Video analysis of motor events in REM sleep behavior disorder
University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria Movement Disorders
(Impact Factor: 5.68).
07/2007; 22(10):1464 - 1470. DOI: 10.1002/mds.21561
In REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), several studies focused on electromyographic characterization of motor activity, whereas video analysis has remained more general. The aim of this study was to undertake a detailed and systematic video analysis. Nine polysomnographic records from 5 Parkinson patients with RBD were analyzed and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Each motor event in the video during REM sleep was classified according to duration, type of movement, and topographical distribution. In RBD, a mean of 54 ± 23.2 events/10 minutes of REM sleep (total 1392) were identified and visually analyzed. Seventy-five percent of all motor events lasted <2 seconds. Of these events, 1,155 (83.0%) were classified as elementary, 188 (13.5%) as complex behaviors, 50 (3.6%) as violent, and 146 (10.5%) as vocalizations. In the control group, 3.6 ± 2.3 events/10 minutes (total 264) of predominantly elementary simple character (n = 240, 90.9%) were identified. Number and types of motor events differed significantly between patients and controls (P < 0.05). This study shows a very high number and great variety of motor events during REM sleep in symptomatic RBD. However, most motor events are minor, and violent episodes represent only a small fraction. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society
Available from: Birgit Frauscher
- "EEG, electroencephalography; EMG, electromyography. behaviour disorder have even higher rates of motor events during REM sleep, similar to that in patients with ParkinsonÕs disease with REM sleep behaviour disorder (Frauscher et al., 2007), or if alternatively there is only a mild difference in the rate of motor events between patients with narcolepsy with and without REM sleep behaviour disorder. The latter is at least to some extent supported by the existing literature giving evidence that REM sleep behaviour disorder in narcolepsy is of much milder intensity (Tafti et al., 1992) and that it is often polysomnographically not different from narcolepsy without REM sleep behaviour disorder (Ferri et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Motor events during sleep can be frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. We hypothesized that increased motor events and related arousals contribute to sleep fragmentation in this disease. We aimed to perform a detailed whole-night video-polysomnographic analysis of all motor events during non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep in a group of narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and matched controls, and to assess the association with arousals. Video-polysomnographic registrations of six narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and six sex- and age-matched controls were analysed. Each motor event in the video was classified according to topography, number of involved body parts, duration and its association with arousals. The mean motor activity index was 59.9 ± 23.0 h(-1) in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy compared with 15.4 ± 9.2 h(-1) in controls (P = 0.004). Distribution of motor events was similar in non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep in the patient group (P = 0.219). In narcolepsy-cataplexy, motor events involved significantly more body parts (≥ 2 body regions: 38.2 ± 15.6 versus 14.9 ± 10.0; P = 0.011). In addition, the proportion of motor events lasting longer than 1 s was higher in patients than controls (88% versus 44.4%; P < 0.001). Both total and motor activity-related arousal indices were increased in narcolepsy-cataplexy (total arousal index: 21.6 ± 9.0 versus 8.7 ± 3.5; P = 0.004; motor activity-related arousal index: 17.6 ± 9.8 versus 5.9 ± 2.3; P = 0.002). Motor activity and motor activity-related arousal indices are increased in both non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep in narcolepsy-cataplexy compared with controls. This supports the concept of a general sleep motor dysregulation in narcolepsy-cataplexy, which potentially contributes to or even underlies sleep fragmentation in this disease.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an extended OPF function to efficiently
coordinate bilateral contracts with the centralized spot market under a
PoolCo environment. The transaction pairs based decomposition is
developed to evaluate and compensate parallel flows caused by bilateral
trades that involve contract paths. Both transmission loss cost and
transmission congestion costs are formulated based upon actual system
usage. The presented method is demonstrated to be efficient and accurate
through simulated examples
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have proposed a new physical approach for the design of mid-IR lasers based on type II heterojunctions with a large asymmetric band-offset at the interface. These high potential barriers produce effective electron-hole confinement at the interface and results in a tunnel-injection radiative recombination mechanism within the device due to reduced leakage current from the active region. The creation of high barriers for carriers leads to their strong accumulation in the active region and increases quantum emission efficiency of the spatially separated electrons and holes across the heteroboundary. Our approach also leads to the suppression of non-radiative Auger-recombination and a corresponding increase in the operation temperature of the laser. The active region of the laser structure consists of the type II heterojunction formed by narrow-gap InGaAsSb and wide-gap GaInAsSb layers lattice-matched to InAs substrate. In the present work we compare the behaviour of p-p and p-n heterointerface tunnel injection lasers grown by LPE operating at λ=3.2-3.26 μm
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.