Psychological Well-Being: Evidence Regarding Its Causes and Consequences

ArticleinApplied Psychology Health and Well-Being 1(2):137 - 164 · March 2009with 1,580 Reads 
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Abstract
This review focuses on positive aspects of well-being, or flourishing. It examines evidence for the causes of positive well-being and also its consequences, including beneficial effects for many aspects of cognitive functioning, health, and social relationships. The neurobiological basis of psychological well-being is examined, and recent data on brain activation and neurochemical pathways are presented. Individuals vary widely in their habitual level of psychological well-being, and there is evidence for a seminal role of social factors and the early environment in this process. It is often assumed that the drivers of well-being are the same as (but in the opposite direction to) the drivers of ill-being, but while this is true for some drivers, others have more selective effects. Future developments in the science of well-being and its application require a fresh approach—beyond targeting the alleviation of disorder to a focus on personal and interpersonal flourishing. A universal intervention approach is outlined which may both increase population flourishing and reduce common mental health problems.

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  • ... We conclude the literature section by noting that previous empirical studies found that well-being is affected by different background conditions that characterise individuals or societies themselves. and Huppert (2009), for instance, show that, among other determinants, demographic factors (such as age, sex, education, marital status etc.) and socioeconomic conditions (such as income inequality amongst people, social security, religious activities, etc.) can play an important role in shaping the well-being of individuals. According to Blanchflower and Oswald (2008), there exists a U-shaped relationship between age and subjective well-being: younger and older people have the tendency to be more satisfied with their lives than middle aged people. ...
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  • ... This mixed result is not surprising, given that in the literature the effects of gender on mental well-being are not clear and univocal. Indeed, large surveys showed little evidence of gender differences, some studies showed higher scores for men, while others showed higher scores for women on some specific aspects (for a review see Huppert 2009). ...
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    This chapter analyzes the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being. We focused on agnostics and undecided people who lie between theists as certain believers and atheists as certain non-believers. Agnostics are defined as people who consciously suspend any judgment on the existence of God as an entity outside of the experimental verification and declare as "unknowable" everything that cannot be submitted to an empirical observation. Undecided people are defined as persons who declare that they are unsure if God exists. Both agnostics and undecided people have been overlooked by previous research that has mainly focused on theists or atheists, who might represent the extremes of a continuum of spirituality. Such a categorization does not consider existential certainty and uncertainty and their consequences for a person's mental well-being. Our research question was: do the agnostics and the undecided report lower levels of psychological well-being compared to theists and atheists? We collected data of more than 1,000 participants from the general population (male and female). Our findings indicated that agnostics and undecided people reported significantly lower levels of happiness and perceived mental well-being than both theists and atheists, independent of gender and age. We cannot draw firm conclusions regarding the cause of the differences found because our study had a cross-sectional and non-longitudinal design. However, existential uncertainty seems to play a role in a person's perception of psychological well-being.
  • ... İyi oluş; temel olarak öznel ve psikolojik iyi oluş üzerine yoğunlaşmaktadır (Telef, 2013). Öznel iyi oluş haz ve mutluluğu, psikolojik iyi oluş ise bireyin kendi özünü ve doğasını fark etmesini temele alarak iyi olma halini açıklamaya çalışmaktadır (Huppert, 2009;Keyes, Shmotkin ve Ryff, 2002). Zaman içerisinde öznel iyi oluş hazzı fazla temel almasından ötürü eleştirilmiş ve psikolojik iyi oluş kavramı ortaya konmuştur (Ryff ve Singer, 2008). ...
  • ... Besides focusing on psychopathology, recent developments within clinical psychology also underline the importance of well-being [30][31][32][33]. Two important aspects of well-being are subjective well-being (e.g. the presence of positive emotions or satisfaction with life) and psychological well-being (e.g. ...
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  • ... In the era of boundaryless careers, person-job fit is considered to be a wise choice during extensive interorganizational mobility (Tinsley, 2000), so the effect of CSCC on person-job fit is also tested in this paper. Moreover, the purpose of a career for most people is to pursue a good life, which means a flourishing life with highlevel well-being (Huppert, 2009;Coffey et al., 2016). Therefore, the influence of career success criteria on well-being is also examined in this study. ...
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    Drawing on the goal-setting theory and social cognitive career theory (SCCT), this study empirically proposes an operational definition of career success criteria clarity (CSCC) and further explores its impact on career satisfaction, person–job fit, and subjective well-being through the mediating role of career decision-making self-efficacy (CDSE). A pilot study of 231 samples showed that the CSCC scale had good reliability and validity. To further test the effects of CSCC on crucial employment outcomes, as well as the mediating role of CDSE, 240 employees were included in an additional survey. Structural equation modeling path analysis supported all the expected hypotheses. Results indicated that: (1) CSCC was positively correlated to career satisfaction; (2) CSCC was positively correlated to person–job fit; (3) CSCC was positively correlated to subjective well-being; (4) CSCC was positively correlated to CDSE; (5) CDSE fully mediated the relationship between CSCC and career satisfaction; (6) CDSE fully mediated the relationship between CSCC and person–job fit; and (7) CDSE partly mediated the relationship between CSCC and subjective well-being. The results contributed to social cognitive career theory model and provided suggestions for both the career educators and consultants.
  • ... Conceptually, well-being is about a life that goes well, physically and mentally 15) , or a standard of health and comfort, as well as the level of happiness of an individual. Feelings of pleasure, satisfaction, enjoyment, and involvement will be the characteristics of someone who has a good quality of life, which is ordinary or can be triggered by good experiences he has, although the subject may not always be in good condition every day and that is a natural thing in human life 16) . ...
  • ... People pursue their own "good life" through various ways [1][2][3]. Some researchers believe that a "good life" refers to a flourishing life with a high level of well-being [3,4]. But there are only less than 20% of people who have a "good life" [3,5]. ...
  • ... High levels of work engagement were found to be associated with increased levels of positive emotions, such as work and life satisfaction. Also, the longitudinal study revealed that high levels of work engagement predict lower levels of psychological health conditions such as anxiety and depression [28][29][30]. It was revealed in another study that depression has a more significant negative impact on productivity and time management than any other health condition [26]. ...
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  • ... Mental health is not only about the condition of mere lack of mental disorders, but also how persons can functioning effectively, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and able to make a contribution to his or her surrounding environment [12]. The positive dimension of mental health is one of our concern issue. ...
  • ... Huppert explains that by having psychological well-being, overseas students will be able to run their lives well [4]. This is because by having psychological well-being, individuals will have a feeling of happiness, confidence and affection so that they avoid stress, depression and frustration. ...
  • ... The majority of these interventions are delivered in a self-help format. While interventions that are delivered face-to-face overall generate larger effects, self-help interventions have the potential to reach more people and in turn have a major impact on a population's well-being (Bergsma, 2008;Den Boer et al., 2004;Huppert, 2009). ...
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  • ... For example, in their data lack of paid employment was more strongly associated with a reduction in positive feelings than with an increase in psychological symptoms like depression and anxiety. Huppert (2009) asked the question whether drivers of well-being are the same as drivers of illbeing? Huppert concluded that "some are, and some are not". ...
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    I examine the relationship between unhappiness and age using data from eight well-being data files on nearly fourteen million respondents across forty European countries and the United States and 168 countries from the Gallup World Poll. I use twenty different individual characterizations of unhappiness including many not good mental health days; anxiety; worry; loneliness; sadness; stress; pain; strain, depression and bad nerves; phobias and panic; being downhearted; having restless sleep; losing confidence in oneself; not being able to overcome difficulties; being under strain; being unhappy; feeling a failure; feeling left out; feeling tense; and thinking of yourself as a worthless person. I also analyze responses to a further general attitudinal measure regarding whether the situation in the respondent's country is getting worse. Responses to all these unhappiness questions show a, ceteris paribus, hill shape in age, with controls and many also do so with limited controls for time and country. Unhappiness is hill-shaped in age and the average age where the maximum occurs is 49 with or without controls. There is an unhappiness curve.
  • ... The results of the study indicate that psychological wellbeing shows complete physical, mental and social well-being where the individual has a positive relationship with others and is characterized by feelings of happiness, satisfaction in life and no symptoms of depression [7][8][9]. Psychological wellbeing shows one's feelings that range from negative mental states (such as anxiety, depression) to favourable mental conditions (such as self-actualization, life satisfaction) [10]. ...
  • ... The construct of flourishing includes domains related to life purpose and meaning, which are important contributors to overall wellbeing that are not captured in HRQoL instruments [43]. Flourishing is considered the highest level of health, and has positive individual and societal impacts [45][46][47][48]. People who are flourishing have improved learning ability, greater work productivity, lower healthcare costs, and longer life expectancy compared to non-flourishers [46][47][48]. ...
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    Background: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) and flourishing are constructs that encompasses a holistic representation of physical, psychological, and social health. The underlying psychological factors that can affect HRQoL and flourishing in sports participants is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to i) evaluate HRQoL (physical and mental-components) and flourishing in recreational and elite and current and former cricketers; ii) determine the effect of resilience, playing-standard, and playing status on HRQoL and flourishing in cricketers. Methods: The Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study (n = 2598 current and former cricketers, aged ≥18 years) collected cross-sectional questionnaire data including the Flourishing Scale, Short Form-8 (physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores), resilience (European Social Survey), highest standard-of-play, and playing status. Multivariable linear regressions with fractional polynomials were utilised, adjusted for age, gender, total cricket-seasons, comorbidity, ≥ 4-week time-loss injury, and orthopaedic surgery. Results: Two thousand two hundred eighty individuals (aged (mean (SD)) 51.7(14.7) years, 61% played recreationally, 37% former cricketers) were included in analyses. The median (IQR) PCS was 51.4(46.9-55.9), MCS was 54.3(50.0-58.6), and Flourishing Scale score was 48 [ (1-7)] .Greater resilience was associated with better PCS (effect (95% CI) 1.41(0.70-2.11)), MCS (4.78(4.09-5.48)), and flourishing (2.07(2.55-3.59)) compared to less resilience. Playing standard was not associated with HRQoL. Playing at an elite standard was associated with greater flourishing (1.21(0.68, 1.73)), compared with playing recreationally. Current cricket participation was associated with better PCS (3.61(2.92-4.30)) and flourishing scores (0.53(0.02-1.04)), compared to former cricket participation. Conclusion: Cricketers reported high levels of mental-components of HRQoL and flourishing, and this was similar in recreational, elite, current and former cricketers. Current cricket participation and a higher standard-of-play was associated with greater flourishing. Current cricket participation was also associated with better PCS, however playing-status was not related to MCS. Further research is needed to understand if cricket participation may have psychological benefits that persist beyond cricket retirement.
  • ... We used the World Health Organization's definition of health as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being that is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" (Frumkin, 2001, p. 231) to determine what merited inclusion as a health outcome. We included cognitive performance outcomes (e.g., attention, working memory, and impulse control) because these variables contribute to quality of life and psychological well-being (Huppert, 2009) and are commonly included in reviews on the benefits of nature exposure (Fong et al., 2018;Kondo et al., 2018). ...
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    We review the methods and findings of experiments that have examined the effects of exposure to simulated natural landscapes on human health and cognitive performance. Keyword searches of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science resulted in the inclusion of 175 experiments in 148 research articles. that were published/in press by December 31, 2018. We report how often landscape features and human factors are controlled for within these experiments, thereby—for the first time—recording specifically what elements of “nature” and the built/social environment are used when testing the benefits of green space and blue space exposure. We also document all the simulation methods that are used (e.g., duration, number of exposures, senses engaged, and devices used). Next, to determine what methodological decisions influence study findings, we compare positive versus mixed/null or negative findings across 14 potential moderators. Only study quality and outcome measure influence findings; experiments without control groups or randomized treatments reported more positive findings than expected. Experiments studying perceived restoration also reported more positive findings than expected—remarkably, 95% of such experiments reported simulated nature was indeed restorative. We discuss the possibility that these findings may indicate publication bias in favor of overreporting the salutory impacts of natural landscapes. We conclude our review with a synthesis of best practices for future research studies.
  • ... In academia, the subjective aspect of well-being is usually analyzed through the lenses of subjective and psychological well-being (Bhullar, Schutte & Malouff, 2013;Lambert, Passmore & Holder, 2015), and subjective well-being is usually understood as a phenomenon which includes positive and negative affectivity (emotional aspect) and life satisfaction (cognitive aspect) (Diener, Scollon & Lucas, 2009). Psychological wellbeing is usually defined as a multidimensional construct which covers effective functioning and feeling good (Huppert, 2009). Ryff offers six main dimensions of psychological well-being: autonomy, personal growth, positive relationships, self-acceptance, purpose in life and environmental mastery (Ryff, 2014;Ryff, 1989). ...
  • ... Psychological well-being focuses primarily on the individual's purpose in life, their personal growth, and their ability to have positive relationships with others (Choi & Lim, 2016). Based on Huppert's (2009) definition, psychological well-being is the combination of functioning effectively and feeling good, and it likewise shows an individual's construction of concepts to develop themselves in order to feel happy (Cardak, 2013). The negative association between psychological well-being and problematic internet usage has been demonstrated in previous research. ...
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    Addiction to social networking sites is a growing problem which has social, physical, and psychological impacts on students' lives. So, developing prevention strategies is essential for promoting the safe and healthy use of social networking sites such as Instagram. This study aims to investigate the influence of students’ needs on Instagram addiction by considering the moderating role of psychological well-being. Furthermore, the association among Instagram addiction, academic performance, shyness, and loneliness is explored. A total of 364 university students from Malaysia were recruited to take part in this research. The hypothesized model was assessed using the Partial Least Squares approach. The results show that recognition and social needs have a significant influence on Instagram addiction, whereas information and entertainment needs have no influence on Instagram addiction. Additionally, the results provide evidence of the moderating effect of psychological well-being on the relationship between social needs and Instagram addiction. The findings also uncover the negative association between Instagram addiction and academic performance and show a positive impact of Instagram addiction on shyness and loneliness; although life satisfaction was positively influenced by academic performance, it was negatively influenced by shyness and loneliness. This study contributes to the literature by examining the drivers and consequences of Instagram addiction.
  • ... We used the World Health Organization's definition of health as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being that is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" (Frumkin, 2001, p. 231) to determine what merited inclusion as a health outcome. We included cognitive performance outcomes (e.g., attention, working memory, and impulse control) because these variables contribute to quality of life and psychological well-being (Huppert, 2009) and are commonly included in reviews on the benefits of nature exposure (Fong et al., 2018;Kondo et al., 2018). ...
    Article
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  • ... Eudaimonia focuses on the meaning and self-realisation and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning (e.g., Huppert, 2009). In a sports domain, eudaimonia is often applied to investigate well-being (e.g., Lundqvist, 2011;Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2004). ...
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    This study aims to map different positions regarding the way in which 71 adolescents (Mage = 15.46, SD = 1.55), 104 young adults (Mage = 21.10, SD = 1.33), and 57 middle-aged adults (Mage = 48.30, SD = 6.59) integrated mentally five elements of eudaimonia (relatedness, autonomy, competence, mental vitality, and physical vitality) for judging the degree of well-being in sport. The participants indicated their judgment of well-being in 32 scenarios constructed from the combination of these information cues. A cluster analysis, ANOVAs, and chi-square test were conducted. Two positions on judgment were observed and called "Additive rule and Moderate Well-Being" and "Disjunctive rule and High Well-Being". The five elements of eudaimonia had a positive effect on the judgment of well-being. They were combined differently according to the age of the participants. This type of study may be useful for health educators and exercise or health promotion specialists. ARTICLE HISTORY
  • ... Based on Cardak (2013), it involves a person's construction of concepts to develop him/herself in order to be able to feel happy. Huppert (2009) included both of the above definitions and mentioned that psychological well-being is the combination of feeling good and functioning effectively. In psychology, wellbeing is concerned with the optimum level of function and experience (Choi and Lim 2016). ...
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    The purpose of this study was to test the indirect effect of Facebook addiction on performance through physical and social health. Furthermore, the moderating effect of psychological well-being on the relationships between personality traits and Facebook addiction was investigated. Data were collected from 301 Malaysians via an online survey. The data were analysed using the partial least squares technique. The results showed that the Big Five personality dimensions of conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion, and neuroticism are significantly related to Facebook addiction. Our results confirmed the significant effects of Facebook addiction on performance and on physical and social health and also the mediating role of physical health in the relationship between Facebook addiction and performance. Furthermore, our results revealed that psychological well-being moderates the effects of certain personality dimensions on Facebook addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed, and directions for future research are offered.
  • ... Those later on will decrease their quality of life (QoL) and psychological well-being (PWB) (Winefield, Gill, Taylor, & Pilkington, 2012;Fiorera, 2018). Psychological well-being is often defined as happiness, normally functioned or fulfilment of positive psychological function of the individual (Huppert, 2009). Ryff and Singer (1995) stated 6 dimensions of psychological well-being: self acceptance, positive relationship with others, outonomy, purpose of life, self development and mastery of environment. ...
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    The mental impact of cancer on patients is often severe. Patients who have been recently diagnosed with breast cancer tend to experience depression, emotional stress, disappointment, and even despair which later can damage their psychological well-being. This study aims to describe Psychological Well-being among breast cancer patients.134 breast cancer patients were recruited at the Out Patient Department (OPD) of Tugurejo Hospital Semarang city, Indonesia. The data were collected using Ryff Scale Psychological Well-being (RSPWB) questionnaire. Most of the respondents were middle-aged, married, unemployed and had been diagnosed with early stadium of breast cancer. Results showed approximately half of the total respondents (n=64%, 47.8%) experiencing low levels of psychological well-being over the entire period of the sickness. Among four subscales of psychological well-being, “positive relationship with others” subscale was reported to be very low among those respondents. However, almost two thirds of respondents perceived a higher degree of self-acceptance and life purpose while experiencing the illness. Nurses and healthcare providers need to be aware of the importance of counseling service and family/patients support group to improve the relationship of patients with others.Keywords: psychological well-being, breast cancer
  • ... Psychological well-being is one of these issues. According to Huppert (2009) psychological well-being is related to a good life. But it is not possible for people to be in constant well-being. ...
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    The aim of the study is to examine the anxiety and psychological well-being levels of the students of the sports sciences. The study is in relational screening model. 210 university students participated in the study with simple random sampling method. Collection of data; Anxiety assessment scale and psychological well-being scale were used. Information was collected from the participants about gender, whether to do active sports or not, and income level. Data analysis was done with SPSS 22 package program. Skewness and kurtosis values are in normal distribution. Independent sample t test was used in binary comparisons and Anova test was used in more than two comparisons. Pearson correlation test was used in the correlation analysis. The significance level for all tests is α = 0.05. Participants have moderate anxiety. According to gender, women’s anxiety level is higher than men’s. There was a significant difference in anxiety psychic subscale and total score. In anxiety, somatic sub-dimension and psychological well-being, no significant difference was found in terms of gender. (P<0.05). According to whether to do active sports; There is no significant difference for anxiety and psychological well-being (p>0.05). According to the economic level; Significant differentiation was found in anxiety somatic sub-dimension and total score. Those with bad income were found to have high anxiety and low psychological well-being than those with good and moderate levels (p<0.05).
  • ... Dari penelitian ini, fungsi diri yang optimal dirasakan remaja usia 12-15 tahun adalah saat ia percaya pada dirinya, memiliki hubungan positif dengan guru dan teman, memiliki pemikiran masa depan terkait akademik dan pekerjaan, menyadari potensi dan bakatnya, mampu mengenali dan mengelola emosi negatif, memiliki tanggung jawab terhadap kewajiban di rumah dan beribadah, bisa menyelesaikan masalah dan mengetahui pada siapa ia bisa meminta pertolongan, serta bisa menyeimbangkan antara aspek akademik dan non akademik, juga antara keluarga dan teman. Artinya, remaja usia 12-15 tahun sudah punya "sense of functioning", baik untuk saat ini (mengembangkan diri) maupun untuk masa depan (orientasi masa depan) (Huppert, 2009). Jika dilihat dari karakteristiknya, memang remaja usia 12-15 tahun sudah bisa berpikir abstrak dan melakukan refleksi diri (Steinberg & Morris, 2001). ...
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    Remaja yang sejahtera secara psikologis akan tumbuh menjadi individu dewasa yang berfungsi secara optimal. Penelitian kesejahteraan psikologis remaja di Indonesia saat ini pada umumnya masih menggunakan alat ukur yang dikonseptualisasi dari subjek dewasa yang berada pada budaya Barat, yang berpotensi menjadi bias. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan alat ukur kesejahteraan psikologis remaja berdasarkan konseptualisasi dari subjek remaja di Indonesia. Menggunakan rancangan exploratory sequential mixed methods, penelitian ini dilakukan melalui dua tahap; yaitu tahap penelitian kualitatif diikuti dengan tahap penelitian kuantitatif. Tahap penelitian kualitatif ditujukan untuk mengkonseptualisasi kesejahteraan psikologis remaja sebagai tahap pertama dari pengembangan alat ukur kesejahteraan psikologis remaja, dengan menggunakan teknik wawancara dan focused group discussion. Hasil penelitian kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa konsep kesejahteran psikologis remaja usia 12-15 tahun terdiri dari 10 dimensi: afek positif, afek negatif, kepercayaan diri, hubungan positif, orientasi masa depan, pengembangan diri, pengelolaan emosi negatif, tanggung jawab, kemampuan menyelesaikan masalah dan harmoni. Pada tahap kuantitatif, disusun alat ukur berdasarkan kesepuluh dimensi tersebut. Alat ukur diujicobakan sebanyak dua kali, pada 494 dan 297 remaja usia 12-15 tahun. Alat ukur terdiri dari 38 item yang mengukur kesepuluh dimensi, memiliki reliabilitas (α = 0,873) dan validitas konstruk (RMSEA= 0,075; GFI = 0,91; CFI = 0,93; NNFI = 0,91; IFI = 0,93) yang baik.
  • ... In recent years, attentions have shifted from defining what psychological well-being is to what actually constitutes well-being. Among various predictors of psychological well-being include happiness (Pollard and Lee 2003), fulfilling goals (Foresight Mental Capital and Well-Being Project 2008), life satisfaction (Seligman 2002), neuroticism (Saricaoglu and Arslan 2013), painful emotions such as grief and disappointment (Huppert 2009 Research in positive psychology has concentrated more on what role humour plays in psychological well-being. Humour is a complex concept that is synonymous to well-being and it involves a personal experience (Sousa and Jose 2016). ...
  • ... El bienestar psicológico es un componente de la salud mental y un factor protector de la salud física, que además promueve procesos de recuperación de la enfermedad, emociones positivas, procesos cognitivos funcionales y el desarrollo social y comunitario (Edwards, 2006;Fredrickson, 2009;Hernández et al., 2018;Huppert, 2009;Vázquez, Hervás, Rahona, & Gómez, 2009). ...
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    El bienestar psicológico se refiere a la satisfacción general que los individuos tienen respecto de su vida. Este concepto se ha relacionado con la salud mental y con la detección de factores favorables al desarrollo humano. El interés en su estudio en adolescentes se ha incrementado en los últimos años debido a los cambios físicos, mentales y sociales propios a esta etapa del desarrollo, por lo que son necesarios instrumentos válidos y confiables que permitan su evaluación. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Bienestar Psicológico para Adolescentes (BIEPS-J) en una muestra mexicana de adolescentes tardíos y obtener evidencia de su validez convergente y de criterio. Se aplicó la escala BIEPS-J y la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (EAR) a 271 estudiantes de ambos sexos de entre 16 y 18 años. Un análisis paralelo indicó dos factores presentes en la escala BIEPS-J, estructurados mediante un análisis factorial exploratorio (componentes principales, rotación oblicua) y que explicaron el 54% de la varianza. Los factores fueron: 1) Relación con uno mismo y con terceros, satisfacción con sus relaciones sociales y la aceptación de sí mismo; 2) Planes y recursos personales de control, sensación del dominio de su entorno y auto-competencia, además de la presencia de metas en su vida. La consistencia interna global (α > .80) y por factor (α > .70) fue aceptable. La escala BIEPS-J mostró validez convergente con la EAR (r = .44) y el nivel de bienestar psicológico se asoció al nivel de autoestima (p < .001). El puntaje total y por factor de la escala BIEPS-J no difirió entre sexos (p > .05). Los datos indican que la escala BIEPS-A es un instrumento válido y confiable para evaluar el bienestar psicológico en población adolescente mexicana de entre 16 y 18 años.
  • ... It is noteworthy that some researchers conceptualized flourishing in a different way (see Henderson and Knight 2012;Schotanus-Dijkstra et al. 2016). For instance, instead of capturing only the eudaimonic component, they defined flourishing as reflecting both hedonic and eudaimonic components of subjective well-being (e.g., Huppert 2009;Keyes 2002). To avoid confusion, in this article, we refer flourishing as an indicator of only the eudaimonic component. ...
    Article
    The association between dispositional envy and subjective well-being has been well-investigated in the literature. Nevertheless, most of these investigations have predominantly (1) focused on the hedonic component of subjective well-being, (2) employed a cross-sectional design, (3) targeted at young adults, and (4) tested the main effects instead of the mediating mechanisms. These limitations might restrict the robustness and generalizability of the observed association between dispositional envy and subjective well-being. To address these gaps, the present research focused on the eudaimonic component of subjective well-being, which highlights a purposeful, psychologically flourishing life. Conceptually, the association between dispositional envy and flourishing is paradoxical, such that both a positive and a negative association can be predicted. To examine this unexplored association, three studies were conducted to provide longitudinal evidence for this association as well as to investigate its intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating mechanisms among young adults and adolescents. Converging results indicated that dispositional malicious envy was negatively associated with flourishing, while dispositional benign envy was positively linked with it. In this research, a series of model comparisons was conducted to strengthen our understanding of dispositional envy. Specifically, we compared (1) the extent that dispositional envy was associated with eudaimonic well-being and hedonic well-being, (2) the associations among the two age groups, and (3) the importance of the intrapersonal and interpersonal mechanisms.
  • ... It is therefore self-evident to consider that a wide range of behavioural outcomes are infl uenced positively by well-being. For instance, on the basis of substantial national and cross-national surveys and longitudinal evidence, Huppert (2009) reports that individuals with higher levels of well-being as measured by 'happiness' or 'life satisfaction' tend to be more productive, have higher incomes, better health, and higher life expectancy. ...
    Article
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    This article examines the relation between well-being and fertility intentions in Europe and addresses three main research questions: Does overall well-being infl uence fertility intentions? What kind of well-being factors are more important in the determination of fertility intentions (individual-level subjective ones vs. individual-level objective ones vs. country-level ones)? Does the role of specifi c well-being variables change over the course of the life course, i.e. as age and parity increase? In accordance with the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), fertility intentions are studied as important predictors of actual fertility behaviour. And in line with established studies, a broad approach is taken towards the concept of well-being. The analysis is theoretically grounded in the framework of methodological individualism (i.e. micro-macro linkages). Use is made of data on women aged 20-39 in 27 countries, which were taken from the 'Family, work and well-being' module in the 5 th round (2010) of the European Social Survey. The analysis of a comparable European population sample is made possible by taking account of both unit and item non-responses, and correcting for them. Our analysis shows overall positive but small correlations between well-being and fertility intentions in all countries: the higher the level of well-being, the higher the intended fertility, although the strength of the correlation differs between countries. Also, overall, individual-level objective well-being factors, such as level of education and employment status, have a larger impact on fertility intentions than individual-level subjective well-being factors and country-level well-being factors regarding human development, gender inequality and region. Changes in the effects of these well-being factors are found depending on the stage of the life course: as parity and age increase, the importance of country-level well-being effects increases. This shows that family-friendly country policies targeted to these groups can have positive effects on fertility.
  • ... Psychological well-being (PWB) is an essential and integral component of health, which is related to cognitive function, social relationships and health status and is a combination of feeling good and effective functioning (Huppert, 2009). The rapidly aging population, urbanization and the growing mental health issues may threaten overall health. ...
    Article
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    Objective The purpose of this study was sought to assess the association between food preferences and Psychological well-being (PWB) in Chinese women undergoing perimenopause and whether the association is different between rural and urban areas.Methods This is a longitudinal study of 929 women in perimenopausal period participating in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) during 2009 and 2011. Preference for five kinds of food were assessed in face-to-face interviews and the PWB was measured by scoring three self-reported questions with a total score of 15. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to estimate the longitudinal association between food preference and PWB scores. In fully adjusted models, dislike for fruits and like for sweetened beverages had regression coefficient (95% CI) for the PWB score of −1.26, (−2.21–0.321) and 0.66 (0.20–1.11), respectively. The above associations were only found among participants in urban areas, with corresponding regression coefficients of −2.61(95% CI = −4.83, −0.39) for dislike fruit and 1.02(95% CI = 0.09, 1.95) for like sweetened beverages.Conclusion In conclusion, PWB score was negatively associated with the dislike for fruit but positively associated with the preference for sweetened beverages, especially among participants from urban areas. The longitudinal data indicate that the PWB score of perimenopausal women might be improved by increasing the intake of fruit. Given the adverse effects of sweetened beverages, more research was need between PWB and the sweetened beverages.
  • ... In light of the changes that have taken place in recent years throughout the world, we have to understand the sources and impact of stress (Karsenti & Collin, 2013). Reducing stress may enhance the performance of teachers (Huppert, 2009). In this study, we aim to investigate teachers' perception of the sources of stress in school in light of the neoliberal reforms and to compare the sources of stress among primary, middle, and high school teachers. ...
    Article
    The teaching profession is highly stressful. Stress is a negative phenomenon that develops under conditions of uncontrollable, prolonged and increased pressure. In this study, our goal is (a) to investigate teachers' perception of the sources of stress in school in light of the neoliberal reforms and (b) to compare these sources of stress in primary school, middle school and high school teachers. We hypothesize that the demands and the workload to improve scores in standardized tests, increase the need of teachers to take work home. Therefore, home demands may conflict with school demands. Furthermore, the greatest pressure is on elementary and middle school teachers: Early efforts to improve student achievements in the lower grades would result in better-prepared students in high schools. Data about the sources of stress is based on a previous study of Buskila, Buskila, Giris and Ablin (2019) that investigated the connection between the effects of stress on teachers on somatic syndromes. Three hundred and twenty-one public school teachers working in the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Israel participated in the study. Findings of the mean of the entire samples revealed that the highest level of stress was caused by intense teaching schedule with insufficient breaks. The second cause was related to the composition of the students in the class, and the third was home demands conflicting with school demands. In the middle schools, the highest levels of stress are caused by school principals (M=5.98, SD=3.09) and second is in high school (M=5.00, SD=3.33). The highest level of stress caused by the superintendent is on primary school teachers (M=3.97, SD=3.33) and the second are the middle school teachers (M=3.79, SD = 2.95). The lowest stress level was in high school (M=2.68, SD=2.83). Three significance differences of stress were found among primary, middle, and high schools: The school principal is the highest source of pressure in the middle schools (P=.034), and the superintendent causes the highest level of stress in primary schools (P=.006). The third cause was in high school, related to physical school conditions (p=.002). These results are relevant to teachers, educators, and policy makers involved in planning and managing educational strategies and teachers' schedules. Identifying and preventing the sources of stress can facilitate better teaching conditions and a more effective and efficient atmosphere in school.
  • ... Their ability to manage the negative feelings and emotion regulation skills developed throughout life is important for long-term well-being. Some researchers (e.g., Huppert, 2009) stated that psychological well-being is marked by feeling good and functioning effectively. Feeling good comprises a wide range of positive emotions (i.e., contentment, interest, confidence, and affection). ...
    Article
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    Purpose of the study: This study aims to investigate whether psychological well-being could predict treatment outcomes in drug addicts after they had received solution-based psychosocial intervention in a drug treatment setting. The psychological well-being of individuals is an important variable in discussing treatment outcomes after they were given psychosocial interventions. Methodology: This study utilized a quasi-experimental research design using non-randomized pre-and post-test single group design. Fifty-seven participants were selected and they completed a pre-and post-assessment on psychological well-being changes and treatment outcomes questionnaire. Paired t-test and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the relationship between these two variables, while multiple linear regression was used to further explore whether participants' psychological well-being could predict their treatment outcomes. Main Findings: Results indicated a significant relationship between these two variables and more than twenty percent in treatment outcomes were explained by psychological variance. Few contextual meanings of psychological symptoms should need to be emphasized in discussing the findings and future research direction. Applications of this study: Having studied whether psychological well-being could predict treatment outcomes of drug addicts would benefit counselors and social workers who deal with addiction clients. The element of psychological well-being, such as mental health must be included in the treatment plan to increase the success of recovery amongst drug addict clients. The novelty of this study: The conclusions from this study offer significant insight into the utilization of solution-focused intervention in non-Western populations and the relation between psychological well-being and treatment outcomes for drug addict clients. The findings expand the existing literature review on the psychological well-being of drug addicts in a way it takes into accounts the cultural context in discussing the outcomes.
  • ... -512 -Psikolojik iyi oluşla ilgili yapılan araştırmalarda psikolojik iyi oluşun; özgecilik (Topuz, 2013), yaşam biçimleri (Özpolat, İsgör ve Sezer, 2012), cinsiyet rol algısı (Arıcı, 2011), özsaygı (Asıcı, 2013;Cheng ve Furnham, 2003;Gülyüksel-Akdağ ve Cihangir-Çankaya, 2015), öz-duyarlık (Asıcı, 2013), bağışlama ve bilinçli farkındalık (Zümbül, 2019) değerler (Bulut ve Dilmaç, 2018;Telef, Uzman, Ergün, 2013), dışadönüklük, kontrol odağı, ilişki, öğrenilmiş güçlülük (Cenkseven ve Akbaş, 2004), evlilik doyumu (Gülyüksel-Akdağ ve Cihangir-Çankaya, 2015), pozitif ve negatif duygular (Kuyumcu, 2013), mutluluk (Bulut ve Dilmaç, 2018), psikolojik sermaye (Göçen, 2019), benlik kurguları (Kuyumcu, 2012) benlik ayrımlaşması (Karababa, Mert ve Çetiner, 2018), psikolojik sağlamlık (Malkoç ve Yalçın, 2015), bağışlama (Lawler-Row ve Piferi, 2006), duygusal zeka (Ahmadia, Azarb, Sarchoghaeic ve Nagah, 2014), sosyal beceri (Nair, Ravindranath ve Thomas, 2013), başarı motivasyonu (Nisa, Qasim ve Sehar, 2017), kendini bağışlama (Halisdemir, 2013), kişilik özellikleri (Keyes ve diğerleri, 2002), öz yeterlik ve sosyal destek (Klainin-Yobas ve diğerleri, 2016) ile ilişkili olduğu görülmektedir. Pozitif duygular, bireyin psikolojik iyi oluşuna (Fredrickson, 2000;Kuyumcu, 2013;Lyubomirsky, King ve Diener, 2005) ve psikolojik gelişimine (Diener, Sandvik ve Pzvot, 1991) katkı sağlamakta; negatif duygular ise psikolojik iyi oluşun azalmasına (Huppert, 2009;Kuyumcu, 2013) ve olumsuz durumların ortaya çıkmasına (Fredrickson, 2001) neden olmaktadır. Bağışlama sürecinin bilişsel, duyuşsal ve davranışsal bir süreç olması ve bunun başarıyla sonuçlanmasının bireylerin psikolojik iyi oluşuna hizmet ettiği düşünülmektedir. ...
  • ... Being able to get out and about also led to increased opportunities for social interactions. Feeling in control of one's life, being able to pursue valued goals and having positive social connections are thought to be essential components of wellbeing [44]. Our findings provide support for the significance of real-world walking to enhance wellbeing by providing positive emotional experiences related to mastery and social connectivity. ...
    Article
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    Purpose: Understanding personal experiences of real-world walking for stroke survivors could assist clinicians to tailor interventions to their clients’ specific needs. We explored the research questions: “What does real-world walking mean to people after stroke and how do they think it can be better?” Method: Using an Interpretive Descriptive methodology, we purposively sampled eight stroke survivors who reported difficulty walking in the real-world. We sought diversity on key participant characteristics. Participants were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. Data were analysed with thematic analysis. Results: Many found real-world walking, particularly in the outdoors, created opportunities for freedom from dependence and a visible step by step progress, which generated hope for future recovery. Conversely, when participants did not experience sufficient progress, they expressed negative emotions. Participants strove to overcome challenges to their walking goals using everyday routines, planning skills, and confidence building experiences to motivate themselves. They also drew on, and extended, social resources highlighting the relational aspects of real-world walking. Conclusions: Walking in their real-world provided a meaningful, desirable, but challenging goal for participants that required significant emotional effort. Successful progress in real-world walking builds confidence and hope and can contribute to psychological wellbeing by providing opportunities for successful mastery and social connectedness. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • Real-world settings can be unpredictable which makes walking in the real-world after stroke demanding. • Positive experiences of walking in the real-world can provide significant psychological benefits to stroke survivors. • Many survivors need to carefully concentrate on the act of walking in outdoor settings. • Pre-planning routes, confidence-building experiences and developing daily routines may help patients overcome these challenges.
  • Article
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    Background Recent trends on measurement of well-being have elevated the scientific standards and rigor associated with approaches for national and international comparisons of well-being. One major theme in this has been the shift toward multidimensional approaches over reliance on traditional metrics such as single measures (e.g. happiness, life satisfaction) or economic proxies (e.g. GDP). Methods To produce a cohesive, multidimensional measure of well-being useful for providing meaningful insights for policy, we use data from 2006 and 2012 from the European Social Survey (ESS) to analyze well-being for 21 countries, involving approximately 40,000 individuals for each year. We refer collectively to the items used in the survey as multidimensional psychological well-being (MPWB). Results The ten dimensions assessed are used to compute a single value standardized to the population, which supports broad assessment and comparison. It also increases the possibility of exploring individual dimensions of well-being useful for targeting interventions. Insights demonstrate what may be masked when limiting to single dimensions, which can create a failure to identify levers for policy interventions. Conclusions We conclude that the both the composite score and individual dimensions from this approach used constitute valuable levels of analyses for developing appropriate policies to protect and improve well-being.
  • Thesis
    Es scheint unbestreitbar, dass ein gutes Leben ein erfülltes Leben ist. Das Konstrukt Erfüllung wird im Laufe der Kulturgeschichte von Philosophen und Psychologen mit unterschiedlichen Schwerpunkten beschrieben. In der modernen Wissenschaft gibt es keine Definition und somit auch keine Forschung dazu. Im Leben nimmt die Arbeit, neben der Familie und Partnerschaft, die wichtigs- te Rolle ein (Gaspar & Hollmann, 2015). Deshalb soll in dieser Abschlussarbeit exploriert werden, was Erfüllung in der Arbeit bedeutet und ob dieses Konstrukt mit dem Workplace PERMA Profiler (WPP), basierend auf der PERMA-Theorie des Wohlbefindens (Seligman, 2014), messbar gemacht werden kann. Dafür wurden mit einem Online-Fragebogen 105 Mitarbeiter der deutschschweizerischen Werbebranche qualitativ und quantitativ untersucht. Erfüllung in der Arbeit bedeutet hauptsächlich gute soziale Beziehungen im Unternehmen pflegen, positive Emotionen im Arbeitsalltag erleben, Ziele erreichen, seine Potentiale entfalten können, engagiert sein und dafür Anerkennung erhalten. Jedoch zeigen sich in der Gewichtung der einzelnen Elemente dieser Definition signifikante Generationenunterschiede. Die Messbarkeit von Erfüllung ist mit dem WPP möglich. Erfüllung zeigt starke bis sehr starke Korrelationen mit den Hauptskalen. Dabei sagen alleine die hedonistischen Dimensionen des WPP 76% der Varianz von Erfüllung voraus und 70% der WPP-Items sind zur Messung von Erfüllung geeignet. Dennoch wird dieses Resultat über unterschiedliche qualitative und quantitative Methoden kritisch erörtert und es werden davon ableitend weiterführende Forschungsfragen formuliert.
  • Article
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    Mindfulness may improve well-being through increasing one’s ability to self-regulate stressors, which are common and multifaceted among the student-athlete population. However, the mechanisms for influencing such effects lack a theoretical basis. Therefore, we sought to (i) determine the relationship between mindfulness, well-being and stress in student-athletes, and (ii) assess the mediating role of autonomy satisfaction, an innate psychological need required for optimal well-being according to Self-Determination Theory. This was a cross-sectional study of 240 student-athletes (aged 20.5; SD = 3.29; 53.7% males). Mindfulness and autonomy were regressed onto well-being (Model 1) and stress (Model 2) in multivariate regression models assessing direct and indirect mediating mechanisms. More than a third of athletes scored low on well-being, and only 3% high, and a significant proportion of variance was explained in both models (Model 1: R² = .40; Model 2: R² = .37). Mindfulness directly predicted autonomy satisfaction (β = .42, p < .001), well-being (β = .26, p < .001), and stress (β = −.21, p < .001). Autonomy satisfaction also directly predicted well-being (β = .47; p < .001) and stress (β = −.48; p < .001), whilst partially mediating the association between mindfulness and well-being (indirect β = .19) and stress (indirect β = −.20). To conclude, mindfulness may improve well-being and reduce stress through increasing athletes’ capacity to self-regulate, satisfying the psychological need for autonomy. Future research may consider designing a controlled trial of mindfulness interventions for student-athletes, underpinned and tested using SDT.
  • Article
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    National development and government initiatives in realizing educational transformation has made the profession of school counsellors facing a challenging and vulnerable role with stress that affects their well-being. Aspects of psychological well-being of school counsellors need to be explored and understood to ensure their services in schools are implemented effectively. The study aims to understand contribution of self-compassion to psychological well-being among school counsellors. The results of the previous studies have found that; (i) self-compassion contribute to the psychological well-being of school counsellors; and (ii) good psychological well-being of teachers can improve the quality of counselling services. The implication of this study explains the need to improve psychological well-being among school counsellors. Proposed follow-up recommendations need to be done by focusing on quantitative studies aimed at better understanding of this issue.
  • Technical Report
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    How meaningful is work for leaders and managers? What does it mean for them? What initiatives could they take if they want to leave a positive imprint of their managerial work? How should they manage work so that their team members could find meaning in their work? These would be the questions which serve as a common thread for this unprecedented survey on the meaning of work and managerial practices, with a representative sample of 1,427 people working in French private companies with more than fifty employees: 143 entrepreneurs, 145 top managers, 361 intermediate managers and 778 employees have filled out the online questionnaire. Two scales have been developed: imprint patterns and managerial practices. Key words: work meaningfulness and meaningfulness at work, job orientation, work centrality, sensation at work, meaning of life, imprint patterns, managerial practices, performance indicators, well-being, work engagement, positive and negative affect, coping strategies.
  • Thesis
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    Chronic illnesses are situations in which medical interventions are inconclusive and require periodic monitoring and support care to increase the level of self-care and responsibility of the patient and to improve his functionality. Chronic renal failure, which is one of the chronic diseases, is a serious health problem having an important place in society. It can quickly lower people below the poverty line in terms of health care, care and treatment costs. Psychosocial problems such as body image changes, life-style distortion, reduction in self-confidence, sadness, anger, helplessness, constant crying, despair, anxiety, social withdrawal, loss of role in family and work life, fear of becoming dependent, social isolation and fear of death may occur with these patients. Therefore, the more positive affect, the less negative affect and the life satisfaction, which form the basis of subjective well-being, appear to be very difficult for the patients. In this context, it has been assumed that religion can function as an effective mediator in coping with these negativities and increasing patient subjective well-being. The general purpose of this doctoral dissertation, which is a field research, is to determine the religiousness and subjective well-being levels of patients with chronic renal failure, who are receiving haemodialysis treatment with a descriptive approach and by using socio-psychological methods and try to determine the relation between religiosity and subjective well-being. Interpretation of findings of the effects of religious coping approaches on subjective well-being of participants from a psychological point of view is also among the aims of the study. Accordingly, twenty-three hypotheses related to the topic have been developed and the hypotheses have been tested according to the result of the findings. The sample of the research consists of 205 individuals who were determined by stratified random sampling method from the patients treated in T.R. Ministry of Health, Hitit University Çorum Erol Olçok Training and Research Hospital and Çorum District Dialysis Units. Of the patients participating in the study, 54.1% (111 persons) are males and 45.9% (94 persons) are females. 5 Likert-type "Religiosity Inventory" and "Subjective Well-Being Scale" were used to determine participants' religiosity and iv subjective well-being as well as “Personal Information Form”, which contains demographic characteristics determined according to the criteria of the study as data collection tools. In addition, interviews were made with a group of 20 people selected by criterion sampling method in accordance with the sample distribution participated in the survey. In the interviews, the participants were asked to answer the pre-determined questions and their answers were recorded. The data from deciphering of the voice recordings were arranged and classified as data sets, and then the themes were separated and interpreted with the help of the NVivo 9.0 program. Statistical analysis techniques such as t-test, one way variance analysis (ANOVA), Pearson Moments Correlation Analysis, Simple Linear Regression Analysis were used in the analysis of quantitative data of the study. Scheffe and LSD tests were used in the groups with homogeneous variances and Tamhane's T2 test was used in the groups in which the variances were not homogeneous in order to determine the source of the differences in the cases where the F value obtained was significant as a result of the analysis of variance. The maximum margin of error in the research was taken as at least 0.05. Findings obtained through qualitative measurement in the study were sometimes used to interpret the data obtained by means of quantitative measurement. As a result of the research, significant differences and relationships between demographic variables and religiosity, demographic variables and subjective well-being have been determined statistically. Moreover, according to the findings by both methods; it has been found that there is a statistically significant relationship between the levels of religiousness and subjective well-being of the participants and that religiosity accounts for 31.9% of subjective well-being variance. These findings have shown that religiosity is a significant and important predictor of subjective well-being. The findings of the research also reveal that positive religious coping methods are frequently used by the sample and religious motivated positive coping approaches have positive contribution on subjective well-being of the patient.
  • Article
    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji hubungan work family conflict dan psychological well being pada ibu bekerja. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah sebanyak 96 orang ibu yang bekerja pada perusahaan swasta di Kota Tangerang. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan atau metode kuantitatif. Alat ukur yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan skala psychological well-being yang diadaptasi modifikasi dari Juita (2017) dan skala work family conflict yang diadaptasi dari Thamrin (2018). Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini menggunakan purposive sampling. Uji hipotesis menggunakan uji korelasi product pearson. Hasil uji korelasi Pearson menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan negatif work family conflict dan psychological well-being pada ibu bekerja. Hal ini memiliki arti bahwa semakin tinggi tingkat work family conflict individu maka semakin rendah tingkat psychological well-being, sehingga hipotesis pada penelitian ini diterima.
  • Article
    The worldwide prevalence of mental health problems has increased noticeably over the last three decades, with approximately 20 percent of adolescents suffering from either mental health or behavioural problems. As it is well known that positive and negative emotions are major influences on mental health, psychological well-being is a particularly crucial component of mental health. The present study investigates the role of intergenerational transmission in the development of psychological well-being in adolescents. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), OLS linear regression models were estimated for 2,794 adolescents and their parents, while taking into account whether the assumed relation depends on the gender constellations of parents and their children. The results of the statistical analysis provided moderate evidence for the intergenerational transmission of psychological well-being, especially with respect to parents’ and adolescents’ negative affect. However, no significant differences between same-sex and opposite-sex parent-child dyads could be found.
  • Article
    The present study investigates the relationship between two types of positive expectancies—dispositional optimism and general self-efficacy—and four indicators of subjective well-being—life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, and depression—at three time points over a 2-year period. In addition, the moderating role of positive expectancies in the relationship between negative life events and subjective well-being were examined. A total of 367 undergraduate students from Serbia (Mage = 21.57 years) completed measures at each time point. The results of the path analysis showed that optimism was concurrently associated with all indicators of subjective well-being, whereas self-efficacy had consistent concurrent associations only with positive affect. Positive expectancies were generally weak prospective predictors of subjective well-being, with higher levels of optimism at Time 2 (6-month follow-up) predicting higher levels of life satisfaction at Time 3 (2-year follow-up), and higher levels of self-efficacy at Time 2 predicting a higher positive affect at Time 3. Some evidence of reverse causality was also found, with a higher positive affect at Time 1 and Time 2 predicting higher levels of both optimism and self-efficacy at later time points. Positive expectancies did not moderate the relationship between negative life events and subjective well-being. Our results suggest that findings of cross-sectional studies on the relationship between positive expectancies and subjective well-being cannot be generalized to longitudinal data and that causal contribution of positive expectancies to subjective well-being might be overestimated.
  • Article
    Background High positive mental health, including the ability to cope with the normal stresses of life, work productively, and be able to contribute to one’s community, has been associated with various health outcomes. The role of positive mental health is therefore increasingly recognized in national mental health promotion programs and policies. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions could be a cost-effective way to disseminate positive psychological interventions to the general population. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of a fully automated mHealth intervention on positive mental health, and anxiety and depression symptomology among Swedish university students using a randomized controlled trial design. Methods A 2-arm, single-blind (researchers), parallel-groups randomized controlled trial with an mHealth positive psychology program intervention group and a relevant online mental health information control group was employed to estimate the effect of the novel intervention. Participants were recruited using digital advertising through student health care centers in Sweden. Inclusion criteria were (1) university students, (2) able to read and understand Swedish, (3) and have access to a mobile phone. Exclusion criteria were high positive mental health, as assessed by the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF), or high depression and anxiety symptomology, as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). The primary outcome was positive mental health (MHC-SF), and the secondary outcomes were depression and anxiety symptomatology (HADS). The subscales of MHC-SF were also analyzed as exploratory outcomes. Outcomes were measured 3 months after randomization through questionnaires completed on the participants’ mobile phones. Results A total of 654 participants (median age 25 years), including 510 (78.0%) identifying as female, were randomized to either the intervention (n=348) or control group (n=306). At follow-up, positive mental health was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.067, 95% CI 1.024-1.112, P=.002). For both depression and anxiety symptomatology, the intervention group showed significantly lower scores at follow-up compared with the control group (depression: IRR=0.820, 95% CI 0.714-0.942, P=.005; anxiety: IRR=0.899, 95% CI 0.840-0.962, P=.002). Follow-up rates were lower than expected (58.3% for primary outcomes and 52.3% for secondary outcomes); however, attrition analyses did not identify any systematic attrition with respect to baseline variables. Conclusions The mHealth intervention was estimated to be superior to usual care in increasing positive mental health among university students. A protective effect of the intervention was also found on depressive and anxiety symptoms. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using an automated mobile phone format to enhance positive mental health, which offers promise for the use of mHealth solutions in public mental health promotion. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Registry ISRCTN54748632; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN54748632
  • Book
    This book provides an accessible and balanced introduction to positive psychology scholarship and its applications, incorporating an overview of the development of positive psychology. Positive Psychology: The Basics delineates positive psychology’s journey as a discipline, takes stock of its achievements and provides an updated overview of its core topics, exploring the theory, research and interventions in each. Launched as a rebellious discipline just over two decades ago, positive psychology challenged the emphasis of applied psychology on disease and dysfunction and offered a new, more balanced perspective on human life. From its foundations in the late 20th century to recent “second-wave” theories around the importance of recognizing negative emotions, this compact overview covers the key ideas and principles, from research around emotional wellbeing, optimism and change, to posttraumatic growth and positive relationships. The first jargon-free introduction to the subject, Hart introduces the reader to a range of issues, including self-regulation and flow, character strengths and virtues and positive relationships, concluding with a chapter on how interventions can affect happiness and wellbeing. Positive Psychology: The Basics is an essential resource for students, practitioners, academics and anyone who is interested in understanding the essence of a life well lived.
  • Article
    Research and academic writing are increasingly difficult to prioritise in Higher Education. Academic writing retreats are growing in popularity as means to help academics to write. However, while they have been shown to enhance productivity their potential as wellbeing interventions has received less attention. We explore the experiences of UK-based academic participants in a structured writing programme through a structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews. Our findings suggest that writing retreats can positively impact on both hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing. They may help mediate wellbeing threats, such as isolation, the conflict of work priorities and other pressures associated with academic research and time pressures. The opportunity to privilege writing provided our academic participants with positive benefits, yet we conclude that these effects do not endure if interventions are not maintained.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Psychological wellbeing consists of two philosophical perspectives: hedonic and eudaimonic viewpoints. These paradigms are developed and changes overtime across life span subject to life course experiences influenced by the individual’s live experience. More importantly early years’ experience moderate individuals’ psychological wellbeing as being positive or negative with attendant consequences. Understanding psychological wellbeing across developmental life course provides useful insights for life adjustment as individual, families and groups to navigate life turbulence.
  • Article
    LGBT-related hate crime is a conscious act of aggression against an LGBT citizen. The present research investigates associations between hate crime, psychological well-being, trust in the police and intentions to report future experiences of hate crime. A survey study was conducted among 391 LGBT respondents in the Netherlands. Sixteen percent experienced hate crime in the 12 months prior. Compared to non-victims, victims had significant lower psychological well-being, lower trust in the police and lower intentions to report future hate crime. Hate crime experience and lower psychological well-being were associated with lower reporting intentions through lower trust in the police. Helping hate crime victims cope with psychological distress in combination with building trust in the police could positively influence future reporting.
  • Article
    Previous studies have indicated that teacher well-being (TWB) should have substantial benefits for both individuals and organisations. This study explored the relationship between the professional learning community (PLC) and TWB from the perspective of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. Informed by self-efficacy theory, the present study further investigated whether the PLC-TWB relationship was mediated by teaching self-efficacy (TSE). Survey data were gathered from 844 teachers from 28 schools in one province of southeastern China. The results showed that each of the six PLC components was positively related to teachers’ hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. The association between the PLC and TWB was confirmed to be mediated by TSE. Our study not only highlighted the importance of the PLC on TWB in China, but also provided insights into the mechanism of the PLC-TWB relationship through the lens of TSE. Implications for research and practice were discussed.
  • Chapter
    This chapter explores through empirical research the similarities and differences that exist between multigenerational cohorts at work (i.e. Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y or Millennials) and their perspectives that relate to well-being at work. A qualitative methodological approach was adopted using 36 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups. The research questions explored the respondents’ definition of well-being at work, individual well-being at work need perspective, and how employers can enhance their happiness, health, and well-being at work of a multigenerational workforce. The findings reveal similarities and differences that exist between the multigenerational cohort definition, well-being needs, and improvements in well-being. This chapter discusses these commonalities and differences and implications for managers, HR practitioners, and organisational leaders. Future research in these areas is proposed.
  • Article
    Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.
  • Conference Paper
    Objectives. Guided by interactional role theory and employing a resilience framework, this study aimed to investigate whether formal volunteering protects older adults with more role-identity absences in major life domains (partner, employment, and parental) from poorer psychological well-being. Methods. We used data from 373 participants, aged 65-74, in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS). Multivariate regression models estimated the effects of major role-identity absences, formal volunteering, and the interaction between major role-identity absences and volunteering on respondents' negative affect, positive affect, and purpose in life. Results. Participants with a greater number of major role-identity absences reported more negative affect, less positive affect, and less purpose in life. Being a formal volunteer was associated with more positive affect and moderated the negative effect of having more major role-identity absences on respondents' feelings of purpose in life. Discussion. Consistent with previous studies, findings indicate that having more role-identity absences constitutes a risk factor for poorer psychological well-being. Results further demonstrate that being a formal volunteer can protect older adults with a greater number of major role-identity absences from decreased levels of purpose in life. The findings suggest that associations between volunteering and psychological well-being might be contingent upon the volunteer's role-identity status and the dimension of psychological well-being examined.
  • Conference Paper
    The Supervisory System model, in which there are two cognitive levels in the control action, is assessed. It is argued that there is a modulatory relation between the levels. It is further argued that standard connectionist variables, such as age of acquisition, familiarity, and frequency, are particularly useful for characterizing behavior produced by contention scheduling, the lower-level system, when Supervisory System function is impaired. By contrast, an analogy with symbolic Al models is used to theoretically motivate a fractionation of Supervisory System processing as created by a set of functionally selective and anatomically partially separable subsystems. It is argued that the systems for the Supervisory System's top-down selection of schemas in contention scheduling has a different lateralization of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from the systems concerned with non-evident error detection and checking. The former are held to be the more left lateralized in comparison with the latter.
  • Article
    Maternal care during the first week of postnatal life influences hippocampal development and function (Liu et al., 2000; Nature Neurosci., 3, 799-806). Offspring reared by mothers who exhibit increased levels of pup licking/grooming (LG) show increased hippocampal synaptic density and enhanced spatial learning and memory. Using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue incorporated into cells during DNA synthesis, we examined the effects of early maternal care on hippocampal cell proliferation and neuronal survival in the rat. Twenty-four hours following injection on day 7 of life (P7) there were no differences in BrdU labelling in the offspring of high- compared with low-LG mothers, suggesting no maternal effect on the rate of proliferation at this age. However, 14 and 83 days following injection (P21 and P90), the offspring of high-LG mothers had significantly more surviving BrdU-labelled cells and BrdU-NeuN(+)-colabelled neurons in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone and granule cell layer. At P21, the offspring of high-LG mothers showed increased protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and significantly decreased levels of pyknosis. These findings suggest an influence of maternal care on neuronal survival in the hippocampus. Conversely, at the same time point there was a significantly higher level of hippocampal glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the offspring of low-LG mothers. These findings emphasize the importance of early maternal care for hippocampal development.
  • Book
    How much do we know about what makes people thrive and societies flourish? While a vast body of research has been dedicated to understanding problems and disorders, we know remarkably little about the positive aspects of life, the things that make life worth living. This volume heralds the emergence of a new field of science that endeavours to understand how individuals and societies thrive and flourish, and how this new knowledge can be applied to foster happiness, health and fulfillment, and institutions that encourage the development of these qualities. Taking a dynamic, cross-disciplinary approach, it sets out to explore the most promising routes to well-being, derived from the latest research in psychology, neuroscience, social science, economics, and the effects of our natural environment. The book provides an overview of the latest insights and strategies for enhancing our individual well-being, or the well-being of the communities in which we live and work.
  • Article
    The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
  • Article
    The Strategy of Preventive Medicine, by Geoffrey Rose, first published in 1993 remains a key text for anyone involved in preventive medicine. Rose's insights into the inextricable relationship between ill health, or deviance, in individuals and populations they come from, have transformed our whole approach to strategies for improving health. His personal and unique book, based on many years of research, sets out the case that the essential determinants of the health of society are to be found in its mass characteristics. The deviant minority can only be understood when seen in its societal context, and effective prevention requires changes which involve the population as a whole. Rose's book explores the options for prevention, considering them from various viewpoints - theoretical and scientific, sociological and political, practical, and ethical. The applications of Rose's book's ideas are illustrated by a variety of examples ranging from heart disease to alcoholism to road accidents. The book's pioneering work focused on a population wide approach to the prevention of common medical and behavioural disorders has become the classic text on the subject. This reissue of that text brings the original book to a new generation. This book retains the original text intact, but it includes new perspectives on the work. It examines what relevance Rose's ideas might have in the era of the human genome project and other major scientific advances, it considers examples of how the theory might be applied and generalized in medicine and beyond, and discusses what implications it holds for the future. There is also an explanation of the population perspective, clarifying the often confused thinking and arguments about determinants of individual cases and determinants of population incidence.
  • Chapter
    This chapter examines some of the literature demonstrating an impact of affect on social behavior. It will consider the influence of affect on cognition in an attempt to further understand on the way cognitive processes may mediate the effect of feelings on social behavior. The chapter describes the recent works suggesting an influence of positive affect on flexibility in cognitive organization (that is, in the perceived relatedness of ideas) and the implications of this effect for social interaction. The goal of this research is to expand the understanding of social behavior and the factors, such as affect, that influence interaction among people. Another has been to extend the knowledge of affect, both as one of these determinants of social behavior and in its own right. And a third has been to increase the understanding of cognitive processes, especially as they play a role in social interaction. Most recently, cognitive and social psychologists have investigated ways in which affective factors may participate in cognitive processes (not just interrupt them) and have begun to include affect as a factor in more comprehensive models of cognition. The research described in the chapter has focused primarily on feelings rather than intense emotion, because feelings are probably the most frequent affective experiences. The chapter focuses primarily on positive affect.
  • Chapter
    This chapter presents the data that adrenocortical activity is an important factor mediating the child's internal social milieu. The results show that rat pups may "internalize" the results of early maternal regulation, encoded as information about how easy or difficult it is to activate stress-sensitive systems in adulthood. Discussion on attachment, temperament and adrenocortical function is also provided. Even though only a few studies on attachment and cortisol in humans have been conducted, it is probably that thresholds for adrenocortical function are influenced by early mother-child interactions. The most consistent result observed is that infants with disorganized attachments display larger cortisol responses to the Strange Situation than do those with organized attachments. It can be concluded that there are at least two pathways to hyperactivity of the adrenocortical system: (1) innate constitutional differences (temperament) and (2) less than optimal mother-infant interactions early in life.
  • Article
    How does mood influence verbal communication, such as the use of requests? On the basis of the Affect Infusion Model (J. P. Forgas, 1995a), 3 experiments predicted and found that (a) negative moods increase and positive moods decrease request politeness and (b) they do so most in difficult situations that require more substantive processing. In Experiment 1, sad mood enhanced and happy mood reduced request politeness, especially in difficult situations. In Experiment 2, similar mood effects on the politeness and elaboration of self-generated requests were found. In Experiment 3, these findings were replicated in a variety of request situations by use of a different mood induction. Recall data confirmed that more substantive processing enhanced mood effects on requesting. The cognitive mechanisms mediating mood effects on requesting are discussed, and the implications of the results for interpersonal communication and for recent affect-cognition theories are considered.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Neuroimaging has consistently shown engagement of the prefrontal cortex during episodic memory tasks, but the functional relevance of this metabolic/hemodynamic activation in memory processing is still to be determined. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to transiently interfere with either left or right prefrontal brain activity during the encoding or retrieval of pictures showing complex scenes. We found that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was crucial for the retrieval of the encoded pictorial information, whereas the left DLPFC was involved in encoding operations. This 'interference' approach allowed us to establish whether a cortical area activated by a memory task actually contributes to behavioral performance.
  • Article
    Previous research has demonstrated associations between exposure to parental divorce and marital discord while growing up and children's psychological distress in adulthood. Few studies, however, have attempted to explain these associations. Three pathways are evaluated through which family disruption and discord may affect offspring's well-being: children's socioeconomic attainment, children's marital and relationship stability, and the quality of children's relations with parents. Using 17-year longitudinal data from two generations, results show that divorce and marital discord predict lower levels of psychological well-being in adulthood. Parent-child relationships mediate most of the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce and children's subsequent psychological outcomes. Marital discord appears to erode children's emotional bonds with mothers, whereas both divorce and marital discord appear to erode children's emotional bonds with fathers. The results highlight the continuing importance of parent-child ties for children's well-being in early adulthood.
  • Article
    Although economic output has nearly doubled in the last 30 years, life satisfaction levels in the UK and other developed countries have remained resolutely flat, with evidence that depression and anxiety are increasing, notably among young people. While governments in the developed world focus on economic development as the key route to well-being, a growing body of research suggests that, once basic needs have been met, this approach is flawed. This well-being manifesto for a flourishing society, produced by the think tank new economics foundation (nef), proposes eight alternative priorities for government action to promote well-being. While the focus is on UK policy and the examples are largely drawn from the UK, the key themes of the manifesto will apply to many developed country contexts.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This report reviews public attitudes to economic inequality, poverty and redistribution. Economic inequality in the UK stands at historically high levels and there is emerging evidence that a high level of inequality may cause socioeconomic problems. However, little is known about public attitudes on this issue. The study: n starts by examining public attitudes to inequality and poverty; n considers public attitudes to redistribution; n highlights apparent contradictions in public attitudes; n explores the more underlying values people draw on when forming their opinions on these issues; n reviews key fi ndings, and discusses policy implications and research gaps. Public attitudes to economic inequality is a valuable source of reference for all those with an interest in economic inequality, poverty and redistribution.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Two experiments investigated how individual differences in attention to emotion influence the role of affect in judgments of risk. In Experiment 1, mood influenced the judgments of individuals high, but not low, in attention to emotion. When an attribution manipulation made a cause of their feelings salient, individuals high in emotional attention no longer perceived their feelings as relevant and were not influenced by them; whereas those low in emotional attention now paid attention to them and were influenced by them. This manipulation had these effects when it was presented prior to, but not in the middle of, a series of judgments. In Experiment 2, differences in response to the attribution manipulation disappeared when participants' perceptions of the relevance of their feelings were governed by instructions to use either feelings or facts as a basis for judgment. The results suggest that feelings influence judgment when they seem relevant.
  • Article
    Although goal theorists have speculated about the causes and consequences of making progress at personal goals, little longitudinal research has examined these issues. In the current prospective study, participants with stronger social and self-regulatory skills made more progress in their goals over the course of a semester. In turn, goal progress predicted increases in psychological well-being, both in short-term (5-day) increments and across the whole semester; At both short- and long-term levels of analysis, however, the amount that well-being increased depended on the "organismic congruence" of participants' goals. That is, participants benefited most from goal attainment when the goals that they pursued were consistent with inherent psychological needs. We conclude that a fuller understanding of the relations between goals, performance, and psychological well-being requires recourse to both cybernetic and organismic theories of motivation.
  • Article
    The present research comprises two studies designed to investigate both antecedents and consequences of pursuing avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals over the course of a semester-long period. Results revealed that neuroticism was positively related to the adoption of avoidance personal strivings (Study 1), and participants with low perceptions of their life skills were more likely to adopt avoidance personal projects (Study 2). Avoidance regulation proved deleterious to both retrospective and longitudinal subjective well-being (SWB), as participants with a greater proportion of avoidance goals reported lower SWB over the course of the semester and evidenced a decrease in SWB from the beginning to the end of the semester. Ancillary analyses attested to the robustness of these results across a variety of alternative predictor variables. Path analyses validated perceived progress as a mediator of the direct relationships observed.
  • Article
    Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals congruent with inherent growth tendencies. In a sample of adult subjects (Study 1), the relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms. Conversely, the relative importance and efficacy of intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress. Study 2 replicated these findings in a college sample and extended them to measures of narcissism and daily affect. Three reasons are discussed as to why extrinsic aspirations relate negatively to well-being, and future research directions are suggested.
  • Article
    Research on cerebral asymmetry and the experience and expression of emotion is reviewed. The studies described use electrophysiological procedures to make inferences about patterns of regional cortical activation. Such procedures have sufficient temporal resolution to be used in the study of brief emotional experiences denoted by spontaneous facial expressions. In adults and infants, the experimental arousal of positive, approach-related emotions is associated with selective activation of the left frontal region, while arousal of negative, withdrawal-related emotions is associated with selective activation of the right frontal region. Individual differences in baseline measures of frontal asymmetry are associated with dispositional mood, affective reactivity, temperament, and immune function. These studies suggest that neural systems mediating approach- and withdrawal-related emotion and action are, in part, represented in the left and right frontal regions, respectively, and that individual differences in the activation levels of these systems are associated with a coherent nomological network of associations which constitute a person's affective style.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The primary objectives of this article are (a) to put forth an explicit operational formulation of positive human health that goes beyond prevailing "absence of illness" criteria; (b) to clarify that positive human health does not derive from extant medical considerations, which are not about wellness, but necessarily require a base in philosophical accounts of the "goods" in life; (c) to provoke a change of emphasis from strong tendencies to construe human health as exclusively about the mind or the body toward an integrated and positive spiral of mind-body influences; (d) to delineate possible physiological substrates of human flourishing and offer future directions for understanding the biology of positive health; and (e) to discuss implications of positive health for diverse scientific agendas (e.g., stress, class and health, work and family life) and for practice in health fields (e.g., training, health examinations, psychotherapy, and wellness intervention programs).
  • Article
    I am a founder member of the Psychophysiology and Stress Research Group (PSRG) at the University of Westminster.The PSRG has an international reputation in the study of salivary cortisol and the secretory immune system in relation to mood and susceptibility to infection.As both a health psychologist and researcher I have a strong belief in the mind-body link and through my research I seek to find the mechanisms that underpin this phenomenon. Recently I participated as an on-screen expert in the BBC TV series The Stress Test. Summary This review focuses on the use of salivary cortisol concentrations as a convenient and non-invasive biomarker of stress. Acute stress causes an increase in cortisol concentration and beneficial
  • Article
    This paper investigates factors affecting the distribution of psychiatric morbidity in the community. It identifies a close relationship between mean Chronic General Health Questionnaire (CGHQ) scores in subdivisions of a large random sample of the community (the Health and Lifestyle Survey, N = 6317) and the prevalence in these groups of abnormal, above-threshold CGHQ scores. The frequency distributions of CGHQ scores in these different populations move up and down as a whole: like other physiological and behavioural attributes, these mental health outcomes in individuals are associated with characteristics of the populations in which they arise. Populations thus carry a collective responsibility for their own mental health and well-being. This implies that explanations for the differing prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity must be sought in the characteristics of their parent populations; and control measures are unlikely to succeed if they do not involve population-wide changes.
  • Article
    Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Book
    Pleasures of the mind are different from pleasures of the body. There are two types of pleasures of the body: tonic pleasures and relief pleasures. Pleasures of the body are given by the contact senses and by the distance senses (seeing and hearing). The distance senses provide a special category of pleasure. Pleasures of the mind are not emotions; they are collections of emotions distributed over time. Some distributions of emotions over time are particularly pleasurable, such as episodes in which the peak emotion is strong and the final emotion is positive. The idea that all pleasurable stimuli share some general characteristic should be supplanted by the idea that humans have evolved domain-specific responses of attraction to stimuli. The emotions that characterize pleasures of the mind arise when expectations are violated, causing autonomic nervous system arousal and thereby triggering a search for an interpretation. Thus pleasures of the mind occur when an individual has a definite set of expectations (usually tacit) and the wherewithal to interpret the violation (usually by placing it in a narrative framework). Pleasures of the mind differ in the objects of the emotions they comprise. There is probably a
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Variations in maternal care affect the development of individual differences in neuroendocrine responses to stress in rats. As adults, the offspring of mothers that exhibited more licking and grooming of pups during the first 10 days of life showed reduced plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone responses to acute stress, increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA expression, enhanced glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity, and decreased levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA. Each measure was significantly correlated with the frequency of maternal licking and grooming (all r's > −0.6). These findings suggest that maternal behavior serves to “program” hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring.
  • Article
    In 1995, the authors reported long-term follow-up results of a school-based program designed to prevent depressive symptoms. In this study, 69 5th and 6th graders who participated in the prevention group were compared with a control group of 49 children. The children completed an assessment battery that included the Children""s Depression Inventory and the Children""s Attributional Style Questionnaire before the program, following the program, and every 6 mo thereafter for 2 yrs. The prevention group reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms throughout the 2-year follow-up period. Children in the prevention group were also less likely to report moderate to severe symptoms. Results suggest that the depression prevention program's benefit on depressive symptoms faded after 2 years. In contrast, the effect on explanatory style was maintained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Three experiments test the hypothesis that positive mood facilitates cognitive flexibility in categorization. Study 1 used a sorting task and found that positive mood subjects in relation to subjects in other mood states, formed fewer (broader) categories when focusing on similarities among exemplars and more (narrower) categories when focusing on differences. Study 2 used a within-subject design and assessed more direct measures of flexibility. Study 2 found that compared with neutral mood subjects, positive mood subjects (a) perceived a greater number of both similarities and differences between items, (b) accessed more distinct types of similarities and differences, and (c) listed more novel and creative similarities and differences. Study 3 demonstrated that these effects occur for both positive (mood-congruent) and neutral stimuli and identified intrinsic interest in the task as a possible mediating factor. The implications of these findings for understanding the effects of mood on cognitive organization and processing are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    How does mood influence verbal communication, such as the use of requests? On the basis of the Affect Infusion Model (J. P. Forgas, 1995a), 3 experiments predicted and found that (a) negative moods increase and positive moods decrease request politeness and (b) they do so most in difficult situations that require more substantive processing. In Experiment 1, sad mood enhanced and happy mood reduced request politeness, especially in difficult situations. In Experiment 2, similar mood effects on the politeness and elaboration of self-generated requests were found. In Experiment 3, these findings were replicated in a variety of request situations by use of a different mood induction. Recall data confirmed that more substantive processing enhanced mood effects on requesting. The cognitive mechanisms mediating mood effects on requesting are discussed, and the implications of the results for interpersonal communication and for recent affect–cognition theories are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Whereas unemployment is clearly linked to mental health problems, employment can improve quality of life, mental health, social networks and social inclusion. Yet in the UK only 15% of people with serious mental health problems are employed – despite an overwhelming consensus from surveys, case studies and personal accounts that users want to work. This paper aims to challenge common misconceptions surrounding employment, work and mental health problems. Drawing on a range of research evidence and legislative guidance it discusses significant barriers to work and proposes feasible solutions. The need for mental health staff and services to become involved in the provision of work opportunities is considered, as is the vital role they can play in changing communities. The potency of work as a vehicle for improving the social inclusion and community tenure of people with mental health problems is highlighted.
  • Article
    The present study aimed to investigate the structure of a Swedish translation of Ryff’s psychological well-being scales covering self-acceptance, positive relations, autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth and purpose in life. Moreover, the consistency of previously reported age and gender profiles of psychological well-being was examined. Analyses were based on data from 1260 white-collar workers aged 32–58 years. The internal consistency coefficients of the translated scales were higher than that of the original Ryff scales. Further confirmatory factor analyses replicated previous findings showing that the proposed six-factor model with a single second-order super-factor had better fit than the single factor model. Besides confirming previously reported age and gender profiles, the study showed age differences in self-acceptance and gender differences in environmental mastery and purpose in life but not in personal growth. The present findings clearly demonstrate the adequacy of the Swedish version of the Ryff scales in female and male white-collar workers.
  • Article
    A 4-week experimental study (N = 67) examined the motivational predictors and positive emotion outcomes of regularly practicing two mental exercises: counting one's blessings (“gratitude”) and visualizing best possible selves (“BPS”). In a control exercise, participants attended to the details of their day. Undergraduates performed one of the three exercises during Session I and were asked to continue performing it at home until Session II (in 2 weeks) and again until Session III (in a further 2 weeks). Following previous theory and research, the practices of gratitude and BPS were expected to boost immediate positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, we hypothesized that continuing effortful performance of these exercises would be necessary to maintain the boosts (Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005a22. Lyubomirsky , S , Sheldon , KM and Schkade , D . 2005a. Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9: 111–131. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131). Finally, initial self-concordant motivation to perform the exercise was expected to predict actual performance and to moderate the effects of performance on increased mood. Results generally supported these hypotheses, and suggested that the BPS exercise may be most beneficial for raising and maintaining positive mood. Implications of the results for understanding the critical factors involved in increasing and sustaining positive affect are discussed.