Water–fat separation with IDEAL gradient‐echo imaging

Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Impact Factor: 3.21). 03/2007; 25(3):644 - 652. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.20831


PurposeTo combine gradient-echo (GRE) imaging with a multipoint water–fat separation method known as “iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation” (IDEAL) for uniform water–fat separation. Robust fat suppression is necessary for many GRE imaging applications; unfortunately, uniform fat suppression is challenging in the presence of B0 inhomogeneities. These challenges are addressed with the IDEAL technique.Materials and Methods
Echo shifts for three-point IDEAL were chosen to optimize noise performance of the water–fat estimation, which is dependent on the relative proportion of water and fat within a voxel. Phantom experiments were performed to validate theoretical SNR predictions. Theoretical echo combinations that maximize noise performance are discussed, and examples of clinical applications at 1.5T and 3.0T are shown.ResultsThe measured SNR performance validated theoretical predictions and demonstrated improved image quality compared to unoptimized echo combinations. Clinical examples of the liver, breast, heart, knee, and ankle are shown, including the combination of IDEAL with parallel imaging. Excellent water–fat separation was achieved in all cases. The utility of recombining water and fat images into “in-phase,” “out-of-phase,” and “fat signal fraction” images is also discussed.ConclusionIDEAL-SPGR provides robust water–fat separation with optimized SNR performance at both 1.5T and 3.0T with multicoil acquisitions and parallel imaging in multiple regions of the body. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007;25:644–652. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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    • "MRI scanning was performed on a 3.0 Tesla General Electric scanner (Excite HD, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with an 8-element knee coil. An investigational version of GE Healthcare's water-fat MRI technique (i.e., IDEAL) was utilized [10]. Briefly, this form of MRI technique exploits the differences in resonance frequency (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39 years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4 ± 3.5% vs. 10.3 ± 2.1%; P = 0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2 ± 4.2% vs. 11.5 ± 2.5%; P = 0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2 ± 2.7% vs. 8.4 ± 2.3%; P < 0.001). The higher patella water content observed in female runners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • "This technique combines six asymmetrically acquired echoes with parallel imaging with an iterative least-squares decomposition algorithm to maximize noise performance. Unlike conventional fat-saturation methods, IDEAL is insensitive to magnetic field (B0 and B1) inhomogeneities and highly SNR-efficient [24,25]. The geometry parameters of the 3D gradient echo sequence matched those of the morphological imaging sequence; six TEs between 4.6 and 8.3 ms were used, the TEs used are specific to acquiring asymmetric echoes that are separated by 2π/3 with the middle echo at π/2+ π *k, k = 1,2; 5° FA; 3 echo train length; with 44 slices 5 mm thick in one 3D slab. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In human skeletal muscles, the aging process causes a decrease of contractile and a concomitant increase of intramuscular adipose (IMAT) and connective (IMCT) tissues. The accumulation of non-contractile tissues may contribute to the significant loss of intrinsic muscle strength typically observed at older age but their in vivo quantification is challenging. The purpose of this study was to establish MR imaging-based methods to quantify the relative amounts of IMCT, IMAT and contractile tissues in young and older human cohorts, and investigate their roles in determining age-associated changes in skeletal muscle strength. Methods Five young (31.6 ± 7.0 yrs) and five older (83.4 ± 3.2 yrs) Japanese women were subject to a detailed MR imaging protocol, including Fast Gradient Echo, Quantitative Fat/Water (IDEAL) and Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) sequences, to determine contractile muscle tissue and IMAT within the entire Triceps Surae complex, and IMCT within both heads of the Gastrocnemius muscle. Specific force was calculated as the ratio of isometric plantarflexor force and the physiological cross-sectional area of the Triceps Surae complex. Results In the older cohort, total Triceps Surae volume was smaller by 17.5%, while the relative amounts of Triceps Surae IMAT and Gastrocnemius IMCT were larger by 55.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Differences of 38.6% and 42.1% in plantarflexor force and specific force were observed. After subtraction of IMAT and IMCT from total muscle volume, differences in intrinsic strength decreased to 29.6%. Conclusions Our data establishes that aging causes significant changes in skeletal muscle composition, with marked increases in non-contractile tissues. Such quantification of the remodeling process is likely to be of functional and clinical importance in elucidating the causes of the disproportionate age-associated decrease of force compared to that of muscle volume.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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    • "MRI assessment of breast density has been estimated using different sequences. Since 2007, sequences that can clearly separate the fatty non-glandular tissue from the true glandular tissue and its water content have been developed and made available for clinical purposes [26]. These sequences are called IDEAL (Iterative Decomposition of water and fat with Echo Asymmetry and Least squares estimation) and are believed to assess directly the biochemical features and composition of breast tissue similarly to physiology although they are still a surrogate of the real histological reference standard [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare MRI sequences for breast density measurements on a 3T MRI system using IDEAL (Iterative Decomposition of water and fat with Echo Asymmetry and Least squares estimation) as possible physiology-like reference. Materials and Methods MRI examination was performed in 48 consecutive patients (mean age 41, years; range, 35–67 years) on a 3.0T scanner and 46 were included. All (fertile) women, were examined between days 5 and 15 of their menstrual cycle. MRI protocol included: T1-turbo spin-echo (T1-tSE), T2-turbo spin-echo (T2-tSE), VIBRANT (Volume Imaging for Breast Assessment) before and after injection of contrast media and IDEAL. Breast density was calculated with semi-automated software. Statistical analysis was performed with non-parametric tests. Results Mean percentage of breast density calculated in each sequence was: T1-tSE = 56%; T2-tSE = 52%; IDEAL FatOnly = 55%; IDEAL WaterOnly = 53%, VIBRANT = 55%. Significant differences were observed between T2-tSE and both T1-tSE (p<0.001), VIBRANT sequences (p = 0.009), T1-tSE and both IDEAL WaterOnly (p = 0.007) and IDEAL FatOnly (p = 0.047). Breast density percentage showed a positive linear correlation among different sequences: r≥0.93. Conclusions Differences exist between MRI sequences used to assess breast density percentage. T1-weighted sequences values were similar to IDEAL sequences.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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