Article

Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development Among Urban Adolescent Girls

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Abstract

In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N= 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem, team sports achievement, and athletic self-evaluations. The results of hierarchical regression analyses indicate that girls' team sports achievement experiences in early adolescence are positively associated with self-esteem in middle adolescence. This relationship is partially mediated by team sports self-evaluations. Applications of these findings to the development of interventions designed to enhance the self-esteem of young women and girls are discussed.

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... • Pedersen and Siedman (2004) found adolescent team sport achievement and mastery in team sport to relate to girls' global self-esteem during middle adolescence. Team sport self-evaluation was found to be a mediator between achievement and self-esteem (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). ...
... • Pedersen and Siedman (2004) found adolescent team sport achievement and mastery in team sport to relate to girls' global self-esteem during middle adolescence. Team sport self-evaluation was found to be a mediator between achievement and self-esteem (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). Achievement and self-esteem were found to be partially mediated by girls' perceptions of competence and interest in team sport (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). ...
... Team sport self-evaluation was found to be a mediator between achievement and self-esteem (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). Achievement and self-esteem were found to be partially mediated by girls' perceptions of competence and interest in team sport (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). Interestingly, Pedersen and Siedman (2004) did not find adolescent individual sport achievement to relate to girls' global self-esteem, suggesting girls benefit significantly from the esteem-enhancing qualities of team sport. ...
Technical Report
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Girls and Women shines a light on the current landscape for girls and women in sport reflected in the latest data from nearly 500 research reports and results from a new national survey of more than 2,300 women working in women's sport. Taking stock of where we are in achieving gender equity in sport requires study, transparency and candor. This groundbreaking report brings together the latest facts and milestones and elevates the voices of women offering fresh insight and perspective. Importantly the report includes calls to action to help propel momentum for change. Stakeholders in all areas of sport, from grassroots to high school, college and elite athletics, collegiate administrators, coaches, policymakers, leaders in the corporate and media sectors all have a critical role to play. The WSF is committed to keeping these conversations at the forefront and working collaboratively with others to accelerate the pace of change. Continued progress depends on comprehensive, up-to-date information in real time. Only when we operate from a shared understanding of the landscape can we ensure thoughtful conversation and sound decision-making necessary for progress. From playing fields to board rooms, girls and women continue to live out their passion for sport. As these accomplishments are celebrated, let's continue to examine the gaps and opportunities to ensure that all girls and all women can get in the game. Only then will we be able to realize the full potential unleashed by sport. All girls. All women. All sports.
... Indeed, healthy levels of positive selfviews are important for functioning: to avoid developing narcissism, in cases of excessively high levels (Baumeister, Bushman, & Campbell, 2000), and to avoid depression and suicidal ideation, in cases of excessively low levels (Dishman et al., 2006;Wilburn & Smith, 2005). Fortunately, participation in athletics fosters healthy levels of self-esteem (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004) and self-concept in adolescents (Dishman et al., 2006). Moreover, Saint-Phard, Van Dorsten, Marx, and York (1999) found that athletes' (but not nonathletes') self-Buffering Effect of Friendship Quality 85 worth can drop if their perceived competence concerning athleticism (i.e., domain-specific self-esteem) declines. ...
... Given the rise in female athletes nationally (National Coalition for Women & Girls in Education, 2012) and the central role that athletics plays for highly competitive athletes in their self-definition and subsequent self-esteem (Dishman et al., 2006;Pedersen & Seidman, 2004), in the current study, we evaluated the association between female athletes' discrepancy scores (athletic importance versus athletic competence) and self-esteem. Since teammates have the opportunity to form close friendships (Gayles & Hu, 2009) and the emotional support of close friendships can buffer the effects of adverse conditions on self-esteem (Thoits, 2011), we also investigated whether friendship quality moderated the relation between athletic discrepancy and self-esteem. ...
... The findings concerning the moderating role of friendship quality are supported by existing literature. Specifically, athletic participation has been associated with higher levels of self-esteem and increased social skills (Dishman et al., 2006;Pedersen & Seidman, 2004;Weiss, Smith, & Theeboom, 1996). More importantly, adaptive peer relationship profiles (i.e., high peer acceptance and friendship quality) have been related to youth athletes' more adaptive motivation-related responses, including perceived athletic competence (Smith, Ullrich-French, Walker, & Hurley, 2006). ...
Chapter
Athletics play a central role in girls' emerging self-development (Harter, 2012) and friendship formation opportunities. For female athletes who play their sports at the highest university competitive level, perceived athletic performance may have important implications for their development. We hypothesized that athletes with larger discrepancies between athletic importance and competence would report lower levels of self-esteem and that friendship quality would moderate this relation. Among 75 Division I, female college student athletes, friendship quality predicted self-esteem, and women with lower friendship quality had a stronger relation between athletic discrepancy and self-esteem than did those with higher friendship quality. Implications for coaches and student athletes are discussed.
... Soccer is a popular, accessible, and easy-to-learn sport that offers children opportunities for enjoyable physical activity. Recreational soccer also has the potential to promote social interactions that may have an impact on perceived psychological status [15]. This was confirmed recently by Seabra et al., who found a positive influence of soccer on perceived psychological status [16,17]. ...
... Moreover, Pedersen and Seidman stated that recreational soccer has the potential to promote teamwork, sharing, and better interpersonal relationships with peers and adults, all of which provide opportunities to enhance perceived psychological status [15]. This was confirmed with several recent studies which found that recreational soccer programmes had positive effects on the psychological status of children [16,43,[47][48][49]. ...
Article
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School-based programmes have shown promising results in the reduction of aggressive behaviour, but the effectiveness of physical activity modalities among adolescents remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a school-based soccer programme on physical fitness and aggression in adolescent students. One hundred and five high school students were randomized to a small-sided soccer training group (SG) or a control group (CG). In addition to the regular physical education classes performed as part of a curriculum, the SG completed eight months of small-sided soccer training twice a week after school. Aerobic fitness (YYIR1), vertical jump (VJ), backward overhead medicine ball throw (BOMBT), and Buss and Perry’s aggression questionnaire were evaluated before and after eight months of training. Greater improvements were observed in the SG than in the CG in the BOMBT (%diff=4.3, ŋp 2 =.308) and YYIR1 tests (%diff=2.2, ŋp 2 =.159), and physical aggression subscale (%diff=-12.1, ŋp 2 =.144). Extra, school-based recreational soccer for adolescents was accompanied by a significant improvement in physical fitness, compared to physical education classes only. Moreover, the implementation of recreational soccer into regular physical education classes seems to be a potentially appropriate stimulus for reducing aggression in high-school students.
... Sport participation was found to be an effective way of improving self-esteem through fostering physical competencies, sport self-concept, and favourable body image (Richman and Shaffer 2000). Of note, the positive associations between sport participation and self-esteem were more consistently observed in team sports compared to individual sports (Pedersen and Seidman 2004). This could be attributed to increased opportunities to interact with a coach (Ba caring adult role model^) and prosocial peers (Pedersen and Seidman 2004) in team sport contexts. ...
... Of note, the positive associations between sport participation and self-esteem were more consistently observed in team sports compared to individual sports (Pedersen and Seidman 2004). This could be attributed to increased opportunities to interact with a coach (Ba caring adult role model^) and prosocial peers (Pedersen and Seidman 2004) in team sport contexts. Similarly, the beneficial effects of sport participation on health were also found to be stronger in team sports compared to individual sports (Harrison and Narayan 2003;Eime et al. 2013b). ...
Article
Objectives Female sport participation is a prioritized action area in the 2018 Canadian federal budget for improving health and well-being. This study examined team sport participation prevalence and longitudinal associations with health-related behaviours among Canadian adolescent girls. Methods We analyzed data from the COMPASS study. Participants included 1978 female secondary-school students who self-reported the following information at all measurement time-points (grades 9, 10, 11, and 12): socio-demographic, team sport participation status (consistent, intermittent and non-participator), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), dietary behaviours, smoking, cannabis use and binge drinking. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equation models were used to examine team sport participation status in association with changes in health-related behaviours across grades. Results The prevalence of team sport participation declined by an average of 38.4% between grades 9 and 12. Proportions of participants being categorized as consistent, intermittent and non-participators were 25.7%, 36.4% and 37.9%, respectively. Compared to non-participators, consistent participators reported significantly greater decline in MVPA (β = − 2.77, 95% CI − 5.36, − 0.18), and the increase in odds of becoming more frequent cannabis users (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00, 1.26) and binge drinkers (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04, 1.23) was significantly greater. Girls’ team sport participation had no significant longitudinal association with dietary behaviours and smoking status. Conclusion Team sport participation outside of school settings is risky for prospective health-related behaviours in adolescent girls. Our findings highlight the need for investing in tailored participation initiatives that also consider how to prevent harmful substance use.
... Involvement in structured PA appears to have positive psychological effects pertaining to self-perceptions among various groups of underserved girls. For middle school girls in variant SES groups (Barr- Anderson et al., 2007), diverse urban adolescent girls (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004), Latina girls (Borden et al., 2006), and adolescent girls in general (Biddle et al., 2005;Donaldson & Ronan, 2006;Shaffer & Wittes, 2006;Tracy & Erkut, 2002), participation in structured PA results in higher levels of self-efficacy, confidence, self-esteem, physical competence, self-worth, and body esteem. Evidence of a "more is better" model indicates that higher levels of involvement in PA and sports appear to translate into greater positive self-perceptions, health outcomes, and developmental experiences for girls (Barr-Anderson et al., 2007;Hansen & Larson, 2007;Sirard, Pfeiffer, Dowda, & Pate, 2008;Zarrett, Veliz, & Sabo, 2018). ...
... Team sport participation may hold particular utility for producing positive outcomes. Underserved girls who resist pressure to conform to traditional gender roles at the onset of puberty and who achieve in team athletics show more positive self-esteem development in middle adolescence than girls who are not afforded the opportunity or choose not to play team sports (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). Girls across all grade levels from 3 rd to 12 th grades who participate in a team sport are more content and report a higher quality of life than girls not on a team . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rates of obesity in the United States continue to climb with the largest increases among African-American females (Flegal, Kruszon-Moran, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2016; Ogden et al., 2016). In 2014, nearly a quarter of African-American girls age 6-11 years (21.6%) and age 12-19 years (24.4%) were obese with a BMI (body mass index) at or above the sex-specific 95th percentile on the CDC BMI-for-age growth charts (Ogden et al., 2016). These rates are much greater than the rates of obesity among White girls and are concerning as childhood obesity is predictive of obesity later in life (Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, & Dietz, 1997), which can have numerous health and well-being implications. Currently, 57.2% of African-American women are obese with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 (Flegal et al., 2016). African-American women’s obesity statistics are more prevalent than rates in other demographic groups of adults. All evidence points to a pressing need to address excessive weight in African-American females, starting in childhood and adolescence.
... Involvement in structured PA appears to have positive psychological effects pertaining to self-perceptions among various groups of underserved girls. For middle school girls in variant SES groups (Barr- Anderson et al., 2007), diverse urban adolescent girls (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004), Latina girls (Borden et al., 2006), and adolescent girls in general (Biddle et al., 2005;Donaldson & Ronan, 2006;Shaffer & Wittes, 2006;Tracy & Erkut, 2002), participation in structured PA results in higher levels of self-efficacy, confidence, self-esteem, physical competence, self-worth, and body esteem. Evidence of a "more is better" model indicates that higher levels of involvement in PA and sports appear to translate into greater positive self-perceptions, health outcomes, and developmental experiences for girls (Barr-Anderson et al., 2007;Hansen & Larson, 2007;Sirard, Pfeiffer, Dowda, & Pate, 2008;Zarrett, Veliz, & Sabo, 2018). ...
... Team sport participation may hold particular utility for producing positive outcomes. Underserved girls who resist pressure to conform to traditional gender roles at the onset of puberty and who achieve in team athletics show more positive self-esteem development in middle adolescence than girls who are not afforded the opportunity or choose not to play team sports (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). Girls across all grade levels from 3 rd to 12 th grades who participate in a team sport are more content and report a higher quality of life than girls not on a team . ...
Technical Report
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Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M.APA, & Wood, K. N.* (2018). Sport injuries among female children and youth. In the 2018 Report of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport, Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach (pp. 73-98). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
... Although individual sports are often played alongside other people, what differentiates individual from team sports is the fact that in team sports individuals compete together, as a group, in hopes of winning against another team. It also creates opportunities for interacting with peers in a prosocial context ( Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). By definition, a team is interdependent, as players must work together to achieve their common goal ( Jackson, Keiper, Brown, Brown, & Manuel, 2002). ...
... Furthermore, these meet-ups could be organized on a daily basis and participants may feel quite committed to their team, even if it is informal in nature. There is also some evidence that the potential benefits associated with informal sports increases with age, whereas benefits associated with organized sports tend to decrease ( Pedersen & Siedman, 2004;Tremblay & Whims, 2003). Thus, in addition to measuring the frequency of participation in team sports and individual sports, future research should assess whether these activities occur in an organized or in an informal setting. ...
Article
This study examined whether sports participation moderates the longitudinal link of depressive and aggressive symptoms with increased peer rejection. The sample consisted of 291 adolescents (50.5% girls), assessed at ages 12 and 13 years. Depressive and aggressive symptoms as well as peer rejection were assessed through peer nominations, whereas participation in team and individual sports was assessed via adolescents' self-reports. Regression analyses revealed that boys – but not girls – who displayed high levels of depressive symptoms experienced an increase in peer rejection. However, participation in team sports mitigated the association between depressive symptoms and increased peer rejection in boys, whereas participation in individual sports exacerbated that same association. Although aggressive symptoms were also associated with an increase in peer rejection for boys and girls, sports participation did not moderate this link. These results support the usefulness especially of team sports as part of prevention activities for vulnerable youth.
... Studies have found that sports and physical activities can contribute to social inclusion by bringing women from different social, cultural, and economic backgrounds together to share similar interests (Bailey, 2005). As part of a Canadian study by Pedersen and Seidman (2004) young women living in low-income urban areas were surveyed to investigate the effect of team sports on their self-esteem. Results suggested that team sports and activities might help to give young women a sense of empowerment and increase their self-esteem (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). ...
... As part of a Canadian study by Pedersen and Seidman (2004) young women living in low-income urban areas were surveyed to investigate the effect of team sports on their self-esteem. Results suggested that team sports and activities might help to give young women a sense of empowerment and increase their self-esteem (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). More systematic evaluations are needed to determine how physical activity influences young women's self-image and social inclusion. ...
Thesis
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The importance of physical activity in improving physical and mental health has been emphasised in many studies. Researchers in Saudi Arabia have reported an increase in physical inactivity among Saudis, especially among the female population in the past 25 years. Current efforts in the field in Saudi Arabia have yet to explore barriers and facilitators that influence women’s participation in physical activity or means of improving their rates of participation. To learn possible ways of increasing Saudi women’s participation in physical activity, this thesis aims to identify approaches to improving physical activity levels among the female population in Saudi Arabia. This thesis adopted participatory action research to (i) assess the current context of physical activity participation among female university students attending the King Saud University (KSU) in Saudi Arabia; (ii) explore means of increasing participation in physical activity among female university students in Saudi Arabia; and (iii) assess factors influencing women’s motivation to increase their activity levels. This thesis comprises two research phases. In the first phase, a cross-sectional survey of 375 female university students, who completed the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, was followed by 14 in-depth interviews with female university students and 16 with female athlete trainers. The second phase of the research consisted of multiple group discussions held over a period of three months, in which 13 female university student participants actively engaged in planning, implementing, and monitoring actions aimed to improve their participation in physical activity. Second phase data collection methods included diaries, audio recordings of group discussions, and assessment booklets.Results from the first phase of the study showed that most participants (91%) spent more time in walking activity compared to moderate (66%) and vigorous activity (57%) for at least 10 minutes at a time over the past seven days. Barriers to their participation included limited facilities for physical activities, academic workload, gender role, and the need to adhere to cultural standards. Facilitators included noticing positive results, general health concerns, and support from significant others. Results from the second phase suggested that self-motivation and social support were significant factors that appeared to influence the young women’s commitment to maintaining physical activity. Knowledge gained from this thesis might provide a basis for organisations and public health authorities to better tailor physical activity interventions that address women’s needs and perceptions. These findings are an important contribution to the current knowledge in light of recent advancements of women’s rights in Saudi Arabia.
... Although individual sports are often played alongside other people, what differentiates individual from team sports is the fact that in team sports individuals compete together, as a group, in hopes of winning against another team. It also creates opportunities for interacting with peers in a prosocial context (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). By definition, a team is interdependent, as players must work together to achieve their common goal (Jackson, Keiper, Brown, Brown, & Manuel, 2002). ...
... Furthermore, these meet-ups could be organized on a daily basis and participants may feel quite committed to their team, even if it is informal in nature. There is also some evidence that the potential benefits associated with informal sports increases with age, whereas benefits associated with organized sports tend to decrease (Pedersen & Siedman, 2004;Tremblay & Whims, 2003). Thus, in addition to measuring the frequency of participation in team sports and individual sports, future research should assess whether these activities occur in an organized or in an informal setting. ...
Article
This study examined whether sports participation moderates the longitudinal link of depressive and aggressive symptoms with increased peer rejection. The sample consisted of 291 adolescents (50.5% girls), assessed at ages 12 and 13 years. Depressive and aggressive symptoms as well as peer rejection were assessed through peer nominations, whereas participation in team and individual sports was assessed via adolescents' self-reports. Regression analyses revealed that boys – but not girls – who displayed high levels of depressive symptoms experienced an increase in peer rejection. However, participation in team sports mitigated the association between depressive symptoms and increased peer rejection in boys, whereas participation in individual sports exacerbated that same association. Although aggressive symptoms were also associated with an increase in peer rejection for boys and girls, sports participation did not moderate this link. These results support the usefulness especially of team sports as part of prevention activities for vulnerable youth.
... Este resultado corrobora outros que indicam que a prática regular de desporto constitui um meio privilegiado para melhorar a auto-estima física (Atlintas & Asci, 2008;Bernardo & Matos, 2003;Folsom-Meek, 1991;Faria & Silva, 2001;Mota & Cruz, 1998;Weiler, 1998;Weinberg & Gould, 2001). Para além disso, os resultados apoiam outros estudos que indicam uma correlação positiva da prática desportiva na auto-estima de adolescentes (Bowker, 2006;Delaney & Lee, 1995;Erkut & Tracy, 2002;Findlay & Bowker, 2009;Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). Ainda em apoio a esta ideia, os resultados deste estudo indicam que são os adolescentes que o praticam em competição e durante mais horas semanais os que apresentam valores de autoestima mais elevados. ...
... The last and fifth characteristics are ethos or traits. In exclusive ethos regarding serious leisure, people share the same attitudes, beliefs, values, and goals in their world of social leisure time, but other individuals may not understand these ethos (Heo, Lee, Pedersen, & McCormick, 2010;Pedersen & Seidman, 2004;Stebbins, 2006). ...
Article
Leisure behavior and its associated factors are complex and manifold. The present study sought to investigate the effects of serious leisure (perseverance, effort, career, identity and ethos) and recreation specialization (economic commitment, experience and lifestyle) on place attachment (place dependence, social bonding and place identity) of individuals (n = 334) participating in leisure activities in Iran. The results showed that 59% of individual differences in recreation specialization and 21% of place attachment variations were due to differences in individual serious leisure behavior, while 20% of differences in place attachment were realized through the participants’ recreation activities. Besides, the structural equation model, the effect of serious leisure and recreation specialization on place attachment of individuals was found to have a desirable and adequate fit (SRMR 0.091). The findings of the present study also indicated that the Iranians’ leisure behavior is mainly affected by the systematic follow-up of leisure time, recreation specialization and also place attachment to sporting recreational spaces.
... Of note, Eime et al. [19] highlighted that, in addition to physical activity, sport participation may positively affect self-esteem [19]. In a longitudinal study with a sample of 500 adolescents, team sport achievements in early adolescence were found to be positively associated with self-esteem 3 years later in middle adolescence [54]. On the other hand, many studies have observed an unclear association [44], or effect [13], of physical activity on self-esteem. ...
Chapter
Childhood and adolescence are particularly sensitive periods during which environmental factors may influence individuals’ present and future mental health. A large and increasing number of studies have demonstrated that engaging in physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour may enhance young people’s mental health. However, updating and quantifying the current evidence is needed. Thereby, this chapter systematically reviews the available literature in order to (1) provide an updated synthesis of the literature in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in young people, (2) identify gaps in knowledge and (3) suggest directions for future research. From our review, a small but significant positive effect of physical activity on mental health among youths emerged. Furthermore, increased levels of sedentary behaviour, particularly excessive screen time (i.e. beyond 2 h/day in recreational time), were associated with poor mental health among young people. However, more studies are needed to better understand the specific mechanisms responsible for the effect of physical activity and sedentary behaviour on mental health in young people. The output from this chapter may assist in the development of evidence-based physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and adolescents to enhance health and well-being.
... Moving forward, we believe that efforts to achieve gender parity in future endeavors of this sort are essential, including proactively utilizing the authority of League personnel to anticipate, attend to, and discourage instances of misogynist sociality. This is particularly important since literature reveals that girls especially can benefit from school sports in terms of social and emotional development [37]. Although we did not ask about it, this shorthand might also signal a desire for more diversity in team composition terms of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the 2017-2018 school year, 38 student teams from 25 high schools across Orange County, California, competed in weekly tournament play of the multiplayer arena battle video game League of Legends, culminating in a championship playoff in one of the first region-wide high school esports leagues in the US. Our team performed a formative evaluation of this League's first year, with special attention to logistical concerns as well as any potential alignments between esports and learning. Our team engaged student League players (n=39) and teachers (n=11) who managed their school's teams in focus groups and observation at six schools; we conducted focus groups with experienced player-coaches (n=5) who supported teams, and one-on-one interviews with parents (n=10). The paper identifies organic learning opportunities during league play such as critical analysis, communication, research skills, and social emotional learning; techniques to clearing administrative hurdles; and structural socioeconomic equity issues that the leadership team may not have anticipated. The paper incorporates recommendations for these areas and critically situates them for future deployment with attention to maximizing learning potential with equity and access for all.
... The focus of much research indicated that the participation of sports or physical activity is positively associated with self-esteem. For example, they have investigated a variety of variables proposed to mediate the relationship between sports participation and individual's self-esteem [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. In this context Liu, Wu and Ming (2015) found that intervention of physical activity is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents [12]. ...
... Sport in general has Table 2 Mean scores for acculturation stress as a function of sport participation. been positively linked with positive youth development (Zarrett et al., 2009) and sport participation has shown numerous benefits such as lower social anxiety (Dimech & Seiler, 2011), lower social isolation (Barber, Eccles, & Stone, 2001), and improved self-esteem (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). Young migrant adolescents who are engaged in organized sports may experience positive social outcomes that may facilitate their acculturation experiences in the society of settlement. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine migrants’ level of acculturative stress in relation to sport participation, and to investigate the role of the sport motivational environment. Participants were 127 (60 girls) migrant high school students (M = 14.14, SD = 1.46 years of age). Among them, 48 were athletes competing in either team (N = 31) or individual sports (N = 17). All participants completed measures of acculturative stress, while those participating in organized sport additionally completed measures of autonomy supportive and controlling coaching behavior. The results revealed that young migrants who participated in sport showed lower levels of school-related stress and discrimination than those who did not participate in sports. Furthermore, autonomy-supportive coaching behavior was negatively related to acculturative stress, whereas controlling coaching style was positively related to acculturative stress. The results of the present study suggest that sport can serve as a buffer against acculturative stress and highlight the key role of the motivational environment in young athletes’ acculturation experiences.
... In noncognitive domains, Fredricks and Eccles (2006) and Simpkins, Ripke, Huston, and Eccles (2005) found that female athletes typically demonstrated higher academic self-concepts than either male athletes or female non-athletes, and female athletes were more likely to have higher achieving friends. Pedersen and Seidman (2004) also determined that higher levels of achievement in team sports predicted higher self-esteem among an ethnically diverse sample of low-income urban adolescent girls. Among a sample of African-American, Latino, and White adolescent girls, greater sports participation was significantly related to higher self-worth, sense of body attractiveness, athletic competence, and to participation in more extracurricular activities overall (Duncan et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Increased political and research interest in extracurricular activities stems, in part, from the claim that these programs especially benefit disadvantaged youth. However, little literature has synthesized studies across types of disadvantage to assess this claim. This article reviews research on disadvantaged youth in extracurricular programs, including differences by gender, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and immigrant status. Our review reveals a promising, if complicated, picture. Although disadvantaged youth are less likely to participate in extracurricular activities, they often experience greater benefits, depending on the risk status and activity type. Evidence clearly supports expanding access to extracurricular programs for disadvantaged youth.
... La asociación positiva entre autoconcepto físico y autoestima con la práctica física, también se ha analizado en relación a los parámetros de duración y frecuencia de práctica (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
El autoconcepto es un indicador de salud mental. La práctica física habitual realizada de manera adecuada es una de las mejores herramientas hoy disponibles para la mejora de la salud mental. De esta manera, el objetivo de este trabajo de revisión teórica es analizar los antecedentes científicos en el estudio de la relación entre el autoconcepto y la práctica física habitual en escolares.
... 13,14,28 Team sports in particular are noted to improve an individual's sense of interconnectedness, feelings of being part of a group, and self-esteem as well as to decrease anxiety. 6,17,44,46 Despite all the benefits, there is a significant and avoidable risk associated with being a member of an athletic team. Hazing is a behavior that has been recently thrust into the spotlight due to repeated disturbing instances. ...
Article
Context: Hazing and peer sexual abuse in sport are a critical issue, brought into public scrutiny with increasing frequency due to various forms of media, resulting in major causes of numerous avoidable mental health issues, and in some cases, even death. While the exact incidence of these activities is extremely difficult to quantify, trends indicate that the problem is very likely underreported. Evidence acquisition: PubMed, Google, various legal journals/statutes, books on hazing and peer abuse in sport, and newspaper periodicals/editorials were all searched. Sources range in date from 1968 through 2018. Study design: Clinical review. Level of evidence: Level 5. Results: Hazing and peer sexual abuse are complex issues that have the potential to lead to physical, emotional, and mental harm. The underlying causes of hazing are complex but rooted in maintaining a hierarchical structure within the team unit. By implementing various changes and strategies, coaches and team administration can mitigate the risks of these behaviors. Conclusion: Hazing and peer sexual abuse in sport are avoidable and must be eliminated to maximize the numerous physical and psychosocial benefits attainable by participating in team athletics.
... In the games and sports, psychological and physiological factors play a significant role in determining the performance level. However, in recent times great importance has been laid to psychological parameters in competitive sports (Tracy & Erkut, 2002;Koivula, Hassmen & Fallby, 2002;Pedersen & Seidam, 2004;Coatsworth & Conroy, 2006;Hein & Hagger, 2007). ...
Article
Self-esteem is the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the level of self-esteem between male and female national fencers of Manipur. Forty (40) fencers (male = 20, female = 20) who have represented Manipur in the national fencing championship were taken as the subjects. The age of the subjects ranged from 17 to 25 years. To find out their level of self-esteem, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) developed by Rosenberg (1965) was administered on the subjects. 't' test was used to analyze the data. Results of the study revealed no significant difference between male and female fencers of Manipur in regard to self-esteem.
... Dies könnte darin begründet sein, dass Jungen generell mehr Mannschaftssportarten betreiben (z. B. Pedersen & Seidman, 2004) und die dort erlebten Gemeinschaftsgefühle auf den Sportunterricht transferiert werden. Eine weitere Erklärung wäre, dass die sozialen Kompetenzen, die im Mannschaftssport erlernt werden, auch im Schulsport zum Tragen kommen und dort zu einer höheren sozialen Eingebundenheit führen. ...
Article
Freude ist einer der wichtigsten Faktoren zur langfristigen Aufrechterhaltung sportlicher Aktivität. So sollte bereits im Schulsport Freude am Sport vermittelt werden. Ziel der Studie war die Untersuchung der Bedeutsamkeit und Stärke von sieben Einflussfaktoren (Kompetenzerleben, Soziale Eingebundenheit, Sozialer Umgang, Autonomie / Mitbestimmung, Lehrkompetenz, Allgemeine Sportlichkeit und Elterliche Unterstützung) für das Erleben von Freude am Schulsport im Jugendalter. Es nahmen N = 1 598 Schülerinnen und Schülern der Klassenstufen 7 – 10 an der Untersuchung teil. Freude am Schulsport wurde mittels drei Skalen (Vergnügen, Flow-Erleben, Erholung) erfasst. Sämtliche Einflussfaktoren wiesen moderate bis hohe Uusammenhänge zu den Sportfreude-Facetten auf. Es konnte ein starker positiver Einfluss von Kompetenzerleben und Sozialer Eingebundenheit auf das Erleben von Freude am Schulsport festgestellt werden. Lehrkompetenz zeigte einen geringen Effekt und elterliche Unterstützung einen indirekten Effekt über Allgemeine Sportlichkeit. Diese Ergebnisse liefern erste Hinweise für konkrete Interventionsmöglichkeiten zur Steigerung der Freude am Schulsport.
... 102). Thompson (2011) emphasizes the importance of physical activity programs being enjoyable and culturally relevant for African American girls, while others suggest various ways (e.g., offering MVP award, positive coaching techniques) to increase urban girls of color' self-evaluations in sport (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). A consistent finding in the literature is the importance of including participants' voices in sport and physical activity program design (Burden & Dixon, 2013). ...
Article
Even though African American girls and/or girls in low-income, urban environments are specifically challenged with their sport involvement, little research has focused specifically on this population’s experience with sport. The purpose of this study was to examine various factors related to sport participation for adolescent girls (predominantly African American) living in a low-income urban environment. The study examined the barriers that might impede their sport involvement, the benefits they perceive, and the reasons why they do or do not participate. Four focus groups were conducted in Detroit, Michigan (a large urban Midwestern city). Participants were grouped by age, as well as sport participation status (current sort participants and girls who have not participated in organized sport for at least one year). Each group consisted of 4 girls. Results revealed various reasons why the participants engaged in sport, including that sport occupies their time and that it is fun, while reasons like lack of opportunities and the negative role of others were some of the reasons provided for not participating in sport. These girls face numerous barriers to sport participation, such as logistical, financial, and cosmetic. Positive psychosocial development and scholarships were noted as benefits to participation. Directions for future research and programmatic level applications are described in light of these findings.
... Based on the positive impact of physical activity (Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity, & Payne, 2013), as well as the benefits of group membership in adolescence (Newman, Lohman, & Newman, 2007), participation in team sports may function as a protective factor in the development of PCS. Studies have shown that physical activity in youth populations imparts numerous physical and emotional benefits including improved mood, decreases in symptoms of depression, improved socialization, increased feelings of interconnectedness, a sense of wellbeing, and improvements in self-esteem (Boone & Leadbetter, 2006;Dunn, Madhukar, Kampert, Clark, & Chambliss, 2005;Eime et al., 2013;Findlay & Coplan, 2008;Janssen & LeBlanc, 2010;Pedersen & Siedman, 2004). Conversely, PCS has been shown to adversely affect many of these factors (Rose et al., 2015;Zuckerman et al., 2016). ...
Article
Identification of modifying factors that influence the development of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) following sport-related concussion (SRC) has drawn considerable interest. In this pilot study, we investigate the effect of team vs. individual sport participation on the development of PCS in a sample of 136 high school and college student-athletes. Controlling for several confounding variables, we employed a binary logistic regression and chi-squared test. Results of this pilot study indicate that participation in team versus individual sport is not a significant factor in the development of PCS. The identification of other forms of protective mechanisms is discussed.
... En el ámbito de la actividad física y el deporte se han intentado establecer múltiples relaciones entre las variables implicadas en la dimensión de la autoestima. Así, Moreno, Moreno & Cervelló (2007) relacionaba la intención de ser físicamente activo y el autoconcepto físico; Pedersen & Seidman (2004) relacionaban el tiempo dedicado al ejercicio físico con el grado de autoestima; Alcántara, Ureña & Garcés de los Fayos (2002) evidencian científicamente que el ejercicio físico mejora la sintomatología, la condición física y la calidad de vida en diferentes tipos de población; o Rodríguez, Wigfield & Eccles (2003) que relacionaron el impacto que tiene sobre la autoestima las valoraciones realizadas sobre el deporte o la actividad física. ...
Article
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El propósito del presente estudio es investigar acerca de la relación existente entre la Autoestima manifestada por personas mayores de 65 años y la realización de actividad física. El autoconcepto y la Autoestima aparecen como componentes psicológicos fundamentales de la calidad de vida durante la adultez mayor y del bienestar personal. La Autoestima ha sido propuesta como un área de intervención para mejorar la calidad de vida en la población mayor. La muestra la componen 184 personas mayores, de las que 92 realizan actividad física frecuentemente y otras 92 desarrollan un estilo de vida sedentario. Se aplicó el cuestionario de Autoestima personal de Rosenberg. Los resultados muestran diferentes niveles de Autoestima entre los mayores que realizan actividad física y los que no, siendo significativamente más alta en los primeros. Estudios con objetivos similares demuestran y apoyan la comprobación de la hipótesis de partida que establece la relación positiva entre la Autoestima y la realización de actividad física. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem perceived by people over 65 and practicing of physical activity. Self-concept and self-esteem emerge as fundamental psychological components of quality of life in elderly and for personal well-being. Self-esteem has been proposed as an area of intervention to improve quality of life in senior citizens. The sample consisted of 184 elderly people, 92 of which often practiced physical activity, whereas the other 92 carried out a sedentary lifestyle. Rosenberg´s Personal Self-esteem questionnaire was applied. Results show different levels of self-esteem between elderly people who practice physical activity and those who do not, being significantly higher in the formers. Studies with similar goals support and corroborate the initial hypothesis that establishes a positive relationship between self-esteem and practicing physical activity.
... Another limitation is that our sample consisted of only male participants, and it is presently unknown if there are gender differences in this effect. However, we believe this is not likely, as women's sports are highly developed and lauded in many cultures, and these athletes also gain self-esteem from increased performance (e.g., Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). Moreover, in the study by Peters et al. (2005) both women and men exerted more physical force after MS, despite the fact that physical force per se is traditionally associated with more masculinity. ...
Article
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This research applied insights from terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) to the world of sport. According to TMT, self-esteem buffers against the potential for death anxiety. Because sport allows people to attain self-esteem, reminders of death may improve performance in sport. In Study 1, a mortality salience induction led to improved performance in a "one-on-one" basketball game. In Study 2, a subtle death prime led to higher scores on a basketball shooting task, which was associated with increased task related self-esteem. These results may promote our understanding of sport and provide a novel potential way to improve athletic performance.
... These results could relate to the positive effect that physical activity has on mental health. 40 Team sport participation typically facilitates greater physical activity frequency and higher intensity exercise, which can lead to better mental health through psychological mechanisms such as increased self-esteem, 41 better perceptions of the physical self, 42 changes in neurotransmitters associated with emotions such as dopamine, and serotonin, 43 and increased social interactions. 12 Although researchers have observed that sport participation in adolescence can have lasting effects into young adulthood, 17 our study emphasizes the importance of team sport participation throughout this transition. ...
Article
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We examined relationships between pattern of team sport participation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood (i.e., non‐participants, initiators, discontinuers, sustainers) and indicators of mental health. Data on team sport participation and mental health from high school to young adulthood were drawn from the longitudinal NDIT study. After controlling for demographics, physical activity, and previous mental health, one‐way MANCOVA and ANCOVAs indicated that pattern of team sport participation was associated with stress, F(2,706) = 8.28, p < .01, and coping, F(2,706) = 10.66, p < .01 in young adulthood. Compared to non‐participants (24% of sample) or those who discontinued team sport after adolescence (51%), individuals who sustained team sport participation from adolescence to young adulthood (22%) reported lower stress, and better coping levels. Bivariate regression analysis indicated that, compared to non‐participants, team sport sustainers were less likely to experience panic disorder symptoms (OR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.34, 0.94], p = .03). There were too few team sport initiators (2%) to be included in analyses. Sustained team sport participation during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may promote better mental health. Further research is needed to ascertain causality and develop strategies to encourage individuals to join sport teams during adolescence and sustain participation while transitioning to young adulthood.
... Besides physical aggression, our results showed a significant reduction in verbal aggression and anger. Our results support the fact that those who are engaged in team sports have the potential to promote teamwork, sharing, and better interpersonal relationships with peers and adults, which may significantly contribute to enhancing psychological status (Pedersen and Seidman, 2004). Additionally, compared to other team sports, there is no direct physical contact in volleyball that could lead to the use of physical violence more often (Mutz, 2012). ...
... These results could relate to the positive effect that physical activity has on mental health. 40 Team sport participation typically facilitates greater physical activity frequency and higher intensity exercise, which can lead to better mental health through psychological mechanisms such as increased self-esteem, 41 better perceptions of the physical self, 42 changes in neurotransmitters associated with emotions such as dopamine, and serotonin, 43 and increased social interactions. 12 Although researchers have observed that sport participation in adolescence can have lasting effects into young adulthood, 17 our study emphasizes the importance of team sport participation throughout this transition. ...
Article
Background: Team sport participation contributes to positive outcomes, including increased physical activity, better mental health, and enhanced social engagement. However, longitudinal studies show that team sport participation during adolescence is also associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits, including harmful substance use behaviors. Our objectives were to examine these associations in an adolescent sample, assess differences between sexes, examine the association by sport type, and investigate whether associations carry into young adulthood. Method: Over five years of high school participants reported team sport participation, smoking status, and frequency of alcohol use, three years post-high school participants reported the same behaviors as well as marijuana use. Results: Regression analyses accounting for individual clustering revealed that participation in team sport during high school was associated with an increased likelihood of current smoking in males and more frequent drinking in both sexes during adolescence. These relationships were strongest in individuals who participated in football. Further analyses revealed that team sport participation in high school was associated an increased likelihood of more frequent binge drinking in young adulthood; however, team sport participation in young adulthood was associated with a decrease in the likelihood of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Conclusion: Overall, results confirm that team sport participation in adolescence is positively associated with substance use in adolescence, and this association differs by sex. However, team sport participation in young adulthood is negatively associated with harmful substance use. Further research is needed to understand if these trends generalize beyond White adolescents and young adults.
... Adolescent females participating on sport teams had higher self-esteem than non-participant females (Keane, 2004). Achievement in team sports in early adolescence was associated with increased self-esteem in middle adolescence (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004), and participation by 10-to 12-year-old girls in a four-week sports camp resulted in improvements in their self-esteem (Hoganbruen, 1999). Among a diverse sample of Girl Scouts, nearly one-half reported that participating in an athletic activity made them feel good about, or esteem, themselves (Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996). ...
Technical Report
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Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M.APA, & LaVoi, N. M.* (2007, December). Physical activity behavior: What girls do. In the 2007 Report of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport, Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (pp. 1-5), print version, online version available at http://www.cehd.umn.edu/tuckercenter/multimedia/tcrr.html.
... Adolescent females participating on sport teams had higher self-esteem than non-participant females (Keane, 2004). Achievement in team sports in early adolescence was associated with increased self-esteem in middle adolescence (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004), and participation by 10-to 12-year-old girls in a four-week sports camp resulted in improvements in their self-esteem (Hoganbruen, 1999). Among a diverse sample of Girl Scouts, nearly one-half reported that participating in an athletic activity made them feel good about, or esteem, themselves (Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M.APA (2007, December). Psychological dimensions of girls’ physical activity participation. In the 2007 Report of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport, Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (pp. 7-27). http://www.cehd.umn.edu/tuckercenter/multimedia/tcrr.html.
... Adolescent females participating on sport teams had higher self-esteem than non-participant females (Keane, 2004). Achievement in team sports in early adolescence was associated with increased self-esteem in middle adolescence (Pedersen & Seidman, 2004), and participation by 10-to 12-year-old girls in a four-week sports camp resulted in improvements in their self-esteem (Hoganbruen, 1999). Among a diverse sample of Girl Scouts, nearly one-half reported that participating in an athletic activity made them feel good about, or esteem, themselves (Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Wiese-Bjornstal, D. M.APA, & LaVoi, N. M.* (2007, December). Girls’ physical activity participation: Recommendations for best practices, programs, policies and future research. In the 2007 Report of the Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport, Developing physically active girls: An evidence-based multidisciplinary approach. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (pp. 63-90), print version, online version available at http://www.cehd.umn.edu/tuckercenter/multimedia/tcrr.html.
... This may be because ice hockey is a sport with approximately 20 players per team, where the cost of ice rental makes it more difficult to practice in isolation. Less isolation and the esteem-enhancing qualities of a healthy team environment are conducive to very positive self-perception, which is to be expected from a group of elite players [42,43]. These findings moderate the associations between RAE, SSE and perceived competence, which may be somewhat reassuring for the psychological health of elites who choose to invest in a single sport at a young age or for those disadvantaged by their birthdate. ...
Article
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The relative age effect (RAE) and early sport specialization (ESS) have been of growing interest in the sports world, especially in ice hockey, because of their potential adverse effects. However, little is known about their distribution within each level of play in Canadian minor ice hockey, or whether they influence young people’s perceived competence, a variable of interest in long-term sports development. A sample of elite adolescent players (N = 204) and a sample of recreational and competitive players (N = 404) were used to measure these constructs, and chi-square tabulations were conducted to compare their distribution. Our results reveal that RAE (χ 2 = 20.03, p < 0.01, Cramer’s V = 0.13) and ESS (χ 2 = 66.14, p < 0.001, Cramer’s V = 0.24) are present, but there are apparently no gender differences in their distributions. Neither the level of RAE nor ESS seems to affect the perceived competence of the players, regardless of gender. The results of this study highlight the presence of RAE and ESS in Canadian minor ice hockey, especially at the elite level, but indicate that they do not affect the self-perception of ice hockey players. Additional research on these concepts is needed to obtain a complete picture of their potential impact on sports development.
... There is a growing literature examining the positive impact of participation in extracurricular activities in children and adolescents' academic success, self-esteem, and well-being Daniels & Leaper, 2006;Donaldson & Ronan, 2006;Pedersen & Seidman, 2004). However, most previous studies have focused on the domain of sports and have included samples of older children and adolescents. ...
Article
The goals of the present study were (a) to explore different aspects of children's participation in structured performing arts activities (e.g., dance and music); and (b) to examine links between participation in performing arts and indices of socioemotional functioning. Participants were N = 166 children (75 boys and 91 girls) in Grade 1 (n = 70, Mage = 6.17 years, SD = 0.38), Grade 2 (n = 44, Mage = 7.07 years, SD = 0.26), and Grade 3 (n = 52, Mage = 8.06 years, SD = 0.37). Parents completed assessments of children's participation in performing arts (activity type, frequency, positive psychological engagement, and stress) and indices of socioemotional functioning. Among the results, children participated most often in dance (particularly girls) and music. There was some evidence to suggest that children were less engaged and experienced more stress in music compared to dance activities. However, participants in music were rated as having fewer peer relationship problems as compared to children who did not participate in performing arts activities. As well, stress in performing arts was positively associated with emotion problems and negatively associated with prosocial behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of the links between performing arts activities and young children's socioemotional functioning.
... Concerning sport type, previous research has shown how participating in team sports can lead to reductions in anxiety 25 , increases in life satisfaction 27 , enhanced emotional self-efficacy 28 , and reductions in depressive symptoms 29 . However, individual sport athletes scored higher than team sport athletes on all dimensions of the instrument (i.e., emotional, psychological, and social well-being). ...
Article
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Physical activity occurring through organized sport has been positioned as an engaging manner not only to prevent chronic-degenerative diseases but also to promote healthier societies. However, there is a lack of evidence linking competitive sport participation in the club environment in promoting youth athletes’ psychosocial development and mental health. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of age, sport type, and training experience on the psychosocial development and mental health of youth Brazilian club athletes. Participants were 220 male adolescent athletes (Mean =14.09 years; SD = 2.21) from individual and team sports. Instruments included the Portuguese Youth Experience Survey for Sport (P-YES-S) and the Portuguese Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (P-MHC-SF). Correlation and multilevel linear regression analyses were performed. The results indicated a moderated correlation between both questionnaires. For the P-YES-S, model effect estimations showed variation for age in the Personal and Social Skills dimension and variations for training experience in the Cognitive Skills and Negative Experiences dimensions. For the P-MHC-SF, model effect estimations showed variation for age in the Emotional Well Being dimension and variation for sport type in Social Well Being and Psychological Well Being dimensions. More research is needed to continue examining how characteristics of sport participation are related to psychosocial development and mental health.
... With socialization in sport, one may see an improved selfesteem and increased feelings of interconnectedness. 48,49 Removal of these beneficial aspects of socialization can be considerable and may leave an athlete feeling isolated with experiences such as shame, guilt, or depression. To mitigate this, an athlete should be allowed to engage in nonexertional team-based activities, meetings, and gatherings as tolerated. ...
Article
Participation in youth sport is not without the potential for risk including exposure to injury and sport-related concussion (SRC). SRC is an injury that disproportionately affects active youths and carries with it numerous psychological, social, and biological implications. This article aims to (1) examine the scope of the problem that SRC poses for the athletic community, (2) explore the social impact that SRC and media portrayal of this injury has, (3) discuss how this may affect an athlete who has experience SRC and efforts to return to activity, (4) and evaluate a meaningful way to navigate all of these factors with athletes who experience SRC.
... Besides physical aggression, our results showed a significant reduction in verbal aggression and anger. Our results support the fact that those who are engaged in team sports have the potential to promote teamwork, sharing, and better interpersonal relationships with peers and adults, which may significantly contribute to enhancing psychological status (Pedersen and Seidman, 2004). Additionally, compared to other team sports, there is no direct physical contact in volleyball that could lead to the use of physical violence more often (Mutz, 2012). ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the effects of an after-school volleyball program on aggression and physical fitness in 14-16 years old students. One hundred and seven participants were randomized to a small-sided volleyball (SSV) training group or a control group (CON). The SSV group completed 8 months of small-sided volleyball training twice a week after school in addition to the regular physical education classes. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test (YYIRT1), medicine ball throw (MED), vertical jump (VJ), and Buss and Perry's aggression questionnaire were evaluated before and after 8 months of training. Results revealed a significant interaction effect (group × time) in total sample for physical aggression [F(1, 105) = 17.688; p < 0.001], verbal aggression [F(1, 105) = 4.973; p = 0.028], anger [F(1, 105) = 7.662; p = 0.007], medicine ball throw [F(1, 105) = 36.143; p < 0.001], and YYIRT1 [F(1, 105) = 12.508; p = 0.001]. After-school small-sided volleyball for adolescents was accompanied by a significant decrease in aggression compared to physical education classes only. Additionally, adolescents from SSV group showed better results in physical fitness compared to the control group. Our findings significantly contribute to the understanding of possible mechanisms for reducing adolescents' aggression, which include enjoyment, motivation, and self-control through sport intervention.
Article
Well-being is complex, encompassing emotional, psychological, and social functioning. Athletes with high well-being perform optimally in high-pressure environments, overcome obstacles, and enjoy long and successful careers. Despite its importance, there are few psychological strategies that directly address athlete well-being. Well-being Therapy (WBT) is a successful, short-term strategy that increases well-being via self-observation and structured daily usage. Originally developed as a clinical treatment for depression, research indicates that it may be suitable for non-clinical and educational settings. As a result, WBT may be an effective technique for increasing well-being and performance among athletes. We discuss the benefits of WBT and provide practical strategies to implement it for psychologists, counselors, and/or Certified Mental Performance Consultants.
Article
Sports is an activity involving physical exertion and skills in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment. Sports is losing its momentum due to rise in number of children and adolescents engaging in using gadgets. Gadgets have ill effects on children as the research show that there is delay in learning and social skills, obesity and sleep problems. Technological evolution has given rise to sedentary behavior. Research show that excessive use of technology results in social anxiety, depression, eating disorder, loneliness, Nomophobia, seflieitis, phantom ringing syndrome and other technology addicted disorders. It has a huge negative impact on not only physical health but also affecting psychological and social health. Outcome of technological evolution is that fewer number of children and adolescents are interested in engaging themselves in sports. Research evidence shows that participating in sports assists in better social skills, assertiveness, higher self-esteem, self-confidence, self-control, self-concept, and competence. Further it also helps in having fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. This implies that participating in sports has positive impact on mental health as it improves overall quality of life. Despite these benefits there are only handful of mental health professionals who recommend children and adolescents to engage in sports. Extensive research needs to be done on how sports is helpful in alleviating symptoms of various mental disorders so that the findings can help the mental health professionals to include sports as part of intervention of mental disorders.
Article
This paper poses a novel theoretical framework for a developmentally-informed mechanism explaining how adolescents who are highly sensitive and reactive to rejection may respond to interpersonal stress in ways that ultimately perpetuate relational difficulties. Specifically, heightened distress from rejection is proposed to activate impulsive reactions that immediately modulate the negative emotions from rejection, but which are socially aversive and thus often come at the expense of long-term relational harmony. We start by exploring the overlap of two dispositions: a hyper-sensitivity to rejection and an escalated reactivity to negative affect. We then trace distal factors underlying the development of both dispositions, the mechanisms through which the convergent effects of these dispositions produce socially aversive responses, and the individual and contextual differences that influence this process and explain the continuum of rash responses to rejection. The developmental and clinical importance of considering sensitivity and reactivity to rejection concurrently is emphasized, with directions for future research.
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The aim of the study was to explore the lived experience of sport and exercise for mental health service users. There were three additional objectives; to investigate the effects of sport and exercise on mental health and wellbeing; to investigate the perceptions of mental health service providers regarding service delivery and finally to investigate fundamental issues of session structure. The study looked at the experiences of sport and exercise from both mental health service users and mental health service providers. Participants were recruited for the study from Leeds and York Partnership Foundation Trust and the lottery funded ‘Let’s Do This’ scheme. The mental health service users had a range of mental health conditions, were from different ethnic backgrounds and aged over 18. Mental health service providers had a range of positions from management to direct service delivery. Semi structured interviews were conducted with five mental health service users and five mental health service providers. The data was analysed using interpretive phenomenology which drew on the work of Van Manen’s methodology; this interpretive approach is utilised as both a research methodology and a method. A number of themes were highlighted including ‘The changing self image through sport and exercise’, ‘Am I valuable’ and ‘Salubriousness of sport and exercise’. Two essential themes ‘The cycle of recovery’ and ‘Intermittent health breaking through heavy clouds of illness’ led to the development of an essential statement that illuminates the essential structure of the lived experience of sport and exercise for mental health service users. Sport and exercise can have an important role to play in the lives of mental health service users. The way in which the service is delivered can impact this role. Structure is important both literally and mentally. The research found a number of strengths of the service currently being delivered. These included the contribution of the staff; both in the management of the scheme and the flexible delivery. Coaches were respected for their sport and exercise expertise and were able to change or modify sessions to best serve the mental health service users. Mental Health service users’ had trust in their coaches, they felt they were understanding of their conditions and cared. In some cases these relationships were potentially considered of greater importance than the content of the session. The way in which the scheme supported mental health service users in ‘bridging the gap’ between a mental health setting and being back in the community was another important finding. This type of finding can prove useful for those designing and delivering sport and exercise schemes for mental health service users. The findings also point to possible areas of future research and implications for practice and policy.
Article
Background: Physical activity is often promoted as a way to prevent and combat anxiety and depression in adolescents. However, very little research has sought to establish whether the benefits of exercise arise from the excercise itself or from the social context in which it takes place. We explore the hypothesis that it is not physical activity on its own, but rather adolescents' engagement in group life (as part of a sports group or otherwise), that accounts for positive mental health effects associated with physical activity. Methods and results: We conducted a longitudinal study that tracked 558 high-school boys and found that anxiety and depression over time was not predicted by (a) T1 physical fitness as determined by 7 speed and agility tests, or (b) engaging in multiple sports as co-curricular activies at T1. In contrast, multiple group memberships - irrespective of the activity - predicted reduced depression and anxiety over time, particularly when these were groups that adolescents identified with and experienced as compatible with each other. Limitations: Limitations relate to (a) physical fitness only being measured at T1, (b) the absence of a measure of frequency and duration of physical activity, and (c) the homogeneity of the sample. Conclusions: We conclude that group memberships and the social identities that adolescents derive from these groups (including, but not restricted to, those involving sport) function as a psychological resource to reduce anxiety and depression over time.
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Explores changes that have come about for females since the passage of Title IX.
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The present study aimed to determine the effects of serious leisure on place attachment in amateur athletes. The present research was an applied-correlational study with structural equation modeling. The statistical population consisted of all amateur athletes in Enghelab Sports Complex. The sample size was determined using PASS based on the research objectives and hypotheses. The respondents were selected based on a convenience sampling method and questionnaires were distributed among them. Finally, a total of 334 questionnaires were used for data analysis. The required data were collected using a Serious leisure questionnaire (Gold et al., 2008), and, place attachment questionnaire (Kyle et al., 2005). A pilot study was also conducted in order to evaluate the construct validity and Cronbach’s alpha of questionnaires was equal to 0.951, respectively. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS-23 and Smart PLS-3. The results showed that serious leisure can predict 21% of variances of place attachment, respectively. Based on the results of structural equation modeling, the impact of serious leisure on place attachment of amateur athletes was adequately fitted (SRMR=059/0 ). The findings of this study showed, that seriousness in leisure leads to the place attachment of amateur athletes, and can increase participation in physical activity. And can increase participation in physical activity. In other words, one of the ways to influence people's leisure Behavior choices is to use the systematic pursuit of leisure and to create a place attachment in sports places.
Article
Adolescent sexual violence (SV), which includes non-contact verbal sexual harassment (SH) and forced sexual contact (FSC), is a significant public health problem with long-term impacts on health and well-being. Understanding how sports participation is linked to SV can inform prevention efforts; however, the current literature is unclear about the nature of this association. Using data from 20 high schools, we investigate whether athletes in certain sports are at higher risk of SH and FSC perpetration than either other athletes or sports non-participants, and whether the risk is moderated by gender, dismissiveness of SV, or substance use intentions. We also utilize social network data to explore the role of relationships with peers and trusted adults to attenuate SH and FSC perpetration. Second, we incorporate characteristics of friends to further examine the role and composition of peer groups in the association between sports participation and perpetration of SH and FSC. Findings revealed a bivariate association between sport contact level and SH perpetration, but not FSC, and the association disappeared after adjusting for other covariates. Most prominently, dismissiveness of SV, intentions to use substances, and prior perpetration had the strongest association with perpetration regardless of sport contact level. Results also provided some support for the influence of peers and trusted adults in the sports context. Notably, the percentage of friends who perpetrated FSC and the percentage of friends who play a low-contact sport were positively associated with FSC perpetration, and the percentage of friends who play a high-contact sport was positively associated with SH perpetration. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sports context as an important venue for comprehensive prevention efforts, including a focus on changing norms around adolescent SV and substance use.
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Hazing and bullying are major factors impacting the mental health of athletes. While these behaviors arise from initiation rites and may serve as a means of organizational self-governance, they can rapidly evolve into dangerous and maladaptive behaviors with negative health consequences. Hazing exists as a trial for group entry and potentially to enhance team cohesion. Bullying aims to exclude undesired participants from the athletic group. Both behaviors have the potential to include sexualized violence. The modern athletic culture has mixed views on hazing, with some viewing it as unacceptable, while others consider it an important part of mainstream sports. Bullying has more unified opposition. Early recognition of risk factors for abusive behaviors is critical, as these behaviors, once established, may be difficult to curtail.
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In diesem Band werden die Ergebnisse der HBSC-Gesundheitsstudie 2018 in Brandenburg vorgestellt. Bei der HBSC-Studie (»Health Behaviour in School-aged Children«) handelt es sich um ein internationales kooperatives Forschungsvorhaben, das von der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) seit 36 Jahren unterstützt wird. Grundlage des Ergebnisberichts sind repräsentative Daten von über 3.000 Schülerinnen und Schülern der Jahrgangsstufen 5, 7 und 9 an allen Schulformen des Landes Brandenburg. Die Jugendlichen haben bei dieser Befragung Auskunft über ihre Gesundheit, ihr Gesundheitsverhalten und ihre Lebensumstände gegeben. Zusätzlich zu den Ausprägungen der Gesundheitsindikatoren werden Unterschiede in Abhängigkeit von Geschlecht, Altersgruppe sowie Schulform berichtet, Vergleiche mit den bundesweiten HBSC-Daten hergestellt und Verbindungen zu sozialen Determinanten der Gesundheit aus den Bereichen Familie, Schule und Gleichaltrigengruppe analysiert. Die aktuellen Ergebnisse der HBSC-Studie Brandenburg können von Entscheidungsträgern aus den Bereichen Gesundheit, Bildung und Soziales auf verschiedenen Ebenen genutzt werden, um die Gesundheit junger Menschen in Brandenburg zu schützen und zu fördern.
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Investigated a multidimensional, developmental–ecological framework for assessing the self-esteem of 1,800 early adolescents (5th–8th graders) using a new measure, the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (SEQ). In addition to global feelings of self-worth, the SEQ assesses evaluations of the self relating to each primary context of early adolescent development (peers, school, and family) and 2 additional salient domains of experience for this age group (sports/athletics and body image). Results provide support for the proposed developmental–ecological framework as well as the reliability and validity of the SEQ. Major findings include factorial validity for the targeted dimensions of self-esteem and convergent and discriminant validity across self-report, interview, and parent-report forms of the instrument. Ratings for specific dimensions of self-esteem also exhibited differentially strong associations with measures of contextual experiences in corresponding areas. Implications for the relation between self-esteem and the ecology of early adolescent development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The role of peer relationships in supporting or hindering adolescents' talent development has received little research attention, despite the importance of peers in adolescents' lives. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 41 adolescents talented in sports or the arts, and their parents, to investigate (a) the role of peer relationships in adolescents' continued involvement in their talent activities, (b) possible differences in this role by activity domain, and (c) possible gender differences. Thematic analysis indicated that peers typically played a positive function in supporting the continued involvement of talented adolescents in their talent activities. There were differences in opportunities for peer relationships and social satisfaction between in-school and out-of school activities, but not between activity domains. Both males and females mentioned equally social benefits of such involvement. However, females mentioned receiving negative peer attention more frequently than males, and more often cited social dissatisfaction as a significant contributor to decreased involvement or quitting.
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Using multivariate analysis of covariance to test hypotheses about the effects of sports and sexual behavior on a sample of 611 Western New York adolescents, this study concludes that athletic participation and gender interact to influence adolescent sexual outcomes. Female athletes report significantly lower rates of sexual activity than female nonathletes; male athletes report slightly (though not significantly) higher rates than male nonathletes. The gender-specific effect of sports on sexual behavior remains, net of the impacts of race, age, socioeconomic status, quality of family relations, and participation in other extracurricular activities. This paper introduces cultural resource theory to explain how athletic participation influences both traditional cultural scripts and exchange resources, which, in turn, condition the sexual bargaining process and its outcomes for adolescents.
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The goal of this study was to understand better how the structure and social context of adolescent leisure activities relates to antisocial behavior. A representative sample of 703 14-year-olds and their parents were assessed concerning adolescent involvement in community-based leisure activities, peer and adult social relations, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that participation in highly structured leisure activities was linked to low levels of antisocial behavior, while participation in activities with low structure (i.e. a youth recreation center) was associated with high levels of antisocial behavior. Overall the results were similar for boys and girls; however, the combination of involvement in a low structured activity and the absence of any highly structured participation appeared especially problematic for boys' antisocial behavior. Participants of low structured activities were also characterized by deviant peer relations, poor parent-child relations, and they received low support from their activity leader compared to adolescents engaged in more structured community activities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implication for prevention research.
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The purpose of this study was to document gender differences in children's competence and value beliefs (N =514) from the 1st through 12th grades and to investigate the relation of these trends to initial differences in parents' perceptions of children's ability. Six separate growth models were tested: math competence, math interest, math importance, sports competence, sports interest, and sports importance. Across all 6 models, children's self-perceptions declined from 1st grade to 12th grade. Gender differences in competence and value beliefs were found. The gap between boys' and girls' competence beliefs decreased over time. In addition, parents' initial ratings of children's ability helped to explain mean level differences and variations in the rate of change in children's beliefs over time, with the effect being strongest in the sports models.
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Physical activity declines during adolescence, but the underlying reasons remain unknown. We prospectively followed 1213 black girls and 1166 white girls enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study from the ages of 9 or 10 to the ages of 18 or 19 years. We used a validated questionnaire to measure leisure-time physical activity on the basis of metabolic equivalents (MET) for reported activities and their frequency in MET-times per week; a higher score indicated greater activity. The respective median activity scores for black girls and white girls were 27.3 and 30.8 MET-times per week at base line and declined to 0 and 11.0 by year 10 of the study (a 100 percent decline for black girls and a 64 percent decline for white girls, P<0.001). By the age of 16 or 17 years, 56 percent of the black girls and 31 percent of the white girls reported no habitual leisure-time activity. Lower levels of parental education were associated with greater decline in activity for white girls at both younger ages (P<0.001) and older ages (P=0.005); for black girls, this association was seen only at the older ages (P=0.04). Pregnancy was associated with decline in activity among black girls (P<0.001) but not among white girls, whereas cigarette smoking was associated with decline in activity among white girls (P<0.001). A higher body-mass index was associated with greater decline in activity among girls of both races (P< or =0.05). Substantial declines in physical activity occur during adolescence in girls and are greater in black girls than in white girls. Some determinants of this decline, such as higher body-mass index, pregnancy, and smoking, may be modifiable.
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Mediation is said to occur when a causal effect of some variable X on an outcome Y is explained by some intervening variable M. The authors recommend that with small to moderate samples, bootstrap methods (B. Efron & R. Tibshirani, 1993) be used to assess mediation. Bootstrap tests are powerful because they detect that the sampling distribution of the mediated effect is skewed away from 0. They argue that R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny's (1986) recommendation of first testing the X --> Y association for statistical significance should not be a requirement when there is a priori belief that the effect size is small or suppression is a possibility. Empirical examples and computer setups for bootstrap analyses are provided.
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This article analyzes the development of initiative as an exemplar of one of many learning experiences that should be studied as part of positive youth development. The capacity for initiative is essential for adults in our society and will become more important in the 21st century, yet adolescents have few opportunities to learn it. Their typical experiences during schoolwork and unstructured leisure do not reflect conditions for learning initiative. The context best suited to the development of initiative appears to be that of structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations, in which youths experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation in combination with deep attention. An incomplete body of outcome research suggests that such activities are associated with positive development, but the developmental processes involved are only beginning to be understood. One promising approach has recorded language use and has found that adolescents participating in effective organizations acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative.
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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We examined the potential benefits and risks associated with participation in five types of activities: prosocial (church and volunteer activities), team sports, school involvement, performing arts, and academic clubs. Our sample included 1,259 mostly European American adolescents (approximately equal numbers of males and females). First, we explore the link between involvement in these activities and our indicators of positive and negative development. Involvement in prosocial activities was linked to positive educational trajectories and low rates of involvement in risky behaviors. In contrast, participation in team sports was linked to positive educational trajectories and to high rates of involvement in one risky behavior, drinking alcohol. Then, we explore two possible mediators of these associations: peer associations and activity-based identity formation. The evidence supported our hypothesis that group differences in peer associations and activity-based identities help explain activity group differences.
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Convergent evidence from the diverse lines of research reported in the present special issue of this journal attests to the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory. This commentary addresses itself to conceptual and empirical issues concerning the nature and function of self-percepts of efficacy.
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This study tests a model specifying that girls' precollege participation in sporting activities will foster positive body images, enhanced perceptions of physical competence, and more flexible gender identities, which, in turn, predict higher college self-esteem. A sample of 220 college females (mean age = 19.65 years) provided retrospective reports of their precollege sport involvement and contemporaneous assessments of body image, perceived physical competencies, gender identity, global self-esteem, and other psychosocial variables. Consistent with prior reports on male and mixed-gender samples, greater precollege sport participation predicted higher self-esteem in this exclusively female sample. Follow-up path analyses and tests for mediation revealed that the model's intervening variables totally mediated the sport participation/self-esteem relationship. The patterning of these data implies that participating in sports promotes females' self-worth by fostering physical competencies, favorable body images, and gender flexibility, and, in the absence of any such psychosocial benefits, participation in sports has little salutary effect on and can even undermine self-esteem.
Article
An integrative model of self-system influences during early adolescence was investigated in two separate samples of youth in Grades 7 through 9 (n = 225) and Grades 5 through 8 (n = 350). Measures assessed self-description, self-standards, self-evaluations, and self-values in the areas of peers, school, family, appearance, and sports/athletics as well as global self-esteem. For both samples, structural equation modeling analyses provided support for a hypothesized model that included (a) effects of self-descriptions and self-standards on self-evaluations in corresponding domains and (b) effects of domain-specific self-evaluations, in turn, on global self-esteem. There was only limited evidence that the values youth attached to differing domains moderated the relationship between self-evaluations in those domains and overall feelings of self-worth. Differences in model fit according to gender, race/ethnicity, developmental level, and family socioeconomic status were generally absent. Significant differences in mean levels of measures, however, were found across subgroups of youth.
Article
The influence of peer groups on children's psychosocial development is highlighted in the sport psychology literature in areas such as motivation, self-perceptions, and affect. However, scant research has been devoted to examining children's and teenagers' conceptions of friendships within the physical domain. Current and former sport program participants (N = 38) took part in an in-depth interview that concerned their best friend in sports. An inductive content analysis revealed the existence of 12 positive friendship dimensions: companionship, pleasant play/association, self-esteem enhancement, help and guidance, prosocial behavior, intimacy, loyalty, things in common, attractive personal qualities, emotional support, absence of conflicts, and conflict resolution. Four negative friendship dimensions were extracted: conflict, unattractive personal qualities, betrayal, and inaccessible. These conceptions of friendship were both similar and unique to friendship conceptions found in mainstream developmental research. Future research directions include measurement efforts, relationships among important constructs, and intervention techniques in the sport setting.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between athlete ability and coach feedback with perceived competence and satisfaction among female adolescent athletes. 123 female athletes reported their perceptions of coaches' use of feedback, their own field hockey competence, and satisfaction with the coach and team involvement. In addition, coaches' ratings of athletes' ability were obtained. Analyses revealed that both ability and coach feedback were significantly related to perceived competence and satisfaction. Specifically, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that higher ability, more frequent praise and information, and less frequent encouragement and corrective information were related to higher perceived competence. Further, a canonical correlation analysis revealed that higher ability, frequent praise and information after a good performance, and frequent encouragement and corrective information after an error were associated with greater satisfaction with the coach and team involvement. The results are discussed in relation to S. Harter's (1978) competence motivation theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This research analyzed the network of psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children were linked to their children's scholastic achievement through their perceived academic capabilities and aspirations. Children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, in turn, contributed to scholastic achievement both independently and by promoting high academic aspirations and prosocial behavior and reducing vulnerability to feelings of futility and depression. Children's perceived social efficacy and efficacy to manage peer pressure for detrimental conduct also contributed to academic attainments but through partially different paths of affective and self-regulatory influence. The impact of perceived social efficacy was mediated through academic aspirations and a low level of depression. Perceived self-regulatory efficacy was related to academic achievement both directly and through adherence to moral self-sanctions for detrimental conduct and problem behavior that can subvert academic pursuits. Familial socioeconomic status was linked to children's academic achievement only indirectly through its effects on parental aspirations and children's prosocialness. The full set of self-efficacy, aspirational, and psychosocial factors accounted for a sizable share of the variance in academic achievement.
Article
Presented a description and initial findings from the Adolescent Pathways Project (APP). There is a dearth of developmentally and ecologically anchored knowledge concerning adolescents, particularly poor and ethnically diverse urban adolescents, other than that they are at greater risk for behavioral, emotional, and educational problems. As a result, our ability to develop and implement grounded prevention programs is severely limited. The APP was intended to fill this knowledge gap. Using an accelerated longitudinal design, the APP examines the developmental trajectories of an ethnically diverse sample of 1,333 black, Latino, and white youth from inner-city public schools in Baltimore, Washington, DC, and New York. It involves four interrelated studies: Youth, Parent, School, and Neighborhood. The project's major aim is to identify the critical psychological, developmental, and ecological factors that facilitate positive as well as negative outcomes. This initial description of the APP presents the overarching ecological-developmental framework and guiding questions, as well as initial findings central to the tenets of community psychology.
Article
This research analyzed the network of psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children were linked to their children's scholastic achievement through their perceived academic capabilities and aspirations. Children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, in turn, contributed to scholastic achievement both independently and by promoting high academic aspirations and prosocial behavior and reducing vulnerability to feelings of futility and depression. Children's perceived social efficacy and efficacy to manage peer pressure for detrimental conduct also contributed to academic attainments but through partially different paths of affective and self-regulatory influence. The impact of perceived social efficacy was mediated through academic aspirations and a low level of depression. Perceived self-regulatory efficacy was related to academic achievement both directly and through adherence to moral self-sanctions for detrimental conduct and problem behavior that can subvert academic pursuits. Familial socioeconomic status was linked to children's academic achievement only indirectly through its effects on parental aspirations and children's prosocialness. The full set of self-efficacy, aspirational, and psychosocial factors accounted for a sizable share of the variance in academic achievement.
Article
A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
Article
Utilizing a path model, this study investigated the relationship between Androgyny and career decision-making among 91 high school girls. The constructs included in the model were Androgyny as assessed by the Bem Sex-role Inventory, Self-esteem as assessed by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Self-efficacy as assessed by the Wulff-Steitz Career Self-efficacy Scale, and Career Indecision as assessed by the Osipow Career Decision Scale. The results indicated that Androgyny scores were significantly associated with those on Self-esteem, Self-esteem with Self-efficacy, and Self-efficacy with Career Indecision. The results are discussed in terms of the usefulness of path models in clarifying complex interrelationships.
Article
Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed.
Article
This study examined the relationship of ethnic identity to self-esteem, perceived self-efficacy and prosocial attitudes. The sample included 100 male and female early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 13 years old, from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Structural equations modeling was used to examine the latent structure of the multi-dimensional constructs and their interrelationships. Self-esteem and ethnic identity factors emerged which were related and which evidenced efficacy-mediated effects upon prosocial attitudes. The findings suggested that ethnic identity and self-esteem are distinct but related contributors to young people's perceptions of their ability to achieve academically, to find meaningful careers and to value prosocial means of goal attainment.
Article
This research involves a longitudinal study of antecedents and moderators in the development of antisocial patterns. Participants included 695 boys and girls who were interviewed annually from childhood to the end of high school and again at ages 20 and 24. Cluster analyses identified four configurations of boys and girls that were reasonably homogeneous with respect to behavior and academic performance at the beginning of the investigation. When tracked over time, the configurations differed significantly in patterns of early school dropout and criminal arrests. Boys and girls in the "multiple risk configuration" were more likely than those in other configurations to show long-term antisocial patterns. Participation in school extracurricular activities was associated with reduced rates of early dropout and criminal arrest among high-risk boys and girls. The decline in antisocial patterns was dependent on whether the individuals' social network also participated in school extracurricular activities.
Article
This article analyzes the development of initiative as an exemplar of one of many learning experiences that should be studied as part of positive youth development. The capacity for initiative is essential for adults in our society and will become more important in the 21st century, yet adolescents have few opportunities to learn it. Their typical experiences during schoolwork and unstructured leisure do not reflect conditions for learning initiative. The context best suited to the development of initiative appears to be that of structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations, in which youths experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation in combination with deep attention. An incomplete body of outcome research suggests that such activities are associated with positive development, but the developmental processes involved are only beginning to be understood. One promising approach has recorded language use and has found that adolescents participating in effective organizations acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative.
Article
This study extended previous research on changes in children's self-beliefs by documenting domain-specific growth trajectories for 761 children across grades 1 through 12 in a longitudinal study of perceptions of self-competence and task values. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to (1) describe changes in beliefs across childhood and adolescence within the domains of mathematics, language arts, and sports; (2) examine the impact of changes in competence beliefs on changes in values over time in the same domains; and (3) describe gender differences in mean levels and trajectories of change in competence beliefs and values. The most striking finding across all domains was that self-perceptions of competence and subjective task values declined as children got older, although the extent and rate of decline varied across domains. For example, in language arts, competence beliefs declined rapidly during the elementary school years, but then leveled off or increased to some extent; whereas the decline in self-competence beliefs in sports accelerated during the high school years. Significant gender differences in beliefs were found in most domains; however, the gender differences in developmental trajectories appeared to be domain specific rather than global. Importantly, the gender differences between boys and girls did not systematically increase with age, as predicted by some socialization perspectives. Adding competence beliefs as an explanatory variable to the model for task values revealed that changes in competence beliefs accounted for much of the age-related decline in task values. In addition, competence beliefs accounted for most of the gender differences in task values for language arts and sports.
Positive effects of participation in youth orga-nizations
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