Comparison of Weight Gain and Energy Intake After Subthalamic Versus Pallidal Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.68). 10/2009; 24(14):2149 - 2155. DOI: 10.1002/mds.22765


To compare body mass index (BMI) and daily energy intake (DEI) after subthalamic versus pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). Weight gain following DBS in Parkinson's disease patients remains largely unexplained and no comparison of subthalamic and pallidal (GPi) stimulation has yet been performed. BMI and DEI, dopaminergic drug administration and motor scores were recorded in 46 patients with PD before STN (n = 32) or GPi (n = 14) DBS and 3 and 6 months after. At M6, BMI had increased by an average of 8.4% in the STN group and 3.2% in the GPi group. BMI increased in 28 STN and 9 GPi patients. This increase was significantly higher in the STN group (P < 0.048) and the difference remained significant after adjustment for reduced dopaminergic medication; 28.6% of GPi patients were overweight at 6 months (14.3% preoperatively) versus 37.5% of STN patients (21.9% preoperatively). Changes in BMI were negatively correlated with changes in dyskinesia in the GPi–DBS group. Food intake did not change in the two groups, either quantitatively or qualitatively. Frequent weight gain, inadequately explained by motor improvement or reduced dopaminergic drug dosage, occurred in subthalamic DBS patients. The difference between groups suggests additional factors in the STN group, such as homeostatic control center involvement. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society

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    • "Besides the beneficial effects on Parkinson symptoms, weight gain is a common side effect of STN DBS and this might be related to reduced energy expenditure due to decreased locomotor activity (Rieu et al., 2011), decreased resting energy expenditure (REE) (Perlemoine et al., 2005) or an increase in energy intake through an effect on brain areas involved in the regulation of body weight (Perlemoine et al., 2005). It has been proposed that the STN DBS-induced current reaches hypothalamic nuclei and hence the effects on energy metabolism might be indirect since the hypothalamus controls food intake and energy expenditure (Sauleau et al., 2009). Furthermore, it has been shown that weight gain is associated with the contact site of the electrodes implanted with STN stimulation, where weight gain is most prominent when the contact sites are in closest relation with the wall of the third ventricle (Rùžièka et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Animal studies have shown that central dopamine signaling influences glucose metabolism. As a first step to show this association in an experimental setting in humans, we studied whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which modulates the basal ganglia circuitry, alters basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) or insulin sensitivity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 8 patients with PD treated with DBS STN, in the basal state and during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using a stable glucose isotope, in the stimulated and non-stimulated condition. We measured EGP, hepatic insulin sensitivity, peripheral insulin sensitivity (Rd), resting energy expenditure (REE), glucoregulatory hormones, and Parkinson symptoms, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Basal plasma glucose and EGP did not differ between the stimulated and non-stimulated condition. Hepatic insulin sensitivity was similar in both conditions and there were no significant differences in Rd and plasma glucoregulatory hormones between DBS on and DBS off. UPDRS was significantly higher in the non-stimulated condition. DBS of the STN in patients with PD does not influence basal EGP or insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that acute modulation of the motor basal ganglia circuitry does not affect glucose metabolism in humans.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    • "However, we did not observe any significant correlation between weight gain and change in UPDRS-III score. This finding is consistent with those published previously [2], [4], [30] and may indicate that the connection between changes in weight and motor outcomes is not as straightforward as has been proposed [31]. Unrelated weight gain to motor outcome was also shown in another study in which weight gain was more pronounced in patients with subthalamic stimulation than in patients with pallidal stimulation, despite similar motor improvement in both groups [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to assess changes in body-weight in relation to active electrode contact position in the subthalamic nucleus. Regular body weight measurements were done in 20 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease within a period of 18 months after implantation. T1-weighted (1.5T) magnetic resonance images were used to determine electrode position in the subthalamic nucleus and the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS-III) was used for motor assessment. The distance of the contacts from the wall of the third ventricle in the mediolateral direction inversely correlated with weight gain (r = -0.55, p<0.01) and with neurostimulation-related motor condition expressed as the contralateral hemi-body UPDRS-III (r = -0.42, p<0.01). Patients with at least one contact within 9.3 mm of the wall experienced significantly greater weight gain (9.4 ± (SD)4.4 kg, N = 11) than those with both contacts located laterally (3.9 ± 2.7 kg, N = 9) (p<0.001). The position of the active contact is critical not only for motor outcome but is also associated with weight gain, suggesting a regional effect of subthalamic stimulation on adjacent structures involved in the central regulation of energy balance, food intake or reward.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "In this study, body weight slightly increased 3 months after surgery. Other studies have reported that weight gain after STN-DBS cannot be inadequately explained by motor improvement or reduced dopaminergic drug dosage (Sauleau et al., 2009). The mechanism of body weight increase after STN-DBS is complex and influenced by various factors that are thought to be associated with increased appetite and food intake, reduction of energy output related to amelioration of parkinsonism and dyskinesias , improved alimentation and the direct influence on function of homeostatic control centres such as the lateral hypothalamus (Barichella et al., 2003; Montaurier et al., 2007; Novakova et al., 2007); however, some studies investigating these processes have general conflicting results. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is established that deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves motor function in advanced Parkinson's disease, but its effects on autonomic function remain to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying. A total of 16 patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation were enrolled. Gastric emptying was expressed as the peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) in the (13)C-acetate breath test and was assessed in patients with and without administration of 100-150 mg levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor before surgery, and with and without subthalamic deep brain stimulation at 3 months post-surgery. The pattern of (13)CO(2) excretion curve was analysed. To evaluate potential factors related to the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastric emptying, we also examined the association between gastric emptying, clinical characteristics, the equivalent dose of levodopa and serum ghrelin levels. The peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values for gastric emptying in patients without and with levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor treatment were 45.6 ± 22.7 min and 42.5 ± 13.6 min, respectively (P = not significant), thus demonstrating levodopa resistance. The peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values without and with subthalamic deep brain stimulation after surgery were 44.0 ± 17.5 min and 30.0 ± 12.5 min (P < 0.001), respectively, which showed that subthalamic deep brain stimulation was effective. Simultaneously, the pattern of the (13)CO(2) excretion curve was also significantly improved relative to surgery with no stimulation (P = 0.002), although the difference with and without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor was not significant. The difference in peak time of (13)CO(2) excretion (T(max)) values without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor before surgery and without levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor and subthalamic deep brain stimulation after surgery was not significant, although motor dysfunction improved and the levodopa equivalent dose decreased after surgery. There was little association between changes in ghrelin levels (Δghrelin) and changes in T(max) values (ΔT(max)) in the subthalamic deep brain stimulation trial after surgery (r = -0.20), and no association between changes in other characteristics and ΔT(max) post-surgery in the subthalamic deep brain stimulation trial. These results showed that levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitor did not influence gastric emptying and that subthalamic deep brain stimulation can improve the dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease possibly by altering the neural system that controls gastrointestinal function after subthalamic deep brain stimulation. This is the first report to show the effectiveness of subthalamic deep brain stimulation on gastrointestinal dysfunction as a non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Brain
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