The Chronometry of Attention‐Modulated Processing and Automatic Mismatch Detection
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, United States Psychophysiology
(Impact Factor: 2.99).
06/1992; 29(4):412 - 430. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1992.tb01714.x
Event-related potentials were recorded from normal subjects in an auditory selective attention task. Targets were rare longer (170-ms) tones of a designated pitch, embedded in a sequence of 100-ms standard tones. The effects of attention-modulated processing were evident in the event-related potentials elicited by the standards. Those to relevant standards were similar for easy (1000 Hz vs. 2000 Hz) and hard (1000 Hz vs. 1030 Hz) pitch separations, and were more negative frontocentrally than those to irrelevant standards. Difference waveforms (attended minus unattended standards) revealed Nd, a negative deflection that was earlier in latency for the easy task (onset, 120 ms; peak, 250 ms) than for the hard task (onset, 250 ms; peak, 350 ms). The speed of detection of the deviant longer tones was insensitive to the attention-modulated processes indexed by Nd. Median reaction time did not differ between tasks, although there were more misses and false alarms in the hard task (and nearly all of the latter were to the irrelevant longer tones). Neither direction of attention nor task difficulty affected the latency of mismatch negativity, N2, or P3 (as identified in difference waveforms: attended or unattended longer tones). minus their respective standards). The data suggest that performance was guided by two independent but converging processes, automatic mismatch detection of the longer tone and attention-modulated processing of pitch, followed by selection of response.
Available from: Kaoru Sekiyama
- "Hearing Research middle temporal areas (Marco-Pallar es et al., 2005; N€ a€ at€ anen et al., 2007) and reflects automatic auditory detection of deviant stimuli (N€ a€ at€ anen and Gaillard, 1983; N€ a€ at€ anen et al., 2007). Under attended conditions, MMN is overlapped by an attention-related posterior negativity (N2b) that peaks at around 250 ms (N€ a€ at€ anen and Gaillard, 1983; Novak et al., 1992; Cowan et al., 1993; N€ a€ at€ anen et al., 2007). The MMN has been observed for good CI performers, but not for poor CI performers. "
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ABSTRACT: Speech perception in noise is still difficult for cochlear implant (CI) users even with many years of CI use. This study aimed to investigate neurophysiological and behavioral foundations for CI-dependent speech perception in noise. Seventeen post-lingual CI users and twelve age-matched normal hearing adults participated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, CI users' auditory-only word perception in noise (white noise, two-talker babble; at 10 dB SNR) degraded by about 15 %, compared to that in quiet (48 % accuracy). CI users’ auditory-visual word perception was generally better than auditory-only perception. Auditory-visual word perception was degraded under information masking by the two-talker noise (69 % accuracy), compared to that in quiet (77 %). Such degradation was not observed for white noise (77 %), suggesting that the overcoming of information masking is an important issue for CI users’ speech perception improvement. In Experiment 2, event-related cortical potentials were recorded in an auditory oddball task in quiet and noise (white noise only). Similarly to the normal hearing participants, the CI users showed the mismatch negative response (MNR) to deviant speech in quiet, indicating automatic speech detection. In noise, the MNR disappeared in the CI users, and only the good CI performers (above 66 % accuracy) showed P300 (P3) like the normal hearing participants. P3 amplitude in the CI users was positively correlated with speech perception scores. These results suggest that CI users’ difficulty in speech perception in noise is associated with the lack of automatic speech detection indicated by the MNR. Successful performance in noise may begin with attended auditory processing indicated by P3.
Available from: Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez
- "Esto podría suceder, dado que la amígdala tiende a habituarse rápidamente en determinadas condiciones ambientales (Wedig, Rauch, Albert & Wright, 2005). Es decir, nuestros resultados sugieren que es probable que m m n señale un nivel anterior a la integración de información emocional, y aunque se espere una detección más rápida o respuesta más prominente en un contexto emocionalmente activado, dada la relación de m m n con las etapas iniciales del reflejo de orientación, o bien la relación temporal entre m m n y el tiempo de reacción ante la detección de un estímulo (Novak, Ritter & Vaughan, 1992), puede que la facilitación emocional no afecte el sistema neuronal involucrado en la generación de m m n, sino a procesos posteriores, lo que parece adicionalmente ser sustentado por los resultados de estudios que emplean el reflejo de sobresalto (Cuthbert, Schupp, Bradley,Birbaumer & Lang, 2000). "
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ABSTRACT: The emotional content of either stimuli or contexts can affect simultaneous cognitive task performance, but relationships between theses processes are still unclear. The present study evaluated the electrophysiological responses of sixteen subjects while passively listening to successive brief (50 ms) binaurallyadministered auditory frequent (1000 Hz; p=.80) or deviant (1100 Hz; p =.20) stimuli, appearing within three emotionally different contexts (positive, neutral and negative) according to a self-report scale, cardiac frequency, skin electrical conductance and corporal temperature measurements. The results showed significant changes in P50' voltage amplitude for the negative emotional context, interpreted as an increase in attentional filtering threshold or as attenuation of habituation mechanisms without influencing mmn amplitude, which points out the mmn' automation nature.
Available from: Lucia Colombo
- "However, the increase in MMN amplitude in the Active listening condition may also reflect a superimposition of the N2 component on the MMN (Näätänen, 2005). While the MMN in the passive listening condition was largest at frontal sites, the MMN recorded in the active listening condition was larger at posterior sites which matched the typical centro-parietal distribution of the N2 (Novak et al., 1992; Sussman et al., 2003). "
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed at investigating the effects of acoustic distance and of speaker variability on the pre-attentive and attentive perception of French vowels by French adult speakers. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants watched a silent movie (Passive condition) and discriminated deviant vowels (Active condition). The auditory sequence included 4 French vowels, /u/ (standard) and /o/, /y/ and /ø/ as deviants, produced by 3 different speakers. As the vowel /o/ is closer to /u/ than the other deviants in acoustic distance, we predicted smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and smaller N1 component, as well as higher error rate and longer reaction times. Results were in line with these predictions. Moreover, the MMN was elicited by all deviant vowels independently of speaker variability. By contrast, the Vowel by Speaker interaction was significant in the Active listening condition thereby showing that subtle within-category differences are processed at the attentive level. These results suggest that while vowels are categorized pre-attentively according to phonemic representations and independently of speaker variability, participants are sensitive to between-speaker differences when they focus attention on vowel processing.
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