From Material to Tissue: Biomaterial Development, Scaffold Fabrication, and Tissue Engineering

Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251
AIChE Journal (Impact Factor: 2.75). 12/2008; 54(12):3048 - 3067. DOI: 10.1002/aic.11610


The need for techniques to facilitate the regeneration of failing or destroyed tissues remains great with the aging of the worldwide population and the continued incidence of trauma and diseases such as cancer. A 16-year history in biomaterial scaffold development and tissue engineering is examined, beginning with the synthesis of novel materials and fabrication of 3D porous scaffolds. Exploring cell-scaffold interactions and subsequently cellular delivery using biomaterial carriers, we have developed a variety of techniques for bone and cartilage engineering. In addition to delivering cells, we have utilized growth factors, DNA, and peptides to improve the in vitro and in vivo regeneration of tissues. This review covers important developments and discoveries within our laboratory, and the increasing breadth in the scope of our work within the expanding field of tissue engineering is presented. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2008

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    • "The research field and development of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has progressed at a very rapid rate [1]. Tissue engineering has emerged as an attractive approach involving the combining of cells, scaffolds, and bioactive agents to fabricate functional new tissue to replace damaged tissue [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to fabricate BMP-2-immobilized porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (PMS) modified with heparin for bone regeneration. A fluidic device was used to fabricate PMS and the fabricated PMS was modified with heparin-dopamine (Hep-DOPA). Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) was immobilized on the heparinized PMS (Hep-PMS) via electrostatic interactions. Both PMS and modified PMS were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). MG-63 cell activity on PMS and modified PMS were assessed via alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Immobilized Hep-DOPA and BMP-2 on PMS were demonstrated by XPS analysis. BMP-2-immobilized Hep-PMS provided significantly higher ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression compared to PMS alone. These results suggest that BMP-2-immobilized Hep-PMS effectively improves MG-63 cell activity. In conclusion, BMP-2-immobilized Hep-PMS can be used to effectively regenerate bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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    • "Three-dimensional scaffolds, in combination with bioactive substances and cells, have been widely accepted as the basis for modern tissue-regeneration strategies and extensively used in hard-as well as soft-tissue engineering applications [1]. These scaffolds are usually fabricated from bioresorbable and, preferably, bioactive materials, which have the potential to support and stimulate the regeneration of living tissue. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work presents bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum spongy-like hydrogels (GG-BAG) as novel hydrophilic materials for use as the scaffolding in bone-tissue engineering. The reinforcement with bioactive-glass particles resulted in an improvement to the microstructure and to the mechanical properties of the material. These mechanical properties were found to be dependent on the composition and improved with the amount of bioactive glass; however, values necessary to accommodate biomechanical loading were not achieved in this study. Nevertheless, by incorporating the bioactive-glass particles, the composite material acquired the ability to form an apatite layer when soaked in simulated body fluid. Furthermore, human-adipose-derived stem cells were able to adhere and spread within the gellan-gum, spongy-like hydrogels reinforced with the bioactive glass, and remain viable, which is an important result when considering their use in bone-tissue engineering. Thus, hydrogels based on gellan gum and bioactive glass are promising biomaterials for use either alone or with cells, and with the potential for use in osteogenic differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Materials Science and Engineering C
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    • "Tissue engineering is a promising field of bone repair and regenerative medicine in which cultured cells, scaffolds and osteogenic inductive signals are used to regenerate tissues. One of the present challenges in tissue engineering is the development of suitable scaffold materials that can be used as templates for cell adhesion, growth and proliferation [1]. Microorganisms that enter bone structures by spreading from the bloodstream or surrounding tissues or by direct contamination during trauma or surgery causes osteomyelitis [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Scaffolds are implants used to deliver cells, drugs, and genes into the body in a local controlled release pattern which offers many advantages over systematic drug delivery. Composite scaffolds of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and quaternary bioactive glass (46S6 system) with different ratios of glass contents were prepared by the lyophilisation technique. The broad spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Cip) was impregnated to the scaffold during the fabrication in a concentration of 5, 10 and 20%. Biodegradation rate and in-vitro mineralization of the prepared scaffolds were performed by soaking the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF). Phase identification, microstructure, porosity, bioactivity, mechanical properties and drug release pattern in PBS were characterized by XRD, SEM coupled with EDS, Hg-porosimeter, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), universal testing machine, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-spectrophotometer, respectively. A porous scaffold has been obtained with porosity up to 85%. By increasing the glass contents in the prepared scaffold the porosity and the degradation rate decrease however, the compressive strength was enhanced. A sustained drug release pattern was observed with a quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The formulated ciprofloxacin loaded porous polyvinyl alcohol scaffold gave an acceptable physicochemical properties and was able to deliver the drug in a prolonged release pattern which offers a distinguish treatment for osteomylitis as well as local antibacterial effect.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Ceramics International
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