Article

Breakups Before Marriage: The End of 103 Affairs

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Abstract

Factors that predicted breakups before marriage, investigated as part of a two-year study of dating relationships among college students, included unequal involvement in the relationship (as suggested by exchange theory) and discrepant age, educational aspirations, intelligence, and physical attractiveness (as suggested by filtering models). The timing of breakups was highly related to the school calendar, pointing to the importance of external factors in structuring breakups. The desire to break up was seldom mutual; women were more likely than men to perceive problems in premarital relationships and somewhat more likely to be the ones to precipitate the breakups. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the process of mate selection and their implications for marital breakup. (“The best divorce is the one you get before you get married.”)

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... Multiple studies have found that most relationships dis solve at the request of one partner, rather than both partners (Drigotas & Rusbult, 1992;Helgeson, 1994;Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976), and past research has shown that differences exist between disengagers and recipients in various postbreakup emotional outcomes (Davis, Shaver & Vernon, 2003;Field, Diego, Pelaez, Deeds, & Delgado, 2009;Hill et al., 1976;Sprecher, Felmlee, Metts, Fehr, & Vanni, 1998). ...
... Multiple studies have found that most relationships dis solve at the request of one partner, rather than both partners (Drigotas & Rusbult, 1992;Helgeson, 1994;Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976), and past research has shown that differences exist between disengagers and recipients in various postbreakup emotional outcomes (Davis, Shaver & Vernon, 2003;Field, Diego, Pelaez, Deeds, & Delgado, 2009;Hill et al., 1976;Sprecher, Felmlee, Metts, Fehr, & Vanni, 1998). ...
... Thus, when individuals experience a breakup, the severity of the reaction to the breakup may be partially predicted by whether they initiated the breakup or whether they were the partner being broken up with. Multiple studies have found that disengagers report less breakup distress than recipients (Davis et al., 2003;Field et al., 2009;Hill et al., 1976;Morris, Reiber, & Roman, 2015;Perilloux & Buss, 2008;Sprecher, 1994;, and that individuals involved in relationships dissolved mutually reported less distress than those who were broken up with (Morris et al., 2015). However, Simpson (1990) found no differences between the amount of breakup distress reported by disengagers and recipients, and Fine and Sacher (1997) found greater reported distress only for males who believed their partners initiated the breakup. ...
Article
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Ghosting, or avoiding technologically-mediated contact with a partner instead of providing an explanation for a breakup, has emerged as a relatively new breakup strategy in modern romantic relationships. The current study investigated differences in the process of relationship dissolution and post-breakup outcomes as a function of breakup role (disengager or recipient) and breakup strategy (ghosting or direct conversation) using a cross-validation design. A large sample of participants who recently experienced a breakup was collected and randomly split into two halves. Exploratory analyses were conducted in Sample A and used to inform the construction of specific hypotheses which were pre-registered and tested in Sample B. Analyses indicated relationships that ended through ghosting were shorter and characterized by lower commitment than relationships that ended directly. Recipients experienced greater distress and negative affect than disengagers, and ghosting disengagers reported less distress than direct disengagers. Ghosting breakups were characterized by greater use of avoidance/withdrawal anddistant/mediated communication breakup tactics and lessopen confrontation and positive tone/self-blame breakup tactics. Distinct differences between ghosting and direct strategies suggest developments in technology have influenced traditional processes of relationship dissolution.
... Is this higher "I pulled the plug" percentage a reflection of reality or an attempt to gain control of the process/appear as "not someone who was discarded?" Hill, Rubin, & Peplau (1976) noted in their study on breakups that most breakup survivors claimed they themselves had been the ones to initiate the breakup. But Hill et al. (1976) had responses from both ex-partners, and found that in most breakups, both partners claimed to be "the one" who had initiated the breakup. ...
... Hill, Rubin, & Peplau (1976) noted in their study on breakups that most breakup survivors claimed they themselves had been the ones to initiate the breakup. But Hill et al. (1976) had responses from both ex-partners, and found that in most breakups, both partners claimed to be "the one" who had initiated the breakup. There was no way to find out what "really" happened, who actually was the breaker and who the was the breakee. ...
... There was no way to find out what "really" happened, who actually was the breaker and who the was the breakee. Hill et al. (1976) suggested that respondents preferred to present themselves as the initiator both to save face and to see themselves as more competent and in control. ...
Article
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A 32-item survey (completed by 286 undergraduates) identified factors associated with positive (feeling happy, less anxious, sense of relief, freedom) and negative (sadness, jealousy, loss of self-esteem, anxiety) outcomes following a romantic breakup or loss. Analysis revealed complex associations but, in general, being female, Black, initiator of the breakup, and heterosexual were more likely to be associated with experiencing positive outcomes. Multivariate analyses suggested that being the initiator of the breakup was a key predictor of more favorable breakup outcomes. Symbolic interaction theory provided the theoretical framework for interpreting the findings, and limitations of the study were identified.
... However, the results revealed that males experienced more break-up distress. Although, this finding differs from some published studies (Field et al., 2009;Perilloux & Buss, 2008), it is consistent with the other studies (Carter et al., 2019;Hill et al., 1976;Knox et al., 2000;Morris, 2015). In unmarried romantic relationships, females are more cautious when choosing their partners, and are more inclined to stop losses in time once they detect problems (Hill et al., 1976). ...
... Although, this finding differs from some published studies (Field et al., 2009;Perilloux & Buss, 2008), it is consistent with the other studies (Carter et al., 2019;Hill et al., 1976;Knox et al., 2000;Morris, 2015). In unmarried romantic relationships, females are more cautious when choosing their partners, and are more inclined to stop losses in time once they detect problems (Hill et al., 1976). In other words, females can perceive the possibility of potential relationships dissolution, and prepare for the break-up in advance. ...
Article
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It has been well documented that Machiavellianism has a positive effect on break-up distress. However, there are few research explored the internal mechanism. In this study, we investigated the mediating role of self-concealment and the moderating role of gender. Machiavellianism Personality Scale, Self-Concealment Scale and Break-up Distress Scale was distributed through an online questionnaire platform. A sample of 869 undergraduate students was received, and their age ranged from 16 to 25 years old (M = 19.48, SD = 1.15). As we predicted, the relationship between Machiavellianism and break-up distress was partially mediated by self-concealment. The direct effect of Machiavellianism on break-up distress and the mediating effect of self-concealment were moderated by gender. Specifically, compared with boys, the effect of Machiavellianism on self-concealment was stronger for girls, while the effect of Machiavellianism on break-up distress was stronger for boys. These findings confirm how Machiavellianism affects break-up distress and provide new intervention ideas for solving the psychological crisis of college students after the dissolution of romantic relationships.
... Berscheid & Reis, 1989Dietch, 19781994, 1993a Frazier & Cook, 1993;Hill et al., 1976Hill et al., 19901993b20061985 ...
... Berscheid & Reis, 1989Dietch, 19781994, 1993a Frazier & Cook, 1993;Hill et al., 1976Hill et al., 19901993b20061985 ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine stress-related growth following the dissolution of a romantic relationship, by concentrating on adult attachment styles and the position of dissolution. Participants were 184 college and university students (86 men and 98 women) who had experienced dissolutions in the five years. They were requested to recount their most impressive experience of dissolution and the growth that resulted from it. The results showed that a break-up yielded higher growth than an end to unrequited love. Participants who had experienced a break-up without a clear initiator had difficulty growing. Lower attachment-related avoidance was associated with higher growth, but there was no significant association between attachment-related anxiety and growth.
... The couples who had been together longer having higher sexual satisfaction (Montesi et al. 2010) and higher sexual self-efficacy (Boislard and Zimmer-Gembeck 2011). In Hill et al. study in the USA, 85% of the women and 87% of the men reported that one person wanted to end the relationship (Hill et al. 1976), which is in line with our study. ...
... In this study, 86.9% of participants reported that they are in a serious relationship. There are several factors involved in ending a relationship, including: "becoming bored with the relations", "Differences in interests", "Differences in backgrounds", "Differences in intelligence", "Conflicting sexual attitudes", "Conflicting marriage ideas", "Woman's desire to be independent", "Man's desire to be independent", "Woman's interest in someone else", "Man's interest in someone else", "Living too far apart", "Pressure from woman's parents", "Pressure from man's parents" (Hill et al., 1976). We did not study any of these reasons, but we recommend that future studies obtain a more detailed knowledge of why university students engage in serious relationships. ...
Article
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Understanding the relationships and sexual behavior of university students will help educators and service-providers meet the reproductive health needs of students. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of relationship behaviors and their predictors among students attending an American university. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 924 students attending Central Michigan University. A self-administered structured questionnaire was derived from the World Health Organization and sent via emails to the participants. Descriptive analysis, bivariate and linear regression were used to analyze the data. This study showed that the average age of the first sexual encounter was 18.20 ± 4.31 years and the prevalence of having a girlfriend/boyfriend among university students was 92.1%. In total, 86.9% of students described their relationship as serious, 95.4% of cases announced that their boy/girlfriend was single when they started the relationship and someone who was working or were a full-time student (93.8%). Our results showed that only age was associated with relationship behavior among sociodemographic characteristics as older students had higher relationship behavior scores (OR: 0.09, CI 95% [0.03, 0.16]). There was no association between students' knowledge of risky sexual behavior and sex education (OR: 0.04, CI 95% [0.71–0.17]). Moreover, the history of sex education during school years was not associated with relationship behavior during university years. This study showed that although university students started their sexual relationship at a reasonable age, their knowledge about risky sexual behavior was not significantly associated with sex education. Future interventional studies pointing to the sexual knowledge and behavior of university students are recommended.
... They argued that this tends to create a joint lifestyle for couples as well as joint ownership of asserts, which has the eff ect of strengthening the couple's commitment to each other. According to Hill et al. ( 1976 ), people tend to be attracted to, and then to commit to romantic relationships with, those who are similar to themselves in terms of, for example, physical attractiveness, socio-economic background, attitude to life, intelligence and religion. This claim is very helpful in terms of understanding twin relationships because it shows that the foundation of very close relationships is what people share in common. ...
... I also discuss the limitations of my study and ideas for future research. The connections between the relationships of twins and couples that were highlighted in the data and discussed within the frame of psychological literature pertaining to couples include: bonds (Seymour-Smith and Wetherell, 2006 ); joint ownership of assets (Wetherell and Dixon, 2004); power relations issues (Maher and Singleton, 2013 ); interdependence (Miller, 1976); companionship (Kalmijn, 2001 ); friendship (White, 1983 ); jealousy (Kalmijn, 2001 ); a team approach (Wetherell and Dixon 2004); performance (Seymour-Smith and Wetherell, 2006 ); and similarity of attitude toward life (Hill et al., 1976 ). ...
... People construct autobiographical stories that provide a sense of mastery over their environment (Baumeister & Newman, 1994). For example, although people often deny personal responsibility for difficulties in close relationships, they overestimate their role in initiating relationship dissolutions (Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976). Lilgendahl and McAdams (2011) found that individuals coping with difficult life circumstances attempt to exert control over their lives by reframing the experience to be one of transformative growth. ...
Article
For millennia, narratives have been a primary mode of oral discourse. Narrative presentation of information has been shown to facilitate interpersonal and group communication. However, research indicates that narratives are more than merely an adaptive mode of communication. Narrative is a fundamental – and perhaps foundational – element of social and cultural life. The present article posits that the centrality of narrative in social life is due to narrative’s ability to help satisfy the five core social motives, as identified by Fiske belonging, understanding, control, self-enhancement, and trust. In so doing, this article reviews empirical and theoretical work examining basic narrative processes, autobiographical narratives, and entertainment narrative consumption to illustrate how narrative thought helps to satisfies core human motives and in turn, how the narrative construction process informs self and identity formation.
... Termination of personal rela- tionships is a significant source of psychological, emotional, and physical stress (cf. Bloom, Asher, and White 1978;Hill, Rubin, and Peplau 1976). From an- ecdotal evidence, the dissolution of commercial re- lationships extracts parallel tolls. ...
Article
Marketing theory and practice have focused persistently on exchange between buyers and sellers. Unfortunately, most of the research and too many of the marketing strategies treat buyer-seller exchanges as discrete events, not as ongoing relationships. The authors describe a framework for developing buyer-seller relationships that affords a vantage point for formulating marketing strategy and for stimulating new research directions.
... We can see this, for example, in studies of romantic breakups. Both men and women who are rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination (Hill, Rubin, Peplau 1976;Perilloux, Buss 2008). The fact that the person who initiates the breakup is less distressed than the person who is left is thought to be a matter of the initiator being in control of the event (Fiske, Taylor 1984). ...
... Partner ähneln sich vor allem in Eigenschaften wie Alter (z.B. Hili, Rubin & Peplau 1976;Susanne & Lepage 1988;Botwin, Buss & Shackelford 1997), physische Attrak- tivität (z.B. Murstein 1972;Murstein & Christy 1976;Price & Vandenberg 1979), Bildungsstand (Warren 1966), Intelligenz (z.B. ...
... Consequently, women tend to be more relationship oriented and are more likely to expect and desire emotional closeness, reciprocal self-disclosure, and support from a romantic partner than men are (Baxter, 1986;Peplau, 1983). Several studies found that women were more likely than men to cite a desire for autonomy/independence as a reason for breaking up with a romantic partner (Baxter, 1986;Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976). Furthermore, Medora et al. (2002) reported that women (in the US and Turkey in their study) placed greater importance on their partner having "a good job" and being "well educated," whereas men wanted their partner to be "physically attractive." ...
Article
This research investigated romantic expectations in a cross-cultural comparison of India and the United States (US). The study was grounded in expectancy violations theory (EVT), which argues that expectancies are a universal phenomenon whose content is influenced by communicator, relational, and contextual factors. The expectations of romantic partners in the two countries were assessed in conjunction with relational models, sex, and gender roles in a cross-sectional study (N = 366). Results indicated that romantic partners from the two countries placed different importance on specific expectations. Furthermore, expectations were successfully predicted by one’s culture, relational models, sex, and gender roles.
... Debido a la importancia que tiene una ruptura en el noviazgo para los jóvenes, diversos autores se han ocupado de investigar las consecuencias de este evento en la salud física y psicológica de un individuo. Autores como Hill, Rubin y Peplau (1976) han investigado factores que pueden estar relacionados con el pronóstico de una ruptura. Estos autores, tras realizar una investigación con 103 parejas que habían terminado su relación amorosa, encontraron factores como las disimilitudes de edad, el nivel de educación y el atractivo físico, y estos factores tienen un efecto predictivo en la disolución de las relaciones románticas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen La pareja amorosa es la unión de dos seres que viven pasos entrelazados a través del tiempo, mismos que determinan el grado de intimidad y acercamiento. Esta relación se verá afectada por las experiencias previas de cada uno y por las expectativas que se tengan acerca de la relación. Por tratarse de interacción entre dos individuos con diferentes características personales, existe la posibilidad de que esta entre en conflicto y se fracture, rompiéndose el vínculo amoroso, creándose en ellos sufrimiento. El objetivo es determinar la incidencia de motivos de consulta relacionados con la pérdida por separación amorosa en el CREAS en estudiantes de diversas carreras y sugerir técnicas que deberían utilizar los terapeutas que atienden a los usuarios en crisis que solicitan el servicio. Los resultados son: el 59.615% de los estudiantes reportaron rompimiento de pareja, de este total el 46.923% corresponde a mujeres y el 12. 692% a hombres. El 66.538% pertenece a la carrera de psicología, lo que puede estar relacionado con que los estudiantes presentan mayor sensibilidad para resolver sus problemas. Se sugiere hacer énfasis en un entrenamiento en estilos de afrontamiento y solución de problemas desde el modelo cognitivo-conductual.
... Labeling oneself as the "leaver" or the "left" can differently shape the divorce experience and the motivation to identify a certain way can influence one's interpretation of the divorce process (Demo and Fine 2010). Reports between ex-partners may be consistent on objective factors related to separation, but differences arise when subjective factors are considered (Hill et al. 1976). For example, spouses tend to view themselves as less responsible for the end of the marriage than their partner following the divorce (Gray and Silver 1990). ...
Article
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The status of divorce initiator versus non-initiator has demonstrated significant influence on individuals’ wellbeing throughout the divorce process. While these outcomes are relevant to both researchers and clinicians who focus on the influence of post-divorce outcomes, assessment of initiator status is generally conducted with a single question that varies across studies. The use of a single item to assess a complex, multifaceted construct such as divorce initiation poses a potential threat to the internal validity of the study. Further, single item assessments of divorce initiation are frequently inconsistent across studies, limiting the ability to synthesize the body of research as a whole. The Divorce Initiation Inventory (DII) is a five-item questionnaire that was constructed using terminology reflected in the extant literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the outcome of analyses for the development of the DII and to summarize the findings for initial assessment of reliability, criterion and construct validity. Clinical implications and directions for on-going research are discussed.
... Other research has spoken to the negative emotional impact of online avoidance and ostracism [6]. When rejection occurs in interpersonal relationships [2], there is a facilitator ("rejector") and a recipient ("rejected") involved. The recipients tend to feel more upset that the relationship ended. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of our research is to direct more attention to two relationship privacy boundary strategies: connection avoidance (i.e., rejecting friend/follower requests) and connection termination (i.e., removing existing friends/followers). A survey study was conducted with 222 college students that examined how participants regulated these boundaries with others versus how they perceived others who regulated these boundaries with them ("self" vs. "other") on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Participants reported using relationship avoidance and termination strategies more than they perceived others using these strategies against them. Overall, there were minimal impacts reported in terms of relationship changes due to others avoiding and terminating relationships. Site affordances partially explain these results, as none of the sites currently notify users when a friend request is denied or an existing friendship is severed.
... Ancak değinildiği gibi, farklı kayıp türleri de yaşanabilmektedir. Ölüme bağlı kaybın yanı sıra romantik ilişkinin sonlanması da kişiler için oldukça sarsıcı bir deneyim olarak yaşanabilmektedir (Boelen ve Reijntjes, 2009;Hill, Rubin ve Peplau, 1976;Sprecher, 1994). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to examine the psychological symptoms and Attachment-Based Mental Representations of university students who experienced the death of first and second-degree relatives or the break-up of their romantic relationships. The sample consisted of 122 female and 102 male students. The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 29 with a mean of 21.31 years (SD = 1.90). Demographic Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory and Attachment-Based Mental Representation Scale were used to collect data. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that there was no significant difference on Attachment-Based Mental Representations among the groups. Therefore, all groups are assumed to be homogeneous in terms of attachment-based mental representations. To compare psychological symptom levels of the groups, ANOVA was also conducted. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the groups who lost their second-degree relatives and who break-up their romantic relationship. However, there was no significant differences between the groups who lost their first-degree relatives and who break-up their romantic relationships. Regression analysis revealed that negative self-representation and negative father-representation significantly predicted psychological symptoms of the group who experienced the break-up. Consequently, break-up of the romantic relationship is quite important for emerging adulthood. In addition, current study revealed that negative self representation and negative father-representation of adolescents who experienced the break-up led to the risk factors for psychological symptoms.
... After separation, women rehash and ruminate on the causes of the relationship disintegration ( Harvey, Weber, Yarkin, & Stewart, 1982). Women relate marital dissolution to interpersonal problems rather than to the structural factors that men mention ( Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976). Called "grave dressing" ( Duck, 1982) or "accounts" ( Harvey et al., 1982;Weiss, 1975), these statements are histories of a rela­ tionship that structure events in a narrative sequence to allocate blame for relationship failures. ...
... Less research has considered gender differences in nonmarital relationships and dissolutions. Evidence suggests that men suffer more than women following a non-marital breakup, especially when men did not initiate the breakup (Helgeson, 1994;Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976), although other research finds that females report greater breakup distress (Field, Diego, Pelaez, Deeds, & Delgado, 2009). Despite unclear findings on gender differences in postdissolution distress, women report greater nonmarital postdissolution growth compared to men (Sprecher, 1994;Tashiro & Frazier, 2003). ...
Article
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This study assessed the key aspects of romantic relationship dissolution in emerging adulthood as predictors of future mental health and romantic qualities. It utilized a longitudinal, multiinformant, multimethod study of 160 participants with their romantic partners and close friends followed from ages 20–25, with a breakup assessed at age 22. Having control over initiating a breakup at age 22 predicted relative increases in peer-rated internalizing symptoms and autonomy-undermining interactions with a new partner at ages 23–25. Having a greater understanding of the reasons for a breakup predicted lower self-reported internalizing symptoms and relative decreases in partner-reported romantic conflict as well as relative increases in self-reported relationship satisfaction and peer-rated intimate relationship competence at ages 23–25. Predictions remained after accounting for numerous potential confounds including age 20–22 baseline relationship quality, social competence, internalizing symptoms, and gender. Implications for understanding links between breakup characteristics on emerging adult psychological and relationship functioning are discussed.
... Falta de comunicação e falta de amor, pouca tolerância para situações de infidelidade e/ou maus tratos, diminuição da percepção de intimidade, problemas econômicos e imaturidade (Casado et al, 2001); diferenças de costumes, ideais e valores e a crença de não ser amado reciprocamente (Ferrand, 1996); a percepção do ser amado de ser pouco estimado por seu (sua) parceiro, convivência monótona, as expectativas não cumpridas, insultos e abusos (Almeida, 2012;Gonçalvez & Almeida, 2015;Almeida & Lourenço, 2014); diferenças de idade, diferenças percebidas no nível de educação, falta de atração física e/ou atitudes (Hill, Rubin & Peplau, 1976). ...
Article
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Many people when they leave their partners may have difficulties to continue their lives without them and leave with that past relationship does not allow new relationships. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how past relationships can have influences in life and establishing new relationships for individuals. To this end we carried out a systematic review of the literature in the BvsPsi databases Medline, Lilacs and PsycINFO, no time limit, with the descriptors: ex partner and love cyclical relationships in Portuguese and in English. Additional searches provided a total of 10 studies. It can be seen that remain attached to past history can cause the level of satisfaction suffers a downgrade in the individual's life, and contacts with former partners almost always produce more negative resentment and implications compared to the positive consequences of this contact.
... In turn, relationship satisfaction is enhanced when individuals have greater emotional involvement in their dating relationships (Rubin, Hill, Peplau, & DunkelSchetter, 1980) and can engage in self-disclosure, trust, and interdependence (Altman & Taylor, 1973;Hendrick, 1981;Levinger& Senn, 1967;Reis & Shaver, 1988). Furthermore, dating relationships with little intimacy are more prone to dissolution (Hendrick, 1981;Hendrick, Hendrick, & Adler, 1988;Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976;Simpson, 1987). Thus, both theory and research suggest that the close relationship context is one that focuses on intimacy and that creating such communion is an important predictor of relationship satisfaction and maintenance. ...
Article
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This research extends previous work indicating that individuals are more effective at regulating their behavior when they are in goal-congruent contexts by examining whether individuals particularly need concrete goal-relevant situational affordances once they are in these broadly affirming contexts. Specifically, the authors explore this issue by using the broad context of steady dating relationships (i.e., intimacy-relevant contexts), and considering the role of both intimacy goals and intimacy-affording daily life situations in producing relationship satisfaction and maintenance over time. Results indicate that those with a strong focus on intimacy experience considerable relationship satisfaction regardless of whether they spend time in daily life situations that facilitate intimacy, whereas those without such a focus depend for satisfaction on the presence of intimacy-conducive situations (e.g., time alone with one's partner, or social support from one's partner). Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of these findings for the Person x Situation literature.
... Balance theory and attitude alignment Similarity in attitudes and other domains affects selection of romantic partners (Etcheverry & Agnew, 2009) and persistence of romantic relationships (Anderson, Keltner, & John, 2003;Clarkwest, 2007;Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976;Ireland et al., 2011). Nevertheless, close partners inevitably encounter instances of dissimilarity as they change existing attitudes or form attitudes about novel attitude objects (e.g., individuals and political issues). ...
Article
Individuals seek to affirm their belonging in many ways, but will they change even strongly held attitudes to do so? Attitude alignment is one mechanism by which individuals maintain ongoing relationships. We tested whether individuals would engage in greater attitude alignment (shifting their attitudes to match a romantic partner's attitudes) following rejection. Participants (N = 190) and their dating partners reported their attitudes about 51 social issues and received feedback that a third party (confederate) did or did not reject them. Dating partners then discussed two disagreed‐upon social issues: One issue was peripheral to self and central to partner (PC) and one issue central to self and peripheral to partner (CP). Participants completed a post‐discussion attitude measure. In the absence of rejection, individuals engaged in greater attitude alignment for PC than CP issues; following rejection, they engaged in similarly high levels of attitude alignment for both issue types. Rejected (vs. not rejected) individuals also engaged in greater attitude alignment for CP issues. Rejection led individuals to change centrally held attitudes typically more resistant to change, arguably to enhance their sense of belonging in a valued relationship.
... Additional evidence bearing on this theme comes from a study of the breakup of college dating relationships. Although both members of a couple typically reported loneliness and depression as a result of the breakup, partners who wanted the relationship to end and initiated the breakup were less distressed (Hill et al. 1976). ...
... Falta de comunicação e falta de amor, pouca tolerância para situações de infidelidade e/ou maus tratos, diminuição da percepção de intimidade, problemas econômicos e imaturidade (Casado et al, 2001); diferenças de costumes, ideais e valores e a crença de não ser amado reciprocamente (Ferrand, 1996); a percepção do ser amado de ser pouco estimado por seu (sua) parceiro, convivência monótona, as expectativas não cumpridas, insultos e abusos (Almeida, 2012;Gonçalvez & Almeida, 2015;Almeida & Lourenço, 2014); diferenças de idade, diferenças percebidas no nível de educação, falta de atração física e/ou atitudes (Hill, Rubin & Peplau, 1976). ...
Article
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Resumo Muitas pessoas ao se desligarem de seus parceiros podem apresentar dificuldades em prosseguir a vida delas sem os mesmos e deixar com que essa relação passada não permita novos relacionamentos. Diante disso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo entender como relacionamentos passados podem ter influências na vida e na constituição de novos relacionamentos para os indivíduos. Para tal foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados da BvsPsi, Medline, Lilacs e PsycINFO, sem limite de tempo, com os descritores: ex-parceiro, relações cíclicas e os seus correspondentes, em inglês: "ex partner" e "love cyclical relationships". Buscas adicionais forneceram um total de 10 trabalhos. Pode-se constatar que permanecer fixada a histórias passadas podem fazer com que o nível de satisfação sofra um rebaixamento na vida do indivíduo, sendo que contatos com ex-parceiro quase sempre produzem mais ressentimentos e implicações negativas se comparadas às consequências positivas desse contato. Palavras-chave: rompimento; separação; relacionamentos amorosos cíclicos; ex-parceiro. Abstract Many people when they leave their partners may have difficulties to continue their lives without them and leave with that past relationship does not allow new relationships. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how past relationships can have influences in life and establishing new relationships for individuals. To this end we carried out a systematic review of the literature in the BvsPsi databases Medline, Lilacs and PsycINFO, no time limit, with the descriptors: ex partner and love cyclical relationships in Portuguese and in English. Additional searches provided a total of 10 studies. It can be seen that remain attached to past history can cause the level of satisfaction suffers a downgrade in the individual's life, and contacts with former partners almost always produce more negative resentment and implications compared to the positive consequences of this contact.
... Prior relationship dissolution research (e.g., Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2005;Drigotas & Rusbult, 1992;Helgeson, 1994;Metts, Cupach, & Bejlovec, 1989;Sprecher, 1994) found that those who experience relationship termination may not accurately report the initiator and found that the same number of participants said their partners initiated the breakup as those who say that they themselves initiated it. When researchers combine both breakup accounts from partners they observed no mutual breakups (Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976). This differentiation of role responsibility calls into question its relation to ghosting. ...
Article
Ghosting is the unilateral dissolution process of ceasing communication through media. When ghosted, non‐initiators are often left without the ability to navigate the resulting uncertainty or impending dissolution processes. Utilizing uncertainty reduction theory and ambiguous loss, this investigation explores effective and ineffective strategies used to find answers, reduce uncertainty, and navigate post‐dissolution consequences. Employing two studies from Amazon's Mechanical Turk, a thematic analysis to delineate and affirm categories—7 effective and ineffective strategies and 11 categories of personal and relational implications after being ghosted—was used. These studies provide insight about non‐initiators process to resolve their uncertainty and highlight ramifications from ambiguity that non‐initiators experience after being ghosted. These findings discuss connections to knowledge acquisition, closure processing, and consequences of ghosting.
... While there are many ways to leave one's partner (Schmitt and Shackelford, 2003), we focus on one here called ghosting. Ghosting is a relatively common and an indirect form of relationship termination (Banks et al., 1987;Baxter, 1984;Hill et al., 1976) where one person simply stops communicating with the other and often "unfriends" and "unmatches" them on social media (De Wiele and Campbell, 2019;LeFebvre, 2017;LeFebvre et al., 2019;Manning et al., 2019). Prior research has often been qualitative in nature, relying on small samples, and, when quantitative, it focused on outcomes like psychological health and predictors like relationship-destiny beliefs (Freedman et al., 2019;Koessler et al., 2019aKoessler et al., , 2019bNavarro et al., 2020;Tong and Walther, 2010). ...
Article
Researchers have extensively explored the early and middle stages of romantic and sexual relationships for those high on the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) but they have generally missed the termination stage of relationships. In this study we examined (N = 341) the role these traits play in one termination strategy, ghosting. Ghosting is when a person discontinues a relationship through silence; it is considered an indirect form of relationship termination. We found that (1) those who reported ghosting someone in the past (vs. those who did not) found ghosting to be acceptable and were more Machiavellian and psychopathic, (2) ghosting was most acceptable in the short-term (vs. long-term) context especially for those who had previously ghosted someone, and (3) those high in the Dark Triad traits rated ghosting more acceptable to terminate short-term relationships, but not long-term ones. We also found that the correlations between acceptability and ghosting short-term partners and the Dark Triad traits was localized to narcissistic men with a similar-yet-weak effect for psychopathy. Results are discussed in relation to how ghosting may be primarily committed by people who are interested in casual sex where investment is low and may be part of the fast life history strategies linked to the Dark Triad traits.
... Following past practices (Blokland & Nieuwbeerta, 2005;Farrington & West, 1995;Hill et al., 1976;Stets & Straus, 1989), we coded marital status into three categories: (1) married, (2) cohabiting, and (3) not married or cohabiting (including those never married, widowed, divorced, and separated). ...
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Compared to a vast body of research examining the crime-inhibitory roles of structural forces such as stable employment, family support and neighborhood environment, relatively fewer research efforts have been devoted to explore the role of human agency in the process of desistance. This study quantitatively tests the propositions of identity theory of desistance, a relatively new theory on crime desistance that focuses on the role of offender self-identity. Using longitudinal data from a 20 years’ follow-up study of serious adult offenders, we examine whether a pro-social identity has a direct crime-inhibitory effect. Meanwhile, we test the heterogenous effects of employment and reentry programs that are conditioned on offender self-identity. Findings provide empirical support for the propositions of ITD. Respondents who experienced sanctions in the past were able to start a desistance process by constructing a pro-social identity. Their pro-social identities not only directly inhibited recidivism but also moderated the effect of employment and reentry programs. The findings enrich our understanding of offenders’ identity transformation and desistance.
... These findings, especially regarding females experiencing more frequent IIs, support previous studies (Edwards et al., 1989) which have found females are more likely to experience a higher frequency of IIs than males. Previous studies (Edwards et al., 1989;Hill et al., 1976;Honeycutt & Sheldon, 2018;Ross andHolmberg, 1992 Ross &Holmberg, 1992) have noted several possible reasons for this, including that females typically tend to be more aware of relationships, and the nuances therein, and think about those relationships more often. When taking the context of the pandemic into consideration, one must consider that many females are not only being asked to work from home, but to also act as the predominant caretakers of children, as daycares and schools also closed or shifted to online services, so relationships may be more at the forefront of females' minds than ever before. ...
Article
As people all over the world continue to adjust to the new normal presented to them by COVID-19, they must adjust to the social restrictions that have been enforced. These restrictions include shelter-in-place and work-from-home orders that severely limit the face-to-face interactions that were considered a norm in many peoples’ lives (e.g., speaking with the grocer, hair stylist, etc.). As individuals adjust to these changes, their communication behaviors must adapt as well. This study seeks to determine how the restrictions of COVID-19 have impacted Imagined Interactions (IIs) and Communication Apprehension (CA). This study identifies significant relationships between IIs and CA before and during COVID-19, as well as how certain demographics have experienced IIs and CA during the pandemic.
... In addition to these possibilities, it also seems likely that 1) mothers might not know the extent of, or details about, nonresident fathers' characteristics and involvement with their children, 2) real differences exist between men and women's perceptions and experiences of their parenting (Bernard, 1972;Weiss, 1975;Hill, 1976;Ahrons, 1981), ...
... Zaichkowsky (1985, p. 342) defines involvement as "a person's perceived relevance of a [potential relationship] based on inherent needs, values, and interests". Interpersonal relationship research has demonstrated that levels of involvement correlate with the relationship's subsequent progress (Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976;Levinger, Senn, & Jorgensen, 1970). Stage theory explains that, as involvement increases, the level of intimacy in disclosure also increases (Levinger, 1980). ...
... The findings presented in the article correspond with the results of research on the causes of divorces, which indicate that the decision to separate depends on socio-demographic characteristics (see for example : Hills, Rubin, Peplau 1976;Amato 2000;Slany 2001;Jalovaara 2003). However, they propose a more detailed perspective. ...
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The article focuses on relationship experiences in the light of the diversity of relationship forms, relationship length and the attitude of partners to relationship permanence. The conceptual framework was determined by the sociotemporal perspective, and the analysis was carried out with reference to concepts employed in the fields of the sociology of the family, the sociology of intimacy, the sociology of gender and the sociology of time. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the socio-demographic characteristics of women and men and their relationship experiences, the diversity of relationship forms and their length, as well as their readiness to stay in a relationship or leave in a crisis situation. The research was carried out using the diagnostic survey method on a representative sample of adult Poles in January 2018. Gender has been shown to differentiate the length of relationship and the attitudes to relationship permanence. It was found that women stay in shorter relationships more often than men. It was also found that the experiences of women with different types of relationships are more diverse when linked to their social status than the experiences of men. Four types of orientation to the (im)permanence of relationships were identified. It was established that men’s readiness to leave depends on their age, education and self-assessment of their financial situation, whereas women’s decision to leave depends on their age, education and socio-occupational category.
... However, gender differences exist in the psychological experience of a breakup. For example, women tend to report fewer negative feelings relative to men do after a breakup occurs (Choo et al., 1996;Hill et al., 1976) and report being happier with their breakup (DeLecce & Weisfeld, 2015). However, women are also more likely to initiate a breakup compared to men (DeLecce & Weisfeld, 2015). ...
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Popular culture has recently publicized a seemingly new postbreakup behavior called breakup sex. While the media expresses the benefits of participating in breakup sex, there is no research to support these claimed benefits. The current research was designed to begin to better understand this postbreakup behavior. In the first study, we examined how past breakup sex experiences made the individuals feel and how people predict they would feel in the future ( n = 212). Results suggested that men are more likely than women to have felt better about themselves, while women tend to state they felt better about the relationship after breakup sex. The second study ( n = 585) investigated why men and women engage in breakup sex. Results revealed that most breakup sex appears to be motivated by three factors: relationship maintenance, hedonism, and ambivalence. Men tended to support hedonistic and ambivalent reasons for having breakup sex more often than women. The two studies revealed that breakup sex may be differentially motivated (and may have different psychological consequences) for men and women and may not be as beneficial as the media suggests.
... Podejście to koresponduje również z perspektywą strukturalistyczną przemian życia rodzinnego Claude'a Lévi-Straussa [2012], według której charakter relacji wewnątrzmałżeńskich i rodzinnych wyznaczany jest w społeczeństwach przez typy struktury społecznej. Wobec powyższego w badaniach uwzględniono czynniki wpływające na kształt struktury społecznej ulokowane w cechach społeczno-demograficznych i jednocześnie te, które wskazywane są w badaniach jako korelujące ze stosunkiem do rozwodów [Hills, Rubin, Peplau 1976;Shapiro, Lambert 1999;amato 2000;Jalovaara 2003;Szlendak 2011]. ...
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Streszczenie artykuł wpisuje się w zakres problematyki socjologii rodziny, przede wszystkim w obszar zainteresowań socjologii pary i socjologii intymności. Projektowanie badań i analizy ich wyników dokonane zostały w perspektywie przemian życia małżeńsko-rodzinnego L. Jamieson, a. Giddensa, U. Becka i E. Beck-Gernsheim. konceptualizacja badań wyznaczona była koncepcją związku intymnego J.C. kaufmanna oraz koncepcją płci R. Connell. Głów-nym zamierzeniem badawczym było rozpoznanie społeczno-demograficznych uwarunkowań powodów potencjalnej decyzji o zakończeniu związku. Badania zrealizowano w 2018 roku na reprezentatywnej próbie 951 dorosłych miesz-kańców Polski metodą wywiadów bezpośrednich w wersji CaPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview). Celem badań było ustalenie istotnych dla kobiet i mężczyzn powodów decyzji o odejściu od partnera/partnerki w sytuacji kryzysu w związku i braku satysfakcji z niego oraz wyjaśnienie zależności między cechami społeczno-demograficznymi a tymi powodami w ramach Dr, katedra Socjologii, Instytut Nauk Socjologicznych i Pedagogiki;
... People construct autobiographical stories that provide a sense of mastery over their environment (Baumeister & Newman, 1994). For example, although people often deny personal responsibility for difficulties in close relationships, they overestimate their role in initiating relationship dissolutions (Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1976). Lilgendahl and McAdams (2011) found that individuals coping with difficult life circumstances attempt to exert control over their lives by reframing the experience to be one of transformative growth. ...
... The FAE may be present in the beginning of relationships that end. Considering some early research suggests that too little internal autonomy over behaviors and more attribution toward external causes for behaviors may be damaging to a relationship in the long term (Hill, Rubin, and Peplau, 1976), it would be valuable to study relationships longitudinally with respect to breakups and the FAE. ...
Article
Attraction is associated with a number of attributional processes including the Fundamental Attribution Error. Dateability, a construct defined within the present study as the likelihood of a heterosexual individual choosing to go on a date with an individual of the opposite sex, has received less attention. This study examines the associations between attraction, dateability, and an individual's willingness to overlook a negative trait. We hypothesized that negative traits would be more likely to be overlooked as the level of attractiveness increased, and that "dateability" would be a predictor of willingness to overlook negative traits over and above perceived physical attractiveness. Results suggest that negative signals were more concerning in more "dateable" targets, but the effect was eliminated by a tendency to overlook negative signals from those who scored higher on dateability. Our findings suggest that perceived character flaws will be overlooked more often in dateable individuals.
Article
Although is known that romantic experience gives pleasant sensations to an individual, to live a romantic lost brings pain feelings, desperation and anger because deception in front of reality which prior expectations in the ex partner weren't possible to reach (Argyle & Furnham, 1983). During the romantic grief individual lives under the torment of hope and the possibility of living painful emotions constantly (Zaragoza Toscano, 2007). To evaluate the course of the grief process in those persons whose already finished their romantic relationship, we applied to 833 participants the Tridimensional Evaluation of Romantic Grief (Sánchez Aragón & Retana Franco, 2012). We identified four stages: Negotiation, Hostility, Hopelessness and Pseudo-Acceptance, which were supported by literature. We found some differences in the experience of the stages obtained due to the romantic grief reason. Specific findings show that infidelity provokes more hostility and hopelessness in comparison with other reasons as disagreements and lack of time.
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In the present investigation, we identified correlates of sexual novelty in existing relationships and also investigated whether experimentally manipulating persuasive information about sexual novelty could encourage sexual novelty within a relationship. Participants in committed relationships of 6 months or longer were recruited online through Amazon's Mechanical Turk to complete a two-part survey on sexual relationships. The initial survey (Time 1) was completed by 352 predominantly White US citizens (204 women, 146 men, 2 unreported), and a subset of 244 people (140 women, 101 men, 3 unreported) completed the follow-up survey two weeks later (Time 2). We found that several sex-positive personal characteristics (e.g., pornography use and sexual fantasy) and positive relational characteristics (e.g., commitment, egalitarianism, and sexual frequency) are related to engaging in sexual novelty, as well as desire for sexual novelty, willingness to initiate sexual novelty, and willingness to comply with partner-initiated sexual novelty. We also found that certain persuasive strategies (i.e., those incorporating fear appeals, narrative accounts, or examples of successful initiation strategies) may be effective at altering perceptions of sexual novelty and increasing novel intimate behavior between relationship partners.
Article
We examined narratives of romantic breakups (i.e., breakup accounts) in relation to romantic attachment tendencies. In Study 1, participants provided accounts of difficult breakups and indicated who in the relationship initiated its dissolution. In Study 2, participants provided breakup accounts from the perspective of the initiator and the non-initiator. Breakup accounts were coded for levels of exploration (active reflection of the narrated experience) and resolution (emotional closure and a sense of resiliency). Across studies, levels of resolution were highest in self-initiated, when compared to other-initiated, breakup accounts. In Study 2, avoidant attachment correlated negatively with levels of resolution in self-initiated, but not other-initiated, breakup accounts. These results suggest that avoidantly attached individuals narrate self-initiated breakups in a less thoroughly processed manner than their secure peers, and that these differences in transformational processing may carry implications for romantic domain functioning.
Article
Romantic breakups are common among youths. Yet “why” they occur is not well understood. In adolescence and emerging adulthood, unique characteristics of romantic participation call for investigation of breakups from a developmental perspective. Our principal objective was to map out breakup reasons of adolescents and emerging adults, accounting for relevant theory and research on both age-groups. We considered the role of age, gender, and dating stage (casual vs. serious) on youths’ breakup reasons. Results revealed a five-factor scale with affiliation, intimacy, autonomy, infidelity, and status as unique factors. Consistent with theory and research, we found similarities and differences in how youths of different age, dating stage, and gender endorse these reasons. These findings are consistent with the notion that breakups stem from a failure of romantic relationships to meet youths’ emerging romantic needs, and that there is considerable continuity in these relational dimensions from adolescence into emerging adulthood.
Article
Comparisons of group means, variances, correlations, and/or regression slopes involving psychological variables rely on an assumption of measurement invariance—that the latent variables under investigation have equivalent meaning and measurement across group. When measures are noninvariant, replicability suffers, as comparisons are either conceptually meaningless, or hindered by inflated Type I error rates. We propose that the failure to account for interdependence among dyad members when testing measurement invariance may be a potential source of unreplicable findings in relationship research. We developed fully dyadic versions of invariance models, created an R package (dySEM) to make specifying dyadic invariance models easier and reporting more reproducible, and executed a Registered Report for gauging the extent of dyadic (non)invariance in romantic relationship research across measures of relationship well‐being, personality, and sexuality in a sample of 282 heterosexual couples. We found that although a number of popular measures display good evidence of dyadic invariance, a few display concerning levels and interesting patterns of noninvariance, while others appeared either noninvariant or poorly fitting for both men and women. We discuss our findings in terms of their meaning for the replicability dyadic close relationship research. We close by arguing that increased theorizing and research on dyadic invariance, and inclusive methods for analyzing invariance with indistinguishable dyads, are needed to capitalize on the opportunity to advance our field's understanding of dyadic constructions of relational concepts.
Article
Divorce is considered distressing for many individuals (Sbarra et al., Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2015, 24, 109); however, individuals in poor-quality relationships may experience certain benefits of leaving an unstable union (Amato & Hohmann-Marriott, Journal of Marriage and Family, 2007, 69, 621). On-off relationship cycling, or the breakup and reconciliation of a relationship, is a salient indicator of poor relationship quality and a common form of relationship instability (Dailey et al., Personal Relationships, 2009, 16, 23) that is associated with distress (Monk et al., Family Relations, 2018, 67, 523). In line with divorce-stress-adjustment and relational turbulence theory perspectives, we hypothesized that those whose relationships were characterized by on-off instability would experience less distress during the separation and divorce process. Given gender inequality in marriage (e.g., Dempsey, Journal of Sociology, 2002, 38, 91; Monin & Clark, Sex Roles, 2011, 65, 320), we also hypothesized that this association would be more pronounced for women. Using data from 98 divorced or separating couples, we found that relationship cycling prior to the separation and divorce process was associated with fewer distress symptoms for women. Conversely, a history of relationship cycling was associated with more distress symptoms for men. Our study provides support and extends prior investigations illustrating that, for some, those in unions characterized by more turmoil, may experience relief following a termination.
Article
Emerging adults who are romantically involved are torn between acceptance of globalization and mordern technologies on one hand, and societies' expectation about maintaining traditional values and beliefs on the other. Therefore, a romantic relationship during this period becomes a common cause for conflict and tension; not only for the individual, but for the family and also the society. This study is focused on the attitude towards marriage among emerging adults, who have experienced a broken romantic relationship. For this purpose, the investigator adopted the case study method on five clients who came to the clinic for help. The findings indicate that college students experience the trauma of a breakup experienced in high school, as they have difficulty forgetting and forgiving themselves and are tormented by fears and doubts about failure of their marriage.
Article
The engagement period is a critical window to understand stay–leave decisions because it marks a stage when individuals are moving toward lifelong commitment, but do not have the obligations of legal marriage that make dissolution more difficult. According to Inertia Theory, felt momentum can propel couples through relationship transitions without sufficient consideration of their dedication, which could constrain partners in poor quality relationships. Drawing from this perspective, we examined how individuals reduce relationship momentum and end a marital engagement. We conducted interviews with individuals who made the decision to end their engagements and cancel their weddings ( N = 30). Experiences were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. The core concept we identified, visualizing, consisted of imagining a relational future (or alternative present) that became heightened during the engagement period. Rituals of wedding planning (e.g., trying on a dress and selecting a venue) appear to serve as a catalyst for this process. This cognitive shift prompted individuals to slow relational momentum (e.g., through trial separations and the returning of rings) and reconsider “red flags” and constraints to leaving the relationship. Once participants decided to leave, they described the process of breaking off the engagement and uncoupling from their partners. Family members and friends who assisted in managing the emotional fallout and logistics of ending the engagement (e.g., canceling with vendors and informing guests) were reported as particularly helpful supports. Visualizing married life beyond the wedding may be leveraged to help individuals navigate premarital doubts.
Book
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Intimate Relationships across Cultures - by Charles T. Hill
Thesis
Yatırım Modeli, ilişki bağlanımı ve istikrarını açıklamada en önemli kuramlardan biri olarak literatürde yerini almıştır. Yatırım modeline göre, ilişki doyumu, seçeneklerin niteliğini değerlendirme düzeyi ve ilişkiye yapılan yatırım, ilişki istikrarı ve bağlanımının belirleyicileridir.Bu çalışmada, flört eden ve evli bireylerin, ilişki istikrarını belirleyen ilişki doyumu, seçeneklerin niteliğini değerlendirme düzeyi ve ilişki yatırımları ile stres belirtileri ve stresle başaçıkma tarzları incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın ana amacı, ilişki bağlanımını yordayan değişkenleri saptamak, bunun yanı sıra, bağlanım, stres ve stresle başaçıkma tarzlarında gruplar arası farkları belirlemektir. Araştırmaya, 118 evli ve 135 flört eden birey katılmış olup, bu bireylerin 117’si erkek, 136’sı kadındır. Ölçme aracı olarak, demografik bilgi formu, ilişki istikrarı ölçeği, stres belirtileri ölçeği ve yakın ilişkilerde çok boyutlu başaçıkma ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, ilişki doyumunu, ilişkinin niteliğini olumlu değerlendirme, ilişkiye hiç başlamamış olmayı isteme, ilişkide güven, ilişkiye bağlılık, ilişkide yaşanan sorun düzeyi, ilişkiye odaklanma ve partnerin çekiciliği anlamlı olarak yordamıştır. Bu değişkenlerden ilişkiye hiç başlamamış olmayı isteme ve ilişkide yaşanan sorun düzeyi ilişki doyumunu negatif olarak yordamaktadır. Seçeneklerin niteliğini değerlendirme boyutunu anlamlı olarak yordayan değişkenler, ilişkiye bağlılık, eski duygusal ilişki sayısı, ilişkiye odaklanma, alkol ve ilaç kullanımı, dine tutunma, ilişkiye hiç başlamamış olmayı isteme ve kendini desteklemedir. İlişkiye bağlılık, ilişkiye odaklanma ve dine tutunma puanları seçeneklerin niteliğini değerlendirmeyi negatif olarak yordamaktadır.İlişki yatırımını ise, ilişkiye bağlılık, ilişkinin niteliğini olumlu değerlendirme, ilişkinin uzun sürmesine ilişkin beklenti ve olumsuz edilgen başaçıkma tarzı anlamlı olarak yordamaktadır. Yatırım modeli değişkenleri ile stres ve stresle başaçıkma tarzlarında cinsiyet ve ilişki türüne göre gruplar arası farklar incelenmiş, cinsiyetler arası farklarda erkeklerin kadınlara oranla, ilişkilerinin niteliğini daha olumlu değerlendirdikleri gözlenmiştir. Cinsiyetler arasında fark yaratan bir başka değişken ise, ilişkide sorun yaşama düzeyidir. Kadınlar, erkeklere oranla, ilişkilerinde daha çok sorun yaşadıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Cinsiyet açısından stres belirtilerinin incelenmesi sonucunda, erkeklerle karşılaştırıldığında, kadınların bilişsel-duygusal belirtileri daha çok yaşadıkları, daha fazla ağrı ve yakınma belirttikleri ve daha yüksek toplam stres puanlarına sahip oldukları gözlenmiştir. Yine bu çalışmada, flört eden kadınların evli kadınlara ve flört eden erkeklere göre, daha çok fizyolojik belirti gösterdikleri gözlenmiştir. Stresle başaçıkma tarzı olarak erkeklerin kadınlara oranla, ilişkiye daha çok odaklandıkları, daha çok alkol-ilaç kullandıkları ve daha çok inkar edip, erteledikleri gözlenmektedir. Kadınların ise, erkeklere oranla daha çok olumsuz ve edilgen başaçıkma tarzını kullandıkları ve daha çok dışsal destek aradıkları görülmektedir.İlişki türü arasındaki farklılıkların sonucunda, flört eden bireylerin evli bireylere oranla, ilişkilerine daha az bağlı oldukları gözlenmiştir. Bunun yanı sıra, flört eden bireylerin evli bireylere oranla, ilişkilerine daha çok odaklandıkları, daha çok olumlu ve etkin başaçıkma tarzı kullandıkları, daha çok kendilerini destekledikleri ve yine daha çok inkar edip, erteledikleri gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca, flört eden erkeklerin, evli erkeklere göre ve flört eden kadınlara göre, daha çok kendilerini destekledikleri, aynı zamanda evli kadınların da evli erkeklere göre ve flört eden kadınlara göre daha çok kendilerini destekledikleri gözlenmiştir. (Investment model has been responsible for the lion’s share of empirical research on relationship commitment. According to this theory, the outcomes that an individual obtains from his or her relationship as well as perceived quality of alternatives to that relationship and the invested resources in the relationship are important contributers to relationship stability. In other words, this model proposes that people will feel committed to their relationships to the extent that they feel satisfied, believe that they have few good alternatives to the relationship and have invested some resources in the relationship. This study aimed to assess the relationship between investment model and coping strategies in close relationships. The main purpose of the research is to obtain information related to the predictive variables of relationship commitment. Besides, it is aimed to identify the group differences on relationship commitment, stress and coping strategies in close relationships. A Demographic Information Form, Relationship Stability Scale, Stress Self-assessment Checklist and The Multidimensional Intimate Coping Questionnaire were administered 118 married and 135 dating individuals (117 male and 136 female). To test the hypothesses of the study MANCOVA and Stepwise Regression analyses were conducted. Results revealed that, the quality of the relationship, trust to the partner, relational commitment, focus on relationship, attractiveness of the partner have positive predictive value for relationship satisfaction. Whereas, perceived level of problem in the relationship and the extent the individual regret of involving in the relationship have negative predictive value for relationship satisfaction. Relational commitment, the number of ex-reletionships, focus on relationship, alcohol and drug use, belief in religion, the extent the individual regret of involving in the relationship and self bolstering have predictive value for quality of alternatives. However relational commitment, focus on relationship and belief in religion have negative predictive value. Relational commitment, wishing that the existing relationship goes on forever, negative and passive coping and the quality of the ongoing relationship are the predictors of investment. The comparison of the groups according to gender reveals that, men perceive the quality of the ongoing relationship higher more than women whereas women perceive higher level of problems in the relationship more than men. As for the coping styles, men focus on relationship, use more alcohol and drug and use denial, whereas women seeks social support and use negative passive coping. The comparison of the groups according to relationship type reveals that there is a significant difference between married and dating individuals. It was found that dating individuals are less committed to the relationship but focus on relationship more than married ones. Besides they use positive and active coping ,self bolstering and use denial. It was also found that dating men use self bolstering more than dating women and married men. In addition, married women use self bolstering more than dating women and married men. )
Chapter
Timing matters in relationships. Although people are universally driven to form and maintain social bonds, psychologists and relationship scientists have largely ignored the notion that people vary in the degree to which they are open and receptive to the idea of being involved in long-term committed romantic relationships, let alone that receptivity can ebb and flow over time. In this chapter, we highlight the role of perceived timing in romantic relationship processes by discussing how commitment readiness—the degree to which people feel ready for a long-term committed romantic relationship—contributes to our understanding of relationship processes. In doing so, we review recent work on the role of commitment readiness in relationship development, including initiation, maintenance, and breakup. In order to emphasize the idea that perceived timing can fluctuate as a result of immediate situational or contextual events, we also discuss how relationship transitions—specifically breakup—are likely to affect people’s immediate sense of readiness for committed relationships. We conclude by discussing some future directions for this line of research. Throughout this chapter, we aim to draw focus to the importance of the concept of readiness in relationships for furthering understanding of critical motivations impacting the self in relationships.
Article
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RESUMO Este estudo desenvolve um novo instrumento para avaliação de estratégias de resolução de conflito conjugal em relacionamento amoroso, bem como são avaliados seus aspectos de convergência com dimensões da qualidade sexual e comunicacional no relacionamento amoroso. Os participantes foram 416 pessoas adultas envolvidas em relacionamentos autoavaliados como estáveis. Os resultados apontaram uma medida com estrutura de cinco dimensões e indicadores de confiabilidade do tipo Ômega bons e regulares. Adicionalmente, verificou-se que estratégias de resolução de conflito foram preditoras para qualidade da comunicação e do relacionamento sexual, na amostra investigada. Palavras-chave: relações conjugais, conflito conjugal, interação interpessoal, psicometria. ABSTRACT This study develops a new instrument for the evaluation of strategies for the resolution of marital conflict in a loving relationship, as well as evaluating its aspects of convergence with dimensions of sexual and communicational quality in the love relationship. Participants were 416 adults involved in self-assessed relationships as stable. The results showed a measure with five-dimensional structure and good and regular Omega reliability indicators. Additionally, it was found that conflict resolution strategies were predictive of quality of communication and sexual relationship in the sample investigated.
Article
Love is analyzed as an element of social action and therefore of social structure. Although the romantic complex is rare, a "love pattern" is found in a wide range of societies. Since love is potentially disruptive of lineages and class strata, it must be controlled. Since its meaning is different within different social structures, it is controlled by various measures. The five principal types of "love control" are described. Disruptions are more important to the upper social strata who possess the means for control. Therefore these strata achieve a higher degree of control over both the occurrence of love relationships and the influence of love upon action.
Article
This study aimed to replicate and extend Kerckhoff and Davis' (1962) findings concerning the effects of value consensus and need complementarity upon mate selection. Samples of "steadily attached" couples from two state universities reported on their courting relationships in both the fall (time<sub>1</sub>) and the spring (time<sub>2</sub>) of the school year. Results for 330 couples are presented. The previous findings, that value consensus and need complementarity would enhance progress toward permanence, in the present study received only marginal support. Moreover, the length of the couples' relationship did not interact with these variables in accordance with the Kerckhoff-Davis study. Additional analyses of other Time time<sub>1</sub> paper-and-pencil compatibility indices also failed to relate substantially to the Time time<sub>2</sub> changes. The best predictors were the partners' own Time time<sub>1</sub> feelings about their relationship. Various implications of these results are discussed.
Article
For college couples who were seriously considering marriage, measures of need complementarity (Schutz's FIRO scales) and value consensus (Farber's index of consensus) were compared with progress toward permanence over a seven month period. Consensus was found to be significantly related to progress for only the short-term couples, and complementarity was significant for only the long-term couples. These findings are interpreted as indicating that a series of "filtering factors" operate in mate selection with social status variables (class, religion, etc.) operating early in the relationship, consensus on values somewhat later, and need complementarity still later. The delay in the effectiveness of the complementarity factor is seen as due to stylized boy-girl interaction and unrealistic idealization of the loved one in the early stages of the relationship.
Article
• As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • As the title suggests, this book examines the psychology of interpersonal relations. In the context of this book, the term "interpersonal relations" denotes relations between a few, usually between two, people. How one person thinks and feels about another person, how he perceives him and what he does to him, what he expects him to do or think, how he reacts to the actions of the other--these are some of the phenomena that will be treated. Our concern will be with "surface" matters, the events that occur in everyday life on a conscious level, rather than with the unconscious processes studied by psychoanalysis in "depth" psychology. These intuitively understood and "obvious" human relations can, as we shall see, be just as challenging and psychologically significant as the deeper and stranger phenomena. The discussion will center on the person as the basic unit to be investigated. That is to say, the two-person group and its properties as a superindividual unit will not be the focus of attention. Of course, in dealing with the person as a member of a dyad, he cannot be described as a lone subject in an impersonal environment, but must be represented as standing in relation to and interacting with another person. The chapter topics included in this book include: Perceiving the Other Person; The Other Person as Perceiver; The Naive Analysis of Action; Desire and Pleasure; Environmental Effects; Sentiment; Ought and Value; Request and Command; Benefit and Harm; and Reaction to the Lot of the Other Person. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
By asking members of couples to examine their relationships and by prompting them to discuss feelings and issues with one another, the couples researcher may play a role in shaping the relationships that he is studying. As a result, the couples researcher unwittingly becomes a couples counselor. Our own longitudinal study of dating couples had such effects, in some cases strengthening a couple's relationship, in other cases facilitating its dissolution. These effects seem attributable to processes of definition at the individual level and of disclosure at the interpersonal level. The recognition of such effects has important methodological and ethical implications. In addition, the view of couples research as unintended couples counseling may point to some useful suggestions for the practice of intended couples counseling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Applies social psychological research on interpersonal attraction to the real-life contexts of friendship, mate selection, and intergroup relations. Creation of a love and liking scale is described and results of administration to dating couples are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses sociological aspects of human relationships and the processes by which people become acquaintances, friends, lovers, and spouses and the processes by which relationships are destroyed. Topics include problems and processes in pickups and introductions, dates, flirtations, secrets, obligations, and the effects of a broken relationship on each of the intimates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this complete revision of Waller's book first published in 1938 (see 14: 2546), Hill has added 8 new chapters and substantially modified 7 of the remaining 17. After considering the parental family and its imposed relationships, the processes of mate finding, marriage, parenthood, and family disorganization are treated in detail. The final chapter proposes "changes in family designs" while the appendix "concerns the control activities served by habits in the stabilization and intergration of personality." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The disruption of marriage regularly produces emotional distress, almost irrespective of the quality of the marriage or of desire for its dissolution. The distress is similar to that described as occurring in children who have lost attachment figures and suggests that similar feelings are present in the separating adults. It also suggests that, although other components of love fade in troubled marriages, attachment persists. Separated individuals, however, not only want to rejoin their spouses but also to express anger with them. They may manage the resulting ambivalence by partial suppression, by compartmentalization, or by alternating expression of positive and negative feelings.
Article
This paper compares marital complaints of husbands versus wives, and of middle-class versus lower-class marriages, in a sample of 600 couples applying for divorce. Findings are discussed in terms of previous research on marital satisfaction, concerning differences between men and women and across socioeconomic groups.
Article
The concept of commitment is widely used but has received little formal analysis. It contains an implicit explanation of one mechanism producing consistent human behavior. Commitments come into being when a person, by making a side bet, links extraneous interests with a consistent line of activity. Side bets are often a consequence of the person's participation in social organizations. To understand commitments fully, an analysis of the system of value within which side bets are made is necessary
Article
DISSERTATION (PH.D.)--THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Dissertation Abstracts International,
Article
Reports initial results of an attempt to introduce and validate a social-psychological construct of romantic love. Starting with the assumption that love is an interpersonal attitude, an internally consistent paper-and-pencil love scale was developed. The conception of romantic love included 3 components: affiliative and dependent need, a predisposition to help, and an orientation of exclusiveness and absorption. The 13-item love-scale scores were only moderately correlated with scores on a parallel 13-item scale of "liking," which reflected a more traditional conception of interpersonal attraction. The validity of the love scale was assessed in a questionnaire study with 158 undergraduate dating couples and a laboratory experiment with 79 undergraduate dating couples. On the basis of the emerging conception of love, it was predicted that college dating couples who loved each other a great deal (as categorized by their love-scale scores) would spend more time gazing into one another's eyes than would couples who loved each other to a lesser degree. The prediction was confirmed. (22 ref.)
T h e social psychology of romantic love (Doctoral dissertation
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Rubin, Z. T h e social psychology of romantic love (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1969). (University microfilms No. 70-4179)
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The ending of successive opposite-sex relationships. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
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Hill, C. T. The ending of successive opposite-sex relationships. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, 1974.
A theory of marital choice and its applicability to marriage adjustment Theories of attraction and love
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Murstein, B. I. A theory of marital choice and its applicability to marriage adjustment. In B. I. Murstein (Ed.), Theories of attraction and love. New York: Springer, 1971. Parsons, T., & Bales, R. F. Family, socialization, and interactionprocesses. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1955.
Who volunteers for research on dating relationships? Unpublished manuscript
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Becoming intimate: The development of male-female relationships
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A theory for the ending of social encounters. Unpublished manuscript
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The family: Its function and destiny
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