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Variation in the form of iron in beef and lamb meat and losses of iron during cooking and storage

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Abstract

Iron levels were lower in semitendinosus muscle of beef and lamb than in longissimus or triceps brachii muscles, and were lower for muscles of male than female lambs, but were similar for muscles from bulls, heifers and mature cows. Soluble proportions of haem iron were higher for beef than lamb (66% vs. 56% of total iron, P < 0.0001), and percentages, as insoluble haem iron or insoluble and soluble non-haem iron, were lower in beef. For beef semitendinosus muscle, increases in cooking time and temperature led to losses of soluble iron and haem iron, with increases in insoluble and non-haem forms of iron, and also in the level of iron in the cooking juice. Losses of iron in drip from a free meat sample or a sample on a pad were over 90% soluble haem iron and were greater following freezing and thawing due mainly to higher volumes of drip.

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... Briefly, 0.50 g of freeze-dried sample was dissolved in 3 mL of 0.1 M citrate phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) and 1 mL of 2% ascorbic acid in 0.2 M HCl and was left to stand at room temperature for 15 min before adding 2 mL of 11.3% trichloroacetic acid and then was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. To 2 mL of the supernatant, 0.8 mL of 10% ammonium acetate and 0.2 mL Ferrozine reagent were added, and the absorbance was measured at 562 nm (Model 6105, Jenway Uv/Vis Spectrophotometer, UK) against a standard curve [14]. Using 1000 mg/L stock solution of FeCl 3 , standard solutions were adjusted at 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L. ...
... It was shown that cooking (baking) caused an increase in the total iron content in beef and lamb meat by 73% and 43%, respectively. Likewise, similar results were reported for beef by Purchas et al. when wet-based changes took in to account [14]. ...
... Increase in the non heme iron concentration after cooking was reported by others [4,14]. ...
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Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.
... Determination of nonheme-iron concentration NHI content of the steak was determined using ferrozine method based on Purchas et al., (2003) with some minor modifications. Briefly, 0.5 g of the beef steak was pulverized in a glass tube using glass rod. ...
... However, the water and water-soluble components lost via drip loss account for only a small percentage of the total water in the meat. The loss of heme iron during refrigerated storage has been documented before [37]. However, the heme iron lost as a percent of the initial heme iron in this study was much higher than that reported in literature with the LD having lost almost 40 % of initial heme iron on day 9 and PM having lost almost 50 %. ...
... In an aerobic environment with a decreasing pH, hydrogen peroxide is inherently generated within the tissue, which can cause oxidative cleavage of porphyrin and release iron from heme [38]. Another likely reason for decreased heme iron concentration is its precipitation, which reduces its extraction and further analysis [37]. The correlation coefficient between meat pH and heme iron concentration was moderate (0.63) for the LD and high for PM (0.92). ...
Article
Iron is known to cause deleterious oxidative reactions in muscle food. The concentration of the two iron forms, heme and nonheme, varies in beef skeletal muscles of different physiological origin. We evaluated beef Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Psoas major (PM) muscles heme and nonheme iron concentrations to correlate those to fresh meat retail display color properties, discoloration, and lipid oxidation during a simulated retail display and storage. Iron forms concentrations were correlated with beef quality indicators such as instrumental color characteristics and lipid oxidation over a period of 9 days retail display and storage. Results indicated that concentrations of both the heme and nonheme iron were significantly lower (p < 0.05) on day 9 as compared to day 1. Heme iron concentration correlated moderately with redness (r = 0.72 and 0.44) and it correlated weakly with discoloration (r = −0.34 and −0.47) in LD and PM samples respectively. Nonheme iron concentration correlated weakly with redness (r = 0.31 and −0.02) and discoloration (r = 0.38 and 0.13) in the LD and PM respectively. The Lipid oxidation was of both the LD and PM muscles increased (p < 0.05) with increase in retail display and storage time. However, lipid oxidation was noticeably higher in the PM muscle that the LD. The findings suggest that concentration of iron forms were not a strong predictor of time dependent color and quality changes in beef muscles.
... Este valioso alimento presenta alto contenido de minerales de elevada biodisponibilidad (hierro y cinc), vitaminas (B6, B12, retinol y tiamina), hidratos de carbono, aminoácidos esenciales de alta digestibilidad entre otros componentes. Se ha reportado que su contenido de cobre puede variar según la calidad del pasto en la alimentación recibida (Cabrera, M. y Saadoun, A., 2014;Horcada y Polvillo, 2010;Hintze et al., 2002;Cabrera et al., 2010, Ramos et al, 2012Realini et al., 2004;Terevinto, 2010;Purchas et al., 2003). De acuerdo a un estudio realizado por FACTUM durante el mes de junio de 2019 solicitado por el INAC sobre la percepción de los consumidores acerca de la carne vacuna, relevando sus hábitos y preferencias además de las asociaciones del producto con la nutrición y salud humana, el 99% de los hogares en el Uruguay consumen carne vacuna. ...
... El método empírico de Hornsey que como ya se mencionó es el método más referenciado hoy en día (Hornsey, 1956;Lee et al., 1998;Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002;Purchas et al., 2003;Pourkhalili et al., 2013;Pretorius et al., 2016), y también recomendado por la Unión Europea para la determinación de hierro hemo en carne vacuna. (Boccard et al., 1981, Anton, 2005. ...
... El factor de 0,0882 surge de la relación PA Fe(55,845 g mol -1 ) / PF hematina (633,49 g mol -1 ). Así el Fe hemínico es calculado como: Fe hemínico (mg kg -1 ) = pigmentos totales x 0,0882.El método desarrollado por Hornsey sigue siendo al día de hoy, el más reportado y recomendado por la UE para la determinación de Fe hemo en carnes(Hornsey, 1956;Lee et al., 1998; Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002;Purchas et al., 2003;Pourkhalili et al., 2013;Pretorius et al., 2016;Boccard, 1981). Sin embargo en la descripción original y en la literatura no se describen detalles sobre la influencia de la agitación ni el tiempo de incubación, por lo que aparecen numerosos trabajos que mencionan realizar la determinación de Fe hemo según el "método Hornsey" pero con diferentes estrategias de agitación y tiempos de incubación diversos.En el estudio de Lombardi-Boccia (2002) se realiza la optimización del método reportado por Hornsey (1956) mediante la utilización de muestras de carnes rojas italianas crudas y cocidas liofilizadas para el análisis de hierro hemo, reportan diferentes relaciones óptimas entre el contenido de HCl y masas de muestras. ...
Thesis
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En el presente trabajo se evaluó la influencia del grado de cocción en la retención de los micronutrientes Cu, Fe, Fe-hemo y Zn en tres cortes de carne vacuna de consumo en Uruguay diferentes estructuralmente (asado, cuadril y bola de lomo).
... Second, heating over 60˚C induces the progressive denaturing of globin, which leads to an increase in insoluble HI in meat and juice [27] [28]. Third, part of HI is converted into NHI during meat cooking through oxidation of the porphyrin ring [23] [26] [29]. The relative contributions of these phenomena to iron cooking losses depend on many parameters including the type of cooking equipment, functioning, and control, the time-temperature treatment chosen, and meat cut geometry Table 1. ...
... NHI was determined using ferrozine as described by [23] and [33]. Briefly, samples of meat (2 -4 g) and juice (4 mL) were mixed with 3 volumes of 0.1 M citrate-phosphate buffer, pH 5.5. ...
... The raw meat used during the experiments on the 3 cm side cubes cut from the LT muscle contained 2.54 ± 0.03 mg total iron/100g raw meat and 1.81 ± 0.02 mg HI, which represents 71.0% ± 0.9% of the total iron. These values were close to those found in the literature which showed that HI in beef is composed of between 60% -80% total iron [23] [45] [47]. In the following iron content is expressed for our results on a meat dry matter basis to consider both the variations due to juice expulsion and to thermal conversion. ...
Article
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Red meat contains a high proportion of heme iron (HI) which is absorbed at a far higher extent into the blood than the non-heme iron (NHI) found in plants. However, HI and NHI are expelled in the juice during cooking while a fraction of HI is converted into NHI, thus decreasing iron bioavailability. This paper relies on experiments and the use of modeling. The kinetics of the conversion of HI into NHI was measured and modeled in juice extracted from uncooked beef meat, and beef cubes were cooked to measure the variations of HI/NHI contents. In meat, HI/NHI ratio decreased from 2.0 when it was raw to less than 1.0 for the longest heat treatments and highest temperatures. The model was used to predict the effect of cooking conditions on the variations of the iron supplied by beef meat. The lowest contribution of meat to iron supply was found for under-pressure cooking at temperatures above 100˚C.
... Bacon 4,9 (Bastide et al., 2011) La viande rouge est la source alimentaire la plus riche en fer héminique lequel est mieux absorbé lors de la digestion que le fer non héminique (Layrisse et al., 1969 ;Carpenter and Mahoney, 1992 (Pegg and Shahidi, 2000). Des travaux ont montré que le fer héminique peut se transformer en fer non héminique durant les traitements à la chaleur Kongkachuichai et al., 2002 ;Purchas et al., 2003). La diminution de la teneur en fer héminique serait dû au fait qu'il est Ces évolutions sont d'autant plus intenses que la température et le temps du traitement thermique appliqué à la viande augmentent (Martinez-Torres et al., 1986 ;Purchas et al., 2003). ...
... Des travaux ont montré que le fer héminique peut se transformer en fer non héminique durant les traitements à la chaleur Kongkachuichai et al., 2002 ;Purchas et al., 2003). La diminution de la teneur en fer héminique serait dû au fait qu'il est Ces évolutions sont d'autant plus intenses que la température et le temps du traitement thermique appliqué à la viande augmentent (Martinez-Torres et al., 1986 ;Purchas et al., 2003). (Hercberg & Galan, 1989). ...
... Pour des températures élevées et des temps de chauffage long, la dénaturation de la myoglobine est accompagnée d'une libération du fer. Ce phénomène correspond à un décrochage de l'hème au niveau de la myoglobine induisant un relargage du fer sous forme libre Purchas et al. (2003). ...
Thesis
La maitrise de la qualité des produits carnés transformés (conservés, marinés, cuits, salés, digérés...) nécessite une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes responsables des phénomènes oxydatifs et des lois cinétiques qui les régissent. Au cours des processus oxydatifs, la phase d’initiation des oxydations est capitale. Cette phase se caractérise par la vitesse à laquelle l’oxygène et le peroxyde d’hydrogène réagissent avec le fer dont la viande est plus ou moins riche selon l’espèce. Les radicaux libres, principalement superoxyde (O2°-) et hydroxyle (OH°) conduisent à l’oxydation des lipides et des protéines de la viande. Ce travail s’appuie en alternance sur des expérimentations avec un milieu modèle bien contrôlé et des sondes spécifiques permettant de caractériser la production radicalaire, et sur des simulations de calculs avec un modèle stœchio-cinétique basé sur un ensemble de réactions élémentaires et de réactions bilans permettant d’évaluer l’incidence i) de chacun des paramètres du système réactionnel (constante réactionnelle k, énergie d’activation Ea, réactivité du fer P) ii) de la concentration en réactants (Fer, H2O2, chlorure et antioxydants iii) des conditions environnementales (température, pH et force ionique) sur les cinétiques de production des radicaux libres. Les résultats expérimentaux montrent : (1) un effet synergique des oxydants et de la température sur les oxydations (2) une incidence importante des contres ions et du pH sur les complexes du fer et les niveaux d’oxydation (3) un important effet de la nature des oxydants et des antioxydants sur l'oxydation. Les constantes de vitesse controversées et les énergies d'activation de certaines réactions ainsi que les coefficients de réactivité du fer ont été ajustés localement un par un. Les prédictions du modèle stoechio-cinétique reproduisent des tendances expérimentales, exceptés pour des concentrations élevées en réactants, pour des températures extrêmes et certains antioxydants. Une optimisation globale des valeurs des k, des Ea et de la réactivité du fer pourrait améliorer les résultats prédictifs.
... It has been observed that a large amount of exudate flows out of the meat product during the freeze-thaw cycles due to the destruction of tissues and cell membranes by ice crystals [2]. Since heme iron is abundantly present in the meat exudates as a high bioavailability component present in meat products [3,4], it gets lost from the meat together with exudates with the degree of freeze-thaw cycles [3][4][5]. Therefore, it is feasible to use the concentration of heme iron in the exudates as an index for freezing and thawing cycles of meat products. ...
... It has been observed that a large amount of exudate flows out of the meat product during the freeze-thaw cycles due to the destruction of tissues and cell membranes by ice crystals [2]. Since heme iron is abundantly present in the meat exudates as a high bioavailability component present in meat products [3,4], it gets lost from the meat together with exudates with the degree of freeze-thaw cycles [3][4][5]. Therefore, it is feasible to use the concentration of heme iron in the exudates as an index for freezing and thawing cycles of meat products. ...
Article
The fraud labeling of frozen/thawed meat as fresh meat has become one of the severe problems in the current meat products market. Hemin, as a highly bioavailable iron form in beef, loses with exudates during freezing and thawing cycles. Based on this fact, in this work, solution-gated graphene transistor (SGGT) devices were constructed for discrimination of frozen/thawed beef. The detection mechanism of the sensor is mainly attributed to the adsorption of hemin molecules on the surface of graphene through ϕ-ϕ interaction, which leads to the change of doping level of graphene. The SGGT sensor for hemin shows a very low detection limit of 10 nM and a linear range of 100 nM 10 μM. Finally, determination of the number of freezing and thawing cycles by the rate of hemin loss detected by SGGT sensors for actual beef samples was successfully demonstrated.
... Thermal leakage was associated with the heme iron condensation; significantly higher levels of Fe H (P b 0.05) compared to raw meat were found in grilled product. At the same time, the high temperature causes the denaturation of myoglobin, then the release of the heme complex and its degradation (Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002;Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). The percentage of heme iron to total iron content was significantly lower (P b 0.05) in roasted (− 16%) and fried (−14%) meat compared to the raw product. ...
... The decrease in the heme iron level was determined at temperatures above 60°C. Purchas et al. (2003) in their study packed minced beef into plastic bags and cooked it for 30 or 90 min at 60, 80 and 98°C, respectively. The Fe H content was inversely proportional to the time and temperature applied, and decreased by 8-14% relative to the raw meat. ...
Article
The impact of meat cuts (nine muscles and liver) and thermal processing on selected mineral (potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, including heme form) concentration in beef from Holstein–Friesian bulls was evaluated in the present study. The mineral's content widely varied depending on the tissue type (skeletal muscles/liver, except zinc) and between the different bovine muscles. The greatest diversity between the muscles demonstrated was zinc (3.5–6.9 mg 100 g−1 f/w) and iron (1.7–2.3 mg 100 g−1 f/w), however, there were no significant differences in heme iron to total iron ratio (average 74%). Thermal processes conducted on longissimus dorsi muscles also significantly affected mineral concentration. Grilled, roasted and fried bovine meat was characterised by a higher content (by 6–26%) of most studied minerals (except sodium) as compared to raw meat. Sodium levels in processed meat were 16–33% lower than in raw samples.
... The present research has indicated a significant (P≤0,01) increase of heme iron content (insoluble fraction) after the thermal processing at higher temperature ranges and associated it with significantly higher cooking loss causing elevated concentration of dry matter in the samples [Purchas et al. 2004]. However, as the other authors evidenced [Purchas et al. 2003[Purchas et al. , 2004 Lombardi-Boccia et al. 2002], generally the content of heme iron in total iron declines under the heat treatment. This is due to the porphyrin ring oxidation and iron release (heme and nonheme) in soluble form [Kristensen and Purslow 2001]. ...
... Purchas et al. [2004] showed that the increasing of heat treatment temperature (from 60 to 85°C) of the bovine ST contributed to elevation of heme iron concentration from 2.15 mg/100 g to 2.53 mg/100 g. In the earlier studies, these authors found similar relationships for lamb when considering different heat treatment parameters (temperature=60/80/98°C and time=30/90 min) [Purchas et al. 2003]. In their opinion, optimum heat treatment parameters which retain iron in heme form is heating meat in the water bath at 80°C for 30 min. ...
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The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of sex and a muscle type on heme iron content in meat of Uhruska lambs, and to determine the effect of different processing temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90°C) on colour attributes, cooking loss and heme iron concentration. Mutton and lamb, just like beef and veal is abundant in iron while iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of nutritional diseases worldwide. The lamb’s sex did not significantly influence heme iron content in skeletal muscle with average heme iron level of 14.3μg/g. Concentration of heme iron appeared to be significantly (P≤0.01) muscle type-dependent. Lower heme iron content was found in the semitendinosus muscle compared to semimembranosus, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius muscles. Increasing of the processing temperature significantly affected meat colour by increasing lightness (L*), and hue (h°) and reducing redness (a*), yellowness (b*), and saturation (C*). Rising the temperature of treatment from 60 to 90°C significantly increased the cooking loss from 9.1 g/100 g to 36.2 g/100 g and heme iron content from 1.58 mg/100 g to 2.23 mg/100 g. From nutritional point of view, the cooked lamb can be a significant source of heme iron in human diet.
... The trace mineral content of meat varies depending on the breed, rearing, diet, cut and carcass processing (Cabrera et al., 2010;Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). Meat is generally cooked before consumption, to increase palatability, digestibility, and safety (Alfaia, Lopes, & Prates, 2013;Bognár, 1998;Tornberg, 2005). ...
... These values obtained for liver samples were very similar to the ones determined by Franco (1992): 12.1 mg and 2.4 mg for bovine liver and muscle, and 7.4 mg and 1.9 mg for chicken liver and muscle, respectively. In previous studies, the soluble heme Fe levels decreased from raw meat to cooked meat, depending on increasing cooking temperature (Purchas et al., 2003). In contrast, Gerber, Scheeder, and Wenk (2009) observed an increase of Fe content after thermal treatment of beef and pork samples. ...
Article
The bioaccessibility of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, and crude protein was evaluated after submitting beef, pork, and chicken to five different thermal treatments. The bioaccessibility of crude protein and metals were simulated by using in vitro enzymatic digestion with a gastric fluid solution and dialysability approach. Inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry was used to quantify the dialyzable fraction and the total mineral content after microwave-assisted digestion. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry quantified Cu in chicken dialyzable fraction. The increase of temperature and heat exposure period decreased the protein bioaccessibility. Considering the total and dialyzable fraction, beef is an important source of Cu, Fe, Mg, and Zn to the human diet. The results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated physical changes in the treated samples related to protein denaturation, which was probably responsible for the decreased bioaccessibility of minerals and protein, mainly at higher temperatures.
... It has been shown that globins, when heated above 60 • C, are gradually destroyed and release heme, ultimately leading to the shedding of heme iron (Gandemer et al., 2020;Soladoye et al., 2015). However, when the temperature reaches 90 • C or even higher, the rate of heme iron shedding is very fast, and it is difficult to observe the effect of the change from heme iron to free iron in the cooking process on pork products (R. W. Purchas et al., 2003). Therefore, 80 • C with moderate shedding rate of heme iron is selected in this study. ...
... The measurement of free iron content was based on the experimental method of Gandemer et al. (2020) and R. W. Purchas et al. (2003), and was slightly modified. 5 g of treated sample in section 2.3 was placed in a 50 mL citrate buffer (pH 5.5), and the samples were homogenized with Polytron for 6 ~ 8 s. 17 mL of 2% (w/v) ascorbic acid (0.2 mol/L hydrochloric acid as solvent) was added after homogenization, and placed at room temperature for 15 min. ...
Article
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In this study, the relationship between different forms of iron (free or binding) and oxidation of lipids, proteins in meat system were investigated. Pork tenderloin was heated in 80 °C water bath for 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300min. Compared with control group, Equal and Treble deferiprone group confirmed that free iron was the main oxidizing substance. Moreover, adding exogenous heme caused slight increase of meat oxidation (p < 0.05). At the same time, the antioxidant properties of deferiprone were also evaluated and it shows few antioxidant properties. This study also found that the oxidation of lipid by free iron was more serious than protein. These results suggested that controlling free iron and production of free iron from heme is a potential approach for reducing the oxidative damage of lipid and protein in meat cooking.
... Our results are in agreement with those of Benjakul andBauer (2001), andRegenstein (1992a, b) who reported that the decrease in haem iron was inversely related to haem iron content. Purchas et al. (2003) reported that the drip from meat released during storage contained significant quantities of iron and particularly soluble haem iron. ...
Article
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Ozer O., Sariçoban C. (2010): The effects of butylated hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid, and α-toco-pherol on some quality characteristics of mechanically deboned chicken patty during freeze storage. Czech J. Food Sci., 28: 150–160. In this study, the effects were evaluated of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ascorbic acid (AA) and α-tocopherol (TO) on the stability of raw mechanically deboned chicken patties stored at –20°C for 6 months. pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), haem iron (mg/kg), metmyoglobin formation (%) and colour (L*, a*, b*, C* and h values) of patties were measured for 0, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage time. pH values were found to be the highest in the initial storage period. TBARS values were observed to range between 0.33 and 2.40 mg malondialdehyde/kg of sample and the L*, a*, and b* values of the patty samples during the storage period were found to range between 38.14 and 49.52, 9.01 and 20.87, and 7.28 and 14.62, respectively. The haem iron and metmyoglobin contents were found to range be-tween 8.39 and 10.87 mg/kg and 19.26% and 45.91%, respectively. As a result, it is suggested that L-ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol can be added into chicken patty samples in view of the storage quality parameters mentioned above.
... The bioavailability of haeme iron is also relatively high because most of dietary haeme iron is usually found in meat, and meat in the diet enhances the absorption of all dietary non-haeme iron through the presence of the so-called 'meat factor'. This factor appears to be in the form of the amino acids cysteine and methionine, either alone or within small peptides (23). The haeme iron content was lower in control samples than in the samples with added TLC (50 and 100 %): control (5.76±0.94), ...
Article
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Tiger nut liquid co-product can be used as an ingredient in the food industry because it is a valuable source of natural antioxidants (phenolic compounds). This study analyses the effect of replacing water (50 % or 100 %) by different concentrations of tiger nut liquid co-product on a cooked pork liver product, measuring chemical composition, haemopigment and lipid oxidation, physicochemical and sensory characteristics. The pork liver pâtés obtained using this liquid co-product (50 and 100 % of water replacement) had a similar protein and ash content, but moisture decreased (p>0.05) and fat content increased (p<0.05). However, pâtés with TLC added had a higher heme iron content, and showed a lower degree of metmyoglobin formation than the control pâté. Its physicochemical properties (colour, reflectance spectrum, pH and aw) were not modified (p>0.05) by the addition of the tiger nut liquid co-product and its overall acceptance was greater. The tiger nut liquid co-product used appears to be a valuable alternative for use in the formulation of Campagne type pork liver pâtés, while, at the same time, reducing waste from tiger nut processing industry, thus increasing its ecoefficiency.
... These factors led to an increase in the animals' energy efficiency for meat production. 37 Water loss and shear force The data for water losses (drip, thawing, aging, and cooking) and texture are shown in Table 3. Several antioxidant substances that are supplied in the feed are absorbed and incorporated into the cell, protecting the integrity of cell membranes and reducing the effects of storage. ...
Article
Background Forty crossbred steers were supplemented with different doses (from 0 control- to 6000 mg/animal/day) of natural additive blend containing clove essential oil, cashew oil, castor oil, and a microencapsulated blend of eugenol, thymol, and vanillin for 80 days. Carcass characteristics, drip loss, and antioxidant activity were evaluated 24 h post mortem on Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (until 14 days) were evaluated for water losses (thawing/aging and cooking), texture, color, and lipid oxidation. Results The use of the natural additive blend did not modify (P > 0.05) carcass characteristics but did, however, modify body composition (P < 0.05). Drip losses were unaffected by the treatments tested (P > 0.05). There was observed quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on losses from thawing/aging on the first day of storage. Regarding the effects of natural additives on cooking losses, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) among the treatments on day seven of ageing. Differences between days of ageing were only observed with control treatment. Shear force was similar among treatments on days 1 and 7 of ageing. On day 14 a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed. Also, linear effect (P < 0.05) appeared on meat lightness, meat from control group was clearer on day 1. No changes were observed in redness among treatments or days of storage (P > 0.05). The yellowness was not modified by the treatments (P > 0.05), only by the days of storage in control and the lowest dosage used. Conclusion The blend of natural additives has potential use in pasture feeding and could improve meat quality. However, doses should be adjusted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In dry products, nitrosomyoglobin stays in its native form, while in cooked products, heat modifies the protein part of the heme pocket leading to a nitroso-hemochrome. Myoglobin denaturation under heating may reduce the stability of heme iron [36]. ...
Article
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Nitrite and nitrate are added to cured meat for their bacteriological, technological and sensorial properties. However, they are suspected to be involved in the formation of nitroso compounds (NOCs), such as potentially mutagenic nitrosamines, nitrosylheme and nitrosothiols. Controlling the sanitary and sensorial qualities of cured meat products by reducing these additives requires elucidating the mechanisms involved in the formation of NOCs. To this end, we studied the dose-response relationship of added sodium nitrite and/or sodium nitrate (0/0, 80/80, 0/200, and 120/120 ppm) on the formation of NOCs in dry cured fermented sausages. The results showed a basal heme iron nitrosylation in the absence of NaNO2/NaNO3 due to starter cultures. This reaction was promoted by the addition of NaNO2/NaNO3 in the other conditions. Reducing the dose to 80/80 ppm still limits lipid oxidation without the formation of non-volatile nitrosamines. Conversely, the addition of NO2/NO3 slightly increases protein oxidation through higher carbonyl content. The use of 80/80 ppm could be a means of reducing these additives in dry-cured fermented meat products.
... Cancer 64: 342-349. Clark et al., 1997, Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002, Purchas et al., 2003, Williamson et al., 2005, Ventanas et al., 2006, López-Alonso et al., 2007, Dannenberger et al., 2007, Gerber et al., 2009, Greenfield et al., 2009, Rooke et al., 2010, Schönfeldt and Hall, 2011, Tomovic et al., 2011, López-Alonso et al., 2012and Pretorius et al., 2013 . Hyperproliferation of epithelial cells resulting from the cytotoxic effects of secondary bile acids generated from fat, end products of fat peroxidation and heme may lead to further accumulation of mutations. ...
Article
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The vast majority of CRC cases have been linked to environmental causes rather than to heritable genetic changes. Over the last decades, epidemiological evidence linking the consumption of red and, more convincingly, of processed red meat to CRC has accumulated. In parallel, hypotheses on carcinogenic mechanisms underlying an association between CRC and the intake of red and processed red meat have been proposed and investigated in biological studies. The hypotheses that have received most attention until now include (1) the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines, two groups of compounds recognized as carcinogenic, (2) the enhancing effect of (nitrosyl)heme on the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and lipid peroxidation. However, none of these hypotheses completely explains the link between red and processed red meat intake and the CRC risk. Consequently, scientists have proposed additional mechanisms or refined their hypotheses. This review first briefly summarizes the development of CRC followed by an in-depth overview and critical discussion of the different potential carcinogenic mechanisms underlying the increased CRC risk associated with the consumption of red and processed red meat.
... The shoulder cut has also more connective tissue and intramuscular fat than is observed in rump and leg cuts. In a study done by Purchas, Simcock, Knight, and Wilkinson (2003) it is reported that drip from meat released during chiller storage and on soak pads contains significant quantities of iron and particularly soluble haem iron. Ageing also significantly decrease haem iron content (Ramos, Cabrera, & Saadoun, 2012). ...
Article
This study provides data on the total and haem iron contents in raw lean beef, chicken, lamb and pork meat samples. Total iron, expressed as mg/100g edible portion on fresh weight basis in raw lean beef (A-age), lamb, pork and chicken average 1.58, 1.64, 0.81 and 0.78 respectively. The haem iron content in beef (A-age), lamb, pork and chicken are 77%, 81%, 88% and 74% respectively of total iron. This has important dietary implications in calculating haem iron fractions of meat as this is higher than the common value used in the Monsen equation.
... El método de desarrollado por Hornsey sigue siendo al día de hoy, el más reportado para la determinación de Fe hemo en carnes (Hornsey, 1956;Lee et al., 1998;Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002;Purchas et al., 2003;Pourkhalili et al., 2013;Pretorius et al., 2016), sin embargo en la descripción original y en la literatura no se describen detalles sobre la influencia de la agitación ni el tiempo de incubación, por lo que aparecen numerosos trabajos que mencionan realizar la determinación de Fe hemo según el "método Hornsey" pero con diferentes estrategias de agitación y tiempos de incubación diversos. ...
Article
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Este trabajo describe la optimización de un método espectrofotométrico clásico (“método Hornsey”) para determinar hierro hemo en carnes. Este método extrae hierro hemo de la carne mediante agitación con acetona ácida, maceración en la oscuridad y determinación espectrofotométrica a 640nm sobre el filtrado. Es ampliamente utilizado, pero su descripción original no detalla la influencia de algunas variables. En numerosos trabajos se determina hierro hemo según el “método Hornsey” utilizando diferentes estrategias de agitación y tiempos de incubación diversos. Estas variables se optimizaron mediante un diseño multivariado de tipo central compuesto. Con el método optimizado se analizaron distintos cortes de carne vacuna para evaluar su valor nutricional en cuanto a niveles de hierro biodisponible. A partir de una optimización racional, se obtuvieron las condiciones experimentales adecuadas para realizar un método analítico, considerado de referencia, de forma sistemática y protocolizada en los laboratorios para evaluar el contenido de hierro hemo en carnes.
... An increase in the nonheme iron with HPP may be due to the opening of the myoglobin porphyrin ring with pressure. Purchas et al. (2003) reported an increase in non-heme iron after cooking. ...
Article
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The quality parameters of chevon pertaining to physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics due to high-pressure processing (HPP) have been studied. Pre-packed meat pieces were subjected to HPP at selected pressures of 300 and 600 MPa for 5 and 10 min at 28 ± 2 °C. Changes in pH, texture, water activity, color, myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, metmyoglobin, microbial profile, and lipid peroxidative parameters in terms of non-heme iron and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values after HPP and refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C) were examined for a period of 30 days. No statistically significant change was observed in the pH initially, but during 5–15 days of storage, treated samples recorded an increase in pH compared to control. Textural characteristics in terms of hardness and springiness revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase due to HPP and subsequent reduction during storage. Significant increase (p < 0.05) in hunter color values of L* and b* and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in a* were observed with increase in pressure treatments during storage. The percentage of oxymyoglobin has shown significant (p < 0.05) reduction of 16 % with respect to control at 300 MPa. HPP at 600 MPa also produced significant (p < 0.05) reduction of 40 and 24 % in oxymyoglobin compared to control and 300-MPa treated samples, respectively. HPP at 300 and 600 MPa significantly increased (p < 0.05) the non-heme iron and TBARS values initially and during refrigerated storage. These two chemical markers exhibited a correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.95. Microbial profile revealed better shelf life in terms of safety and quality characteristics due to HPP. Even though changes in physico-chemical parameters were observed in 300-MPa chevon samples, it was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of 600-MPa samples and produced a shelf life of 25 days at refrigerated storage. Studies revealed the potential of applying HPP for the development of ready-to-eat meat products by optimizing threshold pressure coupled with identification of proper additives which can suppress the undesirable chemical changes.
... Les résultats du Tableau 1indiquent que les taux de lysine biodisponible, sont plus élevés dans les farines contenant du soja germé que celles contenant du soja non germé. Cela pourrait s'expliquer par l'hydrolyse partielle des protéines au cours du trempage, de la germination et la fermentation des graines de soja (Purchas et al., 2003). Les travaux de Gozaldas et al. (1986) ont également montrés que la germination augmente les teneurs de certains acides aminés tels que la lysine et le tryptophane. ...
Article
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Objectif : L’objectif visé par cette étude a été d’évaluer la capacité des farines infantiles formulées à être utilisées contre les carences nutritionnelles et comme aliments fonctionnelles. Les densités des farines infantiles en nutriments et en micronutriments clés, ont été déterminées. Aussi les propriétés antioxidantes et biologiques des farines infantiles formulées à base d’igname, soja et sources végétales de minéraux, ont été évaluées.Méthodologie et résultats : La méthode consiste à étudier dans quelle mésure l’ajout du soja (Glycine max) prétraité, de pulpe de baobab (Andasonia digitata), de pulpe ou graines de néré (Parkia biglobosa) et feuilles de Cerathoteca sesamoides, modifie les teneurs en protéines, en fer et en zinc des formulations. En outre, les propriétés antioxidantes et inhibitrices de l’F-amylase respectives des extraits méthanoliques et enzymatiques des farines infantiles formulées ont été évaluées. Les résultats de cette dernière étude, ont indiqué des densités en protéines des farines infantiles formulées, comprises entre 4,6±0,03 g/100kcal et 6,44±0,26g/100kcal. Les densités des farines en fer varient entre 1,53±0,05mg/100kcal et 5,59±0,18mg/100kcal. Les densités en zinc des farines varient entre 0,85±0,17mg/100kcal et 1,12±0,16mg/100kcal. Sur le plan nutritionnel, les densités en protéines, en minéraux (fer, zinc et phosphore) et en vitamines (caroténoïdes, vitamines C) des farines infantiles formulées contenant les complexes de minéraux malt de mil et du ceratotheca sesamoides (MCS) et MNB, sont pour la plupart comparables ou supérieures à celles des farines de commerce (FARINOR® et NESTLE®) et sont en conformité avec les recommandations pour les farines infantiles. En plus, l’incorporation dans les farines d’igname / soja, de farine MNB et MCS a augmenté fortement les capacités à pieger le radical DPPH libre des extraits méthanoliques des farines et de leurs bouillies. Aussi, les farines infantiles contenant du MNB et MCS, ont des pouvoirs antioxydants et inhibiteurs de l’activité F-amylasique plus élévés.Conclusion et application : En tenant compte des propriétés biologiques (pouvoirs antioxydants et propriétés inhibitrices de l’F-amylase) mises en évidence, l’utilisation des farines infantiles formulées contenant du MCS et MNB, dans la nutrition préventive serait envisageable. Aussi ces farines, en apportant des micronutriments et des composés photochimiques bons pour la santé, pourraient être bénéfiques pour lutter à la fois contre la malnutrition et contre les maladies dégénérescentes non transmissibles (cancer, obésité).Mots clés : farines infantiles, sources de minéraux, aliments fonctionnels, nutrition
... The effects of cooking on the total, heme and non-heme iron content of camel Longissimus thoracis muscles were significant (P<0.01). The effect may be due to moisture losses that occurred upon cooking, which in agreement with (Turhan et al., 2004;Purchas et al., 2003). The total and heme iron may be lost during cooking and released as cooking juice. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age and cooking temperature on quality and nutritional values of dromedary camel Longissimus thoraces muscle (between the 10 th and the 13 th of the left side). Longissimus thoraces muscle samples were randomly collected from 30 dromedary male camels of three-) for 48 hrs. Moisture, protein, fat and ash were determined on freeze dried ground muscle samples. Mineral contents were determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. Meat quality (ultimate pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, sarcomere length, Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour) and nutritive value (fatty acid composition and amino acid profile) were measured using standard procedures. Muscle samples were divided into two equal portions. The first portion was kept raw while the second one was cooked at 70 o C for 90 minutes. Longissimus thoraces from 2-4 year old camels had significantly lower shear force value, expressed juice and lighter colour than those from 12-15 year-old. The muscle protein% decreased and fat% increased with increasing age of camels. Values of middle age camels (group 2) were in between. Cooked samples had significantly higher dry matter, protein and fat, but lower ash than the raw ones. Cooking had significantly decreased total and heme iron contents. This study confirmed that the ' A k temperatures are important factors in determining meat quality and composition of the dromedary camel.
... The variations in colour stabilities between the blesbok muscles can further be explained by the differences in iron (heme, non-heme and total) contents and Mb concentrations (Table 2). Previous research has also documented muscle-dependant variations in Mb levels in beef (O'Keeffe & Hood, 1982;McKenna et al., 2005;Jeong et al., 2009;King et al., 2011) as well as iron content in beef (Field, Sanchez, Kunsman, & Kruggel, 1980) and lamb (Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). It has previously been noted that higher Mb (O'Keeffe & Hood, 1982;McKenna et al., 2005;Jeong et al., 2009;King et al., 2011) concentrations decrease beef colour stability. ...
Article
The increasing demand for meat from alternative species, such as blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), gives rise to the need for characterizing the quality attributes of fresh meat from these species. While muscle-specific colour stability has been extensively studied in conventional livestock, limited information is available on this phenomenon in game meat. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the colour stability of three major blesbok muscles, infraspinatus (IS), longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and biceps femoris (BF). Instrumental colour, surface myoglobin redox forms, and biochemical attributes influencing colour stability were measured on 2.5-cm steaks from blesbok IS, LTL, and BF during refrigerated storage under aerobic conditions for eight days. IS steaks consistently demonstrated higher (P≤0.05) redness, colour stability, and chroma than the LTL and BF steaks. These findings suggested that blesbok IS muscle is more colour-stable than its LTL and BF counterparts. The game industry may employ muscle-specific strategies to improve marketability of fresh blesbok meat.
... As overall, both NS-and NP-chicken meats displayed a decreasing trend in the heme iron content with extending storage time (the data is shown in Table 2). Two reasons could be linked to the observed trend: break down of heme iron (Benjakul & Bauer, 2011); and drip losses from meat during storage that contain a significant amount of iron and particularly soluble heme iron, as observed by Purchas et al. (2003) and Ahmed et al. (2018). Interestingly, regardless of the storage time, the obtained values for the NS-chicken meat were much lower than those of the NP-chicken meat (Table 2). ...
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Animal slaughtering is the most vital step in the preparation of chicken meat. The step ensures the meat is safe for human consumption since the procedure of animal slaughtering can affect the meat quality. In this study, we compare the quality of chicken meats obtained via two common slaughtering procedures: neck slaughtering (NS) and neck pocking (NP). The meat quality was assessed based on physicochemical analyses (ultimate pH, colour, heme iron content, drip and thaw loss measurements and TBARS value) and metabolite profiling (FTIR, GC-MS and UHPLC with PCA and PLS-DA). The study found that, relative to the NP-, the NS-chicken meat had slightly acidic pH, and much lower values of the following parameters: L* (lightness) (P=0.023), heme iron content (P<0) and TBARS (P<0.01). Comparing FTIR spectra, the metabolite fingerprints of both meats looked slightly different. This was confirmed to be due to a set of differential metabolites present in the NS and the NP-chicken meats, as recorded by GC-MS and UHPLC-TOF-MS data after analyzing with PCA and PLS-DA. Compared to the NP, the NS-chicken meat was rich in metabolites with health benefits, including n-3-polyunstaurated fatty acids (PUFA), triglyceride (TG), cytadine and uridine. In addition, the NS-chicken meat also contained much lower concentrations of free amino acids. This is desirable as free amino acid-deficiency is able to suppress the production of biogenic compounds, a group of chemicals that produce toxicological effects on human heath when taken excessively.
... Red meat (beef, lamb and pork) is the main source of heme Fe, which is the iron form having the highest bioavailability (Carpenter & Mahoney, 1992). According to Purchas, Simcock, Knight, and Wilkinson (2003) the general pattern is the soluble heme iron to decrease from the uncooked state to the cooked state as cooking temperature increased. In the current study, it appears that the decrease of soluble heme iron was approximately matched by an increase in the proportion of insoluble heme iron due to heat denaturation of the myoglobin molecule (Purchas, Rutherfurd, Pearce, Vather, & Wilkinson, 2004). ...
... In addition to the great effect on eating quality, studies also identified the endpoint cooking temperature significantly induced undesirable changes in meat during cooking including loss of essential fatty acids as a consequence of lipid oxidation (Rodriguez-Estrada et al., 1997; Oliveros et al., 2009) although response of individual fatty acid to heating varies greatly with unsaturated fatty acids are more prone to oxidation (Bou et al., 2001;Badiani et al., 2002). Furthermore, cooking conditions greatly affected concentration of soluble haem iron (Purchas et al., 2003;Prado et al., 2009) and concentration of potentially bioactive compounds including taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q10 and creatine are significantly decreased as a function of a higher temperature . According to the threshold of US doneness, internal temperature ranges from 55 (very rare), 60 (rare), 63 (medium rare), 71 (medium), 77 (well done) to 82 o C (well well done) (AMSA, 1995). ...
Article
The present paper describes the effect of cooking temperature on objective meat qualities and volatile components in beef longissimus lumborum. Twenty samples of lumbar vertebrae longissimus muscle from Australian Black Angus (grain-fed and chiller aged for 29 d) were screened. Samples were cooked at 50, 70 or 90°C in a pre-heated water bath for 1 h and uncooked raw samples were used as control. The results revealed that elevating the heating temperature from 50 to 90°C led to a significant (p<0.05) increase in WB-shear force, total energy required for WB-shear force, cooking loss, pH and soluble collagen content, whereas a significant (p<0.05) linear decrease in protein solubility was observed. The results also revealed that the WB-shear force at 70°C was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that observed at 50°C and 90°C. However, the effect of temperature on cooking loss and protein solubility was notably (p<0.05) higher at 70°C. The detectable volatile components were mostly produced from fat oxidation, and temperature effects on the generation of volatile components were significantly (p<0.05) greater for aldehydes (hexanal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and octanal) than for ketones and hydrocarbons (hexane, benzene, decan, toluene and 3-methylnonane).
... Most of these decrements may be due to moisture losses that occurred on cooking. Several investigators have demonstrated that heat is decreasing both total and heme iron (Buchowski et al., 1988;Carpenter and Clark, 1995;Kongkachuichai et al., 2002;Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002;Turhan et al., 2004;Purchas et al., 2003). This effect may be due to a release of iron from the heme iron complex by oxidative cleavage of the porphyrin ring and conversion of heme to non-heme iron (Buchowski et al., 1988;Schricker et al., 1982). ...
Article
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amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and total, heme and non-heme iron content of camel meat. Design/methodology/approach – A total of ten longissimus thoracis muscles (500 grams) were collected between the tenth and twelfth ribs of the left side. Samples were randomly collected from two to three year old camel carcasses chilled (1-38C) for 48 hours then stored at 2208C. The first portion was kept fresh while the second one was placed in plastic bags and cooked by immersion in a water bath at 708C for 90 minutes. Both samples were freeze-dried, and then ground to a homogeneous mass to be used for chemical analyses. Findings – Cooked samples had significantly (p , 0:05) higher dry matter by 27.7 per cent, protein by 31.1 per cent and fat by 22.2 per cent, but lower ash content by 8.3 per cent than the raw ones. Cooking had no significant effect on amino acid and fatty acid composition of the meat. The components of camel meat most significantly affected by cooking were macro- and micro-minerals, which ranged between 13.1 and 52.5 per cent, respectively. Cooking resulted in a significant decrease in total, heme and non-heme iron contents by 4.3, 8.7 and 4.0 per cent, respectively. Research limitations/implications – The research is restricted to camel meat but it is an exploratory study. The issue of research outcome as only longissimus thoracic muscle is another limitation. Further investigation is needed to include different muscles, temperatures, durations and cooking methods. Practical implications – Amino acids and fatty acids of camel meat are not affected by cooking, while heating accelerated total and heme iron oxidation suggest camel meat to be a rich source of heme iron. Originality/value – The paper is original in its findings and useful for both researchers and academics in the field of meat science.
... The non-heme iron (NHI) was determined by the ferrozine method (Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). Concentrations were obtained using a standard curve from 0 to 5 mg of iron/l made with ferrous sulphate heptahydrate (Panreac Química S.L.U., Table 1 Chemical composition (%) of foal liver pâté with different fat contents (mean ± standard deviation of nine replicates). ...
... Poziom ¿elaza wynosz¹cy w miêniu longissimus jeleni od 3,0 do 3,5 mg 100 g 1 oraz w zakresie od 4,3 do 4,7 mg 100 g 1 u reniferów, by³ wy¿szy w porównaniu do byd³a; na przyk³ad u mieszañców charolais wynosi³ 2,0 mg 100 g 1 (28). Udzia³ ¿elaza hemowego o wy¿szej biodostêpnoci wynosi³ w miêsie jeleni i reniferów 80-86% i by³ podobny do poziomu stwierdzanego u byd³a (26), przewy¿sza³ natomiast poziom (70-75%) wystêpuj¹cy u owiec (14). ...
Article
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The meat of deer is widely held as a healthy food because of its several nutritional characteristics attractive to consumers. However, the nutritional qualities of venison are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Furthermore, consumers are increasingly concerned about animal welfare and the environmental aspects of animal production systems. Dear meat has high protein and low fat contents, a favourable fat composition (it is richer in long-chain n-3 PUFAs and poorer in MUFAs and SFAs), and high levels of minerals, especially a highly bioavailable form of heam iron. Less information is available on numerous other compounds in venison that are not generally recognized as nutrients, but have been reported to possess bioactive properties under certain conditions. Food ingredients identified as bioactive have a proven beneficial effect on the health and well-being of consumers beyond the normal nutritional properties. Their action has a selective and positive effect on specific functions of the human body, including the prevention and treatment of diseases. Examples of such compounds in meat include antioxidants such as vitamin E homologues (tocochromanols), coenzyme Q10, taurine, carnosine, anserine, and isomers of CLA (particularly rumenic acid). All these qualities of venison are in great demand by today's discerning meat consumer, and make it a healthy alternative to traditional red meat, such as beef or mutton.
... Up to 25% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid is provided by a 100 g serving (Williams, 2007). Iron and zinc are key mineral constituents with as much as 80% of the iron in highly bioavailable haem from haemoglobin and myoglobin (Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). Some advantage is lost during cooking when a proportion of that haem turns insoluble, is degraded into non-haem iron, or is lost with drip. ...
Article
Red meat enriched versions of bread, spaghetti, yoghurt, ice cream and chocolate were prototyped and assessed for some of their physical, chemical and microbiological properties, as well as sensory appeal. The protein content of the products were significantly increased and their colour went darker with meat enrichment (p <. 0.05). Bread volume and spaghetti tensile strength increased and ice cream meltability and yoghurt apparent viscosity decreased with meat enrichment (p <. 0.05). The overall acceptability/liking of bread, flavoured ice cream and spaghetti were not affected (p >. 0.05) but that of non-flavoured ice cream and yoghurt went down (p <. 0.05) with meat enrichment. 75% of the 940 panellist who ate the meat-enriched chocolates either loved or slightly-liked them. The outcome of the present study would assist in making the nutrition of meat available in a wider range of product categories, helping the meat industry stretch its established business models, and encouraging further development of novel food choices for elderly and other groups of consumers.
... Cu and Mg has been found to migrate from bovine liver to water during boiling and thus enhanced the bio-accessibility of minerals (Da Silva et al., 2017). Boiling could induce nonheme iron and heme pigments migrate from beef and lamb meat into soup (Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). The content of free amino acid increased significantly during stewing of chicken soup due to the fact that cooking processing induced the free amino acid continue to migrate from chicken tissue into the soup (Qi, Liu, Zhou, & Xu, 2017). ...
Article
The effects of quercetin and cinnamaldehyde, two popular dietary phytochemicals from vegetables and spices on the general nutrient content and whole chemical profile of beef soup during stewing were investigated by routine chemical analysis and an UPLC-MS/MS based untargeted metabolomics analysis. It was found that quercetin decreased the content of total sugar and methionine, and increased solid matters, unsaturated fatty acids and zinc content in beef soup. Cinnamaldehyde decreased total sugar, aspartic acid and zinc content, but increased total fatty acids in beef soup. Metabolomics results showed that a total of 204 metabolites were assigned to putative molecular classes. 12 metabolite species were summarized based on the chemical structure using HMDB. Cinnamaldehyde decreased the content of most of the molecule species in beef soup while quercetin did not have significant effect. In general, cinnamaldehyde decreased the nutritional value of beef soup, thus spices rich in cinnamaldehyde may not be suitable used for preparing meat soup due to its negative effect on nutrient contents in beef soup. This work could help to fully understand the effects of quercetin and cinnamaldehyde on the nutritional value of beef soup.
... During processing, the NHI content gradually increased for all samples, due to several factors including low pH, denaturation, chamber temperature, presence of salt in the formulation, and high speed of microbial and oxidative reactions. Unlike the findings reported for beef and lamb (Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003), fish (Chaijan, Benjakul, Visessanguan, & Faustman, 2005) and ham (Li, Li, Xu, & Zhou, 2012), with an increase in NHI during storage, in this experiment the NHI concentration reduced after 30 days and 120 days of storage (Fig. 6b). However, the evaluation period of those studies was shorter, and no studies on the NHI behavior during storage of Italian salami or dry fermented sausages were found in the literature. ...
Article
Italian salami were sonicated in different times (0, 3, 6 and 9 min) using ultrasound bath (US, 25 kHz). The effect of sonication on microbial growth (lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae), lipid and protein oxidation, total heme pigments (THP), non heme iron (NHI) and metmyoglobin (MMb) was investigated during processing (0, 2, 15, and 28 days) and storage (1, 30, and 120 days). US enhanced growth of microorganisms (P < 0.05), mainly for the treatment 9 min of sonication. The lipid (peroxide value and TBARS) and protein (thiol group) oxidative reactions were accelerated by US (P < 0.05) and they should be considered to maintain Italian salami quality. Sonication contributed to maintenance of THP (P < 0.05), especially during storage. MMb pigment was not affected by sonication (P > 0.05). This study presented some features of US application that could be explored in the manufacture of Italian salami.
... Benjakul and Bauer (2001) found that heme iron content in catfish fillet decreased when the length of freeze-thaw cycles increased and they reported that the decrease in heme iron was inversely related to non-heme iron content. Variation in the form of iron in beef and lamb meat and losses of iron during cooking and storage were investigated by Purchas et al. (2003). According to them, drip from meat released during storage contained significant quantities of iron and particularly soluble heme iron. ...
Article
The effects of the number of freeze-thaw cycles on total and heme iron contents of bonito (Sarda sarda) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltator) fillets were investigated. The prepared fillets were packaged in polyethylene bags, the bags were heat sealed and than these samples were Subjected to a total of 5 freeze-thaw cycles. Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on total and heme iron content of bonito and bluefish fillets were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The total and heme iron contents of both fishes decreased as the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased, and the highest losses were found after the second freeze-thaw cycle. Total and heme iron losses were higher in bluefish fillet. The multiple freeze-thaw process therefore is not suitable in terms of total and heme iron contents. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Previously, ostrich, beef, and horse raw meat were reported to contain high concentrations of iron and heme iron [19,33], while after applying high temperature, levels of iron and heme iron remained on a similar level in the ostrich meat, while decreasing by up to twenty percent in beef, lamb, and pork [34]. High temperatures also reduced the iron bioavailability [35]. Therefore, it is crucial to apply appropriate temperatures during meat processing [33]; it should not be higher than 55 • C [36], to avoid myoglobin denaturation. ...
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The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich (m. ambiens), beef (m. semimembranosus), and broiler chicken meat (m. pectoralis major). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef), biologically active peptides (carnosine—in beef, anserine—in ostrich then in chicken meat). The, beneficial to human health, n-3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.
... However, iron deficiency anemia, with an estimated 3 billion people affected, is still a major worldwide public health problem . Beef is a good source of dietary iron in regard to both amount and bioavailability (Purchas et al., 2003). ...
Article
Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms. Tissue iron concentration shows natural variations among individuals, because of the influence of both environmental and genetic factors. Body iron, though essential, is also toxic in excess by generating reactive oxygen species. Iron homeostasis, thus, must be maintained systemically by the rate of iron absorption, iron utilization, iron storage and the rate of iron recycling. It is possible that mutations in any of the genes that encode proteins involved in maintaining iron homeostasis have the potential to alter iron load. The effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a major genetic factor, on beef iron content were investigated in the current study. The first objective of this study was to determine the variation of iron content in bovine longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. The second objective was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and their flanking regions of the bovine ferroportin gene (Fpn) and to evaluate the association between the identified SNPs and bovine muscle iron content. LD muscle samples were collected from 1086 Angus cattle for iron quantification and genomic DNA extraction. Nine exons and their flanking regions of Fpn were amplified and sequenced with 6 selected DNA samples. Genotyping was carried out for 1086 cattle. Nine novel SNPs, NC007300: g.1780 A>G, g.1872 A>G, g.7169 C>T, g.7477 C>G, g.19208 C>T, g.19263 A>G, g.19427 A>G, g.19569 C>T and g.20480 C>T, were identified. Statistical analysis showed that three of the nine SNPs, g.19208 C>T, g.19263 A>G, and g.20480 C>T, were significantly (P < 0.007) associated with muscle iron content. High linkage disequilibrium was observed for SNP g.19208 C>T, g. 19263 A>G and g. 20480 C>T (R2 > 0.99), with which two haplotypes, TGC and CAT, were defined. Beef from individuals that were homozygous for the TGC haplotype had significantly (P < 0.001) higher iron contents than did beef from CAT homozygous or heterozygous individuals. In conclusion, results of the current study indicated that SNPs, NC007300: g.19208 C>T, g.19263 A>G, and g.20480 C>T, in Fpn might be useful markers for the selection of Angus cattle that produce progeny with a more desirable iron composition and therefore improve the healthfulness of beef. Further studies are needed to verify the observed effect in other independent populations and elucidate the biological mechanisms of the SNP effects.
... The rather large disagreement between FCT-based estimation of dietary iron intake and instrumental measures has also been reported by other researchers [19][20][21][22][23]. Furthermore, overestimation by FCT-based dietary assessment tools was observed in our previous analyses on the intakes of copper and phosphorous by adults living in Shiraz, Iran [8,9]. The large deviation from the agreement can be at least partly attributed to not taking into account the influence of environment and culinary culture on the nutrient content of food products in FCTs; this becomes more evident when looking at previous studies investigating the effect of regional differences, various cooking methods and even cooking utensils on the iron concentration of foods [24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. Despite these limitations, it is surprising that in Iran, as many less developed countries, no effort has been made to develop national FCTs. ...
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... The non-heme iron was determined by the ferrozine method (Purchas, Simcock, Knight, & Wilkinson, 2003). Briefly, dry samples of meat (500 mg) were ground using a mortar and pestle, dissolved in a mixture of 3 mL of 0.1 M citrate phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) and 1 mL of 2% ascorbic acid (as reducing agent) in 0.2 M HCl and left to stand at room temperature for 15 min before adding 2 mL of 11.3% trichloroacetic acid. ...
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Distribution of iron in six fractions (water-soluble, water-insoluble, diffusate, hematin, total heme, and ferritin) of beef and chicken muscles hcatcd to 55, 70, 85, and 100°C was determined. Iron content decreased in water-soluble fractions and increased in water-insoluble fractions as temperature increased from 27°C to 100°C. Heme iron decreased more from 55°C to 85°C than from 27°C to 55°C or 85°C to 100°C. The increase in diffusate iron appeared to be less than the decrease in heme iron at each heating temperature. As temperature increased from 27°C to 100°C, hematin iron content increased and extractable ferritin iron content decreased. These findings may help explain rapid development of oxidative rancidity in cooked meat.
Article
Iron is vital for all living organisms. However, excess iron is hazardous because it produces free radical formation. Therefore, iron absorption is carefully regulated to maintain an equilibrium between absorption and body loss of iron. In countries where heme is a significant part of the diet, most body iron is derived from dietary heme iron because heme binds few of the luminal intestinal iron chelators that inhibit absorption of non-heme iron. Uptake of luminal heme into enterocytes occurs as a metalloporphyrin. Intracellularly, iron is released from heme by heme oxygenase so that iron leaves the enterocyte to enter the plasma as non-heme iron. Ferric iron is absorbed via a β3 integrin and mobilferrin (IMP) pathway that is not shared with other nutritional metals. Ferrous iron uptake is facilitated by DMT-1 (Nramp-2, DCT-1) in a pathway shared with manganese. Other proteins were recently described which are believed to play a role in iron absorption. SFT (Stimulator of Iron Transport) is postulated to facilitate both ferric and ferrous iron uptake, and Hephaestin is thought to be important in transfer of iron from enterocytes into the plasma. The iron concentration within enterocytes reflects the total body iron and either upregulates or satiates iron-binding sites on regulatory proteins. Enterocytes of hemochromatotics are iron-depleted similarly to the absorptive cells of iron-deficient subjects. Iron depletion, hemolysis, and hypoxia each can stimulate iron absorption. In non-intestinal cells most iron uptake occurs via either the classical clathrin-coated pathway utilizing transferrin receptors or the poorly defined transferrin receptor independent pathway. Non-intestinal cells possess the IMP and DMT-1 pathways though their role in the absence of iron overload is unclear. This suggests that these pathways have intracellular functions in addition to facilitating iron uptake. Am. J. Hematol. 64:287–298, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The nutrient composition of Spring and Fall lambs were investigated. Seven retail cuts from carcasses of lambs raised under commercial conditions, and representing two age groups (4–4½ mo and 8–9 mo) were analyzed in both raw and cooked form. Separable lean meat was analyzed for proximate composition, 8 vitamins, 8 inorganic nutrients, cholesterol and 12 fatty acids. Except for moisture, total lipid, riboflavin, niacin, Zn and Fe, there were no practical differences in nutrients between cuts or age groups. Thiamin had the lowest cooking retention with a range of 29.0-63.5%.
Article
The effect of two packaging cycles (double flush, 28 s; triple flush, 55 s) on the colour stability of beef in retail trays with oxygen scavengers within a mother pack (50% CO2/50% N2) was assessed. Steaks from six muscles, M. longissimus dorsi, M. psoas major, M. semimembranosus, M. gluteus medius, M. semitendinosus and M. biceps femoris, were examined. The residual oxygen in mother packs was unaffected by the packaging cycle and was below 0.1% in trays for both treatments for up to 6 weeks storage. After storage for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, the packaging cycle had no effect on colour stability (HunterLab a and hue) during 96 h of display. Panel scores for visual and odour acceptability of packaged steaks were generally as high as for fresh controls. Based on reflectance measurements (R630 –R580), M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus steaks had a display life of 4 days after storage for up to 6 weeks. M. psoas major and M. semimembranosus steaks had a display life as long as fresh controls after 4 weeks, whereas M. gluteus medius and M. biceps femoris steaks had a shorter display life than fresh steaks. It was concluded that the double-flush cycle could be used without affecting the colour or acceptability of beefsteaks.
Article
A simple and rapid method is described for extracting and measuring the nitric oxide-haem pigments present in cooked cured meat. Selective extraction as a nitric oxide-haem-acetone complex is achieved by the use of an acetone/water solvent. Other meat pigments are not extracted under the conditions used. The acetone/water ratio is shown to be critical, maximum extraction being obtained with a ratio of 4: 1, due allowance being made for the moisture present in the meat. After filtration, the optical density is measured spectrophotometrically. With the inclusion of hydrochloric acid in the solvent, the method can be adapted to measure the total pigments present.
Article
One way to prevent iron deficiency anemia in developing countries is through the fortification of food products with iron. In addition to avoiding undesirable color and flavor changes, the main challenge is to protect the fortification iron from potential inhibitors of iron absorption present in commonly fortified foods.
Article
Heme iron from meat has a superior bioavailability compared to non-heme iron and, from a nutritional point of view, processing of meat should be optimised to maintain high levels of heme iron. The effects of heat treatment and addition of NaCl and other ionic species, on the heme-iron/nonheme-iron ratio (H/NH) in meat, have been studied by measuring heme and non-heme iron in minced, vacuum-packed pork. Heating temperature has a gross effect on H/NH with a decrease in heme iron content of 62% after heating at 80°C for 2 h. The correlation (r2) between heme and non-heme iron determinations was −0.92. NaCl increases H/NH in cooked meat by preventing the heme molecule from liberating iron, probably by an increase in the ionic strength of the meat. Calcium ions have a gross negative effect on H/NH during cooking of meat. These effects of sodium and calcium on H/NH in heat treated meat have not been previously reported.
Article
In order to gain more knowledge of the systematic changes occurring in meat tenderness and colour of different breeds and sexes of growing cattle, a number of characteristics were studied in five different muscles of Afrikaner and Friesland bulls and steers between birth and 24 months of age. Muscle collagen content of bulls was higher at birth than at all other ages and solubility of collagen decreased markedly between birth and 16 months of age. Shear force increased between 8 and 16 months, partially coinciding with the decrease in collagen solubility. Collagen content of muscles was higher in bulls than in steers and solubility decreased markedly between 12 and 16 months, only in the case of bulls. Afrikaner muscles were more tender than those of Frieslands and had a higher content and solubility of collagen. Pigment content was higher in Afrikaner than in Friesland muscles and increased steadily with age in all animals. The results show that the biological differences found to influence muscle characteristics were particularly those of age and breed of animal.
Article
The effect of heat on movement of total and heme iron from meat to broth was investigated. Total iron by a wet ash method was nearly identical to the sum of heme iron plus nonheme iron. The total amount of nonheme iron increased with cooking temperature (r = 0.98), as did the amount of nonheme iron in the broth (r = 0.93). Leaching of heme pigments into the broth was greatest at 60°C. Boiling (97°C) rapidly coagulated the meat pigments and minimized the leaching of heme pigments into the broth. More total iron (85.3%) was retained in boiled (97°C) meat than in meat heated 1 hr at 60°C (81.6%), 77°C (78.2%) or autoclaved (77.5%).
The metabolic characteristics of 12 skeletal muscles of the sheep were studied. Glycolytic activities (hexokinase, glycogen synthetase I and D, phosphorylase a and b, phosphofructokinase) were measured. Myofibrillar ATPase activity was evaluated. Oxygen consumption, respiratory control and carnitine palmity1 transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities were measured in isolated mitochondria. Three metabolic types could be distinguished;(1) essentially oxidative slow twitch muscles, typified by the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, having low ATPase activity, (2) fast twitch red muscles, typified by the longissimus dorsi and the semimembranosus, having a higher ATPase activity and both high oxidative and high glycolytic activity, and (3) essentially glycolytic fast twitch muscles, typified by the tensor fascia lata and the semitendinosus, having the highest ATPase activity.
Article
An in vitro method for estimating food iron availability is described. The method involves simulated gastrointestinal digestion followed by measurement of soluble, low molecular weight iron. Mixtures of foods (meals) were homogenized and exposed to pepsin at pH 2. Dialysis was used to adjust the pH to intestinal levels and digestion was continued after the addition of pancreatin and bile salts. Iron from the digestion mixture which diffused across a 6 to 8000 molecular weight cutoff semipermeable membrane was used as an indicator of available iron. Results were similar when intrinsic food iron or added extrinsic radioiron was measured. Availability estimates were made on meals formulated to contain known iron availability enhancing and inhibiting factors. Relative availabilities determined for a series of meals containing ascorbic acid, eggs, orange juice, tea, coffee, cola, or whole wheat bread show that the method accurately reflects actual food iron availability.
Article
Beef, lamb, pork and chicken leg muscles were extracted with distilled water and the soluble iron and zinc compounds separated by gel filtration and dialysis. Iron was distributed between five main components: an insoluble fraction, ferritin, haemoglobin, myoglobin and a low molecular weight fraction. In beef and lamb, myoglobin was the predominant iron compound but in pork and chicken, most of the iron was associated with the insoluble fraction. Whereas more than 70% of beef iron was associated with the haemoproteins, haemoglobin and myoglobin, less than 30% of chicken iron was in this form. Even so, in all meats most of the soluble iron was associated with the haemoproteins. Zinc was present mainly in the insoluble fraction. The soluble zinc was distributed between five main components. Over 70% of soluble zinc was associated with two components having molecular weights of 65 000 and 35 000. The nature and availability of zinc and iron in the various meat fractions is discussed.
Article
One way to prevent iron deficiency anemia in developing countries is through the fortification of food products with iron. In addition to avoiding undesirable color and flavor changes, the main challenge is to protect the fortification iron from potential inhibitors of iron absorption present in commonly fortified foods.
Article
Heme iron is absorbed from meat more efficiently than dietary inorganic iron and in a different manner. Thus, iron deficiency is less frequent in countries where meat constitutes a significant part of the diet. Proteolytic digestion of myoglobin and hemoglobin results in the release of heme, which is maintained in a soluble form by globin degradation products so that it remains available for absorption. Chelators that either diminish or enhance the absorption of inorganic iron have little effect on the absorption of heme iron. Heme enters the small intestinal absorptive cell as an intact metalloporphyrin. This may be facilitated by a vesicular transport system. In the absorptive cell the porphyrin ring is split by heme oxygenase. The released inorganic iron becomes associated with mobilferrin and paraferritin, which acts as a ferrireductase to make iron available for production of iron-containing end products such as heme proteins. Mucosal transfer of iron into the body occurs competitively with dietary iron that entered the absorptive cell as inorganic iron because they both share a common pathway within the intestinal cell.
Article
Iron is vital for all living organisms. However, excess iron is hazardous because it produces free radical formation. Therefore, iron absorption is carefully regulated to maintain an equilibrium between absorption and body loss of iron. In countries where heme is a significant part of the diet, most body iron is derived from dietary heme iron because heme binds few of the luminal intestinal iron chelators that inhibit absorption of non-heme iron. Uptake of luminal heme into enterocytes occurs as a metalloporphyrin. Intracellularly, iron is released from heme by heme oxygenase so that iron leaves the enterocyte to enter the plasma as non-heme iron. Ferric iron is absorbed via a beta(3) integrin and mobilferrin (IMP) pathway that is not shared with other nutritional metals. Ferrous iron uptake is facilitated by DMT-1 (Nramp-2, DCT-1) in a pathway shared with manganese. Other proteins were recently described which are believed to play a role in iron absorption. SFT (Stimulator of Iron Transport) is postulated to facilitate both ferric and ferrous iron uptake, and Hephaestin is thought to be important in transfer of iron from enterocytes into the plasma. The iron concentration within enterocytes reflects the total body iron and either upregulates or satiates iron-binding sites on regulatory proteins. Enterocytes of hemochromatotics are iron-depleted similarly to the absorptive cells of iron-deficient subjects. Iron depletion, hemolysis, and hypoxia each can stimulate iron absorption. In non-intestinal cells most iron uptake occurs via either the classical clathrin-coated pathway utilizing transferrin receptors or the poorly defined transferrin receptor independent pathway. Non-intestinal cells possess the IMP and DMT-1 pathways though their role in the absence of iron overload is unclear. This suggests that these pathways have intracellular functions in addition to facilitating iron uptake.
Factors affecting forms of iron in red meat
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