Marginal Adaptation and Color Stability of Four Provisional Materials

Journal of Prosthodontics (Impact Factor: 1.07). 01/2008; 17(2):97 - 101. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2007.00256.x
Source: PubMed


Purpose: A number of provisional restorative materials exist on the market. This study tested marginal fit and color stability of three provisional restorative materials and a control.
Materials and Methods: Two auto-cure materials, Protemp Garant and Integrity, and one dual-cure material, Luxatemp Solar, were tested against SNAP, a polyethyl methacrylate control. A maxillary right central incisor ivorine tooth was prepared for a full coverage all-ceramic crown, with a 1.5-mm chamfer margin. Four points were engraved at a point 1 mm below the facial, lingual, mesial, and distal margins, and replicas (n = 40) were produced by the manufacturer. Provisional crowns (n = 10 × 4) were fabricated on the individual replicas using a polyethylene coping template. The crowns were trimmed under magnification using an acrylic bur. The distance from the crown margins to a point tangent to the engraved markings was measured under 10× magnification and recorded. For color stability, 10-mm diameter × 2-mm thick discs (n = 10 × 4) were fabricated and immersed cyclically in tea for 1 week in a Tucillo/Nielson apparatus. Color measurements were recorded for each specimen at baseline and after staining. ΔE values were calculated to determine the extent of the color change.
Results: The means of the four marginal discrepancy measurements for each specimen were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc comparison. Luxatemp Solar had statistically significant marginal discrepancy (319 μm, p < 0.05) when compared to the other provisional materials. A significant color change (ΔE = 4.33, p < 0.05) was found for Protemp Garant.
Conclusion: The dual-cure temporary material (Luxatemp Solar) exhibited significantly more discrepancy at the margin than the auto-cure bis-acryl materials or acrylic control. Protemp Garant exhibited a clinically noticeable change in shade after 1 week in staining solution, whereas the other materials did not exhibit a clinically noticeable change.
Clinical Implications: Provisional crowns fabricated from SNAP, Protemp Garant, and Integrity exhibited similarly low marginal discrepancy. SNAP, Luxatemp Solar, and Integrity did not demonstrate a clinically detectable change in shade after 1 week in a staining solution.

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    • "A number of studies have investigated the discoloration of both acrylic and bis-acryl materials under a variety of conditions, including using staining solutions or accelerated aging with ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. 8,13,20 The results from these studies suggest that the acrylic resin provisional materials tend to be more resistant to changes in color when subjected to discoloration through immersion in solution, whereas the bis-acryl composite resins tend to be more resistant to discoloration when exposed to UV light irradiation. These findings are most likely related to the mode of discoloration in the two types of conditions; in cyclic immersion through a staining solution, discoloration occurs through sorption processes, whereas discoloration from UV light sources occurs through a bulk deterioration process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Oral rinses are widely used to promote periodontal health with provisional restorations during the interim period. The aim of this study was to compare the discoloration of provisional restoration materials with different oral rinses. Material and Methods: A total of 140 disc-shaped specimens (shade A2) (10 mm x 2 mm) were prepared from one PMMA-based (TemDent Classic®) and three different bis-acrylic-based (Protemp II®, Luxatemp® and Fill-In®) provisional restoration materials (n=7). The color values (L*, a*, and b*) of each specimen were measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and the color changes (∆E) were calculated according to the CIE L*a*b* system. The specimens were immersed in each of the 4 oral rinses (alcohol-containing mouthwash, chlorhexidine, benzydamine HCl, benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine) twice a day for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes of immersion in the oral rinses, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens were exposed to the oral rinses and the artificial saliva for 3 weeks. Two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and the paired sample t-test were used for statistical analyses (p<0.05). Results: Comparison of the discoloration from the oral rinses after immersion for three weeks revealed no significant differences (p>0.05). The lowest color change was observed in PMMA-based Temdent in all oral rinses (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bis-acryl composites after immersion in saliva or the mixture of benzydamine HCl and chlorhexidine and the alcohol-containing mouthwash for 3 weeks (p>0.05). After immersion in chlorhexidine, the color change values of Protemp II and Fill-in showed significant differences (p=0.018). Protemp II also showed less discoloration than the other bis-acryl composites, and this color change was statistically significant (p <0.05). For all oral rinses, the L* value decreased while b* values increased, and this color change was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). A* values were found to be significantly higher with oral rinses (p<0.05), except Protemp II immersed in benzydamine HCl or alcohol-containing mouthwash. Conclusions: The type of the oral rinse did not affect the discoloration process. For long-term esthetic results, choosing MMA-based materials for provisional restorations appears to be more effective.
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    • "Moreover, according to the manufacturer[18] Protemp utilizes modified Bowen resin, which corresponds to derivatives of the bis-acryl compounds that have been rendered hydrophobic. This provides for a major reduction in water absorption of these materials and might be the reason for highest color stability of Protemp in all staining solutions.[19] "
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    ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY EVALUATED THE COLOR STABILITY OF FOUR PROVISIONAL MATERIALS: 1) Poly-methyl methacrylates (DPI); 2) Bis-acryl composite (ProtempTM II - 3M ESPE); 3) Bis-acryl composite (Systemp® c and b - Ivoclar Vivadent) and 4) Light polymerized composite resin (Revotek LC- GC). The color and color difference of each specimen after immersion in different staining solutions i.e. 1) tea and artificial saliva, 2) coffee and artificial saliva, 3) Pepsi and artificial saliva, 4) turmeric solution and artificial saliva was measured using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIELAB system before immersion and after immersion at 2, 5 ,7 , 10 and 15 days. Revotek LC- GC (light polymerized composite resin) was found to be the most color stable provisional restorative material followed by Protemp II (Bis-acryl composite), Systemp (Bis-acryl composite) and DPI (Methylmethacrylate resin). Turmeric solution had the maximum staining potential followed by coffee, tea and Pepsi.
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