances) in green and roasted coffee beans, as well as their impact on coffee quality.
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Flavonoids comprise a large and diverse group of polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites. In plants, flavonoids play important roles in many biological processes such as pigmentation of flowers, fruits and vegetables, plant-pathogen interactions, fertility and protection against UV light. Being natural plant compounds, flavonoids are an integral part of the human diet and there is increasing evidence that dietary polyphenols are likely candidates for the observed beneficial effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables on the prevention of several chronic diseases. Within the plant kingdom, and even within a single plant species, there is a large variation in the levels and composition of flavonoids. This variation is often due to specific mutations in flavonoid-related genes leading to quantitative and qualitative differences in metabolic profiles. The use of such specific flavonoid mutants with easily scorable, visible phenotypes has led to the isolation and characterisation of many structural and regulatory genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway from different plant species. These genes have been used to engineer the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in both model and crop plant species, not only from a fundamental perspective, but also in order to alter important agronomic traits, such as flower and fruit colour, resistance, nutritional value. This review describes the advances made in engineering the flavonoid pathway in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Three different approaches will be described; (I) Increasing endogenous tomato flavonoids using structural or regulatory genes; (II) Blocking specific steps in the flavonoid pathway by RNA interference strategies; and (III) Production of novel tomato flavonoids by introducing novel branches of the flavonoid pathway. Metabolite profiling is an essential tool to analyse the effects of pathway engineering approaches, not only to analyse the effect on the flavonoid composition itself, but also on other related or unrelated metabolic pathways. Metabolomics will therefore play an increasingly important role in revealing a more complete picture of metabolic perturbation and will provide additional novel insights into the effect of the introduced genes and the role of flavonoids in plant physiology and development.
Book
We live in an era of constantly accelerating scientific and social change brought about by developments in education, technology and modem communication. This is a time of questioning and new perceptions affecting all facets of our daily lives. With increasing frequency issues are being raised which demand answers and new approaches. This increases the responsibility of those involved in determining the future shape of the world of coffee. The dependence of developing countries on income generated from trade in coffee, the emergence of new processing techniques, health implications and questions of quality of coffee in the cup are among the issues related to coffee. The knowledge required to form the basis to resolve these issues for the benefit of the multitudes of coffee drinkers will be generated only through the systematic build up of information and its subsequent evaluation. Science and modem technology provide essential tools for these endeavours. This book should act as a stimulant to thought and creativity so the issues facing the industry may be fully analysed and a healthy future for coffee secured. It marks a step forward in laying the foundation for coffee's future. Alexandre F. Beltrao Executive Director International Coffee Organisation London PREFACE We have long been fascinated by coffee and on many occasions bemoaned the lack of a comprehensive text dealing with the varied scientific aspects. With the encouragement of Tim Hardwick of Croom Helm Ltd, we decided to pool our resources and produce just such a multi-author volume.
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There is growing recognition that many phenolic secondary metabolites present in foodstuffs may possibly exert beneficial effects on human health. This may to some degree be mediated via antioxidant actions, but a range of more specific pharmacological effects have also been proposed. Given this background, there may be favourable consequences for the general health of Western populations as a result of optimising the phenolic content of the diet. This paper reviews what is known of the function of phenolics both in the plant and in man. It also describes current understanding of the biosynthesis of phenolics in plants, with emphasis on where potential controlling steps may exist. Finally, advances in identification and isolation of the genes coding for phenolic biosynthetic enzymes or regulatory proteins are also summarised. Taken together, this information provides a basis for attempts to modify and optimise the phenolic content of food crops, using either conventional plant breeding along with manipulation of agronomic practices, or else the more targeted approaches of modern molecular biology. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.
Article
Tomato flavor results from taste components, aromatic volatiles and a complex interaction between them. Lack of characteristic flavor in supermarket tomatoes is a common consumer complaint. Sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, and salts are the main taste components. With over 400 volatile compounds identified, only thirty are present in concentrations over one ppb and of these, only 16 contribute significantly to the perceptible flavor. Radiolabeled substrate and enzyme denaturation studies have indicated involvement of some pathway enzymes in the biosynthesis of tomato aroma compounds. Studies of fresh tomato flavor are important for the efforts at improving fruit quality through genetic modifications by molecular techniques.
Article
Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites important for plant biology and human nutrition. In particular flavonols are potent antioxidants, and their dietary intake is correlated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Tomato fruit contain only in their peel small amounts of flavonoids, mainly naringenin chalcone and the flavonol rutin, a quercetin glycoside. To increase flavonoid levels in tomato, we expressed the maize transcription factor genes LC and C1 in the fruit of genetically modified tomato plants. Expression of both genes was required and sufficient to upregulate the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit flesh, a tissue that normally does not produce any flavonoids. These fruit accumulated high levels of the flavonol kaempferol and, to a lesser extent, the flavanone naringenin in their flesh. All flavonoids detected were present as glycosides. Anthocyanins, previously reported to accumulate upon LC expression in several plant species, were present in LC/C1 tomato leaves but could not be detected in ripe LC/C1 fruit. RNA expression analysis of ripening fruit revealed that, with the exception of chalcone isomerase, all of the structural genes required for the production of kaempferol-type flavonols and pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were induced strongly by the LC/C1 transcription factors. Expression of the genes encoding flavanone-3'-hydroxylase and flavanone-3'5'-hydroxylase, which are required for the modification of B-ring hydroxylation patterns, was not affected by LC/C1. Comparison of flavonoid profiles and gene expression data between tomato leaves and fruit indicates that the absence of anthocyanins in LC/C1 fruit is attributable primarily to an insufficient expression of the gene encoding flavanone-3'5'-hydroxylase, in combination with a strong preference of the tomato dihydroflavonol reductase enzyme to use the flavanone-3'5'-hydroxylase reaction product dihydromyricetin as a substrate.
Article
The characteristic sweet‐sour taste of tomato and its overall flavor intensity are due to the following components: reducing sugars (fructose and glucose), free acids (mainly citric’ acid), their ratio, as well as some volatile substances, not identified so far, and the interplay between the above‐mentioned groups of compounds. Of the minerals, potassium (by influencing the free acid content) and phosphate (due to its buffering capacity) indirectly affect the taste. The effect of the free amino acids (glutamic acid, glutamine, gamma‐aminobutyric acid, and aspartic acid) is not unambiguously proven.
Article
Chalconaringenin, naringenin, naringenin-7-glucoside, and m- and p-coumaric acids have been identified in the fruit cuticles of three tomato cultivars. The phenolic content of the cuticles increased substantially during fruit development, those from immature green and mature ripe fruits of cv Ailsa Craig yielding respectively 2.8 and 61 μg/cm2 (representing 1.4 and 6% of the total membrane wt). Coumaric acids, present only in the ‘cutin-bound’ phenolics, increased from 2 to 24 μg/cm2 during fruit development. Flavonoids, synthesized mainly during the climacteric, occurred free in the epicuticular (0.3–7.2 μg/cm2) and cuticular (0.7–5.7 μg/cm2) phenolics but the major part of this class of constituents in ripe fruit cuticles was also ‘bound’ to the cutin matrix (30–43 μg/cm2). The composition of the flavonoid fraction was controlled by the spectral quality of incident radiation, red light favouring the formation of chalconaringenin.
After necessary clean up vegetables were investigated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and in part by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatisation (acetylation). In most vegetables p-coumaryl-glucose and/or ferulylglucose, inBrassica-Species (cabbage) and a few other species additionally sinapyl-glucose were found. Caffeyl-glucose, however was rarely detected. Among the investigated species, plant families with and without hydroxycinnamyl-glucose could be differentiated.
Article
SUMMARY– Polyphenolic compounds in canned pastes made from W-14.5 tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill) were extracted with methanol and ethyl acetate. The compounds. were separated by two-dimensional paper chromatography with n-butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5 v/v) and 2% acetic acid as solvents. Twelve spots were found when the chromogenic reagent was FeCl3K3Fe(CN)6. The individual compounds were identified by their R, values and color reactions with Fecl3K3Fe(CN)6, diazotized paranitroaniline, Hoepfner, sodium borohydride, and vanillin-HCI reagents, fluorescent behavior, and absorption spectra. Present in the extracts of tomato pastes were two chlorogenic acid isomers, two caffeic acid derivatives, rutin, naringenin, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid. Naringenin and trans-chlorogenic acid were present in larger amounts than the other polyphenolic compounds.
Fruits of solanaceae (tomatoes, eggplant, and sweet peppers) almost exclusively contain hydroxycinnamie acid derivatives with caffeic acid dominating. Fruits of cucurbitaceae (cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini) are extraordinary, because they show very low concentrations of phenolic acids (up to 10 mg/kg) accumulated in the peels. Peas and broad beans have relatively small contents of phenolic acids too. Their husks show like beans considerable concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with dominatingp-coumaric acid. In the group of hydroxybenzoic acids derivatives of salicylic, gentisic and vanillic acid could be determined frequently, but mostly as traces.
The main glycoside of asparagus is rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside). The flavonol concentration in spears with white tips is very small (ca. 1 mg/kg fresh weight) and practically limited to the tips and increases with the tips colour (ca. 10 mg/kg). The herb of asparagus has a very high concentration of flavonol glycosides (1.4% quercetin and 0.05% kaempferol in the dry matter).
Article
The phenolic acids of tomato fruit wall tissue have been separated by paper chromatography. p-Coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and chlorogenic acids were identified. The levels of these acids in healthy fruit wall tissue at different stages of maturity were higher than those found in ‚cloudy’ tissue. ‚Cloud’ tissue was found to have a lower content of phenolic acids than healthy tissue of the same age. During ripening of the fruit, the relative levels of caffeic and chlorogenic acids, and to a lesser extent of ferulic acid increased.
Article
We conducted two experiments to determine how resources influenced the intraspecific and within-plant allocation by tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the soluble phenolics rutin and chlorogenic acid. We also measured the effect of resource availability on growth by measuring mass and other physical and cellular attributes of the plant. In the first experiment, we subjected plants to four levels of potassium nitrate fertilizer. In the second experiment, we subjected plants to high and low levels of potassium nitrate fertilizer and light. Both experiments yielded results consistent with the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. Plants grown with low resources showed low levels of soluble phenolics and low plant mass. Plants grown with intermediate levels of resources showed high phenolic concentrations but inhibited growth. Plants grown with high resources had high growth but no increases in phenolic concentrations. The results were also consistent with the general prediction of the optimal defense hypothesis that there should be a negative relationship between growth and defense. We discuss possible adaptive explanations for the specific patterns observed. There were also consistent within-plant differences in phenolic concentrations. These differences in phenolic concentrations were large enough to have potential consequences for insect herbivores feeding on tomato plants.
The flavon(ol) contents of tomatoes and sweet pepper are very small and chiefly limited to their skins. The tomato fruits chiefly contain glycosides of quercetin (0,25–0,60 mg quercetin/tomato fruit), and less those of kaempferol; sweet pepper contains glycosides of quercetin and luteolin. During the development of the tomato fruits the flavonol concentrations seem to reduce and seem to be higher in field-grown tomatoes than in fruits grown under glass.
Summary Naringenin and naringenin-chalcone have been determined in tomato skin extracts by isocratic reversed-phase HPLC after C-18 solid phase extraction. Naringenin-chalcone was present in all tomato samples (95%–98%) but not the isomeric flavanone naringenin (2%–5%). It was concluded that in previous investigations the flavanone naringenin was found because the extraction procedure caused spontaneous cyclization of the chalcone.
Article
A number of investigations have been made to ascertain whether it is possible to select for taste in tomato. The taste of different cultivars and selections was assessed organoleptically, while comparative chemical analyses were carried out, both on whole fruits and on fruit parts. From these investigations the conclusion was drawn that under certain conditions selection for a better taste may be possible, but that for this purpose an organoleptic taste test is required, which cannot, for the time being, be replaced by indirect methods.
Article
Quantitative estimates of conjugated flavonoid content were obtained by using HPLC to analyze the level of free flavonoids present in acid-hydrolyzed extracts from commercial fruits and vegetables. Cherry tomatoes contained 17−203 μg of quercetin g-1 fresh weight compared to 2.2−11 μg g-1 detected in normal-sized Scottish, Spanish, and Dutch beef tomatoes. The quercetin levels in onions ranged from 185 to 634 μg of quercetin g-1 fresh weight. “Round” lettuce contained 11 μg of quercetin g-1 fresh weight compared to 911 μg g-1 in the outer leaves and 450 mg g-1 in the inner leaves of “Lollo Rosso” lettuce. The conjugated flavonoid content of celery was very variable, ranging from undetectable to 40 μg of luteolin and 191 μg of apigenin g-1 fresh weight. Cooking lowered the quercetin content of both tomatoes and onions with greater reductions being detected following microwaving and boiling than after frying. Keywords: HPLC; quantitative analysis; flavonoids; tomatoes; onions; lettuce; celery; diet
Article
Quinic, tartaric, and malic acid esters as well as glucose esters and the glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids have been determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC in tomatoes (two states of ripeness (green and red) and different types), bell pepper, eggplant, spinach, mangold, beetroot, pea, bush bean, broad bean, lettuce (outer and inner leaves separated), endive, and chicory.
Article
Analyses for total phenols in extracts of epidermal, placental and pericarp tissue from three tomato cultivars that had been observed to vary in susceptibility to post harvest spoilage by microorganisms showed no significant quantitative variation by cultivar. Quantities of phenols varied significantly (P < 0.05) by maturity and location within the fruit. The highest concentration of phenols was found in the epidermal and placental tissue at the midripe stage of maturity. Quantities were highest in the Patriot cultivar which related to observations that tomatoes from this cultivar were more resistant to microbial infection than were tomatoes from the Floridade and Walter cultivars.
Article
Antioxidants are believed to be important in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Lycopene is one of the main antioxidants to be found in fresh tomatoes and processed tomato products. The lycopene content also accounts for the redness of the fruit, which is one of the main qualities for which industry and consumers now look. Other carotenes (such as β-carotene), vitamin C, vitamin E and various phenolic compounds are also thought to be health-promoting factors with antioxidant properties. Since the antioxidant content of tomatoes may depend on genetic factors, the choice of variety cultivated may affect the results at harvest. To be able to control the antioxidant content of tomatoes at the field level when growing a given variety, it is necessary to know the effects of both environmental factors and the agricultural techniques used. Temperatures below 12 °C strongly inhibit lycopene biosynthesis and temperatures above 32 °C stop this process altogether. The effects of the temperature on the synthesis of other antioxidants have not yet been properly assessed. The effects of light have been studied more thoroughly, apart from those on vitamin E. The effects of water availability, mineral nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium) and plant growth regulators have been studied, but results are sometimes contradictory and the data often incomplete. During the ripening period, lycopene content of tomatoes increases sharply from the pink stage onwards, but no sufficient attempts have been made so far to assess the changes in the other antioxidants present in the fruit. This paper reviews the present state of the art. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Phenolic secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-derived food quality, as they affect quality characteristics such as appearance, flavour and health-promoting properties. Their content in foods is affected by many factors that influence phenolic stability, biosynthesis and degradation. In terms of their biosynthesis the key enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is especially relevant, as it can be induced by different stress (environmental) conditions. In addition, polyphenol oxidases (PPO) and peroxidases (POD) are the main enzymes responsible for quality loss due to phenolic degradation. The different factors affecting phenolic-related food quality are reviewed. These include internal (genetic) and environmental (agronomic) factors, technological treatments applied during postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables, as well as processing and storage of the processed products. The different strategies that are required to either maintain or enhance the phenolic-related quality of foods are critically reviewed. Genetic modification designed to decrease polyphenol oxidases or peroxidases is not always a feasible method, owing to side problems related to the growth and defence of the plant. Agronomic treatments can be used to enhance the phenolic content and pigmentation of fruits and vegetables, although the information available on this topic is very scarce and even contradictory. Some postharvest treatments (cold storage, controlled or modified atmospheres, etc) can also improve phenolic-related quality, as well as new processing methods such as irradiation (gamma, UV), high-field electric pulses, high hydrostatic pressures and microwaves.© 2001 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
We have shown in previous work that Brassica napus synthesizes epidermal flavonoids in response to UVB radiation (290–320 nm) and that these compounds are effective at screening the leaf mesophyll from UVB (Wilson and Greenberg, Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 556–563, 1993). This route of acclimation is common to many plant species. However, flavonoids are a highly diverse group of compounds that vary greatly from species to species, and little is known about the specific flavonoids synthesized in response to UVB. To address this, we extracted flavonoids from the leaves of B. napus plants exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR: 400–700 nm), PAR + UVA (320–400 nm) and PAR + UVA + UVB. The compounds were resolved by HPLC and their structures were elucidated. Twelve distinct flavonoid glucosides with quercetin and kaempferol backbones were found. In some cases, a hydroxycinnamic acid moiety was linked via an ester bridge to a glucose. Of the 12 compounds identified, the leaf concentrations of 6 increased in response to UVB: kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside (K2), kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside (Q3), quercetin-3-O-sophoroside (Q2), quercetin-3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside (Q3), K3-coumaroyl ester and Q3-caffeoyl ester. Of these six compounds, K2, K3, Q2 and Q3 accumulated to high enough concentrations to contribute to UVB screening. Interestingly, the extractable amounts of the other six compounds identified were lower in the plants exposed to UVA or UVA + UVB compared to plants exposed only to PAR. Thus, in B. napus UV exposure seems to cause a shift in the population of flavonoid glycosides, with four of the UVB-induced flavonoids being generated in high concentrations.