If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The September 11 attacks triggered federal policy changes designed to influence emergency management in the United States, even though these attacks did not suggest a need for a wholesale restructuring of federal policy in emergency management. Instead, for several reasons, federal policy's emphasis on terrorism and emergency management significantly degraded the nation's ability to address natural disasters. The federal government sought to create a top-down, command and control model of emergency management that never fully accounted for, positively or normatively, the way local emergency management works in practice. The Obama administration will have to address the questions raised by the reorganization of federal emergency management responsibilities. While the context in which these changes have occurred is unique to the U.S. federal system, there are interesting implications for emergency management in nonfederal systems.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Risk profi les prior to the disaster did not draw suffi cient attention because the public security system operated within "a largely closed, hierarchical context" and lacked systematic mechanisms to search and exchange information (Comfort 2002, 103). To strengthen intergovernmental coordination and collaboration, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 detailed a national strategy, created the DHS, and restructured FEMA from an independent, cabinet-level agency to a directorate under the DHS (Birkland 2009;Harrald 2012). ...
... Th e terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, were among a few "focusing events" that led to radical policy and institutional changes (Birkland 2009;Harrald 2012). Th ese changes include the establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the restructuring of FEMA, and the evolution of multiple national emergency management policies (as shown in table 1). ...
... Local governments assume important responsibilities in responding to disasters and helping communities recover from disasters was marginalized, and its traditional emergency functions were "hollowed out" (Birkland 2006, 187). Although FEMA remains a separate agency within the DHS, the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 elevated FEMA's standing within the department; created new positions and regional entities; and reestablished FEMA as the lead agency for creating and implementing continuity of operations and continuity of government plans (for additional information, see Bea 2007;Birkland 2009;Kapucu and Ozerdem 2013;Knox 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In light of recent disasters, it is evident that more research is needed to understand how organizations can effectively coordinate disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery efforts. This research assesses the effectiveness of interorganizational coordination and collaboration in response to the Boston Marathon bombings. After reviewing the major changes in federal emergency management policies and frameworks since September 11, 2001, this article applies a social network analysis to compare the disaster response networks embodied in formal disaster preparedness plans with the actual response networks. Data come from content analyses of the Boston Emergency Operations Plan, national and local newspaper articles, after-action reports, and situation reports. The timely response to the bombings is attributable to long-term institutionalized planning efforts; multiple platforms established for frequent interorganizational interactions through formal plans, training, and exercises prior to disasters; and an integrated communication system.
... Risk profi les prior to the disaster did not draw suffi cient attention because the public security system operated within "a largely closed, hierarchical context" and lacked systematic mechanisms to search and exchange information (Comfort 2002, 103). To strengthen intergovernmental coordination and collaboration, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 detailed a national strategy, created the DHS, and restructured FEMA from an independent, cabinet-level agency to a directorate under the DHS (Birkland 2009;Harrald 2012). ...
... Th e terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, were among a few "focusing events" that led to radical policy and institutional changes (Birkland 2009;Harrald 2012). Th ese changes include the establishment of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the restructuring of FEMA, and the evolution of multiple national emergency management policies (as shown in table 1). ...
... Local governments assume important responsibilities in responding to disasters and helping communities recover from disasters was marginalized, and its traditional emergency functions were "hollowed out" (Birkland 2006, 187). Although FEMA remains a separate agency within the DHS, the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 elevated FEMA's standing within the department; created new positions and regional entities; and reestablished FEMA as the lead agency for creating and implementing continuity of operations and continuity of government plans (for additional information, see Bea 2007;Birkland 2009;Kapucu and Ozerdem 2013;Knox 2013). ...
... Despite the growing attention to natural hazard mitigation, the Government of the United States has reduced related policy support over the past few decades (Birkland, 2009). Project Impact, established by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1997, and one of the key natural hazard mitigation programmes in the country, was abolished under the administration of President George W. Bush in 2001 (Birkland, 2009). ...
... Despite the growing attention to natural hazard mitigation, the Government of the United States has reduced related policy support over the past few decades (Birkland, 2009). Project Impact, established by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1997, and one of the key natural hazard mitigation programmes in the country, was abolished under the administration of President George W. Bush in 2001 (Birkland, 2009). Similarly, the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) has also been scaled down, as the US Congress appropriated less money, made grants for local governments more competitive, and levied local financial contributions, making it hard for local governments to implement mitigation projects in their communities (Birkland, 2009). ...
... Project Impact, established by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) in 1997, and one of the key natural hazard mitigation programmes in the country, was abolished under the administration of President George W. Bush in 2001 (Birkland, 2009). Similarly, the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) has also been scaled down, as the US Congress appropriated less money, made grants for local governments more competitive, and levied local financial contributions, making it hard for local governments to implement mitigation projects in their communities (Birkland, 2009). The value of investing in community-level mitigation activities is not adequately appreciated by FEMA because their benefits are not tangible enough to measure (Godschalk, 2003), rendering it difficult to gain public support (Rose et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the 20th century, disasters triggered by natural hazards have led to an accumulative economic loss of roughly seven trillion USD and have resulted in eight million deaths worldwide. Given the escalating risk of natural hazards for communities, scholars and practitioners are emphasizing the importance of disaster risk mitigation as a strategy for enhancing community resilience. However, little is known about the extent to which governments’ disaster risk reduction efforts have enhanced community resilience outcomes. We bridge this gap by examining the effects of the U.S. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), which was designed to improve disaster resilience at the community level. We analyzed natural hazard loss data pertaining to the U.S. counties that received HMGP funds in the wake of presidentially‐declared disasters between 2010 and 2015. Findings suggest that counties that received HMGP funds were likely to experience less property damage from future natural hazards compared to other counties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... But integration of military metaphors and technologies into emergency response is a delicate enterprise. They can deeply and detrimentally affect the way in which emergency management is done: The centralization of emergency response under the Department of Homeland Security in the US after 9/11, for example, played a significant part in the failure of humanitarian response to Katrina (Birkland, 2009; see also Tierney, 2006). 2 The verdict contrasts starkly with juridical inertia in relation to a company that was found to have rebuilt antiseismic apartments, using substandard seismic isolators, rendering new buildings vulnerable to future earthquakes. See Jones, T. A militarization of emergency response and everyday culture also contributes to what Giorgio Agamben describes as a spread of exceptions, often declared to protect national security (Agamben, 2005), where fundamental human rights can be suspended. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores issues of security, privacy and liberty arising in relation to ICT supported emergency management. The aim is to inform the design of emergency management information systems (EMIS) and architectures that support emergent interoperability and assembly of emergency management systems of systems. We show how transformations of social and material practices of privacy boundary management create challenges, opportunities and dangers in this context. While opportunities include development of more efficient and agile emergency management models, building on smart city concepts, dangers include surveillance, social sorting and an erosion of civil liberties. Against this backdrop, we briefly explore human practice focused 'privacy by design' as a candidate design avenue.
... EM systems in various countries have gradually changed from a traditional hierarchical structure to a cooperative management structure. A multi-sectoral and multi-agent emergency management network structure has been initially formed (Birkland 2009). This further promotes the research on EMNs worldwide after 2010. ...
Article
Full-text available
The research of emergency management networks (EMNs) attracted much attention in recent years. However, it is lack of a systematic study to review these results. This paper aims to review publications related to EMNs based on a three-stage research framework. Then, the main research status, research methods and research topics were determined through scientometric analysis and qualitative discussion. It turns out that the research interest in EMNs is increasing. The USA, Australia, South Korea and Hong Kong have been the countries/regions conducted the most EMNs research. The scholars include but not limited to Kapucu, Comfort, Jung, Song, and Drabek were identified as the active scholars in this field. Survey/interview was found as the most popular data collection method; social network analysis was the most commonly used data analysis method. Emergency management (EM) network characteristics, network structure, and network performance and its influencing factors were the main research topics. The results of this review would provide a useful reference for both disaster EM researchers and practitioners.
... Unfavourable order is based on the introduction of a single model which reduces system complexity and provokes a rigidity. For example, one of the factors behind the failure of FEMA to manage Hurricane Katrina identified by Birkland (2009) is the prioritization of terrorist threats over natural disasters after 9/11. According to the author, the Homeland Security model at the time subordinated experienced crisis management officers at the local level to the expertise of civil servants, military personnel and actors of the military-industrial complex focusing on terrorism. ...
Article
One of the main challenges in crisis management is to assess, ahead of time, the resilience of a system before a crisis erupts (pandemic, computer bug with large-scale effects, cascade effects in critical infrastructure, etc.). In this article, we propose to reconcile the multiple and sometimes divergent definition of resilience by explaining the complementarity of stability and adaptability inherent to the concept. Also, we integrate a new dimension to the assessment of resilience by analysing the dynamics of negentropy (order, stability) and entropy (disorder, change) between factors. Until now, the evaluation of organizational and interorganizational resilience focused on analysing the presence or absence of resilience factors. With this new dimension, we show the complementarity and interdependence of resilience factors. Finally, we demonstrate how resilience is based on both favourable order and favourable disorder which create diversity and conformity in the system, while vulnerability relies on unfavourable order and unfavourable disorder.
... In this context, emergency management is one of the core issue, where public sector provides services like assistance for law enforcement, public safety, environmental response and health services facing all kinds of hazards, i.e. terrorism attacks or catastrophes. Consequently, studies on disaster management involve several scientific disciplines, ranging from medicine (Tintinalli et al. 2016) to politics and public policies (Sylves 2014;Birkland 2009). In this work, we focus on the management of disaster to prevent losses from hazards, assuring prompt and appropriate medical assistance to victims in order to achieve rapid and effective recovery. ...
... Moreover, it is certain that governments have not succeeded in managing all hazards, considering that new or repeating disasters have continued to cause critical human loss and economic damage. (37) In short, government redundancy has produced negative aspects, and has not succeeded wholly, in particular without regard to their formal intention. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article tests the hypothesis that "if redundancy-oriented management has negative aspects, then it could be facilitated by gene-therapy-oriented management." Negative aspects include disadvantages, misjudgments, or miscalculations. The article provides a newly revised principle of disaster management by studying gene-therapy-oriented management. Based on qualitative analysis, redundancy-oriented and gene-therapy-oriented management are analyzed via five variables: governments, business, volunteers, households, and the international community. The article is valuable because an analytical frame on gene-therapy-oriented management is systematically reconceptualized for the field of disaster management via three elements: unhealthy proteins (problems or failed measures), a vector (new or modified solutions), and target cells (positive outcomes). In accepting the hypothesis, the key tenet is that stakeholders have to assist the progress of redundancy-oriented management with gene-therapy-oriented management by paying attention to the genes of each disaster.
... (Kapucu, 2009). Under this system, the federal government can exert more control over local emergency management practices (Birkland, 2009). 3. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the multiplex relationships among organizations within the context of emergency management. It examines the role of friendship networks and disaster preparedness networks in predicting sustainable collaborative disaster response networks. Furthermore, it examines the impact of emergency management systems on network building and sustainability. This article applies inferential network analysis methods in analyzing relationships among emergency management networks and examines the predictive power of preestablished network arrangements. This research suggests that friendship networks are important for encouraging organizations to be involved in disaster preparedness networks. Yet it is the collaboration ties during disaster preparedness that influence the formation of collaborations during disaster response. Structural attributes of emergency management systems have impacts on the development of multiplex relationships among organizations within various networks. These findings not only contribute to developing sustainable emergency management networks but also provide insights for building collaborative networks in a broader context.
... One of the major drawbacks was the establishment of a top-down, command and control model of emergency management by the federal government after September 11, which lacked an intertwined vision and connection with agencies of emergency management at the local level. This raises the concern about the inclusion of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) into the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), as seen in the increased institutional vulnerability of the system in the disaster triggered by Hurricane Katrina (Birkland 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Early warning systems (EWSs) are widely considered to be one of the most important mechanisms to prevent disasters around the globe. But as disasters continue to affect countries where EWSs have already been implemented, the striking disaster consequences have led us to reflect on the focus, architecture, and function of the warning systems. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami there has been a rapid rise in the promotion and use of EWSs to minimize disaster losses and damage. However, few researchers have addressed the question of their acceptability as an adaptive measure to the existing exposure conditions. EWSs are far more linked to emergency response and humanitarian crises and accepted technological interventions as solutions than they are to explicitly advance integrated analysis, disaster risk reduction, and policy making. A major flaw of EWSs is that the term ''early'' has been essentially used in reference to the speed of hazard onset, founded on a physicalist perspective that has encouraged a considerable dependence on technology. In this article we address the need for a clear understanding of the root causes and risk drivers of disaster risk creation, as advanced in the FORIN (forensic investigation of disasters) approach, as a prerequisite for the development of more articulated EWSs that could contribute to disaster risk reduction through policy making and practice, based on integrated and transdisciplinary management, in the interest of sustainable development, and human welfare and well-being.
... Yet, disasters continue to expose failures in government efforts to reach and meet the needs of vulnerable populations. For example, Hurricane Katrina, in 2005, exposed weaknesses in emergency management strategies that resulted from social, political, and economic policies that existed prior to, during, and after the event (Birkland 2006(Birkland , 2009Rubin 2012). Vulnerable populations are defined as those that experience a hazard differently due to social, political, and economic policies because of characteristics that include but are not limited to gender, age, economic status, disability, and race. ...
Article
Full-text available
The strategies employed by emergency managers are intended to enhance rather than diminish the ability to meet society’s needs and specifically those of vulnerable populations. This study looks at the strategies that emergency management professionals employ to reach and meet the needs of vulnerable populations. Twenty - four interviews were conducted in 2016 with county and city level emergency management professionals from across the Houston – Galveston and Southeast Texas regions. The interview data reveals a common element of control. However, while some do talk about the need to leave disaster management activities to the professionals, the need to bring in volunteers and foster flexibility in a controlled environment are indeed important. The need to build buy-in and understand protocols reveals the need for future research to better understand the extent that emergency management combines discipline with agility to address the challenges of the unexpected and decrease the impact of vulnerability.
... [60] It was also said that the federal "emphasis on terrorism and emergency management significantly degraded the nation's ability to address natural disasters." [61] Furthermore, emergency managers had been concerned with decreases in budgeting for mitigation programs such as Project Impact, a lack of access to necessary equipment, and an overall erosion of the agency itself. [62] FEMA funding had also decreased from $5.18 million or 16.6% of the total DHS budget in FY2003, to $4.61 million or 12.6%of the total in FY2004, and $4.84 million or 12.1% of the total in FY2005. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Various competing models of homeland security were considered in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States. The Department of Homeland Security, proposed in 2002 by President George W. Bush and opened in 2003, merged 22 federal agencies and 170,000 employees to fulfill its mission of preventing and preparing for terrorist attacks and other manmade and natural threats and disasters. Designed to be a center of intelligence, the department has largely failed to live up to this mission, as it struggled to coordinate with existing intelligence-gathering agencies. Furthermore, it has grappled with other obstacles in coordinating with federal, state, and local entities with regard to natural disaster preparedness and response, notably illustrated by Hurricane Katrina. In its first 10 yrs, serious reforms to address these shortcomings have been implemented by DHS leadership itself and at the request of the U.S. Congress with varied degrees of success.
... In recent years, however, the structure of emergency response has faced some challenges due to concerns surrounding homeland security. Since the events of September 11, 2001, Birkland (2009 notes that the federal government has preferred a more top-down approach, that allows the federal government to use its experts in times of need rather than rely on local expertise during events that may have national implications. The federal government, for example, is better prepared to respond to terrorist actions. ...
Preprint
The U.S. emergency and disaster response system is inherently bottom-up, meaning that responses are intended to begin at the local level with state and federal governments stepping in to assist as needed. The response to the current COVID-19 outbreak, however, has been something else entirely, as each level of government competes with the others over resources and authority. Some states preferred a local response with state support, while other states took a more uniform, state-mandated response enabled by state preemption of local actions. The latter has revealed an often-dormant means of state preemption of local ordinances: the executive order preemption. Local government managers will thus have to be creative in balancing responsiveness to their constituents in this time of crisis while also being constrained by their states in what they are able to do. These administrative choices are likely to have both immediate and long-term consequences for future emergencies.
... Literature has also discussed whether security measures of individual governmental levels are mutually compatible and what determines the potential effectiveness of security policy across federal and decentralized systems (e.g. Friedmann and Cannon 2007;Gerber et al. 2007;Chappell and Gibson 2009;Birkland 2009). Thus, researchers may discuss if using game-theory tools can help increase the compatibility and the effectiveness of the implementation of security measures, e.g. through better allocation of shared resources in dealing with security issues. ...
Article
Full-text available
The authors of this text decided to prepare a short article, with the aim to induce further discussion and to orient ongoing and future research efforts in Central and Eastern Europe but also worldwide. The article uses the method of a multi-country case study as the basis for proposing several critical research (and policy) challenges for our region – but many of them of a world-wide character. Four countries are covered by our thumbnail informative sketches – the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary and the Slovak Republic. The final part of this article proposes a set of questions suggested by the CEE experience with COVID-19 for future research. Such research will both be necessary and interesting for scholarship and policy in the region, and – as a particularly interesting context and area – helpful, one hopes, for questions and answers globally, concerning the pandemic, as well as public administration and policy as a whole.
... Literature has also discussed whether security measures of individual governmental levels are mutually compatible and what determines the potential eff ectiveness of security policy across federal and decentralized systems (e.g. Friedmann and Cannon 2007;Gerber et al. 2007;Chappell and Gibson 2009;Birkland 2009). Th us, researchers may discuss if using game-theory tools can help increase the compatibility and the eff ectiveness of the implementation of security measures, e.g. through better allocation of shared resources in dealing with security issues. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since its origins, when it was mainly connected to the field of economics, game theory has brought important theoretic insights into many domains. Besides biology, philosophy or computer science, its findings have been applied to various fields of public policy. One specific area of public policy is that of security. Within the last two decades we have been witnesses to a significant increase in efforts to model security issues using tools of game theory and to derive political implications. The paper deals with the model of a Stackelberg security game and its real-world applications in security domains. The main aim and purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of selected cases of real-world deployed applications of the game-theoretic Stackelberg model in the area of public security and, based on the literature analysis, to discuss the potential and limitations of the model for policy- and decision-makers that are dealing with security measures on various governmental levels. Existing cases clearly indicate that the model can contribute to a better design and implementation of the security policy and help implement a better allocation of resources and thus potentially improve the effectiveness of security measures. On the other hand, the paper also discusses some limitations and potential future adjustments of the model together with points for further research.
... This emergency response structure has faced some challenges due to concerns surrounding homeland security. Since September 11, 2001, Birkland (2009 notes that the federal government has preferred the top-down approach allowing the federal government to use its experts in times of need rather than relying on local expertise during events that have national implications. Such events are rare, however, allowing the default bottom-up structure to continue. ...
... Frequently, the boundaries between these phenomena are blurred in discussion, and it becomes unclear whether, for example, an author considers a policy to have failed because it did not meet its objectives or because it resulted in a negative distributional outcome. Birkland (2009), for instance, interprets the US Federal Emergency Management Agency's response to Hurricane Katrina as a policy failure, but it is unclear whether he is referring to a failure to achieve specific material objectives in the recovery effort, or a failure in terms of the general inability to protect the hurricane-affected population from the impacts of displacement, trauma and loss of property. In these cases, the analyst implicitly assumes that a policy's objectives are to maximise the welfare of the policy's target population, and distributional outcomes can therefore become confused with objective attainment. ...
Article
Discussions of failure in public policy have been hampered by a lack of consensus on a definition of the term ‘failure’. It can be shown that arguments relating to policy failure tend to conflate forms of failure that are actually discrete, such as failure to meet objectives, claims of negative distributional outcomes and negative electoral outcomes attributed to specific policy decisions. This article attempts to unify and clarify the discourse on policy failure by presenting a multi-dimensional approach that can identify separate aspects of failure within a single policy or program. This multi-dimensional approach to policy failure is then be applied to climate change policy in Australia, in order to demonstrate how some aspects of a policy can be interpreted as failed while others can simultaneously be interpreted as successful, even by the same observer. As this example illustrates, global pronouncements of a public policy as a ‘success’ or ‘failure’ should be avoided in favour of more precise evaluations of what kind of failure occurred, and who was affected and in what ways.
... e Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) crisis of 2003 was 2 Complexity a "focusing event" that led to institutional changes in the emergency management system [40]. One of these changes was the enactment of the National Emergency Response Law in 2007, which outlines the emergency management system in China. ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational networks are a widely used approach to deal with the “wicked problems” of disasters. However, current studies are insufficient in examining what strategies organizations actually employ to select partners in a complex environment of disaster, particularly in the centralized administrative context. This case study uses exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to explore different partnering strategies that organizations used to form organizational networks in response to the Tianjin Port blast, a well-known disaster in China. Results demonstrate that participating organizations prefer (a) the bonding structure strategy to form “reciprocity” and “transitive clustering,” (b) the power concentration strategy to work with popular organizations, and (c) the homophily strategy to work with similar attribute organizations. However, contextual backgrounds influenced organizational attributes and strategies. This study discusses the implications of the findings and offers recommendations for enhancing collaboration among organizations.
... In fact, the core missions of "Safeguarding and Securing Cyberspace" and "Ensuring Resilience to Disasters" remain widely unknown to Pennsylvanians according to the poll results. These findings could be attributable to prior policy failure, as DHS shifted the incentives for local governments from mitigation to recovery, thus arguably motivating reliance on post-disaster funding (Birkland 2009), as opposed to preparedness and related substantial public campaigns. Important to note, at the same time, a third (33%) of Pennsylvania's public, according to the 2020 poll, see an additional main mission in homeland security: Ensuring general safety and protection of the people, including protection from violence as such. ...
Chapter
COVID-19 response experience around the world has demonstrated that it is indispensable to understand the public understanding of, and needs during, risk, hazards, and crisis in public policy, in particular related to the security of society as a whole. The ultimate goal of homeland security and broader civil (or sometimes referred to as societal) security alike, as well as of related security science research, is to accomplish resilient societies through a culture of preparedness. Civic security culture is a necessary ingredient to such a culture of preparedness. The security culture perspective also helps understand how a resilient society and nation can be fostered while enhancing democratic values. This chapter discusses civic security culture (different, for example, from elite culture, first responder culture, agency culture, organizational culture, or safety culture) using the example of U.S. homeland security. Specifically, employing and extrapolating from the results of a multi-year Pennsylvania representative opinion poll study, it demonstrates how to investigate civic homeland security culture empirically and portrays a picture of such culture in a large U.S. state that appears to allow for some reasonable generalizations. In its conclusion, the chapter also indicates how such study of security culture can help assess homeland and/or civil security policy and governance, identify gaps, and recommend improvements.
Article
This study examines what motivates local emergency management officials to implement federal emergency management and homeland security policies within their own departments since the September 11 attacks. Pre-existing research claims there is confusion among local governments about potential changes to the role local emergency management services play before, during, and after natural, accidental, or terror related incidents. Meanwhile, additional research claims the federal disaster management policies (The National Response Plan, National Incident Management System, and Incident Command System) lack flexibility in implementation expectations, and there is limited cohesion among the layers of government, actors, and interests involved. This study asserts that something must spur local actors to comply with federal policy demands in their daily operations given how the post-September 11 policies change the field. The study specifically examines the effects of coercion, defined as actions taken by the federal government to force state and local implementers to comply with federal policy demands. Available federal grant dollars for emergency management and homeland security practices could make a dramatic difference to local emergency management operations, forcing these actors to comply with federal policy demands, even if it is in a begrudging fashion that deviates from traditional Comprehensive Emergency Management (CEM) principles.
Article
Full-text available
This article studies a disaster management network in the state of Gujarat, India. Through social network analysis and interviews, the article examines the governance structure of a disaster management network and identifies factors that affect its effectiveness. Four factors – trust, number of participants in the network, goal consensus and the need for network-level competencies based on the nature of the task – were examined. The article concludes by discussing how the dynamics of these factors affected this particular disaster management network.
Chapter
Why Bother?, underscores the need for a sound well-drafted policy system. It provides examples of the negative effects of poor or no policy, such as the infamous McDonald’s hot coffee lawsuit. The intent of the chapter is to lay the foundation for implementing a sound policy system. Lawsuits are a significant risk to industry and organizations. They are ubiquitous in society and just about every person can relate to this concept. This chapter describes the threat of lawsuits to capture the reader’s interest and provides the personal incentive to be sound policy makers and effective drafters of directives.
Article
Full-text available
While fully utilizing the principles of international emergency management, the objective of this article was to evaluate the present local emergency management of the Gangwon province in relation to its future requirements, and ultimately, to arrive at the most effective emergency-management plan. In doing so, both reality-oriented and risk-oriented approaches were compared via four key players or stakeholders, namely the local governments, military forces, local industries, and semi-volunteers and households. Literature review and interviews with national experts were utilized as the methodology for this study. The contribution of this paper is valuable, because the case of the Gangwon province was examined, for the first time, using international criteria. The key finding is that for best practices, the Gangwon province has to change its reality-oriented approach to a risk-oriented approach. Furthermore, the evaluation of the Gangwon province's policies following international emergency-management examples may result to improvements on the non-linear dynamics of local emergency management and facilitate transformation toward a risk-oriented approach in neighboring countries.
Article
Full-text available
http://econmodels.com/public/dbArticles.php
Article
The more prepared people are, the less harm they will suffer when disaster strikes. Yet anecdotal and empirical evidence shows that people overestimate their preparedness and are underprepared. While a robust literature has matured around hazards, risk, and vulnerability, and disaster policy, politics, and management, the literature about individual preparedness is much more limited and inconsistent. We know little about why people prepare (or why they do not), and what would make them prepare more. As a result, public managers are at a loss about how to design effective preparedness programs. In this paper, we survey the literature on preparedness to crystallize the gaps in our understanding of when and how citizens react to the threat of disaster. We then examine and compare the views of risk and preparedness held by individuals and government officials drawing on insights from a 4-year study that involved three national surveys and intensive studies in two communities. We use this analysis to address two questions: What do citizens think and do about risks and preparedness, and why? How do local government officials understand what citizens think and do about risks and preparedness?.
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the implementation of public management modernization policy between 1990 and 2013, applying the taxonomy by Hasenfeld and Brock (1991). Information analysed in this study comes from 67 interviews with actors who have played key roles in the implementation of modernization initiatives, as well as from official documents, and academic literature. The findings of the study suggest that taxonomy is useful in characterizing the organizational and inter-organizational behavioural patterns that influence policy implementation; also, that the prevalent driving forces help to understand the dynamic of implementation and what capacities, abilities and strategies are required to put into practice a concrete public policy, which appear to be linked to the context in which implementation takes place.
Article
Households in hurricane-prone regions respond to hurricane threat in numerous ways. Perceptions about their risk and other factors are thought to influence individuals’ decisions to take protective actions for hurricanes. This research investigates the perceptions, behavioral intentions, and actual protective actions of a sample of residents in Miami-Dade County, Florida. We use unique data collected via a telephone survey to investigate a set of factors including risk perception, perceived local government readiness for a hurricane, past hurricane experience, hazard information exposure, and demographics, which have been posited to influence perceived hurricane preparedness, intent to evacuate under hurricane threat, and actual hurricane preparedness. The analytic results show that risk perception was positively associated with perceived preparedness, intent to evacuate, and one of the actual preparedness measures. Perceived local government readiness for a hurricane also was positively related to perceived preparedness and an actual protective measure. The results for other factors, including socio-demographics, varied by dependent variable. Following a report of the results, we discuss the research and policy implications of our findings.
Article
Full-text available
It is essential to apply a collaborative network approach to address complex issues in public management and administration; however, evaluating network effectiveness is a challenge. This study addresses the common and unique elements of network effectiveness in the context of emergency management and proposes the addition of multiplexity to the conceptualization and measurement of disaster response network effectiveness. This study also stresses the importance of identifying the characteristics of and interactions among different types of interorganizational relationships when evaluating the effectiveness of disaster response networks. It further provides effectiveness measures and indicators for assessing the structural properties of multiple types of network relationships. This study highlights the role of preparedness interactions and informal relations as potential solutions to bridging the gap between planning, policy design and implementation, thus improving interorganizational collaboration during disaster response.
Chapter
The previous chapter studied an organization exploring a complex frontier: space. This chapter is about the exploration of another largely uncharted territory: the deep sea. Offshore oil extraction and deepwater drilling are relatively new phenomena to the oil industry; the companies involved have continued to break new depth records.
Article
Objectives This study explores trends of public attention to natural disasters, emphasizing the importance of public attention for disaster management and its relevance to policy adaptation. Methods Public attention was measured as Google Trends’ time‐series Search Volume Index (SVI). We compare the trend of SVI for the 2016 Louisiana Flood with SVI trends for other disasters of varying size, scale, and scope within the United States. Then, we compared the trend of relative SVI for the flood with other ongoing social/political events over the same observation period. Results Public attention to the 2016 Louisiana Flood formed and matured relatively faster than other national disasters in the comparison group. However, the flood disaster was not leading public attention at the national level. Conclusions Not late but less public attention might have affected disaster management operations for 2016 Louisiana Flood. Authors address some practical implications and strategies for rising public attention to natural disasters.
Article
This paper develops a theory of the relationship between policy disasters and political institutions. Policy disasters, defined as avoidable, unintended extreme negative policy outcomes, are important political, and historical events above that receive relatively little attention from political scientists and scholars of public policy. Using the predictions of punctuated equilibrium theory, I argue that systems with higher error accumulation will experience more policy disasters. Systems with more veto players and weaker information flows will experience more policy disasters, but information flows will have a stronger impact than veto players. I test this theory using data on financial crises and natural and technological disasters across 70 countries over 60 years. I find strong evidence that systems with weaker information flows and more veto players tend to have greater policy disaster risk. 本文就政策失败和政治制度之间的关系提出一个理论。政策失败被定义为可避免的、无意的极端消极政策结果,它们是重要的政治事件和历史事件,但相对而言却并未受到政治科学家和公共政策学者的重视。通过住用间断平衡理论的预测,我主张,错误积累程度更高的系统将经历更多政策失败。否决者更多、信息流更弱的系统将经历更多的政策失败,但与否决者相比,信息流将发挥更大的影响。通过住用与“70个国家在60年里的金融危机和自然灾害及技术失败”相关的数据,我对该理论进行检验。我发现有力证据表明,信息流更弱、否决者更多的系统往往面临更高的政策失败风险。. Este artículo desarrolla una teoría de la relación entre políticas de desastres e instituciones políticas. Los desastres de políticas, definidos como resultados de políticas extremadamente negativos, evitables e involuntarios, son eventos políticos e históricos importantes mencionados anteriormente que reciben relativamente poca atención de los científicos políticos y los estudiosos de las políticas públicas. Usando las predicciones de la teoría del equilibrio puntuado, sostengo que los sistemas con mayor acumulación de errores experimentarán más desastres de políticas. Los sistemas con más jugadores con veto y flujos de información más débiles experimentarán más desastres políticos, pero los flujos de información tendrán un impacto más fuerte que los jugadores con veto. Pruebo esta teoría utilizando datos sobre crisis financieras y desastres naturales y tecnológicos en setenta países durante sesenta años. Encuentro pruebas sólidas de que los sistemas con flujos de información más débiles y más jugadores con veto tienden a tener un mayor riesgo de desastres de políticas.
Chapter
City resilience is a pressing issue worldwide since the majority of the population resides in urban areas. When disaster strikes, the consequences will be more severe in the cities. To achieve resilience, different organizations, agencies and the public should share information during a disaster. ICT-based community engagement is used for strengthening resilience. The authors propose a set of metrics for assessing the security and privacy of information sharing tools for resilience. They then apply the selected metrics to a selection of information sharing tools. The authors' main finding is that most of them are reasonably well-protected, but with less than private default settings. They discuss the importance of security and privacy for different important categories of users of such systems, to better understand how these aspects affect the willingness to share information. Security and privacy is of particular importance for whistle-blowers that may carry urgent information, while volunteers and active helpers are less affected by the level of security and privacy.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented stress on health care systems across the globe. This stress has altered prenatal, labor, delivery, and postpartum care in the U.S., motivating many pregnant people to seek maternal health care with community midwives in a home or freestanding birth center setting. Although the dominant maternal health care providers across the globe, community midwives work on the margins of the U.S. health care system, in large part due to policy restrictions. This commentary extends previous research to theorize that the COVID-19-related disrupted health care system and the heightened visibility of community midwives may create a “focusing event,” or policy window, which may enable midwives and their advocates to shift policy.
Article
This article expounds upon the experiences of local emergency management professionals to determine if there is a pattern in the attitudes that these managers exhibit regarding the centralization of policy and operational control during the George W. Bush and Obama administrations. Responses to a 2016 survey described beneficial and detracting features of the federal requirements, which affected the department's ability to meet their jurisdiction's demands. This article describes these attitudes and determines whether jurisdictions that were favorable to or against policy changes made during Obama's administration represent jurisdictions that voted Democratic or Republican in the five previous presidential elections. Doing so tests the theory of "representative bureaucracy", which suggests local bureaucrats will represent their constituents' background and beliefs in their actions or attitudes. The findings suggest that elements of "representative bureaucracy" exist, but also that disappointment over the actions taken by both administrations persist.
Chapter
This chapter explores how violence and politics affect food security in Nigeria against the backdrop of existential oil, cult, herdsmen versus farmers conflict and Boko Haram insurgency. It examines the contribution of politics and violence in the rising rate of food insecurity in parts of Nigeria. When villagers run away from the violence of cult groups, herdsmen and farmers clashes, and the terror of Boko Haram, the impact on availability and affordability of food requires more accountability. So is the link between oil violence and food insecurity, considering how the industry, through pollution, has considerably reduced cultivable land and fishing in the Niger Delta. Relying on secondary and primary data, the chapter argues that a complex mesh of illegal political relationships and considerations in frequent cases of non-state and criminal armed violence is fast reducing men and women labor in peasant agriculture, such that availability and affordability of food have become threatened.
Chapter
This paper explores issues of privacy, security and liberty arising in relation to information and communication technologies (ICT) for crisis response and management. Privacy, security and liberty are concepts that have undergone significant changes over time. The authors show how ICT related transformations of socio-technical practices involved in their enactment create challenges, opportunities and dangers in the context of crisis response. While opportunities include development of more informed, efficient and agile emergency management, dangers include increased surveillance, social sorting, and an erosion of privacy, civil liberties and virtues of humanity. The authors explore causes and mechanisms that underpin these dynamics and measures developed to address them. Against this backdrop, they discuss ‘design for privacy' as a socio-technical design approach that empowers people. The aim is to motivate, and explore avenues for, socio-technical innovation that supports information processing and respect for privacy in crisis response and management.
Chapter
The New Orleans Flood in the summer of 2005 caused by Hurricane Katrina ranks as one of the biggest US natural disasters in terms of human and economical loss (Howitt and Leonard in Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 30(1):215–221, 2006; Waugh in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604(1):10–25, 2006).
Article
Higher Education in Emergency Management: Pathways to Professional Excellence in a Demanding Career
Chapter
This paper explores issues of privacy, security and liberty arising in relation to information and communication technologies (ICT) for crisis response and management. Privacy, security and liberty are concepts that have undergone significant changes over time. The authors show how ICT related transformations of socio-technical practices involved in their enactment create challenges, opportunities and dangers in the context of crisis response. While opportunities include development of more informed, efficient and agile emergency management, dangers include increased surveillance, social sorting, and an erosion of privacy, civil liberties and virtues of humanity. The authors explore causes and mechanisms that underpin these dynamics and measures developed to address them. Against this backdrop, they discuss ‘design for privacy’ as a socio-technical design approach that empowers people. The aim is to motivate, and explore avenues for, socio-technical innovation that supports information processing and respect for privacy in crisis response and management.
Chapter
This chapter explores how violence and politics affect food security in Nigeria against the backdrop of existential oil, cult, herdsmen versus farmers conflict and Boko Haram insurgency. It examines the contribution of politics and violence in the rising rate of food insecurity in parts of Nigeria. When villagers run away from the violence of cult groups, herdsmen and farmers clashes, and the terror of Boko Haram, the impact on availability and affordability of food requires more accountability. So is the link between oil violence and food insecurity, considering how the industry, through pollution, has considerably reduced cultivable land and fishing in the Niger Delta. Relying on secondary and primary data, the chapter argues that a complex mesh of illegal political relationships and considerations in frequent cases of non-state and criminal armed violence is fast reducing men and women labor in peasant agriculture, such that availability and affordability of food have become threatened.
Article
City resilience is a pressing issue worldwide since the majority of the population resides in urban areas. When disaster strikes, the consequences will be more severe in the cities. To achieve resilience, different organizations, agencies and the public should share information during a disaster. ICT-based community engagement is used for strengthening resilience. The authors propose a set of metrics for assessing the security and privacy of information sharing tools for resilience. They then apply the selected metrics to a selection of information sharing tools. The authors' main finding is that most of them are reasonably well-protected, but with less than private default settings. They discuss the importance of security and privacy for different important categories of users of such systems, to better understand how these aspects affect the willingness to share information. Security and privacy is of particular importance for whistle-blowers that may carry urgent information, while volunteers and active helpers are less affected by the level of security and privacy.
Chapter
This chapter describes a mythical organization, the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), coping with expected riots after the trial of police officers from LAPD who were accused of beating a black motorist, Rodney King. The beating happened on March 8, 1991. It was videotaped by a bystander. The tape was broadcasted by television stations around the country.
Chapter
The previous chapter examined various theories that provide potential answers to the research question of this book: why do crisis managers select different strategies to cope with uncertainty in crises? After reviewing these theories, the previous chapter built an institutional sensemaking model which aims to integrate separate contributing factors from different theories operating at three analytical levels. In order to explore the soundness of the institutional sensemaking model empirically, this chapter will [1] define and operationalize variables and concepts in the theoretical model, including institutionalization, strategy selection and uncertain situations, and [2] outline the methodology that guides the empirical research.
Chapter
The story of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] and the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster is a story about how an institution faced and responded to deep uncertainties in the pursuit of its core mission: space exploration. Although there has been great progress in space exploration since the founding of NASA, the conditions for human spaceflight are still inadequately understood by scientists and engineers (Petroski 1994; McCurdy 2001).
Preprint
Full-text available
In a world of networked urbanism, where people affected by disaster connect intensively with each other, the media and emergency agencies, why do warnings go amiss? Why does knowledge of risk not translate into preparedness? Why are the mobilities of information so poorly understood? In this chapter, we build on a synthesis of insights from disaster management, policy, mobilities and design research, and science and technology studies (STS) to study how these disaster-related networked mobilities create complex landscapes of communication, interdependence and responsibility that are difficult to translate into preparedness. Our analysis informs, and is informed by, research collaborations with emergency responders, engineers and technology designers with the aim of understanding and developing social and digital technologies for collaboration (Petersen et al. 2014). 1 By bringing attention to new networked partnerships, we aim to provide a set of critical tools with which to consider practices of risk governance as an example of networked urbanism. In the decade 2005-2014, 1.7 billion people were affected by disasters. Around 90% of these disasters are climate related floods, storms and heat waves, which are, with some degree of precision, predictable. Yet, even though some risks can be anticipated, residents of affected areas often do not take appropriate precautions even if they are given notice of a danger which is on top of those disasters citizens fear of the most. For example, a key action point in the latest report by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction is to study why residents do not evacuate in time (UNISDR 2015). Similarly, despite the well-known calamity of 6.47 million internally displaced people in Syria and Afghanistan in 2014 (OCHA 2015), Europe and the world were unprepared for the refugee crisis in 2015. Information that could enhance 1 Two recent projects include SecInCoRe
Article
Full-text available
Using several data sources including an extensive database of media reports and a series of government documents, but relying primarily on the University of Delaware’s Disaster Research Center’s field research in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the authors describe the nontraditional behavior that emerged in that catastrophe. They also discuss the prosocial behavior (much of it emergent) that was by far the primary response to this event, despite widespread media reports of massive antisocial behavior. Their study focuses on individual and group reactions in Louisiana during the first three weeks following the hurricane. The authors limit their systematic analyses of emergent behavior to five groupings: hotels, hospitals, neighborhood groups, rescue teams, and the Joint Field Office. Their analysis shows that most of the improvisations undertaken helped in dealing with the various problems that continued to emerge following Katrina. The various social systems and the people in them rose to the demanding challenges of a catastrophe.
Article
Full-text available
Following its 1992 reorganization, the once scandal-ridden and sclerotic Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) experienced a dramatic turnaround. The agency morphed from a caricature of the ills of bureaucracy into a model of effective federal administration. Politicians who previously blamed the agency for its slow and inefficient response to disasters came to depend on the agency to lend credibility to their own efforts. After the agency’s reorganization, politicians at all levels of government purposefully appeared beside FEMA workers. As recently as 2002, FEMA’s reputation was so strong that the designers of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) included FEMA in it to lend prestige to the nascent department. Unlike other agencies so included, FEMA was allowed to keep its name, confirming the cachet of its brand.
Article
Full-text available
The policy literature often mentions the agenda-setting influence of focusing events, but few policy studies systematically examine the dynamics of these events. This article closes this gap by examining focusing events, group mobilization and agenda-setting. Using natural disasters and industrial accidents as examples, most focusing events change the dominant issues on the agenda in a policy domain, they can lead to interest group mobilization, and groups often actively seek to expand or contain issues after a focusing event. I explain how differences in the composition of policy communities and the nature of the events themselves influence group and agenda dynamics. The organization of policy communities is an important factor in agenda setting, but agenda setting and group politics vary considerably with the type of event and the nature of the policy community.
Article
Full-text available
Flooding remains the most common and one of the most costly categories of natural hazards in the United States. Historically, the United States has relied on structural mitigation, insurance, and disaster relief to mitigate the harm done by floods. However, experience has shown that structural mitigation and related policies can fail to protect lives and property while also contributing to the degradation of the riverine environment. We review flood hazard mitigation policy, describe some of the environmental damage associated with current policies, and review current policy proposals to outline ways to mitigate the flood hazard without promoting catastrophic losses and environmental damage.
Article
Full-text available
Crisis management logic suggests that planning and preparing for crisis should be a vital part of institutional and policy toolkits. This paper explores the difficulties in translating this ideal into practice. It focuses on four key difficulties. First, crises and disasters are low probability events but they place large demands on resources and have to compete against front-line service provision. Second, contingency planning requires ordering and coherence of possible threats, yet crisis is not amenable to being packaged in such a predictable way. Third, planning for crisis requires integration and synergy across institutional networks, yet the modern world is characterised by fragmentation across public, private and voluntary sectors. Fourth, robust planning requires active preparation through training and exercises, but such costly activities often produced a level of symbolic readiness which does not reflect operational realities. Finally the paper reflects on whether crisis preparedness is a ‘mission impossible’, even in the post-9/11 period when contingency planning seems to be an issue of high political salience.
Article
Full-text available
Economic resilience is a major way to reduce losses from disasters. Its effectiveness would be further enhanced if it could be precisely defined and measured. This paper distinguishes static economic resilience—efficient allocation of existing resources—from dynamic economic resilience—speeding recovery through repair and reconstruction of the capital stock. Operational definitions are put forth that incorporate this important distinction. The consistency of the definitions is examined in relation to antecedents from several disciplines. The effectiveness of economic resilience is evaluated on the basis of recent empirical studies. In addition, its potential to be enhanced and eroded is analyzed in various contexts.
Article
Full-text available
The governmental response to Hurricane Katrina was widely perceived to be flawed and inadequate. However, given the number of actors involved in coordinating relief efforts, both in the private sector and at all levels of government, attributions of responsibility vary widely. Drawing on the Theory of Heterogeneous Attribution, we explore the relationship between political sophistication and assessments of blame for the delayed governmental response. Using data from a survey of Louisiana residents, we find that citizens at higher levels of sophistication are less likely to find the federal government chiefly to blame, and more likely to fault actors at the state level. Moreover, less sophisticated respondents tend to focus blame disproportionately on the president, a tendency to which the more sophisticated are not as prone.
Article
Full-text available
Governmental responses to Hurricane Katrina are generally cited as policy failures. Media and popular analyses focus on the federal government's policy failures in hazard preparedness, response, and recovery. Meanwhile, disaster experts realize that disaster response is a shared intergovernmental responsibility. We examine the federal nature of natural disaster policy in the US to consider whether federalism, or other factors, had the greatest influence on the failures in Katrina. We find that some policy failures are related to policy design considerations based in federalism, but that the national focus on “homeland security” and the concomitant reduction in attention to natural hazards and disasters, are equally, if not more complicit, in the erosion of government disaster management capacity that was revealed in Hurricane Katrina.
Article
Full-text available
The concept of resilience comprises physical, biological, psychological, social, and cultural systems. Resilience has been defined in many ways (for example, see Wisner, et al. 2005), to include an ability to "bounce back" and continue to function; predict and prevent potential problems; improvise and recombine resources in new ways; develop a collective and shared vision of dangers and what to do about them; and constant monitoring of threatening contextual conditions (Kendra and Wachtendorf, 2003). For our purpose, we define resilience as physical, biological, personality, social, and cultural systems' capability to effectively absorb, respond, and recover from an internally or externally induced set of extraordinary demands. The complexity inherent in the concept of resilience derives from these multiple systems in which it can be observed in simultaneity, which often do not have the same levels of resillience, and from the interactions and inter-effects that take place among these systems.
Article
Full-text available
Especially since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, governments worldwide have invested considerable resources in the writing of terrorism emergency response plans. Particularly in the United States, the federal government has created new homeland security organisations and urged state and local governments to draw up plans. This emphasis on the written plan tends to draw attention away from the process of planning itself and the original objective of achieving community emergency preparedness. This paper reviews the concepts of community preparedness and emergency planning, and their relationships with training, exercises and the written plan. A series of 10 planning process guidelines are presented that draw upon the preparedness literature for natural and technological disasters, and can be applied to any environmental threat.
Article
Federal disaster policy is an important but overlooked aspect of federal action that has provided a rich arena for pursuing our more general research interests concerning federal program implementation and management. May brought to the research task both a familiarity with the broad issues of federal disaster policy-having recently completed a book (May, 1985) about disaster relief policy and politics-and an understanding of the day-to-day workings of emergency management at the federal level. Williams provided the "imple mentation perspective" that undergirds the book, having previously devel oped and applied the perspective in two books (Williams, 1980a, b) about social programs. The study focuses upon the intergovernmental implementation of selected emergency management programs, primarily as played out at the federal and state levels. Our fieldwork and resultant description of disaster policy implementation allow us: (I) to analyze the implementation of selected aspects of disaster policy and to discuss federal management choices in this area; (2) to gain a greater understanding of federal program implementation under "shared governance"-a term we develop more fully in the book in referring to programs under which the federal and subnational governments share responsibility for program funding and management; and (3) to con sider the relevance of the lessons of earlier social program implementation research to a very different policy setting. Many individuals assisted us with this research. Our greatest debt is to those federal and state officials who took time from their busy schedules to offer their implementation perspectives about emergency management."
Article
Why are some government efforts at disaster relief more successful than others? Saundra Schneider develops an explanation that focuses on the "gap" between what governments are prepared to do in emergency management situations (i. e., bureaucratic norms) and what emerges as the expectations of those victimized by the disaster (i. e., emergent norms). She applies this approach to five case studies of recent disasters covering the range of examples from emergency management successes to failures. She concludes by criticizing the mass media's tendency to blame government for program failures and stressing the need for government agencies to stick with standard operating procedures and the pre-established division of labor among levels of government.
This article examines intergovernmental performance during natural disasters. The United States has an ongoing response system which requires the cooperation of national, state, and local governments. This system was severely tested during the fall of 1989 by four major crises: Hurricane Hugo in the Caribbean, South Carolina, and North Carolina, and the Loma Prieta earthquake in San Francisco. The intergovernmental response functioned very differently in the four situations. Three patterns emerge to describe the intergovernmental dynamics of disaster relief. The article discusses the causes and consequences of these different patterns.
Article
For more than thirty years, the U.S. emergency management community has been increasing its ability to structure, control, and manage a large response. The result of this evolution is a National Response System based on the National Response Plan and the National Incident Management System that is perceived to have failed in the response to Hurricane Katrina. Over the same period, social scientists and other disaster researchers have been documenting and describing the nonstructural factors such as improvisation, adaptability, and creativity that are critical to coordination, collaboration, and communication and to successful problem solving. This article argues that these two streams of thought are not in opposition, but form orthogonal dimensions of discipline and agility that must both be achieved. The critical success factors that must be met to prepare for and respond to an extreme event are described, and an organizational typology is developed.
Article
Since September 11, many cities have undergone significant changes in both morphology and management as a result of the greater perceived risk of terrorist attack. Such changes have often sought to territorialise the city through the redesign of space and the modernisation of management systems. More recently, such ‘resilience’ planning is becoming increasingly focused upon how the general public can assist this securitisation process by becoming better prepared and more responsible for their personal risk management. To illustrate these processes, a case study of Manchester, UK, between 1996 and 2006 will be used to indicate how these operational changes are having impacts on the rebordering of the city and upon broader issues of citizenship. The paper also questions how greater public acceptability can be achieved within urban security strategies.
Article
The focus of this article is planning for resiliency in the aftermath of a catastrophe. First, the authors offer their conception of planning for resiliency as a goal for recovering communities, and the benefits of planning in efforts to create more resilient places. Next, they discuss major issues associated with planning for postdisaster recovery, including barriers posed by federal and state governments to planning for resiliency, the promise and risks of compact urban form models for guiding rebuilding, and the failure to involve citizens in planning for disasters. Finally, they discuss lessons from prior research that address these issues and policy recommendations that foster predisaster recovery planning for resilient communities.
Article
Hurricane Katrina was the greatest urban and regional disaster in U.S. history. The rebuilding of New Orleans and surrounding areas of Louisiana and Mississippi will require the largest and most complex planning effort in my lifetime. To succeed, we must learn from disasters of the past, while also applying the planning knowledge of the present. From past disasters, we know that successful reconstruction requires both outside funding and local citizen involvement. As planners, we know that the processes should be rich in data, imagination, communication, and participation, Optimistically, a new New Orleans will involve improved flood safety, revitalized neighborhoods, housing opportunities for all, and equitable treatment of all residents. Planners have an obligation to take an active role and advocate for the funding and full participation necessary to achieve these goals. The alternative would be a city that is poor, unsafe, and unequal. This is the greatest planning problem most of us have ever seen, and it warrants a correspondingly large response.
Article
The unprecedented losses from Hurricane Katrina can be explained by two paradoxes. The safe development paradox is that in trying to make hazardous areas safer, the federal government in fact substantially increased the potential for catastrophic property damages and economic loss. The local government paradox is that while their citizens bear the brunt of human suffering and financial loss in disasters, local officials pay insufficient attention to policies to limit vulnerability. The author demonstrates in this article that in spite of the two paradoxes, disaster losses can be blunted if local governments prepare comprehensive plans that pay attention to hazard mitigation. The federal government can take steps to increase local government commitment to planning and hazard mitigation by making relatively small adjustments to the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and the Flood Insurance Act. To be more certain of reducing disaster losses, however, the author suggests that we need a major reorientation of the National Flood Insurance Program from insuring individuals to insuring communities.
Article
Collaboration is a necessary foundation for dealing with both natural and technological hazards and disasters and the consequences of terrorism. This analysis describes the structure of the American emergency management system, the charts development of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and identifies conflicts arising from the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and the attempt to impose a command and control system on a very collaborative organizational culture in a very collaborative sociopolitical and legal context. The importance of collaboration is stressed, and recommendations are offered on how to improve the amount and value of collaborative activities. New leadership strategies are recommended that derive their power from effective strategies and the transformational power of a compelling vision, rather than from hierarchy, rank, or standard operating procedures.
Article
While our attention understandably is focused on the war in Iraq, the worldwide war against al Qaeda and affiliated terrorist enterprises continues Unlike the fighting in Iraq, the campaign against the terrorists does not provide the continuing flow of televised images or battlefield displays. It is a war fought largely in the shadows. We measure its progress in the periodic arrests of terrorist leaders and the passage of time without a major terrorist attack. It has been nearly 19 months since September 11, 2001. Since then, we have made considerable progress in destroying al Qaeda's base in Afghanistan and in disrupting its operational capabilities, but much remains to be done, Our efforts to destroy al Qaeda and its successors will take years. My remarks today will address three issues: (1) the nature of the current terrorist threat, (2) goals of a counter-terrorist strategy, and (3) the use of intelligence in dealing with terrorism. My remarks derive partly from research at the RAND Corporation, but my observations and conclusions are entirely my own.
Article
Multiple knowledges are available for utilisation in policy choice. The rank ordering of knowledges for use in decisionmaking is thus a fundamental predecision. This article shows how this predecision necessarily constrains the processes associated with a politics of ideas, using cases from American international commodity policy. Even when the supposed preconditions of this sort of politics are present, policy change did not occur when the proposed ideas arose from a knowledge accorded secondary status in policymaking circles. Several implications are discussed for the influence and the study of ideational politics. Ultimately, the politics of ideas, so often portrayed through cases of innovation, may be quite conservative, contained by knowledge hierarchies which reflect prior politicaxl circumstances.
Article
Extreme events such as large-scale natural disasters create the need for cooperation within andamong responding organizations. Activities to mitigate the effects of these events can beexpected to range from planned to improvised. This paper presents a methodology for describingboth the context and substance of improvisation during the response phase. The context isdescribed by (i) analyzing communication patterns among personnel in and among respondingorganizations and (ii) determining the ...
Article
Using network power bases and cognitive accuracy concepts, this study examines two local emergency management network changes. The authors review five power bases—structural-based, resource-based, actor-based, cognitive-based, and political-based power—to explore the perceived power of network actors. Three research propositions are proposed with respect to the relationship between the network power bases and the cognitive accuracy of network participants. The authors find that political-based power is strongly correlated with perceived power. The article concludes with future research questions and directions for advancing current scholarship on emergency management networks.
Article
This edition of the Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management follows a special edition of this journal on ‘urban crisis’ that appeared in 1997. Recognising that much has changed since then, this edition presents papers on the theme of urban vulnerability and associated issues and controversies. The focus is upon the urban context because cities exhibit special problems, with authorities having to deal with vulnerability to ‘a wide variety of disruptions’ resulting in potentially high impacts owing to concentrations of infrastructure, government, population and economic activity (Rosenthal, 't Hart, van Duin, Kroon, Otten and Overdijk, 1994:116).
Article
In 1955, the Commission on Intergovernmental Relations—the Kestnbaum Commission—embellished the intellectual framework of cooperative federalism and laid out a policy agenda for promoting it. Since then, our intergovernmental system has evolved from a predominantly cooperative federal–state–local system to one characterized by corrosive opportunistic behavior, greater policy prescriptiveness, eroding institutional capacity for intergovernmental analysis, and shifting paradigms of public management. These trends threaten to undermine effective intergovernmental relations and management. Recent developments, however, offer some promise for building new institutions of intergovernmental analysis, more effective paradigms of intergovernmental public management, and greater horizontal cooperation.
Article
This article briefly reviews the National Strategy which defines the US’s approach to counter future terrorist activity. In the context of computer security and privacy, the chapters on ‘Protecting Critical Infrastructure’, ‘Information Sharing and Systems’ and ‘Law’ are particularly relevant. The Strategy is also important, because all western democracies will be considering the same counter-terrorism imperatives, and are likely to consider similar security enhancing mechanisms as proposed in the Strategy.
Article
Reviews the book "Disaster Policy Implementation: Managing Programs Under Shared Governance," by Peter J. May and Walter Williams.
Article
This article examines the state of federalism in the Bush Administration from the perspective of the policy area of homeland security and disaster response. The article uses the International City and County Management Association homeland security survey completed in the spring and summer of 2005 as a source of data. The article argues that while it is tempting to look for one single agency to control homeland security and disaster response, a networked model is better supported by the survey data and by recent experience in terrorist and natural disaster response.
Article
Small states receive more homeland security grant money per capita than large states because of the structure of representation and decision making in Congress. Beyond per capita allocations, the homeland security granting process affects the structure of state and local emergency management agencies, shifting priorities away from natural and technological disasters toward counterterrorism. I suggest using competitive grants, increasing the salience of the granting process, and changing the institutional setting in order to rationalize the granting process. Copyright 2005 by The Policy Studies Organization.
Article
The report to the U.S. president entitled The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina concludes that in the event of catastrophic disasters the traditional intergovernmental response to disaster should give way to a more dominant role of the national government. This article considers whether it is possible to respond effectively to disaster in the traditional, intergovernmental mode by comparing the response to Katrina with the response, which was widely considered to be successful, to another disaster, in Grand Forks, North Dakota. The research suggests that an intergovernmental response can be successful if those who respond to the disaster interact in a collaborative network. The article considers whether such collaborative networks can be created and evaluates some of the recommendations from The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina as potentially helping to create collaborative networks.
Chertoff puts the onus on FEMA: The Homeland Security secretary tells a House panel that local and state officials were not at fault for government lapses in addressing Katrina
  • M Curtius
Curtius, M. (2005, October 20). Chertoff puts the onus on FEMA: The Homeland Security secretary tells a House panel that local and state officials were not at fault for government lapses in addressing Katrina. Los Angeles Times, A14
The resilient city: How modern cities recover from disaster Disasters, Catastrophes, and Policy Failure 437 rWachtendorf Improvising disaster in the city of jazz: Organizational response to Hurricane Katrina Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management
  • L J Vale
  • T J Campanella
  • T Kendra
Vale, L. J., & Campanella, T. J. (Eds). (2005). The resilient city: How modern cities recover from disaster. New York: Oxford University Press. Disasters, Catastrophes, and Policy Failure 437 rWachtendorf, T., & Kendra, J. M. (2005). Improvising disaster in the city of jazz: Organizational response to Hurricane Katrina. Social Science Research Council 2005. Retrieved November 25, 2005, from http:// understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Tierney/ Waugh, W. L., & Streib, G. (2006). Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Administration Review, 66(Special Issue, December), 131–140. 438 Thomas A. Birkland r
Catastrophes are different from disasters: Some implications for crisis planning and managing drawn from Katrina Terrorism did not begin on September 11. The Guardian Shifting priorities: Congressional incentives and the Homeland Security granting process
  • E L Quarantelli
Quarantelli, E. L. (2005). Catastrophes are different from disasters: Some implications for crisis planning and managing drawn from Katrina. Social Science Research Council 2005. Retrieved October 21, 2005, from http:// understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Quarantelli Rimington, S. (2002). Terrorism did not begin on September 11. The Guardian, September 4. Retrieved September 23, 2003, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4493943-110340,00.html Roberts, P. S. (2005). Shifting priorities: Congressional incentives and the Homeland Security granting process. Review of Policy Research, 22(4), 437–449.
Using organizations: The case of FEMA Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for the emergency planning process
  • C Perrow
Perrow, C. (2005). Using organizations: The case of FEMA. Social Science Research Council 2005. Retrieved November 22, 2005, from http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Perrow/ Perry, R. W., & Lindell, M. K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for the emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336–350.
What is a disaster? New answers to old questions
  • R W Perry
  • E L Quarantelli
Perry, R. W., & Quarantelli, E. L. (Eds). (2005). What is a disaster? New answers to old questions. Philadelphia: Xlibris.
Testimony of Jerome M. Hauer before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States States feel left out of disaster planning DHS to unveil new disaster response plan; FEMA will regain power; State, local input included
  • S Harris
Harris, S. (2003). Homeland Security cedes intelligence role. Government Executive, February 26. Retrieved December 27, 2008, from http://www.govexec.com/story_page_pf.cfm?articleid=24997&printer friendlyvers=1 Hauer, J. M. (2004). Testimony of Jerome M. Hauer before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. Retrieved December 26, 2008, from http://www.9-11commission.gov/hearings/ hearing11/hauer_statement.pdf Hsu, S. S. (2007). States feel left out of disaster planning. Washington Post, August 8, A1. Retrieved December 27, 2008, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/07/AR2007080702115.html Hsu, S. S. (2008a). DHS to unveil new disaster response plan; FEMA will regain power; State, local input included. Washington Post, January 19, A3.