Article

Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = .27, 95% CI = .21 −.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to identify possible sources of these differences. The following moderators were examined: mean age of sample, measure used, nature of the stressful event, language of the measure, and type of sample (i.e., community samples, college students, or mixed). The only significant moderator was age, with women reporting incrementally more posttraumatic growth as the mean age of the sample increased (B = .004, p < .01, SE = .001, Q = 9.13). To check for publication bias, effect sizes were compared across published and unpublished research. The size of the gender difference was not significantly different between published (g = .30, 95% CI = .23 − .38) and unpublished (g = .22, 95% CI = .12 −.31) studies. The present findings indicate that modest, but reliable gender differences exist in posttraumatic growth even when unpublished data are included in the analyses. Possible explanations for these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... These potential associations have been studied in a sample of the general population of people who have been through traumatic events. The study also examined the associations between PTG and other variables that have been established in the scientific literature on the topic, including sex (Vishnevsky et al., 2010), posttraumatic stress symptoms (Liu et al., 2017;Shakespeare-Finch & Lurie-Beck, 2014), depressive symptoms (Long et al., 2021), and optimism (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009). ...
... The lack of a significant relationship between PTG and sex stands in contrast to the results of the meta-analysis by Vishnevsky et al. (2010), who found a significant difference on PTG as a function of sex, specifically that women tended to report greater degrees of PTG than men. However, Vishnevsky et al. (2010) themselves speculated that the differences they found between men and women might be mediated by other differences between the sexes in cognitive factors related to PTG. ...
... The lack of a significant relationship between PTG and sex stands in contrast to the results of the meta-analysis by Vishnevsky et al. (2010), who found a significant difference on PTG as a function of sex, specifically that women tended to report greater degrees of PTG than men. However, Vishnevsky et al. (2010) themselves speculated that the differences they found between men and women might be mediated by other differences between the sexes in cognitive factors related to PTG. Therefore, the fact that this study considered cognitive factors such as metacognitive beliefs, self-focused attention and dysfunctional traumatic attitudes and found significant associations with PTG might explain why sex was not found to be a significant predictor of PTG here. ...
... Some report an association between PTG and age, but differ in terms of the direction of the relationship [20,21] while others report no significant relationship [22]. Women are more likely to experience PTG than men [23], and student populations have been found to experience similar levels of traumatic events as the general public [24]. The relationship between PTG and time since trauma (TST) appears poorly understood, with some reporting a positive relationship (e.g. ...
... No association was found between PTG and gender, contradicting the existing literature (e.g. [23]) that suggests females are more likely to experience PTG. Such gender differences are more apparent with age, in that these differences increase as participants are older [23]. ...
... [23]) that suggests females are more likely to experience PTG. Such gender differences are more apparent with age, in that these differences increase as participants are older [23]. Given our sample were mostly young adults within a small age range, our distribution may be too narrow for such an effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Both post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with spirituality and different kinds of repetitive thinking, such as deliberate rumination (DR) and intrusive rumination (IR), respectively. This study aimed to examine if spirituality modifies the relationship between types of rumination and trauma outcomes. Ninety-six students completed an online survey of four questionnaires in a cross-sectional online survey: The Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Event Related Rumination Inventory, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short form and the Expressions of Spirituality Inventory- Revised. Findings revealed that spirituality was related to DR and PTG, but not to IR or PTSD symptoms. Moderation analysis showed that spirituality significantly moderated the relationship between PTG and DR, but not the relationship between PTSD and IR. These findings indicate that while spirituality has no relationship with negative outcomes of trauma, it may help individuals to ruminate in a constructive manner in order to develop positive outcomes.
... In fact, both the full version and the short form of the PTGI, the PTGI-SF , are the most used assessment tools for PTG. These assessment tools are used in studies included in various meta-analyses, such as the ones published by Vishnevsky et al. (2010), Liu et al. (2017), and Wu et al. (2019). ...
... To be precise, none of the 63 studies in the meta-analysis conducted by Liu et al. (2017), or the 26 studies in the meta-analysis conducted by Wu et al. (2019), examined the appearance of PTG after a terrorist attack. Out of the 70 studies included in the Vishnevsky et al. (2010) meta-analysis, only five cover this topic. In fact, a search was conducted on December 14, 2021, using the bibliographic database PsycInfo, with the words "posttraumatic growth" or "post-traumatic growth" and "terrorist" or "terrorism." ...
... This finding is coherent with the results obtained in the meta-analysis conducted by Vishnevsky et al. (2010) that included multiple types of traumatic events and came to show a difference in PTG between sexes in the same direction and between small and moderate (g = 0.27, equivalent to r = 0.134). It is also consistent with the results obtained by Tucker et al. (2016) on long-term PTG in terrorist attack survivors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Scientific literature on posttraumatic growth (PTG) after terrorist attacks has primarily focused on persons who had not been directly exposed to terrorist attacks or persons who had been directly exposed to them, but who were assessed few months or years after the attacks.Methods We examined long-term PTG in 210 adults directly exposed to terrorist attacks in Spain a mean of 29.6 years after the attacks (range: 2–47 years). The participants had been injured by a terrorist attack (38.6%) or were first-degree relatives of people who had been killed or injured by a terrorist attack (41.4% and 20%, respectively). They completed diagnostic measures of emotional disorders and measures of PTSD and depression symptomatology, optimism, and PTG.ResultsMultiple regression analyses revealed gender differences (women reported higher levels of PTG than did men) and a positive linear relationship between PTG and cumulative trauma after the terrorist attack. Some PTG dimensions were significantly associated with PTSD symptomatology, these associations being linear, not curvilinear. However, PTG was not associated with depression symptomatology, diagnosis of emotional disorders, age, elapsed time since the attack, or optimism. In comparison with survivors assessed 18 years after the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, Spanish victims of terrorism showed higher levels of appreciation of life, but lower levels of relating to others and spiritual change.Conclusion The findings underscore the influence of gender on PTG and provide support to the hypothesis that some emotional distress may be a necessary condition of PTG. Future studies on PTG after terrorist attacks should take into consideration the characteristics of the terrorist attack itself and the contexts of violence and threat in which it occurred. The political, social, and cultural characteristics of the community affected by it and the profile and characteristics of other traumatic events suffered after the attack should also be taken into account in further research.
... Una investigación meta-analítica previa reveló que existen diferencias significativas de género en la evaluación del CPT, donde las mujeres reportan mayores niveles de crecimiento que los hombres (Vishnevsky et al., 2010), que puede deberse a que tienden a pensar más profundamente sobre cuestiones constructivas en contraste a los hombres (Orille et al., 2020;Rzeszutek et al., 2016). Por ejemplo, las mujeres refieren mayor conciencia de las fortalezas personales y una apreciación de la importancia de las conexiones sociales que se asocian a un mayor reporte de CPT (Hamama-Raz et al., 2020;Khechuashvili, 2018), inclusive en aquellas con experiencias relacionadas a la muerte (Kamen et al., 2016;Powroznik et al., 2018;Rzeszutek et al., 2016). ...
... Un meta-análisis compuesto por 70 estudios del CPT, reveló que existen diferencias de género a favor de las mujeres; quienes reportan mayores niveles de crecimiento en contraste a los varones, tales diferencias son más elevadas en el grupo de mayor edad y que sufrieron la pérdida de un ser querido (Vishnevsky et al., 2010). Sin embargo, también se han reportado hallazgos divergentes de invariabilidad en las puntuaciones de la estructura del CPT en modelos factoriales (Fabac, 2020;Mordeno et al., 2016;Prati y Pietrantoni, 2013), y otros con mayor puntuación total favorable al sexo femenino (Khechuashvili, 2018;Tedeschi et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Network analysis of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-X) in Peruvian adults with COVID-19 death family members as a function of gender. Posttraumatic growth network structures were evaluated in males and females who lost a family member to COVID-19 to determine network variations according to sex. Six hundred sixty-nine Peruvian adults (M = 25.41, SD = 1.82) were included using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-X (PTGI-X) self-report measure. Two Gaussian plot models of partial correlations were estimated through the qgraph statistical package. The most central network domain items were emotional expression, closeness to others, and greater understanding of life-death issues. The highest connections were reported for items on the measures of personal relationships, appreciation for life, and spiritual-existential change. Both network models were found to be invariant and showed no significant differences at the level of structure and connections, and a difference was reported at the score level on the existential-spiritual change subscale in women.
... Adaptability should play an important role for academic outcomes, such as academic achievement (i.e., through the mediation of engagement and SRL), and nonacademic outcomes, such as students' posttraumatic growth. Importantly, age and gender differences have been highlighted in literature for what concerns, adaptability, academic achievement, posttraumatic growth, SRL, and engagement (Bussey, 2011;Holliman et al., 2018;Martin et al., 2012;Vishnevsky et al., 2010;Voyer & Voyer, 2014). ...
... The indirect effects were also calculated. Given that age and gender are related to the variables considered (Bussey, 2011;Holliman et al., 2018;Martin et al., 2012;Vishnevsky et al., 2010;Voyer & Voyer, 2014), they were both entered as covariates in all the specified regressions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted an abrupt adoption of online learning worldwide challenging students’ scholastic engagement and their ability to self-regulate their learning. Under these unexpected conditions, adaptability (one’s capacity to adjust thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in new and uncertain situations) might have sustained students to maintain high engagement and find new learning solutions. Students with high adaptability might also interpret COVID-19-related novelty as an opportunity and show higher posttraumatic growth levels. A longitudinal path analysis showed that in a sample of 435 Italian students (11–18 years old), adaptability at Time 1 positively related to engagement, self-regulated learning, and posttraumatic growth at the end of the school year, indirectly favoring academic achievement, through the mediation of engagement and self-regulated learning. These findings highlight the unique role that adaptability could play in supporting students in unexpected and stressful situations. Fostering students’ adaptability could therefore have beneficial effects on their personal growth and academic success.
... Even though there are studies that do not show a relationship between these variables (Cryder et al., 2006;Sattler et al., 2006), many studies have revealed that females with higher mean age (Vishnevsky, 2010), as compared to males, experience more benefits and growth following a traumatic event (Bellizzi, 2004;Calhoun & Tedeschi, 1998;Linley & Joseph, 2004;Salo et al., 2005;Swickert et al., 2004, as cited in Swickert & Hittner, 2009). Furthermore, additional research by the likes of Jaarsma et al., (2006), Laufer andSolomon (2006), and Linley and Joseph 2004) continue to explore the gender difference in stress responsivity. ...
... Frank & Frank (1991), Maddux & Lewis (1995), Snyder et al (2000) and Wampold (2015) all agree that self-efficacy, optimism (and hope) are collective factors that support recovery within psychotherapy modalities and "act as mechanisms of change within the context of therapy, promoting improvements in symptoms of post-traumatic stress" (Gallagher er al., 2019). Vishnevsky et al., (2010) speculate that "woman in older cohorts may perceive events as more severe or seismic" and therefore, in line with the PTG model, could possibly be more connected to self-reported growth (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). Their research, in turn, could potentially shed some light on the age and gender relationship with PTG. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The covid 19 pandemic has been globally taxing. The city of Melbourne has surpassed Buenos Aires and has gained the world record title for the time most spent in lockdown. In total, the people of Melbourne have endured 260 days over six lockdowns between March 2020 – October 2021. As such, the widespread economic toll the state has faced is devasting. Moreover, the latest research indicates that approximately 17% of Australians across varying industries experienced mental distress in April 2020 (University of Melbourne, 2020). This quantitative study aimed to examine the impact of self-efficacy and optimism on Melbourne business owners’ post-traumatic growth, thus understanding the varying degrees of both personal and business success post-pandemic. Correlations demonstrated that there was a significant positive relationship between general self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth, and age and gender also contributing to this positive relationship. Optimism demonstrated a markedly weak association with post-traumatic growth. Training programs can be designed and implemented in the workplace to support the growth and development of self-efficacy and optimism in times of crisis.
... It is a 10-item self-filled scale to measure favorable outcomes after a traumatic event, including 5 dimensions: relating to others, new possibilities, personal strength, spiritual change and appreciation of life. (Cann et al., 2010). According to Yu et al. (2010) scores at the 60th percentile or higher (≥ 32) indicate probable personal growth (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90). ...
... Items are rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale (where 1 = strongly disagree and 7 = strongly agree) (McCullough et al., 2002) (Cronbach's alpha = 0.68). Bueno-Notivol et al., 2021;Collier, 2016;Eysenck et al., 2007 ;Di Blasio et al., 2021;Duckworth et al., 2005;Fredrickson, 2004;Kim & Bae, 2019;Leppma et al., 2018a;Schueller & Parks 2014;Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004;Tsai et al., 2016;Vishnevsky et al., 2010 andZhou et al., 2015 ...
Article
Full-text available
Almost one year since the COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, mental distress remains elevated with high prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet studies suggest these challenging circumstances might be conducive of post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study aims to investigate the factors associated with growth after the original trauma. A sample of 252 Lebanese adults filled an online survey to determine levels of PTG, PTSD and gratitude using validated self-rating scales. Participants also subjectively evaluated the sources of their distress such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the Beirut port explosion and/or their deteriorating financials. The PTGi-SF evaluated dimensions of growth while the IES-R_22 measured the degree of distress post-trauma. The GQ-6 was used to measure the proneness to experience gratitude daily. Results indicated 41% of participants scored above the cutoff for PTSD symptomatology. Yet, PTSD was positively correlated, alongside gratitude and accumulated subjective distress, with higher levels of PTG. A forward linear regression taking PTG scores as the dependent variable further showed that more gratitude (Beta=0.57), a higher impact of events (Beta=0.16), and knowing anyone who died from COVID-19 (Beta=3.93) were significantly associated with more growth. The study highlights elevated levels of PTSD symptoms in a context of a global pandemic worsened by financial and socio-political instabilities. It mostly identifies personal factors, including high initial symptomatology post-trauma and gratitude, related to the capacity for growth in spite of these accumulating hardships. As such, it advocates the need to investigate and bolster silver linings amidst unprecedented traumas.
... While much is still unknown about how women and men process trauma, we know that coping -"cognitive and behavioral efforts in response to a threat" (Tamres, Janicki, and Helgeson 2002, 3) -and help-seeking strategies differ by gender. Women are more likely to seek and to be offered help -be it by their immediate family, their broader community or professionals (Vishnevsky et al. 2010;Strang et al. 2020). The psychological literature offers two explanations for this pattern: differences in gender socialization, i.e., women are encouraged to turn to others for help, whereas men are discouraged because asking for help signifies weakness, or biologically based differences, i.e., whereas women "tend-and-befriend" (Taylor et al. 2000), men "fight-or-flight" and might be more likely to use avoidance and withdrawal if the stressor is perceived as uncontrollable (Tamres, Janicki, and Helgeson 2002). ...
... In a similar vein, precisely because women differently address and are thus better equipped to overcome their traumatic experiences, we expect gendered differences in ethnic out-group trust. Women are more likely to actively struggle with their experience, whereas men are more likely to suppress and avoid their trauma (Vishnevsky et al. 2010). At private or collective healing events "it was the women who seemed to be openly articulating the collective distress through their tears, possession trance states and generally greater willingness to share their stories and those of their brothers, fathers and other male relatives" (Derges 2013, 137). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Does exposure to sexual violence during conflict affect ethnic group trust post-war? Despite the prevalence of sexual violence, we know surprisingly little about its social consequences. Furthermore, quantitative research has so far mostly turned a blind eye on the gendered impact of sexual violence. We address this gap by investigating ethnic in-and out-group trust among Tamil women and men in postwar Sri Lanka. Combining survey data of the Tamil population with a list experiment on wartime sexual violence, we find that female victims of sexual violence have higher levels of trust in the ethnic out-group, whereas men's out-group trust decreases. Possible explanations are that both the context of sexual violence and coping strategies differ by gender. Interestingly, the experience of sexual violence significantly erodes both men's and women's trust in the ethnic in-group which points to an aspect of postwar recovery often overlooked: rebuilding trust within ethnic communities.
... The results of the research conducted so far on the links between personality traits and functioning in terms of growth after severe stress are not stable or conclusive. Research reports show different sets of traits associated with PTG [36][37][38][39]. ...
... In our study, we additionally examined (question four) the role of gender in activating growth responses in the pandemic situation. The results of previous research on the association between gender and the experience of growth changes after a powerful and traumatic life event are particularly inconclusive, especially with regard to children and adolescents [1,39,55,65]. However, our research clearly showed that it was women, more specifically female teenagers and adolescents, rather than men or boys who took advantage of the pandemic situation to make growth-related changes in their own functioning. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of our study was to determine whether the experience of the types of pandemic threats included in the study, could activate development responses among adolescents and what the role of the level of stress experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic is in the process of post-traumatic PTG growth. We also made an attempt to investigate whether personality traits and gender were predictors of PTG growth in adolescents. Therefore, the theoretical bases for the interpretation of the obtained results are models of post-traumatic growth (PTG), mainly by Calhoun and Tedeschi. The research was conducted in March 2020. The study subjects were 405 adolescents aged 14 to 20 years, with an average age of 17 years, of whom 59% were females and 41% were males. The following methods were used in the study: IPIP-BFM-20 to estimate five personality traits, PSS- to diagnose perceived stress, and an in-house questionnaire of pandemic threats experienced by adolescents (KŻP). The results showed that the various types of ‘pandemic’ threats (threats to life, family, and lifestyle) are positive predictors of growth-related changes; additionally, such factors as personality traits (here: extroversion), stress level, and gender had a positive mediating effect on growth-related changes. It was also possible to show that out of the four dimensions of post-traumatic growth, three could be activated under pandemic conditions. These were: changes in relationships with others, greater appreciation of everyday life, and spiritual changes. Changes in self-perception—one of the dimensions of post-traumatic growth, were not activated due to experiencing three types of pandemic threats.
... Univariable analysis was conducted on all variables of interest. As gender is a known predictor of PTG, 28 analysis was completed on the whole sample, then male personneland female personnelseparately. Variable selection procedures for the multivariable multinomial logistic regression model were based on recommendations in the literature. ...
... This study aimed to examine the prevalence of PTG among UK military serving and ex-serving personnel as a result of deployment to 28 This study extends the literature on military/deploymentrelated factors associated with PTG, including that reservists, those with a greater number of different combat experiences and those who report a greater belief of being in danger on deployment are more likely to report a moderate/large degree of PTG; and health factors associated with PTG, including that those who report better general health and less alcohol use are more likely to report a moderate/large degree of PTG. We also found that health-related factors were associated with male, but not female, serving and ex-serving Post-traumatic growth in UK armed forces personnel's experience of PTG; other factors such as having left the service and being single were associated with female, but not male, serving and ex-serving personnel's experience of PTG. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Post-traumatic growth (PTG) refers to beneficial psychological change following trauma. Aims: This study explores the sociodemographic, health and deployment-related factors associated with PTG in serving/ex-serving UK armed forces personnel deployed to military operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. Method: Multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied to retrospective questionnaire data collected 2014-2016, stratified by gender. PTG scores were split into tertiles of no/very low PTG, low PTG and moderate/large PTG. Results: A total of 1447/4610 male personnel (30.8%) and 198/570 female personnel (34.8%) reported moderate/large PTG. Male personnel were more likely to report moderate/large PTG compared with no/very low PTG if they reported a greater belief of being in serious danger (relative risk ratio (RRR) 2.47, 95% CI 1.68-3.64), were a reservist (RRR 2.37, 95% CI 1.80-3.11), reported good/excellent general health (fair/poor general health: RRR 0.33, 95% CI 0.24-0.46), a greater number of combat experiences, less alcohol use, better mental health, were of lower rank or were younger. Female personnel were more likely to report moderate/large PTG if they were single (in a relationship: RRR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.74), had left military service (RRR 2.34, 95% CI 1.31-4.17), reported better mental health (common mental disorder: RRR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.84), were a reservist, reported a greater number of combat experiences or were younger. Post-traumatic stress disorder had a curvilinear relationship with PTG. Conclusions: A moderate/large degree of PTG among the UK armed forces is associated with mostly positive health experiences, except for post-traumatic stress disorder.
... Yet it is also true that not every person who experiences trauma will experience PTG, and the degree of growth can vary from person to person. Several individual and environmental factors-sex (Albuquerque et al., 2017;Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996;Vishnevsky et al., 2010), optimism (Kim, 2017; (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009), certain coping approaches (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009), personality (Javed & Dawood, 2016;Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), and access to social support (Boullion et al., 2020;Kaler et al., 2011;Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009), among others-have been associated with PTG (though the empirical evidence for these associations is mixed). ...
... Several individual factors have been associated with PTG. Sex (women tend to report more PTG; Albuquerque et al., 2017;Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996;Vishnevsky et al., 2010), optimism (which is often positively associated with PTG; Kim, 2017), and coping strategies including acceptance coping, reappraisal coping, religious coping, and seeking support (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009) have been positively associated with PTG in many, though by no means all, studies of PTG in which they were measured. Since the introduction of the PTG construct and theory, theorists have predicted and research has confirmed that personality traits and social support have strong relationships with PTG too (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). ...
Article
Background. Posttraumatic growth (PTG)—positive changes that people may experience in the aftermath of highly distressing experiences—has been observed in survivors of a variety of events but has not been previously studied among people who have caused accidental death or injury (PCADIs). In addition, questions remain about the role, in PTG, of changes in the assumptive world and the relationships between PTG and distress, personality, and social support. Methods. Participants (N = 528), included PCADIs (n = 44) and a non-trauma comparison group (n = 484), who completed the Primals Inventory and measures of personality, anxiety, and depression. PCADIs (n = 43) also completed measures of PTG, PTG behavioral changes, social support and life satisfaction. Results. Modest levels of PTG commensurate with survivors of other relevant forms of distress were observed. Results demonstrated significant differences between primal world beliefs Good, Safe, Enticing, Just, Regenerative, Funny, and Improvable in PCADIs and non-trauma survivors as well as significant positive relationships between PTG and the primals Good, Safe, Alive, Just, Regenerative, Funny, and Improvable and between PTG and reported behavior changes related to PTG, but no significant relationships were found between PTG and distress, PTG and social support, or PTG and personality traits Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, or Agreeableness (though a significant negative relationship was observed between PTG and Neuroticism). Conclusions. PCADIs may experience PTG that both influences and is influenced by primal world beliefs, but the hypothesized relationships between PTG and distress, personality, and social support were not observed. Additional studies with larger PCADI populations may find these relationships exist at a statistically significant level. And future research should aim to develop interventions addressing the distress and growth potential of this population.
... These studies, mostly from a cross-sectional approach, reported a significant prevalence of PTG in populations of different nationalities (Ikizer et al., 2021;Kalaitzaki, 2021;Matos et al., 2021), including Spain (Prieto-Ursúa and Jódar, 2020; Vázquez et al., 2021). The sociodemographic profile associated with higher levels of PTG as a result of the COVID-19 health crisis was consistent with that found in previous crises (Helgeson et al., 2006;Vishnevsky et al., 2010), with women and younger people experiencing PTG to a greater extent. Additionally, in these studies on PTG during COVID-19, different contextual variables were found to be related to the levels of PTG reported. ...
... Regarding the sociodemographic profile with greater PTG, it was that of the women and younger age groups, similar to that reported in previous studies (Helgeson et al., 2006;Vishnevsky et al., 2010;Wu et al., 2019;Kalaitzaki, 2021). Furthermore, the variables significantly related to PTG were mostly consistent with previous studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 crisis has generated a severe and negative psychological impact worldwide. Despite this, it is also possible to experience post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study aimed to longitudinally explore the prevalence of PTG in the Spanish population and test a predictive model for PTG from resilience, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and participation in social activities. Data were collected longitudinally in March, July, and November 2020 via an online survey. About 20% of the sample showed moderate-high levels of PTG, with no significant differences over time. The predictive model explained 19% of the variance in PTG, showing that the inverse relation between resilience and PTG was mediated by PTSS. Additionally, participation in social activities acted as a predictor of PTG. Women, young people, those who had lost their job and people who had experienced COVID-19 symptoms or the loss of a loved one presented higher PTG. Thus, people have experienced positive changes (PTG), but these did not protect them from adverse symptomatology (PTSS).
... Good practices for assessing PTG processes in CSA survivors using adequate and useful instruments are discussed. Moreover, in view of the evidence of gender differences in self-reported PTG (i.e., women are more likely to experience PTG than men: Vishnevsky et al., 2010), and the possible relevance of aspects related to processing in CSA, the gender variable was taken into account and gender differences were explored. Note: RO = Relating to others; NP = New possibilities; PS = Personal strength; SC = Spiritual change; AL= appreciation of life; SP = Self-perception. ...
... Finally, consistent with many studies (see Vishnevsky et al., 2010), gender differences were found in self-reporting PTG. Women tend to report more PTG than men with a moderate effect size. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors can experience psychological changes and growth as a consequence of their victimization experience, known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensionality, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory - Short Form (PTGI-SF) (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) in a sample of 104 adult survivors of CSA. Method: Different models of PTGI-SF validated in different languages and samples were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results: The results showed that the original five-factor model exhibited the best goodness of fit. Internal consistency was adequate for the general scale, and acceptable for the five different factors. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the PTGI-SF total score and psychosocial and mental health problems, as well as gender differences, with women tending to report more PTG than men. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Spanish PTGI-SF is a brief, reliable, valid self-report measure for assessing PTG experienced by CSA survivors.
... A meta-analysis carried out by Helgeson et al. (2006) concluded that females experience a less however, a significant amount of growth as compared to males. Another metaanalysis study comprising a total of 70 studies shows that women showed a significantly higher level of post traumatic growth as compared to men and concluded the occurrence of consistent gender difference while experiencing post traumatic growth as a result of life challenging event (Vishnevsky, Cann, Calhoun, Tedeschi, & Demakis, 2010). The inclination of women to grow can be attributed to their increased stress experience in response to stressful life events (Anderson & Manuel, 1994;Rausch, Auerbach, & Gramling, 2008) and their tendency to talk more positively about themselves than men (Park, Cohen, & Murch, 1996;Tamres, Janicki, & Helgeson, 2002). ...
... Age has also influenced the growth experience (Vishnevsky et al., 2010), but the results of the relationship between PTG and age are mixed and unclear. Studies have found a positive relationship between age and PTG (Kurtz, Wyantt, & Kurtz, 1995;Milam, Ritt-Olson, Tan, & Unger, 2004), while a number of other studies have identified younger adults with increased growth (Manne et al., 2004;Bower et al., 2005;Davis, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Larson, 1998;Evers et al., 2001;Klauer, Ferring, & Flipp, 1998;Cordova et al., 2007;Lechner et al., 2003), and no association between age and post Chapter-1 Introduction and Review of Literature traumatic growth were reported in least studies (Cordova, Cunningham, Carlson, & Andrykowski, 2001;Sears, Stanton, & DanoffBurg, 2003;Sheik & Marotta, 2005). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The present research was undertaken to investigate perceived stress, social support, and psychological capital as predictors of post traumatic growth among youth. Youth is an individual falling between 19-25 years of age. It is the period of transition from adolescence to early adulthood. That is why, in developmental stages, youth are more fluid than other fixed age groups. Yet, age is the easiest way to define this group, particularly in relation to education and employment, because youth is often referred for a person between the age of leaving compulsory education and finding their job first. Almost one among five people in the world is between 15 and 24 years of age, the majority of whom live in developing countries. India has the world's largest youth population despite having a lesser population than China. According to the 2011 Census, young people between the age of 15 and 29 years comprise 27.5 percent of the population in India. Youth help in shaping social and economic development, challenging social norms and values, and building the foundation of the world’s future (UN, 2014). Any idea of national development is only a myth without the involvement of young people. They are dynamic, passionate and inspired. Their enthusiasm and power needs to be regulated and used for the nation's welfare and development and this can be done by providing them proper guidance.
... Among these models, the most influential is, without a doubt, that of Tedeschi and Calhoun (1995;Tedeschi et al., 2018), the researchers who coined the term PTG and who created the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory or PTGI (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). Recent meta-analyses published on PTG reveal that the PTGI is the most common instrument used to measure PTG (Liu et al., 2017;Vishnevsky et al., 2010;Wu et al., 2019). ...
... Gender, age, years of service, and shift pattern were utilized to evaluate factors that influence the latent class classification because these characteristics are known to affect post-traumatic aspects. Prior studies have reported that older individuals engage in more deliberate rumination, and that women are more likely to experience PTG than men because women use more emotion-oriented coping strategies (Jin et al., 2014;Shakespeare-Finch & Lurie-Beck, 2014;Vishnevsky et al., 2010). Also, years of experience of firefighters is considered as one of the key variables that increase post-traumatic stress and is expected to affect latent class classification. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Due to the job characteristics, firefighters are repeatedly exposed to trauma incidents. However, not all firefighters exhibit the same level of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or post-traumatic growth (PTG). Despite this, few studies have looked into firefighters’ PTSD and PTG. Objective: This study identified subgroups of firefighters based on their PTSD and PTG levels, and investigated the influence of demographic factors and PTSD/PTG-related factors on latent class classification. Method: Latent profile analysis was used to examine the patterns of PTSD and PTG among 483 firefighters in South Korea. Using a cross-sectional design, demographic factors and job factors were examined as group covariates through a three-step approach. PTSD-related factors such as depression and suicide ideation, as well as PTG-related factors such as emotion-based response were analysed as differentiating factors. Results: Four classes were identified and named ‘Low PTSD-low PTG (65.2%),’ ‘Mid PTSD-mid PTG (15.5%),’ ‘Low PTSD-high PTG (15.3%),’ and ‘High PTSD-mid PTG (3.9%).’ The likelihood of belonging to the group with high trauma-related risks increased with more rotating shift work and years of service. The differentiating factors revealed differences based on the levels of PTSD and PTG in each group. Conclusions: 34.8% of firefighters experienced changes due to traumatic events while on the job, and some required serious attention. Modifiable job characteristics, such as the shift pattern, indirectly affected PTSD and PTG levels. Individual and job factors should be considered together when developing trauma interventions for firefighters.
... ifadesi, acının dönüştürücü gücünün temelini oluşturmaktadır. Özellikle bireylerin yaşamış oldukları travmalardan sonra kendilik algılarında, hayat felsefelerinde ve kişiler arası ilişkilerinde olumlu değişimler ve ruhsal dönüşümler algıladıklarına dair bulgular bulunmaktadır (Powell, Rosner, Butollo, Tedeschi ve Calhoun, 2003;Tedeschi ve Calhoun, 1996;Tedeschi, Park ve Calhoun, 1998;Vishnevsky, Cann, Calhoun, Tedeschi ve Demakis, 2010 (Tedeschi ve Calhoun, 1996), karakterinin güçlendiğini (Peterson ve ark., 2008) ortaya koyan araştırma bulguları mevcuttur. Dolayısıyla acı çekmenin her zaman olumsuz bir anlama karşılık gelmediği ve bireyler üzerinde olumlu etkiler ortaya çıkardığı söylenebilir. ...
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, beliren yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan üniversite öğrencilerinin acının dönüştürücü gücüne ilişkin inançları ile öz-aşkınlıkları arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Araştırmanın örneklemini Atatürk Üniversitesi Kazım Karabekir Eğitim Fakültesi’nin çeşitli bölümlerinde öğrenim görmekte olan ve uygun örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen 252 lisans öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcıların yaş ortalamalarının 21 ve standart sapması 2.53’tür. Bu katılımcıların cinsiyete göre dağılımları ise 181’i (%71.8) kadın ve 71’i (%28.2) erkektir. Araştırmada veri toplamak amacıyla Acının Dönüştürücü Gücü Ölçeği ile Öz-Aşkınlık Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, acının dönüştürücü gücü ve öz-aşkınlık arasındaki ilişkinin belirlenmesi amacıyla Pearson momentler çarpımı korelasyon analizi ve örtük değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin belirlenmesi amacıyla yapısal eşitlik modellemesi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda acının dönüştürücü gücü toplam puanı ile öz aşkınlık ölçeğinin kişilerarası alt boyutu (r=.354, p<.01) ile kendine ait (iç ruh hâli) alt boyutu (r=.329, p<.01) arasında orta düzeyde ve pozitif yönlü anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca acının dönüştürücü gücü ile öz aşkınlık arasındaki standardize edilmiş regresyon katsayısının .47 olduğu ve acının dönüştürücü gücünün öz aşkınlıktaki varyansın %22’sini açıkladığı görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular, acının dönüştürücü gücü ile öz aşkınlık arasında orta düzeyde pozitif yönlü anlamlı ilişkiler olduğunu ve acının dönüştürücü gücünün öz aşkınlığın anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Elde edilen bulgular ilgili alanyazın doğrultusunda değerlendirilmiştir.
... Coping, social support and total PTG were included as dependent variables and parenthood was included as the dichotomous independent variable. Given the evidence that age and gender (Cao et al., 2018;Vishnevsky et al., 2010) are significant predictors of PTG and economic status and relationship status implicated in the experience of a global pandemic, they were included as covariates. Based on the significant results of the MANCOVA, further analyses were carried out to determine whether there was difference amongst parents. ...
Article
This study sought to investigate a positive dimension of coping with the COVID-19 pandemic, that of post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study investigated coping difficulties and PTG amongst parent and nonparent students in Israeli Universities. A total of 4022 parents (3648 Jews and 374 Palestinian-Arab Citizens [PACs]) and 14,651 nonpar-ents (12,010 Jews and 2641 PACs) completed measures of coping, social support and PTG. Parents demonstrated significantly higher levels of coping and PTG. Amongst parents, fathers coped slightly better than mothers; however, while Jewish mothers demonstrated greater PTG than Jewish fathers, PAC fathers had significantly greater PTG than both PAC mothers and Jewish parents. These findings, while specific to COVID-19, indicate that PTG should be studied in greater depth in different ethnic and minority groups in order to develop enhanced understanding and facilitate promotion of post-traumatic growth, in addition to the prevention of COVID-19-related distress.
... In line with previous evidence, significant differences between men and women in terms of PTG [27] have been detected, with women reporting higher scores than men. However, in contrast with our results, previous studies have shown that younger people seem to exhibit higher levels of psychological growth compared to older individuals [7,8,28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The positive transformation (i.e., posttraumatic growth, PTG) that can emerge after the struggles associated with a stressful life event has been widely investigated. However, less attention has been paid to the negative posttraumatic changes (i.e., posttraumatic depreciation, PTD) that might occur after a traumatic experience. This study aimed to investigate the role of a series of psychological factors (e.g., disruption of core beliefs, rumination, and depressive symptoms) in predicting PTG and PTD, separately considered. Methods: To reach this goal, 601 participants who experienced different types of traumatic events were recruited. They were asked to indicate sociodemographic and trauma-related information and to complete self-report measures assessing PTG/PTD, core beliefs, rumination, and depressive symptoms. Results: The results of regression analyses showed that gender, age, time since the trauma, core beliefs, deliberate/intrusive rumination, and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of PTG. Conversely, core beliefs, intrusive rumination, and depressive symptoms were found to be positively related to PTD. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings highlight the role that different psychological factors may play in the manifestation of the PTG and/or PTD dimensions. From a clinical perspective, professionals should pay attention to these factors when a person struggles in coping with a highly stressful experience.
... A higher level of cognitive differentiation in older children may explain this finding [12]. Second, gender may be of influence, because girls tend to report more PTSD symptoms than boys [19] and girls are overrepresented in trauma treatment studies [18]. Third, the trauma type (type I or type II) can be of influence, because children with type II trauma report significantly more symptoms than children with type I trauma, regardless of age [3,20], and a negative relation has been found between the number of traumatic experiences and treatment success [21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Children can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mental health symptoms after traumatic events. This meta-analysis evaluated the influence of moderators of cognitive behavioural trauma treatment (CBTT) with caregiver involvement in traumatized children. A total of 28 studies were included, with 23 independent samples and 332 effect sizes, representing the data of 1931 children (M age = 11.10 years, SD = 2.36). Results showed a significant medium overall effect (d = 0.55, t = 2.478, p = 0.014), indicating CBTT with caregiver involvement was effective in treating PTSD (d = 0.70), with somewhat smaller effect sizes for internalizing, externalizing, social, cognitive and total problems (0.35 < d > 0.48). The positive treatment effect was robust; we found somewhat smaller effect sizes at follow-up (d = 0.49) compared to post-test (d = 0.57) assessments. Furthermore, several sample (i.e. child’s age, gender, and trauma event), programme (i.e. the duration of treatment, number of sessions), study (i.e. control condition, type of instrument, informant, type of sample), and publication (i.e. publication year and impact factor) characteristics moderated the treatment outcomes of the child. In sum, the results of our meta-analysis might help to improve the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural trauma treatment for youth with PTSD, and guide the development of innovative trauma interventions that involve caregivers. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Of the sociodemographic variables, being female was the only one that predicted both PTSS and PTG at T2. This is consistent with the positive relationship between being female and PTSS and PTG in other studies, as reflected in the meta-analyses of Brewin et al. (2000) and Vishnevsky et al. (2010). Vishnevsky and colleagues explain the association by noting that women tend to think repetitively about a stressful event to a greater extent than men. ...
Article
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has required important changes in the lifestyles and quality of life of higher education students, generating emotional distress. This study sought to evaluate a predictive model of emotional distress and positive mental health through measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in Chilean higher education students during the pandemic. Method: To this end, 502 students (67.8% female), aged 18-44 years, were surveyed at two time points during the pandemic, separated by 6 months. Potential predictors included emotional regulation strategies, perceived social support, sociodemographic characteristics, factors related to the pandemic, and students' experiences related to online classes. Results: Findings indicated that PTSS levels were generally stable across the two time points, but PTG levels increased. In addition, emotional regulation strategies (suppression, cognitive reappraisal), perceived social support, and female gender predicted both PTSS and PTG 6 months later; students' number of hours of screen time for school also influenced PTG. Conclusions: Findings enhance understanding of the processes contributing to PTSS and PTG in higher education students. The need to improve quality of life and mental health in higher education students, including individual- and institutional-level strategies, is discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... On the other hand, women reported higher resource gain scores than men. A possible hypothesis for these findings suggests that women's greater tendency to ruminative thinking and their coping style, centered on emotion, facilitates both stress and growth [40]. Another possible explanation for women's higher ability to feel stress and to perceive resource gain is that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the domestic challenges became the focus of coping, and there, traditionally, the woman has more tasks that were intensified during the lockdown situation (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The Conservation of Resources (COR) theory suggests that stress results from threatened or actual loss of resources following significant life events. This study used COR theory as the framework to explore the reflection of loss of resources during the COVID-19 pandemic on psychological distress and resilience, in an adult Jewish Israeli population. Methods: We examined the association between background variables, stress, loneliness, concern, COVID-19-related post traumatic symptoms (PTS), resilience factors and COR via an online survey among 2,000 adults during April 2020. Results: Positive relationships were identified between resource loss and PTS ( r = 0.66, p < 0.01), and between resource gain and resilience ( r = 0.30, p < 0.01). Psychological variables were significantly associated with PTS and explained 62.7% of the variance, F (20, 1,413) = 118.58, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Loss of resources, stress, loneliness and concern were found to be risk factors for distress and PTS, whereas resilience factors played a protective role. We thus recommend using the COR theory to explore COVID-19 effects elsewhere.
... On the other hand, according to some authors (e.g., Ulloa et al., 2016), traumatic events that are related to some kind of sexual violence may lead to growth because of their major effect on the survivors' self-perception and their potential awareness of social themes related to their experience. According to a metaanalysis by Wu et al. (2019), about 53% of people exposed to some form of a traumatic event (chronically ill people, war veterans, firefighters, rescuers, etc.) consequently experience at least medium posttraumatic growth, with women reporting higher scores of PTG than men (e.g., Vishnevsky et al., 2010;Hamama-Raz et al., 2020). However, gender differences in PTG scores seem to depend on the measure used to examine PTG (Barskova and Oesterreich, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite negative connotations, surviving trauma can result in improvements in some domains of a person's life. This phenomenon is known as posttraumatic growth (PTG), and it is typically measured using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Given the ambiguous results of the existing validation studies, the present study aimed to verify the psychometric properties of the Slovak version of the PTGI in a representative sample of Slovak citizens. Although the results suggest that a modified one-factor structure fit the data best, other issues, such as extremely high correlations between the latent factors related to the PTGI's factor structure, were observed. It is likely that the application of the latent variable model does not represent the essence of PTG adequately and the network approach thus appears to be a far more suitable conceptualization of PTG. More detailed information on between-person differences and within-person changes in PTG could help to tailor more effective interventions or preventive programs.
... Men discussed processes and outcomes commonly associated with posttraumatic growth, such as self-reflection and altered life philosophies, a new-found sense of gratitude, such as for one's health and social support, as well as rewarding experiences of 'giving back' as positive role models for male alopecia (Tedeschi and Calhoun, 2004). Meta-analytical findings suggest that men are less likely on average to experience posttraumatic growth than women (Vishnevsky et al., 2010), which the authors suggested may be due to men's minimal use of deliberate, contemplative rumination (Treynor et al., 2003). Given participants often talked about self-reflection as a path to personal growth, it may be that encouraging men with AA to do so, whether guided by a professional or via self-guided journaling (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Alopecia areata (AA) affects men at similar rates to women, yet comparatively little is known about men’s experience of the condition. We interviewed a demographically diverse group of 18 men with AA to explore this gap. From qualitative thematic analysis, participants’ accounts described a profound yet often-minimised impact of AA on their lives, in the context of poor public awareness and misguided assumptions about AA in men. Conversely, this adversity appeared to facilitate personal growth for many. These findings can help health professionals better understand men’s gendered experience of AA, which we discuss through the lens of masculinities theory.
... 244). This adds to the meta-analytic evidence of Vishnevsky et al. (2010), however, the traumatic event factor may be an important factor, as previous studies have reported no significant differences in PTGI total scores according to sex in Latin American adults (Celdr an et al., 2021;Penagos-Corzo et al., 2020;Quezada-Berumen & Gonz alez-Ram ırez, 2020b;Ramos-Vera, 2022b). ...
Article
We aimed to evaluate whether an ultra-short version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) has adequate psychometric properties, with a Colombian sample (N = 931) vulnerable to SaRS-CoV-2 infection. Results indicated that adequate indicators of goodness-of-fit, convergent validity, internal consistency, and factorial invariance. Therefore, this instrument is recommended for the screening of posttraumatic growth associated with the COVID-19 pandemic that may be present in the Colombian population.
... Our findings on the role of gender concur with the previously published literature [24]. A meta-analysis of 70 studies and 16,076 patients showed a moderate effect of female gender on the expression of post-traumatic growth [32]. One possible reason for this finding is the fact that women engage in more deliberate ruminating thoughts, which can encourage reflection, increases awareness and has been shown to positively influence post-traumatic growth [24] [35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose There is limited research on the long-term psychiatric outcomes of polytraumatized patients. Existing studies focus mainly on the negative sequelae. Post-traumatic growth (PTG) describes positive personal development after severe physical or mental distress. In this study, we investigated post-traumatic growth in polytraumatized patients at least 20 years after trauma. Methods Patients treated for polytrauma at a German level 1 trauma center between 1971 and 1990, were contacted 20+ years later. A questionnaire with 37 questions from the stress-related growth scale (SRGS) and the post-traumatic growth inventory (PGI) was administered. PTG was quantified in five specific areas. PTG and patient demographics were then analyzed using logistic regression. Results Eligible questionnaires were returned by 337 patients. 96.5% of patients reported improvements regarding at least one of the 37 questions. Approximately, a third of patients noticed distinct improvements regarding their relationship to others (29.2%), appreciation of life (36.2%) and attitudes towards new possibilities (32.5%). Patient demographics were significant predictors for the development of PTG: Older (p < 0.001), female (p = 0.042) and married patients (p = 0.047) showed a greater expression of PTG. We also saw significantly more PTG in patients with higher injury severity (p = 0.033). Conclusion 20 years after polytrauma, patients report improvements in their relationship with others, appreciation of life and attitude towards new possibilities. Women and married patients show higher expression of PTG. Furthermore, there is higher expression of PTG with higher age and injury severity. Post-traumatic growth should be identified and fostered in clinical practice. Level of evidence III—prospective long-term follow-up study.
... Also, posttraumatic growth is moderately correlated with social support, spirituality, and optimism (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009) and it has an adaptive significance in both clinical and healthy subjects (Barskova & Oesterreich, 2009;Prati & Pietrantoni, 2014;Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996). Notable, there is a slight gender difference with females reporting a stronger posttraumatic growth than men after trauma (Vishnevsky et al., 2010). The COVID-19 pandemic can be considered a traumatic stressor increasing the risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or change for the worse a preexisting mental disorder (Bridgland et al., 2021). ...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to examine the profiles of reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic based on the combination of fear and future orientation, as well as their sociodemographic, situational, and relational predictors. We also compared posttraumatic growth between the profiles. Method: A sample of 640 Italian participants completed the Multidimensional Assessment of COVID-19-Related Fears (MAC-RF), the Future Orientation Scale (FOS), the UCLA Loneliness Scale-Version 3, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Results: Latent profile analysis indicated a 4-class solution as the best-fitting model. The first profile ("Detached") comprised 9.9% of the sample and was characterized by both low fear and future orientation. The second profile ("Hopeful") concerned 49.9% of the sample and it featured low fear and high future orientation. The third profile ("Constructively Preoccupied") involved 35.5% of the sample and was distinguished by high fear and high future orientation. The fourth profile ("Fearful") included 4.6% of the sample and was marked by high fear and low future orientation. Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that the female gender was more likely to be associated with the Constructively Preoccupied profile, while older age was more likely to be associated with the Hopeful one. Higher perceived loneliness was associated with all profiles except the Hopeful. Results of comparisons showed substantial differences in posttraumatic growth between the profiles. The Constructively Preoccupied profile showed the greatest posttraumatic growth. Conclusions: Overall, these results point out the various profile of reaction to the pandemic and that adopting a person-oriented approach could enhance their grasp. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... This finding implies that the subjects' subjective self-perception, inter- (Dinçer et al., 2015;İzgüden & Erdem, 2017;Joshanloo, 2014;Joshanloo, 2015). The findings of these studies support the assumptions that those who perceive the transformative power of pain more strongly may show higher levels of posttraumatic growth (Vishnevsky et al., 2010). Furthermore, study findings on the transformative power of pain reveal that this idea is linked to an individual's degree of well-being and happiness (Joshanloo, 2014), social identity perception (Joshanloo, 2015), and life satisfaction (Dinçer et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationship between the transformative power of pain and posttraumatic growth in nurses with positive Covid-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Design and method: "Sociodemographics Form," "Transformative Power of Pain Scale," and "Post-Traumatic Growth Scale" were used to collect the data of the study. Findings: In the study, posttraumatic growth increased as the level of the transformative power of pain increased for nurses. Furthermore, some variables were found to have an effect on the transformative power of pain and the posttraumatic growth mean score in nurses who had positive Covid-19 PCR test. Practice implications: Nurses should be provided with social and professional psychological support to improve their transformative power of pain and posttraumatic growth levels.
... The style of coping detailed above may also explain sex as a significant predictor, wherein female participants reported higher levels of positive adaptation due to burn. Sex differences in deliberative rumination, or the purposeful reexamination and contemplation of the traumatic event may explain this result (Triplett et al., 2012;Vishnevsky et al., 2010;Zhou & Wu, 2015). Various researchers have found that those who engage in more deliberative rumination experience more posttraumatic growth (Yang & Ha, 2019;Zhou & Wu, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Posttraumatic growth is the phenomenon of positive change resulting from coping with challenging or traumatic events. This study examines posttraumatic growth (PTG) in adult burn injury survivors via growth trajectories and correlates across time. Research method: Three-hundred forty-eight burn injury survivors aged 19-86 years old completed a self-report measure of posttraumatic growth at 6, 12, and 24 months. An unconditional and conditional growth curve model with predictors were fitted to the posttraumatic growth data. Predictors included psychosocial variables (satisfaction with life, stigma, body image, anxiety, depression, and pain), demographic variables (age, education, sex), and burn injury variables (days hospitalized, cause of injury, TBSA burn, and admittance to rehab). Results: On average participants experienced midlevel posttraumatic growth scores and experienced little change across time. Participants' sex, age, educational attainment, burn severity level, satisfaction with life pre-burn injury, and perceived stigma were each significantly associated with initial posttraumatic growth scores. Conclusions: Burn survivors vary in their degree of posttraumatic growth, with growth largely stable by 6 months postinjury. Targeted intervention to facilitate growth, and thus physical health and mental health, should be completed prior to 6 months postinjury. Burn-related stigma may be a modifiable factor that can enhance posttraumatic growth. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... The scale to measure it, the PTGI, has been studied and/or validated in different contexts and for different populations around the world. At this point, there are publications that propose theoretical models explaining the development of PTG in adults as well as in children (Kilmer et al., 2014) and some meta-analysis that show the trend in the cumulative knowledge about PTG (Helgeson, Reynolds & Tomich, 2006;Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009;Vishnevsky, Cann, Calhoun, Tedeschi & Demakis, 2010). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Posttraumatic growth is known as the perception of positive changes after being exposed to a highly stressful event. Its study allows obtaining a wider view of the consequences of a stressful event in people’s life. Particularly, this chapter is focused on the learning that people obtain from these potentially traumatic experiences. In Chile, several studies, whose objectives have been to comprehend the posttraumatic growth phenomenon and recognize strategies and conditions that make people’s growth possible, have been carried out in order to enable the design of procedures and stimulate their development. This chapter shows findings related to posttraumatic growth worldwide and in Chile through studies that have been performed with people exposed to natural disasters, police brutality and work accidents, among other stressors. After reviewing the variables related to growth, intervention ideas deduced from findings are presented.
... Regarding sociodemographic factors, a meta-analysis of gender differences in adults found that women reported higher levels of posttraumatic growth than men (Vishnevsky et al., 2010). In their reviews of the child and adolescent posttraumatic growth literature, Bernstein and Pfefferbaum (2018) and Meyerson et al. (2011) reported mixed findings on gender differences. ...
Article
Full-text available
The negative consequences of the COVID‐19 lockdown during the spring of 2020 have been documented. However, adolescents may also have experienced positive personal and interrelational changes. This was the first study to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic growth (PTG) during the lockdown. We additionally explored how potential risk and protective factors, as well as experiences with the pandemic, were related to PTG and whether these associations were moderated by mental health resources and social support. We used data from a representative survey of 12,686 junior and senior high school students from Oslo, Norway, conducted during the lockdown (37% response rate, 56.4% girls). A short version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to assess growth relative to personal strength, relationships with others, and appreciation of life. Several potential predictors in the domains of mental health, social relationships, experiences during the pandemic, and sociodemographic background factors were examined. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that satisfaction with life, parental care, worries about the pandemic, and immigrant status were the most prominent predictors of PTG, βs = .14–.22, p < .001. Moderation analyses indicated a complex interplay between predictors of PTG by showing that good mental health was associated with higher degrees of PTG only in groups typically considered to be at higher risk of adverse outcomes. The findings provide information regarding who would profit from additional help to reinterpret the dramatic events during the lockdown to facilitate growth.
... Several conceptual and methodological critiques have been raised about the validity of PTG as well as using the PTGI to measure growth after trauma, leading to numerous adaptations of the PTGI (Cho & Park, 2013;Kilmer et al., 2014;Maercker & Zoellner, 2004;Tedeschi et al., 2017). One concern is the reliance on self-reported measures of growth since individual perspectives are influenced by context and expectations and can be difficult to compare between people because of its subjective nature (Cho & Park, 2013;Vishnevsky et al., 2010). Maercker and Zoellner (2004), in particular, have noted that PTG may be two-sided, with one side reflected in the constructive, self-transcending concepts described by Tedeschi and Calhoun (2004), and another side characterized by self-deception or an illusion about the degree of personal growth experienced. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which Canadian victims and survivors of violent crime describe and make sense of their posttraumatic experience(s). Method: This qualitative study drew on open-ended responses from a mixed methods online survey with Canadian victims and survivors of violent crime (N = 435). Participants in the online survey identified as women (n = 335), men (n = 95), or two-spirit, nonbinary, or gender queer (n = 5); and had experienced partner violence (35%, n = 154), sexual violence (32%, n = 141), homicide or other violent death of a family member (22%, n = 96); or other types of violence (10%, n = 44). Additionally, in-depth narrative interviews were completed with a subsample of survey participants (n = 71). Findings: Analyses resulted in multiple themes organized into three broad categories: (a) negative posttraumatic changes, (b) positive posttraumatic changes, and (c) resistance to the language of posttraumatic growth. Conclusion: Results suggest the importance of approaching the posttraumatic experience with a focus on perceptions of change rather than growth. The concept of "posttraumatic change" is more responsive to the dynamic process of change that victims and survivors of violence experience, which is often difficult to frame with language focused exclusively on stress or growth. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Suicide exposure warrants further investigation as a risk factor for suicide among military service members. This study aimed to examine associations among suicide exposure, suicidal ideation (SI), and psychological symptoms in a clinical sample of service members (N = 1,565, 64.4% suicide-exposed) and identify how one's relationship with the deceased impacts suicidality and psychological health in exposed individuals. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data was conducted. Generalized linear regression analyses were used to identify associations between suicide exposure and both current SI and psychological symptoms among all participants; the associations between suicide exposure characteristics and psychological symptoms were only examined among exposed individuals. Exposure was not significantly associated with higher SI, β = .007, SE = .16, p = .965, but was associated with PTSD, β = 1.60, SE = 0.49, p = .001; anxiety, β = .68, SE = .31, p = .031; and insomnia symptoms, β = .98, SE = .25, p < .001. Among participants who had been exposed, high/long impact of exposure was positively associated with SI, β = 0.94, SE = .26, p < .001, and psychological symptoms, PTSD: β = 2.32, SE = .77, p = .002; anxiety: β = 1.39, SE = .50, p = .005; insomnia: β = .96, SE = .39, p = .015. Results illustrate the significant issue of suicide exposure within the military and show consideration of suicide exposure as a potential risk factor for adverse psychological outcomes is warranted.
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, graduate students have faced increased risk of mental health challenges. Research suggests that experiencing adversity may induce positive psychological changes, called post-traumatic growth (PTG). These changes can include improved relationships with others, perceptions of oneself, and enjoyment of life. Few existing studies have explored this phenomenon among graduate students. This secondary data analysis of a survey conducted in November 2020 among graduate students at a private R1 University in the northeast United States examined graduate students' levels and correlates of PTG during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students had a low level of PTG, with a mean score of 10.31 out of 50. Linear regression models showed significant positive relationships between anxiety and PTG and between a measure of self-reported impact of the pandemic and PTG. Non-White minorities also had significantly greater PTG than White participants. Experiencing more negative impact due to the pandemic and ruminating about the pandemic were correlated with greater PTG. These findings advance research on the patterns of PTG during the COVID-19 pandemic and can inform future studies of graduate students' coping mechanisms and support efforts to promote pandemic recovery and resilience.
Article
Full-text available
Post-Traumatic Growth is a term that refers to an individual's experience of considerable positive transformation following the occurrence of a traumatic event. This growth may be rapid, gradual, or non-existent, depending on the circumstances (such as social support or societal stigma) to which the victims are subjected during the process. However, the high prevalence of trauma among traumatized victims and the benefits of post-traumatic growth (PTG) discovered in increasing empirical research demonstrate the need of fostering PTG in victims of interpersonal violence. As a result, the current study analysed risk variables for PTG development. The study enrolled 200 women and men recruited through an organization that provides services to trauma victims. The data were gathered via an online survey that included the PTG inventory and an information sheet on demographic, social support, and stigma-related characteristics. Social stigma and support were found to be significant predictors of PTG, with stigma being associated with lower PTG and family and religious support being associated with higher PTG. The limitations and policy implications were highlighted, and recommendations for additional research were presented.
Article
The current study investigated gender differences in perceived social support and posttraumatic growth for survivors of intimate partner violence. Participants for this study included 86 undergraduate students who indicated at least one instance of partner abuse (consisting of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and harassment). Participants were predominantly female (68%), White/Caucasian (62%), and between 18 and 21 years of age (84%). Participants responded to the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Composite Abuse Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mean differences and correlational analyses were utilized to investigate potential gender differences in the study variables as well as the relationships among them. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was comparable to those found in other studies, with 59% of men and 57% of women indicating experiencing abuse from a partner. Although the prevalence rates were similar, women indicated higher overall partner abuse victimization than did men. Moreover, women indicated statistically significantly higher scores than men in three of the four Composite Abuse Scale subscales, reflecting higher levels of victimization for all forms of abuse except for partner harassment. Further, perceived social support scores were similar for men and women, with the only significant gender difference to emerge being that men indicated higher levels of familial support than did women. No statistically significant gender differences emerged for overall posttraumatic growth or for any of its domains. Finally, social support was correlated with posttraumatic growth for women but not for men. The current study, therefore, suggests that men and women may experience similar levels of personal growth in the aftermath of partner abuse. Moreover, these results imply that the relationship between social support and posttraumatic growth may vary according to the gender of the survivor.
Article
Full-text available
Background Post-traumatic growth (PTG) refers to the positive psychological changes experienced with individuals after struggling with highly challenging life circumstances. Forgiveness can facilitate positive outcomes such as reduced distress, anxiety, and depression. Many studies have tested the relationships among forgiveness, social support, and PTG; however, a mechanism of social support has not been completely explored in hemodialysis patients. Objective To test the relationship between forgiveness and post-traumatic growth and verify the mediating factor of social support on the relationship between forgiveness and PTG in hemodialysis patients. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study using convenience sampling from March to May 2021, 497 hemodialysis patients from nine hospitals filled out the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS), Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), and general information. Data were analyzed using SPSS, and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationships among forgiveness, social support, and PTG. Results Forgiveness was significantly positively associated with PTG ( P < 0.01). The proposed model provided a good fit to the data. Social support was found to play a partial mediating role between forgiveness and PTG ( a * b = 0.122, BCa 95% CI: 0.078∼0.181). Conclusion The results imply that forgiveness significantly directly and indirectly is related to PTG. Forgiveness in hemodialysis patients should be detected and effectively managed to ameliorate positive effects on PTG. It is necessary for nurses to consider implementing forgiveness interventions with an emphasis on building social support strategies to help hemodialysis patients enhance their PTG.
Chapter
Posttraumatic growth is a process and an outcome found in the struggle with highly stressful events. In this process, survivors of trauma recognize important positive personal transformations, yielding five types of changes: a greater appreciation of life, a sense of personal strength, better relationships with others, new possibilities in life, and/or spiritual change. Expert companions can help to facilitate this process.
Article
This 10-year cohort study explored whether individual differences in resilience during early stages post-earthquake could have diverse impacts on future PTG and whether the impacts varied by sex. 1357 Chinese adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake were assessed on their resilience at 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-months post-earthquake. 799 participants responded to an online survey 10 years later, and 744 of which provided usable data for subsequent analysis. Resilience trajectories were modeled using the latent class growth analysis. Linear regressions were used to test the predictive effects of different resilience trajectories on subsequent PTG. Of 744 samples (Mage=15.44, SD = 0.66 at baseline), 59.1% were females. Three trajectories of resilience were identified, including low resilience (19.8%), moderate resilience (58.7%), and high resilience (21.5%). Highly resilient participants reported greater PTG 10 years later (β = 0.12, 95%CI 0.60–6.08) after adjusting for demographic variables, earthquake exposure, negative life events, and mental health problems. Moreover, the same findings only existed in males (β = 0.22, 95%CI 1.26–11.01). Our findings highlight the importance of classifying survivors by resilience trajectories in order to better account for different implications on future PTG. Moreover, sex-specific programs are needed to provide tailored intervention.
Article
Trauma can disrupt an individual's core beliefs about themselves, others, and the world. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is thought to be the outcome of a reconstruction process involving ruminative processing. This meta‐analysis examined the strength of the associations between event‐related intrusive and deliberate rumination and PTG. The moderating effects of variables including age, time since trauma exposure, and trauma type were examined. Eight databases were searched for English‐language, peer reviewed studies examining the associations between PTG and types of event‐related rumination in adults. Effect sizes (Pearson's r) were extracted and analyzed, and study quality was assessed using the Study Quality Assessment Tool for Observational and Cohort studies. In total, 46 studies were included based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A significant main effect was observed for the association between retrospectively reported deliberate rumination that occurred soon after a traumatic event and PTG, r = .45, 95% CI [.41, .49]. There was significant variability in effect sizes, and the strength of this association differed according to age. The association between intrusive rumination and PTG was not significant and varied in direction. Deliberate rumination that occurred relatively soon following trauma exposure was shown to be positively associated with PTG. The findings highlight the importance of supporting trauma survivors to engage in the deliberate cognitive processing of their experiences to encourage PTG. Longitudinal research is needed to further delineate the temporal role of event‐related rumination in PTG development.
Article
Background Little is known about the relationship between childhood maltreatment and well-being in young adults, including the role of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in promoting better outcomes for young adults who have a history of childhood maltreatment (HCM). Objective To examine the relationship between child maltreatment and well-being among young adults, by considering the perpetrator and the extent of the maltreatment, as well as PTG among young adults with a HCM. Participants and setting The sample comprised 537 young adults (aged 18–25; M = 21.09 years, SD = 2.36) from across Australia, with 182 young adults in the sample forming the cohort with a HCM. Method Participants' current well-being, the extent of maltreatment by their mother, father and other adults experienced as a child (<18 years), and PTG was collected using an online survey. Tests of group differences and multiple regression were conducted to analyse the relationships between child maltreatment, PTG, and current well-being. Results Maltreatment by one's mother or father predicted poorer current well-being, but not maltreatment by another adult. Young adults who identified as having a HCM had poorer well-being than those who did not. Within the cohort of those with a HCM, greater PTG predicted greater well-being, and also mitigated the negative relationship between child maltreatment by one's father and well-being. Conclusion Findings indicate that both the extent of child maltreatment and the relationship to the perpetrator have implications for well-being among young adults. PTG appeared to play a protective role, highlighting the potential therapeutic benefit of fostering PTG to improve well-being among young adults with a HCM.
Chapter
Stress-related growth (SRG) is a phenomenon in which an individual experiences positive psychological changes after going through a highly stressful life event or circumstance. SRG has become a popular area of research over the last 25 years—a trend amplified by the advent of the positive psychology movement. However, much research on SRG is compromised by the use of retrospective assessments of perceived growth and cross-sectional research designs. As a result, the extent to which current research sheds lights on the nature, ubiquity, and value of SRG is unclear. We provide an overview of current research on SRG (including demographic differences and its relatedness to health outcomes) as well as its methodological limitations, and provide some guidelines for improving the scientific study of this construct.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the negative repercussions of a chronic disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) might also lead to positive consequences. This longitudinal study explored post-traumatic growth in MS patients and attempted to identify possible determinants. Post-traumatic growth of 260 patients and their caregivers was compared. A subset of 209 patients and caregivers were evaluated at baseline. Patients filled in the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and General Health Questionnaire at three different times over a 36-month follow-up period. Patient post-traumatic growth significantly increased over the follow-up period (p < 0.001) with large effect sizes on almost every subscale. Higher score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale, higher pain severity, female gender, and higher anxiety were positive predictors of post-traumatic growth, while more interference of pain, higher level of education, and more social dysfunction were negative predictors. Post-traumatic growth did not differ significantly between patients and caregivers. Our results showed significant positive intrapsychic changes of MS patients over a 36-month follow-up period up to 12 years from diagnosis. The potential influence of clinical, demographic, and mental health variables underlines the need for a personalized approach to be able to understand and sustain these processes. Comparable post-traumatic growth levels in patient-caregiver dyads at baseline suggest interdependently driven cognitive processes stabilizing well-being. Future research is recommended for further insight into the underlying cognitive processes.
Article
Objectives To evaluate prevalence and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among directly exposed (DE) and indirectly or nonexposed (INE) populations in Sri Lanka 8 y after the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004. Methods Population-based structured survey study was conducted among Sri Lankan adults living in 5 coastal districts, Hamboantha, Matara, Galle, Kalutara, and Colombo in 2012-2013. A total of 430 individuals, 325 in DE, 105 in INE, participated in the survey. DE and INE groups were compared for demographics and outcomes. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions with backward selection were used to identify risk factors for partial PTSD and depression. Results The prevalence of PTSD, partial PTSD and depression were 2.8%, 10.5%, and 18.8% in DE group, respectively. In multivariable analyses tsunami exposure, female gender, subjective physical health before the tsunami, previous trauma, and depression were significantly associated with partial PTSD. Female gender, high frequency of religious activity, previous trauma, social support, and PTSD were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions The psychological impacts of the tsunami did wane over time, but still present at lower rate even in 8 y. It is important to address these lingering sequelae and expand access to at risk individuals.
Article
Posttraumatic growth (PTG) refers to a positive psychological change that occurs following a seismic and highly challenging life circumstance. An individual who experiences PTG reports posttrauma development that surpasses their baseline level of pretrauma function in various domains. The present systematic review of the current literature aimed to explore factors related to the development of PTG in children and adolescents exposed to trauma. Included studies investigated a range of factors that impact PTG development in youth from five countries: the United States, Israel, China, Japan, and Norway. Studies addressed multiple types of traumatic experiences, including medical trauma, war‐ and terror‐related trauma, and environmental trauma. Findings suggested that factors that impact the development of PTG include the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, specifically intrusiveness, and cognitive factors, such as the use of positive reappraisal and deliberate rumination. Many factors demonstrated inconsistencies across studies, such as the impact of age, gender, social support, and parent factors. The findings from this systematic research study encourage the notion that certain clinical intervention strategies, such as deliberate rumination, positive reappraisal coping strategies, and trauma‐informed group therapy, may facilitate growth in trauma survivors. Future research should test if these intervention strategies directly impact growth and whether there is an evidence‐based form of intervention that can assist clinicians in taking a growth‐ and strengths‐based perspective after trauma.
Article
Full-text available
The present study sheds light on the phenomenon whereby groups experience adversity, following which they show signs of growth. We propose the conceptualization of post-traumatic growth as a phenomenon that also exists at the group level, “community post-traumatic growth” (CPTG). The concept of CPTG is explained using a case study on the ultra-Orthodox Jewish community in Israel following the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study describes shared characteristics of Israeli ultra-Orthodox society and the crisis it experienced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, both in terms of physiological features such as the relatively high proportion of affected people and in terms of psychological characteristics such as the shut-down of synagogues and yeshivas, and the perceived discrimination they experienced from the general population in Israel. The present study views the sense of discrimination as a traumatic factor at the group level. In total, 256 participants completed online questionnaires examining three hypotheses: (1) sense of discrimination (trauma) will be correlated with level of CPTG; (2) the level of identification with the ultra-Orthodox culture will be positively related to CPTG, while the level of identification with Israeli culture will be negatively correlated with CPTG; (3) the level of life satisfaction of the individual will be predicted by CPTG. The results supported the hypotheses and are discussed at length in the discussion section.
Article
The purpose of this study was to (i) identify the level of posttraumatic growth among nurses suffering from workplace violence, (ii) clarify the relationship between nurses' posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and (iii) determine the influencing factors for posttraumatic growth among nurses suffering from workplace violence. A cross‐sectional study was conducted to investigate 726 nurses suffering from workplace violence in 10 tertiary hospitals by using demographic, work‐related information, lifestyle questionnaire, simplified Chinese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and professional quality of life scale. In the findings, (i) the participants’ posttraumatic growth scores were 57.29 ± 21.56, while the compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress scores were 32.82 ± 6.80, 27.17 ± 5.53, and 26.67 ± 5.29, respectively, (ii) posttraumatic growth was positively correlated with compassion satisfaction and secondary traumatic stress, and negatively correlated with burnout, and (iii) compassion satisfaction, sleep hours per day, department, scheduling, alcohol, secondary traumatic stress, children, and work hours per day were influencing factors of posttraumatic growth, which explained 36.3% of the total variance. Our study indicates that Chinese nurses may experience moderate levels of compassionate satisfaction, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and low levels of posttraumatic growth after suffering from workplace violence, while the posttraumatic growth of nurses suffering from workplace violence is more affected by work‐related variables and lifestyle‐related variables, but less affected by other sociodemographic variables. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the psychological evaluation of nurses and adopt targeted strategies to promote nurses' posttraumatic growth.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This study explored aspects of Post Traumatic Growth (PTG) amongst Australian Bravery Award recipients exposed to serious or life-threatening trauma. PTG is the process whereby some people experience growth following traumatic experiences. Previous PTG research has focused on specific disasters, incidents or cohorts of survivors. We explored a range of incidents in both civilian and non-civilian award recipients. Sixty-five Australian Bravery Award recipients (37 civilian and 28 non-civilian) completed the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory and provided additional demographic information about their bravery incident. The mean PTG score was 41.0 (SD=25.4). Civilians experienced significantly higher growth (mean PTG score = 49.7, SD=23.6) than non-civilians (mean PTG score = 29.5, SD=23.4). PTG varied by gender (p=0.002), with female award recipients having much higher PTG scores (mean 65.9, SD=18.11) than males (mean 29.5, SD=23.4). Australian Bravery Award recipients involved in violent incidents reported significantly higher PTG (p=0.01), with civilians involved in firearm related incidents reporting a mean PTG score of 65.5 (SD=15.91) compared to non-civilians at 34.8 (SD=14.91). Not all individuals involved in traumatic incidents have PTG, however we found that 73% of civilian bravery award recipients experienced moderate to high levels of growth following serious life-threatening incidents compared with 22.1% of non-civilians.
Article
Full-text available
In relation to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, a large body of research has identified a negative impact on individuals' affectivity, frequently documented by increased prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. For children, this research was less extensive, was mainly based on caregivers' reports and neglected personality assessment. In order to measure the impact of the pandemic, and the fears it caused, on primary school children's affect and personality, 323 (180 boys and 143 girls) Italian third, fourth and fifth graders were assessed between October and November 2020, namely during the second wave of COVID-19 infections in Italy, with validated self-reports of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, PANAS-C), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale, FCV-19S) and personality (junior Temperament and Character Inventory, jTCI). In comparison with PANAS-C and jTCI normative scores collected prior to the pandemic, data obtained from children in 2020 showed unchanged affect scores in the overall sample, a decrease of Positive Affect in girls, and a decrease in the Harm Avoidance and an increase in the Self-Transcendence scales of personality. Fear of COVID-19 scores were positively correlated with Negative Affect scores and negatively predicted by children's personality profile of resilience (calculated using scores on the Harm Avoidance and the Self-Directedness scales of personality). These results suggested that Italian primary school children, especially boys, maintained their pre-pandemic levels of affect (or restored them after the first COVID-19 wave) and partially diverged from the typical development of personality in an apparently positive sense, namely toward more courageous/optimistic and spiritual profiles. This sort of children's post-traumatic growth might also be attributed to children's family and education systems, which should continue to be supported to promote and maintain community mental health.
Article
Full-text available
In the last few decades there has been an increase in pediatric cancer survivors. Siblings share with the survivor and its family the experience of illness and its short and long term effects. Studies whom focus on the experience of the “survivors siblings” are rare and the results are not systematized. The aim of this study is to systematize knowledge about adaptation to illness, experience of survival and posttraumatic growth in siblings of pediatric cancer survivors. The systematic review followed the PRISMA orientation. The scientific databases PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched and used as descriptors pediatric cancer AND survivors AND siblings AND adaptation OR adjustment OR quality of life OR needs OR posttraumatic growth. Of the 992 articles extracted, 13 met the inclusion criteria. The results of the analysed studies revealed that, along with indicators of mental disorders, siblings show medium-high levels of resilience. It appeared that there is a higher risk of excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol, as well as higher rates of school absenteeism. The levels of quality of life found were adequate, but significantly less high in the emotional, family and social dimensions. Among the most reported needs we can confirm that access to information is one of them. When it comes to posttraumatic growth, the studies analysed showed lower levels with siblings than with survivors and parents. Results alert for the need to continue to provide psychological support to siblings in a post-treatment phase.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. This study was designed to adapt and validate a Spanish translation of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) for the assessment of positive life changes following the stressful experiences of immigration. Method. A cross-cultural equivalence model was used to pursue semantic, content, conceptual, and technical equivalence. Translation teams and back translations were employed for semantic and content equivalence. Conceptual and technical equivalence were assessed through field-testing the reliability and factor structure of the translated PTGI in a sample of 100 Latina immigrants. Results. The translated version was highly reliable. Factor analysis failed to replicate the original five factors but the three factors identified were consistent with the conceptual underpinnings of the PTGI and another translated version. Conclusions. Semantic, content, conceptual, and technical equivalence of the Spanish version of the PTGI were supported and thus its valid use for research and practice with the study population.
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive, coping, and trauma symptom predictors of posttraumatic growth (PTG; measured with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) were examined in a large convenience sample (n =1505) participating in a longitudinal Internet-based study following the terrorist attacks of 9/11/01. Results indicate that initial PTG levels (mean 9 weeks post-attacks) were generally associated with higher trauma symptoms (measured with the PTSD Checklist - Specific), positive changes in worldview (measured with the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire), more denial, and less behavioral disengagement (measured with the Brief COPE). Additionally, PTG had a curvilinear association with level of trauma symptoms, such that those reporting symptoms at intermediate levels reported the highest levels of growth. Levels of PTG declined somewhat over time with the exception of Spiritual Change. As expected, PTG levels at follow-up (mean 6.5 months post-attacks) were primarily predicted by initial PTG levels; however, decreases from baseline in trauma symptoms and increases from baseline in positive worldview, acceptance, and positive reframing were also associated with higher reported posttraumatic growth at follow-up. These findings suggest that there may be a range of traumatic experience most conducive to growth and they also highlight the important contributions of cognitive and coping variables to psychological thriving in short- and longer-term periods following traumatic experience.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the lasting impact of post-traumatic growth from elders’ most traumatic life experiences. The sample consisted of 83 participants (61 women, 22 men; mean age = 77.9) who reported on their most stressful or traumatic life experience and their post-traumatic growth resulting from these events. They also reported on their current most stressful event and how they coped with this event. One month later, 69 participants reported on their coping with their current most stressful experience, their attitudes towards death, and their mental and physical health. Results suggest that post-traumatic growth from events that occurred even many years earlier may have favorable influences on subsequent coping, death attitudes, and adjustment to recent stressors.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes the concept of posttraumatic growth. its conceptual founda- tions, a/id supporting empirical evidence. Posttraumatic growth is the experience of positive change that occurs as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life cri- ses. It is manifested in a variety ofways, including an increased appreciationfor life in general, more meaningful interpersonal relationships, an increased sense ofpersonal strength. cha/lged priorities, and a richer existential and spiritual life. Although the term is ne..", the idea that great good can come from great suffering is ancient. We pro- pose a nlOdelfor understanding the process ofposttraumatic growth in which individ- ual characteristics, support and disclosure, a/Id more centrally, significant cognitive processing involving cognitive structures threatened or nullified by the traumatic events, play an important role. It is also suggested that posttraumatic growth mutually interacts with life wisdoma,1d the development of the life narrative, and that it is an on- going process, not a static outcome. In his memoir, No Such Thing as a Bad Day, Hamil- ton Jordan (2000) described some of the changes he experienced following his battle with cancer:
Article
Full-text available
Men who experience negative consequences of their socialized gender roles--that is, have greater gender role conflict--report less positive attitudes and willingness to seeking counseling. Using structural equation modeling with data from 575 undergraduate men, the authors examined 3 mediators (self-stigma associated with seeking counseling, tendency to disclose distressing information, and attitudes toward seeking counseling) regarding the link between gender role conflict and willingness to seek counseling for psychological and interpersonal concerns. Results indicated that this link was partially mediated by these 3 factors. Men experiencing greater gender role conflict were more likely to self-stigmatize and less likely to self-disclose. High self-stigma and less disclosure then led to less positive attitudes and subsequently to less willingness to seek counseling. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
In the aftermath of a severely stressful event, in addition to reporting negative changes, people also report personal growth. The degree to which reports of posttraumatic growth by 41 women (aged 37-72 yrs old) who survived breast cancer could be corroborated by their husbands was examined. Because the breast cancer experience is an equally stressful event for husbands and may present an opportunity for growth, the degree to which the husbands' reports of posttraumatic growth could be corroborated by their wives also was examined. Moderate positive correlations provided intersubjective validation of individuals' perceptions of posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Many men land reluctantly on the therapist's doorstep, arriving at the insistence of a wife, a parent, a probation officer, or an employer. These men, like many others who are self-referred, experience therapy as foreign terrain. The currency of psychotherapy is communication, exposure, vulnerability, and intimate sharing, currency with which men who have been socialized in this culture have limited experience. Given this situation, we may rightly ask whether conventional therapeutic interventions, historically developed for use with women, make the most sense. If not what we do so routinely every day, then what new interventions do make sense? Using case vignettes, the author addresses these questions, focusing on new ways to develop the alliance, formulate patient dynamics based on current ideas about the psychology of men, and design creative interventions that speak to men in their own currency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT This article reports the development of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS) and its use in a study examining determinants of stress-related positive outcomes for college students. Study 1 analyses showed that the SRGS has acceptable internal and test-retest reliability and that scores are not influenced by social desirability. Study 2 analyses showed that college students' SRGS responses were significantly related to those provided by friends and relatives on their behalf. Study 3 analyses tested the determinants of stress-related growth longitudinally. Significant predictors of the SRGS were (a) intrinsic religiousness; (b) social support satisfaction; (c) stressfulness of the negative event; (d) positive reinterpretation and acceptance coping; and (e) number of recent positive life events. The SRGS was also positively related to residual change in optimism, positive affectivity, number of socially supportive others, and social support satisfaction, lending further support to the validity of this new scale. Results have implications for current theory on stress-related positive outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Salutary effects of writing about trauma on health are well documented, but little research has directly examined the underlying mechanisms by which these effects occur. The principal study in this article assessed the potential underlying mechanism of meaning-making, defined as changing situational meaning (appraisals of the traumatic experience) and global meaning (world views, personality, and coping styles) in order to reduce the discrepancy between global and situational meaning. Forty-one trauma-writing participants and 21 nontrauma-writing control participants completed 4 days of writing and a 4 month follow-up. Decrements in health were noted for the control group but not for the trauma-writing group. Over time, the trauma-writing group's appraisals changed to reflect less aversive situational meaning (e.g., less stressful, less threatening), and their cognitive processing, reflected by intrusions and avoidance, decreased. Less stressful appraisals and reduced cognitive processing were related to improved health outcomes. Results indicate that writing about trauma facilitates the making of meaning. A second study examined whether scores on several measures used in the first study changed across 4 months without a writing intervention. It was found that these measures did not change across time.
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to eliminate similar item content as an alternative explanation for the relation between depression and rumination, a secondary analysis was conducted using the data from S. Nolen-Hoeksema, J. Larson, and C. Grayson (1999). After constructing a measure of rumination unconfounded with depression content, support for a two factor model of rumination was found. These analyses indicate that the 2 components, reflective pondering and brooding, differentially relate to depression in terms of predictive ability and gender difference mediation. The results presented here support the general premise of Nolen-Hoeksema's Response Styles Theory (S. Nolen-Hoeksema 1987) that rumination can contribute to more depressive symptoms and to the gender difference in depression, but suggest important refinements of the theory. Such refinements include the need to differentiate between the reflective pondering component of rumination and the brooding component in rumination research. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/44342/1/10608_2004_Article_464752.pdf
Article
Full-text available
We examined the relationship between ruminative and distracting styles of responding to depressed mood and the duration of mood. Seventy-nine subjects kept accounts of their moods and responses to their moods for 30 consecutive days. The majority of subjects (83%) showed consistent styles of responding to depressed mood. Regression analyses suggested that the more ruminative responses subjects engaged in, the longer their periods of depressed mood, even after taking into account the initial severity of the mood. In addition, women were more likely than men to have a ruminative response style and on some measures to have more severe and long-lasting periods of depression.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether finding meaning in response to an HIV-related stressor was associated with changes in immune status and health. Forty HIV-seropositive men who had recently experienced an AIDS-related bereavement completed interviews assessing cognitive processing and finding meaning after the loss and provided blood samples for a 2- to 3-year follow-up. AIDS-related mortality over an extended follow-up was determined from death certificates. As predicted, men who engaged in cognitive processing were more likely to find meaning from the loss. Furthermore, men who found meaning showed less rapid declines in CD4 T cell levels and lower rates of AIDS-related mortality (all ps < .05), independent of health status at baseline, health behaviors, and other potential confounds. These results suggest that positive responses to stressful events, specifically the discovery of meaning, may be linked to positive immunologic and health outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined subjective patient experiences of the psychosocial consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fifty patients were interviewed regarding the effects MS had on their lives and interpersonal relationships. These statements were collated and administered with a 5-point Likert scale to 94 MS patients. The responses were subjected to factor analysis. Three areas of subjective patient experience of the psychosocial consequences of MS emerged: demoralization, benefit-finding, and deteriorated relationships. Of particular interest was benefit-finding, which included a deepening of relationships, enhanced appreciation of life, and an increase in spiritual interests. Although benefit-finding was related to adaptive coping strategies such as positive reappraisal and seeking social support, it was unrelated to depression and was related to higher levels of anxiety and anger. These findings indicate that benefit-finding is a substantial and poorly understood part of the illness experience for MS patients.
Article
Full-text available
The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CiOQ; S. Joseph, R. Williams, & W. Yule, 1993) is a 26-item self-report measure that was designed to assess positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity. This article had 3 aims: 1st, to investigate the factor structure of the CiOQ; 2nd, to test for internal consistency reliability and convergent and discriminant validity; and, 3rd, to investigate the association between positive and negative changes in outlook, posttraumatic stress, and psychological distress. Three studies are reported. Study 1 provides evidence that positive and negative changes are statistically separable and that the 2-factor model is a better fit than the 1-factor model. Studies 2 and 3 provide evidence for internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the CiOQ, and its associations with posttraumatic stress and psychological distress. In conclusion, the CiOQ has much promise for research on responses to stressful and traumatic events.
Article
The current study focused on a sample of adults (N = 67) experiencing bereavement following the loss of a child. The Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) was used to assess whether bereaved parents were able to perceive benefit from their trauma, and whether there were gender differences in perception of benefit. The impact of the following variables on the PTGI was also assessed: the nature and length of time since the loss, and the age and marital status of the bereaved. The results indicated that bereaved parents do perceive benefit from their loss. However, there was poor evidence to suggest perception of benefit along gender lines. Results also indicated a potential relation between greater perception of benefit and those bereaved through illness, and more perception of benefit for the longer the time elapsed since the bereavement. Lastly, there was a tendency for younger individuals and married respondents to obtain higher scores on the PTGI.
Article
It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
Chapter
The finding that women report and exhibit higher levels of psychological distress than men has puzzled stress researchers for years (Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend, 1976; Gove & Tudor, 1973; Kessler & McRae 1981; Link & Dohrenwend, 1980). Three major explanations have been offered. The methodological artifact explanation suggests that women are socialized to be more expressive and therefore will admit more emotional symptoms than men in response to standard psychological distress scales (e.g., Newmann, 1984). The stress-exposure argument suggests that women face more stressors in general or more severe, persistent stressors than men (e.g., Gove, 1972; Kessler & McLeod, 1984; Aneshensel & Pearlin, 1987). The vulnerability argument suggests that women lack coping resources, such as high self-esteem, a sense of mastery, or appropriate coping strategies for handling the stressors to which they are exposed (Kessler & Essex, 1982; Pearlin & Schooler, 1978; Turner & Noh, 1983).
Article
This article describes the concept of posttraumatic growth, its conceptual foundations, and supporting empirical evidence. Posttraumatic growth is the experience of positive change that occurs as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life crises. It is manifested in a variety of ways, including an increased appreciation for life in general, more meaningful interpersonal relationships, an increased sense of personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer existential and spiritual life. Although the term is new, the idea that great good can come from great suffering is ancient. We propose a model for understanding the process of posttraumatic growth in which individual characteristics, support and disclosure, and more centrally, significant cognitive processing involving cognitive structures threatened or nullified by the traumatic events, play an important role. It is also suggested that posttraumatic growth mutually interacts with life wisdom and the development of the life narrative, and that it is an on-going process, not a static outcome.
Article
Correlates of posttraumatic growth (PTG), the construing of benefits from a traumatic event, attributed to the September 11th terrorist attacks were examined among 513 middle school adolescents (mean age=13.5 years; 63% female; 44% Hispanic/Latino, 25% Asian, 16% White, 10% multiethnic/other, and 4% Persian; all residing in California). One-third of the participants, on average, reported experiencing positive changes post- 9/11 in the following areas: appreciation of life, life priorities, spirituality, relationships, and self-reliance. Hispanic and White, compared to Persian (largely Iranian), participants had significantly higher PTG scores. Discussion of the terrorist attacks, identification with a religion, and optimism were positively associated with PTG, while alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and anxiety were inversely associated with PTG. Ethnicity, discussion of the terrorist attacks, identification with a religion, optimism, anxiety, and alcohol use remained associated with PTG after adjusting for the other variables in a multiple regression analysis. Results suggest there are positive aspects of the psychological sequelae following the 9/11 attacks and these positive changes are associated with other salutary psychological and behavioral factors.
Article
If social work researchers are to accurately describe the psychosocial functioning of clients who experience negative events, they need to consider positive as well as negative outcomes. Here, new measures of self-reported positive life changes after traumatic stressors are introduced. 416 adults (mean age 40.79 yrs) served as subjects. Factor analyses suggest that the Perceived Benefit Scales consist of eight subscales: lifestyle changes; material gain; and increases in self efficacy, family closeness, community closeness, faith in people, compassion, and spirituality. Internal consistency and test–retest coefficients range from adequate to excellent. The scales correlate with indicators of severity and differ by type of negative event experienced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth were examined using interviews and questionnaires from a longitudinal study of women with early-stage breast cancer followed from primary medical treatment completion to 3 (n=92) and 12 months (n=60) later. Most women (83%) reported at least 1 benefit of their breast cancer experience. Benefit finding (i.e., identification of benefits, number of benefits), positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth had distinct significant predictors. Positive reappraisal coping at study entry predicted positive mood and perceived health at 3 and 12 months and posttraumatic growth at 12 months, whereas benefit finding did not predict any outcome. Findings suggest that benefit finding, positive reappraisal coping, and posttraumatic growth are related, but distinct, constructs.
Article
In response to comments on our model of posttraumatic growth, we consider the validity of reports of posttraumatic growth, appropriate methodology to use to assess posttraumatic growth, and its relation with other variables that appear to bear a resemblance to posttraumatic growth (e.g., well-being and psychological adjustment). The potentially important role of proximate and distal cultural factors is also addressed. Clinicians are encouraged to use interventions that facilitate posttraumatic growth with care, so as not to create expectations for posttraumatic growth in all trauma survivors, and to instead promote a respect for the difficulty of trauma recovery while allowing for the exploration of possibilities for various kinds of growth even in those who have suffered greatly.
Article
To investigate the dimensions and determinants of posttraumatic growth among Chinese cancer survivors, 188 participants were asked to complete a Chinese posttraumatic growth inventory, translated from the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI; J Trauma Stress 1996; 9: 455–471), together with the Chinese versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a different factor structure than the original English-language version of the PTGI. The dimensions of growth could also be broadly dichotomized into an Interpersonal and an Intrapersonal dimension in our Chinese sample. Multiple regression analysis showed that positive coping was the most important determinant of posttraumatic growth when compared with negative coping and psychological symptoms. A Chinese Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was developed to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Correlates (n= 835 at Time 1) and predictors (n= 434 at Time 2) of posttraumatic growth (PTG; perceiving positive life changes stemming from diagnosis) over 1.6 years were examined among a diverse sample of HIV/AIDS patients. PTG was common–59% of participants reported to have experienced at least moderate positive changes since diagnosis. At Time 1, PTG had significant negative associations with age, alcohol use, depression, and pessimism; and positive associations with African American ethnicity (vs. White), female gender, eating a healthy diet, and optimism. At Time 2, religiosity was positively associated with PTG. The process of experiencing PTG over time was associated with lower levels of depression over time. Although the underlying process of PTG remains unclear, these results suggest that PTG is worthy of intervention focus.
Article
This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of personal growth and distress following romantic relationship breakups. Causal attributions for why the relationship declined and ended, personality factors, gender, and initiator status were examined as correlates of growth and distress in 92 undergraduates who had experienced a recent romantic relationship breakup. In regard to the prevalence of growth, respondents reported, on average, five types of personal growth they thought might improve their future romantic relationships. Correlates of self–reported growth included causal attributions to environmental factors and the personality factor of Agreeableness. Women reported more growth than did men. Factors related to higher levels of distress included causal attributions to the ex–partner and to environmental factors surrounding the previous relationship. The importance of assessing growth following relationship breakups and of accounting for the environmental context of close relationships is discussed.
Article
The present study examined the degree to which event related rumination, a quest orientation to religion, and religious involvement is related to posttraumatic growth. Fifty-four young adults, selected based on prescreening for experience of a traumatic event, completed a measure of event related ruminations, the Quest Scale, an index of religious participation, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. The three subscales of the Quest Scale, the two groups of rumination items (soon after event/within past two weeks), and the index of religious participation were entered in a standard multiple regression with the total score of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory as the dependent variable. The degree of rumination soon after the event and the degree of openness to religious change were significantly related to Posttraumatic Growth. Congruent with theoretical predictions, more rumination soon after the event, and greater openness to religious change were related to more posttraumatic growth. Present findings offer some confirmation of theoretical predictions, and also offer clear direction for further research on the relationships of religion, rumination, and posttraumatic growth.
Article
The development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, an instrument for assessing positive outcomes reported by persons who have experienced traumatic events, is described. This 21-item scale includes factors of New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and Appreciation of Life. Women tend to report more benefits than do men, and persons who have experienced traumatic events report more positive change than do persons who have not experienced extraordinary events. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory is modestly related to optimism and extraversion. The scale appears to have utility in determining how successful individuals, coping with the aftermath of trauma, are in reconstructing or strengthening their perceptions of self, others, and the meaning of events.