Article

How Religiosity Helps Couples Prevent, Resolve, and Overcome Marital Conflict*

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Abstract

This study reports on in-depth interviews with 57 highly religious, middle-aged married couples representing the major Abrahamic faiths (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) residing in New England and Northern California. The study uses grounded theory methods to create themes and a model describing the ways that religiosity influences marital conflict. Couples reported that religiosity affects the conflict in their marriage at three phases of the conflict process: (a) problem prevention, (b) conflict resolution, and (c) relationship reconciliation. Practitioners may assist religious couples that are struggling with marital conflict by encouraging them to look to religious beliefs and practices.

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... The present study was designed to understand relational processes of reconciliation in religious families. Using qualitative methods and a religiously, geographically, and ethnically diverse sample, we build on previous work by Lambert and Dollahite (2006) exploring how religion can help couples reconcile following relational conflict and distance. Specifically, we explore both couple and parent-child relationships to delve deeper into how and why members of religious families reportedly overcome relational distance and conflicts. ...
... Consistent with Lambert and Dollahite (2006), we found a positive connection between relational virtues and conflict resolution in families. Fincham et al. (2007) described some positive constructs that lead to spontaneous self-repair following frustrations or distance in relationships as transformative processes. ...
... The relational implications of forgiveness have been well documented (Fincham & Beach, 2013), and our findings are consistent with this literature. Additionally, several studies have positively correlated prayer and forgiveness with conflict resolution (Fincham & Beach, 2013;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006); however, there has been less discussion about the relational benefits of admitting one's mistakes and acknowledging one's faults. Worthington (2006) suggested that "forgiveness is imbedded in a social context. ...
Article
To explore personal and interpersonal processes that encourage relational reconciliation in nonclinical religious families. Few studies have addressed what reconciliation is and when it is beneficial. Although intergroup reconciliation has been well documented, little research has addressed relational reconciliation in families. We focus on relational reconciliation pertaining to more normative and typical relational hurts and offenses that nearly all families experience, rather than severe offenses that might be best addressed in a clinical setting. Using systematic qualitative methods, in‐depth interviews from a nonclinical, exemplar sample of 198 religiously, ethnically, and geographically diverse mothers, fathers, and adolescents were coded and analyzed. Research questions focused on what circumstances led to a need for reconciliation, what motivated families to reconcile, how families reconciled, and what benefits families received from reconciling. Families were reportedly motivated to reconcile (a) because of their religious beliefs, (b) because they could see a “bigger picture” beyond the immediate conflict, and (c) because they felt that they had been recipients of God's love and forgiveness. The process of reconciliation involved (a) praying to God for help (spiritual processes), (b) admitting mistakes and taking responsibility (personal processes), (c) forgiving and being forgiven (relational processes), and (d) working to fix problems and make amends (practical processes). Consistent with previous research, these processes reportedly fostered self‐healing following relational distance and led to positive relational outcomes. When self‐healing does not occur, clinicians, pastoral counselors, and family life educators may play an important role in helping individuals and families develop and incorporate the transformative processes of reconciliation identified in our data.
... Nitekim ilgili konuda yapılan çalışmalar da bu bulguyu destekler niteliktedir (bkz. Gruner, 1985;Dudley & Kosinski, 1990;Robinson, 1994;Butler, Gardner & Bird, 1998;Marsh & Dallos, 2000;Butler, Stout & Gardner, 2002;Marks, 2005;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Fincham vd., 2008;Ellison, Burdette & Wilcox, 2010;Beach vd., 2011). Bu ...
... Bu konu üzerine yapılan çalışmalarda benzer sonuçlara ulaşılmıştır (bkz. Dudley & Kosinski, 1990;Holeman, 2003;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, 2010;Stafford, David & McPherson, 2014). ...
... Volume 14 Issue 4, 2019 boşanmanın azaldığını göstermektedir (bkz. Shrum, 1980;Teachman, 1982;Fergusson, Horwood & Shannon, 1984;Glenn & Supancic, 1984;Bahr & Chadwick, 1985;Heaton & Goodman, 1985;Schumm, 1985;Brealt & Kposowa, 1987;Bock & Radelet, 1988;Larson & Goltz, 1989;Hansen & Gage, 1990;White, 1990;Hansen, 1992;Stanley & Markman, 1992;Bracher vd., 1993;Wineberg, 1994;Booth vd., 1995;Amato & Rogers, 1997;Call & Heaton, 1997;Clydesdale, 1997;Brody, Stoneman & Flor, 1996;Hill & Peplau, 1998;Krishnan, 1998;Mahoney vd., 2001;Sullivan, 2001;Marks, 2005;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Orathinkal & Vansteenwegen, 2006;Brown, Orbuch & Bauermeister, 2008;Vaaler, Ellison & Powers, 2009). ...
... Specifically, previous studies found that there is a strong and positive association between religiosity and marital satisfaction, stability, adjustment, and commitment (Mahoney et al., 2008;Wilcox & Wolfinger, 2008). Further, religious involvement reduces divorce rates (Mahoney et al., 2008;Vaaler, Ellison & Powers, 2009), decreases infidelity (Atkins & Kessel, 2008), reduces the likelihood of domestic violence (Vaaler et al., 2009), and lowers conflict, (Lambert & Dollahite 2006;Mahoney et al., 2008). Moreover, couples who reported that they were connected with God indicated that their moral values were strengthened through religious teachings and spiritual activities and their desire to please God strengthened their commitment to fidelity and honoring their marriage vows (Dollahite, & Lambert, 2007). ...
... Research has indicated that prayer can increase willingness to forgive a partner (Lambert, Fincham, Stillman, Graham, & Beach, 2010) lower infidelity (Fincham et al., 2010), and increase gratitude (Lambert, Fincham, Braithwaite, Graham, & Beach, 2009). Prayer with a spouse may also help facilitate conflict resolution (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). Furthermore, praying together can increase empathy, decrease emotional negativity, and lead to an increase in problem solving behaviors (Butler, Stout, & Gardner, 2002). ...
... To start, therapists/counselors must demonstrate openness and sensitivity to beliefs held by their clients. Counselors lacking knowledge about Islam can increase their knowledge about religious texts, practices, and faith communities (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). When selecting a therapeutic approach, counselors must consider its congruence with clients' religious and cultural values (Daneshpour, 1998) or adapt therapeutic interventions to include a religious focus (Wiggins, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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Religion plays an important role in the lives of many and is observed through their individual and collective religious practices and beliefs. Numerous couples present for counseling ascribe to a religious belief system, including beliefs about God's purpose for their marriage. To understand the worldview of one's clients and deliver effective services, therapist must increase their understanding of various religious beliefs and practices. While many studies have been conducted in developed Western societies, there have been few that have examined religion as it relates to couple and parent-child relationships in developing societies such as Turkey. Although research is limited, studies of family structure in Turkish society show that religion and cultural values are of primary importance. With the rapid social change from a traditional to more modern culture, it is necessary to examine how religion impacts Turkish couples and family life in a changing cultural context. Thus, this study aims to provide a better understanding of role of religion on family relationships and help clinicians be prepared to serve Muslim clients in Turkey. Implications for clinicians working with religious clients are discussed.
... Religiosity has been studied from the perspective of life satisfaction (Tran et al., 2015;Homaei et al., 2016), of the prevention, resolution and overcoming of marital conflict (Lambert, Dollahite, 2006), of optimism (Homaei et al., 2016), of self-esteem (Homaei et al., 2016). Typical measures for religiosity are religious affiliation, religious attendance, religious belief, religious commitment, religious devoutness, and religious participation. ...
... They have also studied marital adjustment (Sokolski, 1995;Larson, 1989), marital commitment (Larson, 1989), marital conflict (Lambert, Dollahite, 2006), marital functioning (Banford, 2009;Fowler, 2014), marital quality (Bradbury, Fincham, Beach, 2000;Day et al., 2009;Brooks, 2014), marital relationship (Ashdown, Hackathorn, Clark, 2011), marital stability (Larson, 1989). ...
... No matter the marriage stage, religion has a positive influence on marital satisfaction and marital stability (Larson, 1989), on economic well-being, happiness, longevity, marital harmony, mental health, and sex (Waite, Lehrer, 2003), on demographic behaviour, economic behaviour, marital stability and well-being (Lehrer, 2004), on marital satisfaction (Sullivan, 2001), on family life, marriage and personal achievement (Marks, 2005), ethical decision-making, mental health, and moral judgement (Haseley, 2006), commitment to permanence, marital conflict (problem prevention, conflict resolution, and relationship reconciliation), relational virtues, shared purpose, and willingness to forgive (Lambert, Dollahite, 2006), faith in marriage success, marriage attitudes (du Toit, 2007), family behaviour, family life and family structure (Petts, Knoester, 2007), marital quality, marital stability, men's relationship behaviour and partner's religiosity (Wolfinger, Wilcox, 2008), sexual satisfaction (Ashdown, Hackathorn, Clark, 2011), relationship satisfaction (Dresser, 2011), life stressors (Fincham, Ajayi, Beach, 2011), couple's relationship (Rusu, Turliuc, 2011), marital satisfaction (Nihayah, Adriani, Wahyuni, 2012), family life and family relationships (Sabey, 2012), marital problems (Balkanlioglu, 2014), decision-making, marital quality, marital relationship, relationship infidelity, shared perception of marriage (Brooks, 2014), marital satisfaction (Cho, 2014), sexual satisfaction (During, 2014), relationship quality (Reynolds, Houlston, Coleman, 2014), marital satisfaction (Jafari et al., 2015;Offei, 2015), intensification of family ties, moral guidelines, people's lives (Verona et al., 2015), life satisfaction and marital satisfaction (Homaei et al., 2016), conduct, likelihood of marriage dissolution, marriage outcomes, moods, reality organisation and evaluation, social bonds, type and frequency of arguments (Mullins, 2016), marital dissolution (Wright, Rosato, O'Reilly, 2017), marital satisfaction (Sorokovski et al., 2017;Tavakol et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Marital satisfaction is the key to maintaining strong marriages and to ensure individual and couple wellbeing, and one way to increase marital satisfaction is to educate people religiously. Religiosity is also an effective in preparing couples for marriage and a defensible clinicians intervention counselling couples having problems in their marriage aiming at preventing or alleviating marital distress and divorce because it can influence all types of marriage, no matter their religion, race, or generation, and three of the four stages of a family-early marriages, families with young children, and empty nests. However, couple therapists and clergy counselling couples preparing for marriage or having problems in their marriage should not take for granted that religious devotion can shield couples from declines in satisfaction or divorce: they should rather reconsider with the couple the role religiosity plays in their relationship, if any, and also the role of emotional intimacy.
... Lastly, I will look at studies done from the Christian faith perspective. I found few empirical studies from a Christian faith perspective that were conducted in China, but two studies conducted in the United States explore the intersection of religion and interpersonal reconciliation in families, presenting factors that impact conflict prevention and resolution as well as reconciliation processes (Dollahite, Marks, & Barrow, 2019;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). ...
... Though not written from only a Christian faith background, Lambert and Dollahite's (2006) ...
... Having an interactive relationship with God and the Bible, which included participants living out their Christian faith by engaging with God in prayer, recalling Scripture, and participating in gatherings with other Christians, led them to receiving insight, reminders, inspiration, and even a changed heart, from God. These characteristics parallel Lambert and Dollahite's (2006) finding that scriptural teachings, attendance at religious services, and praying together are the most common helpful religious beliefs and practices for couples in various phases of conflict. ...
Thesis
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While research has been conducted in the Chinese context on conflict resolution approaches, little scholarly attention has been given to explaining what factors contribute to relational reconciliation processes. The purpose of this qualitative, constructivist grounded theory study was to understand and explain what factors impact mainland Chinese Christians’ efforts to reconcile after conflict. For this study, 31 Chinese Christian adults from 3 large cities and 13 churches who had experienced reconciliation in a relationship were interviewed in person using a semi-structured, conversational style. A central understanding emerged from the data: Chinese Christians’ efforts to reconcile after conflict are impacted by following existing social norms and engaging new concepts. Following social norms including using an action apology or an artificial apology is likely to result in surface-level reconciliation or possibly a worsened relationship. Engaging new concepts offers perspectives and skills which, along with supportive relationships, an authentic apology, and emotional forgiveness, are likely to result in heart-level reconciliation. Four conclusions were drawn regarding the participants’ experiences and perspectives: (a) reconciliation may be conceptually understood as having two outcomes: surface-level or heart-level reconciliation; (b) following certain social norms seems to maintain social harmony but does not necessarily create an environment for heart-level reconciliation, which is what participants most wanted in their relationships; (c) engaging new concepts, with supportive relationships, appears to be the catalyst for expanded perspectives and new engagement skills and contributes to heart-level reconciliation; and (d) while using an action apology or an artificial apology is likely to result in surface-level reconciliation or possibly a worsened relationship, making an authentic apology and extending emotional forgiveness is likely to result in heart-level reconciliation. This study contributes an emic Chinese Christian perspective to the literature investigating the relationship between cultural values, social norms, interpersonal conflict, apology, forgiveness, religion, change, and relational reconciliation. Generating new theory regarding factors impacting Chinese Christians’ reconciliation efforts in the mainland China context, this study contributes to a fuller understanding of Chinese Christians’ experiences of relational reconciliation.
... Some of the participants described how they searched for answers to their problems in particular Qur'anic passages, or prayed for divine inspiration or intervention. Noor described how she had prayed to God to come to her son's aid when he was having relationship troubles; and another participant, Nader, described this approach when seeking a solution for a particular problem: This approach is not limited to Muslim people and can also be found across other religious groups, as noted by Daneshpour (1998, p. 365) and Lambert and Dollahite (2006), with the last reporting from their clinical experience that: ...
... . 341;Lewig, Arney & Salveron 2010, p. 328; Nazari 2013, p. 91;Pe-Pua et al. 2010). Religious families may in these cases resort to religious texts or divine inspiration to resolve their problems or seek solace(Khan 2006, p. 42; Lambert & Dollahite exercised and interpreted sensibly, religiosity can become a powerful tool to strengthen family and couple relationships, resolve conflict(Lambert & Dollahite 2006;Mahoney et al. 2003), buffer the effects of marriage inequality (DeMaris, Mahoney & Pargament 2010), or improve parenting practices(Howard et al. 2007).However, while findings on this topic appear mostly positive, researchers stress the variability in outcomes for families, with some of them noting that religiosity may in some cases lead to conflict or exacerbate problems. This is stressed byMarks' (2006) review of the research addressing religion and relational health. ...
... It translates into the quality of married life through marriage satisfaction, marriage obligations, and resolving marital conflicts. By realizing their relationship with God, couples are more effective in preventing problems, resolving conflicts, and forgiving each other than spouses who do not enter into such relationships with God (Bukalski, 2016;Krok, 2007Krok, , p. 58, 2012Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, 2010). Mature religiosity in the lives of spouses and related religious motivation allow them to pursue holiness in an intentional and conscious manner. ...
... Wreszcie J. Makselon (1988) wyróżnił cztery zasadnicze modele relacji psychologii i religii: konfliktu, podporządkowania, paralelizmu oraz postulowany przez niego model integracji. (Bukalski, 2016;Krok, 2007, s. 58;Lambert, Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, 2010). Dojrzała religijność w życiu małżonków i związana z nią motywacja religijna pozwala realizować świętość w sposób zamierzony i świadomy. ...
Article
Full-text available
There have been many analyzes of changes and crisis, or – as some put it – “the lifestyle revolution”, in the face of the changes in the structure and functioning of marriage and family in the last thirty years. In culture and social life, trends related to individualism, autonomy and independence come to the fore, for which new means of virtual communication constitute the ideal space. The aspects of gender differences in emotionality, communication and coping with difficult situations by spouses will be indicated in describing the psychological conditions of marital communication at the background of the aforementioned changes and attachment-forming processes. In this context, the main thesis of the article was put forward that the lack of proper communication in a marriage leads to the breakdown of ties and relationships. Considering this issue, the experience of conflicts and crises by spouses, virtual communication depriving them of their actual presence, negotiating goals related to distance and closeness were considered. Ultimately, attempts were made to outline the consequences that result from the breakdown of relationships – loneliness, isolation and exclusion.
... Among participants in the largest study to assess premarital education participation, 93% received it in a religious setting, and 78% were married in a church or religious venue (Stanley et al., 2006). Those who are religious or spiritual typically seek to enhance their relationships (Doss et al., 2009;McAllister et al., 2013;Silliman & Schumm, 2004), and favorable relationship outcomes of relationship strength, effective communication, and decreased conflict have been strongly related to religiosity (e.g., Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Robinson, 1994). Thus, it seems important to examine the links between one's religious beliefs and values on the one hand and marriage intervention outcomes on the other hand in a large, nationally representative sample of early-married couples to better understand how couples' religious beliefs provide further insight into their marital readiness and intervention participation. ...
... These intervention outcomes specific to religiosity may be the result of a greater willingness to seek enhancement within one's relationship if highly religious (Doss et al., 2009;McAllister et al., Duncan, & Busby, 2013;Silliman & Schumm, 2004), triggering the mechanisms of positive relationship change such as improved communication and reduction of conflict (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Robinson, 1994). One's faith tradition therefore provides a supportive context to grow a formative commitment to the quality and stability of marriage that can then flourish during early-marriage transitions. ...
Article
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To examine how often early‐married couples have participated in marital interventions and how helpful and change‐producing these interventions are perceived to be in a national probability sample. Past research provides an unclear view of frequency of participation in marital interventions yet suggests that participation is both helpful and change‐producing. However, these studies are limited by their demographics, regions, and samples. A nationally representative, population‐level study of newlywed couples would help overcome these limitations and provide generalizable answers to the field. A sample of 1,562 individuals who indicated participation in a marriage intervention either before or after marriage was drawn from a nationally representative sample known as the Couple Relationships and Transition Experiences (CREATE) survey. Multilevel models were used to address the research questions. Just under 2 in 5 (38.3%) early‐married individuals participated in an intervention designed to prepare for or strengthen their marriage. Counseling was perceived to be the most helpful and change‐producing intervention, with religiosity, education, and gender moderating this association. This study provides a first‐of‐its‐kind national picture of participation rates and perceptions of the effectiveness of marriage interventions among early‐married couples. Findings may help energize marketing and outreach efforts and may encourage varied strategies to increase participation rates.
... Chinits and Brown (2001) mention that a high level of religiosity will reduce the level of conflict in marriage; in that regard, marital stability will also increase. Research conducted by Lambert and Dollahite (2006), shows that individual religiosity strengthens the desire to maintain a permanent relationship (in other words, affects marital commitment), which in turn helps couples in dealing with occurring conflicts. Sullivan (2001) found that with a high level of religiosity, the level of commitment will increase and marital instability will decrease (increased marital stability). ...
... Research conducted by Lambert and Dollahite (2006) shows that individual religiosity gives a desire to maintain a permanent relationship (in other words, affects marital commitment), which then helps couples in dealing with occurring conflicts. Chinits and Brown (2001) also mentioned, a high level of religiosity will reduce the level of conflict in marriage, so that marital stability will also increase. ...
Article
Full-text available
The complete understanding of marital stability is hindered by limitations of theory and method, especially investigation on female journalists. The purpose of the current study was to test the effect of religiosity and marital commitment on the marital stability, by assessing Indonesian female journalists. This research used a quantitative approach with multiple regression analysis methods. The sample of this study involved 200 married female journalists residing in Jakarta and were taken using non-probability sampling techniques, specifically purposive sampling. The measurements used in this study were adaptations of the (1) Marital Stability Scale; (2) Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS-15); and (3) Inventory of Marital Commitments. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the validity of each scale. The results of the F-test showed a p-value = 0.000 (significant), and a total variance explained (R2 value) of 0.224. This finding indicated that religiosity and marital commitment have a significant effect on marital stability (sig < 0.05). The direction of the coefficient regression of the religiosity variable and marital commitment is positive, indicating that the higher the religiosity and marital commitment, the higher the marital stability.
... Explanations for why shared religiousness benefit married couples tend to focus on institutional forces. Most religions promote beliefs and behaviors that are conducive to marital success, such as fidelity, honesty, and forgiveness which not only promote harmony but also promote reconciliation in the event of conflict (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). Religious couples are often members of a congregation and/or a tight-knit religious community that encourage behaviors and reinforce social norms of the faith that encourage marital stability (Sherkat & Ellison, 1999;Wolfinger & Wilcox, 2008). ...
... Viewed from another perspective, religious disagreements in the presence of low satisfaction may lead to elevated risk of marital dissolution because of the tenuous ties signified by both conditions. Past research into the mechanisms through which religious factors might affect marital stability have used qualitative methods to examine questions such as how religiosity affects marital conflict (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). In this study, using the concepts of mediation and moderation (Baron & Kenny, 1986;Hayes, 2013), we examine whether marital satisfaction acts as a conditional factor between religious factors and marital stability. ...
Article
We examined whether three types of husband–wife religious discordance (denomination, intensity, and attendance) were associated with the risk of marital dissolution over three decades. Using multigroup path analysis, we tested the mediating and moderating roles of husbands’ and wives’ marital satisfaction in the above associations in two generations. Using the Longitudinal Study of Generations data, we selected 193 second-generation married couples and 173 third-generation married couples. Results showed that denomination discordance was positively associated with marital dissolution in both generations, but discordance in religious attendance and intensity had no such association. Moderation was found with respect to wives’ marital satisfaction which reduced the risk of marital dissolution more in couples of different denominations compared with couples of the same denomination. Mediating effects were not found with respect to marital satisfaction. Implications are discussed in terms of the continued importance of religious identity to the long-term stability of marriages.
... It translates into the quality of married life through marriage satisfaction, marriage obligations, and resolving marital conflicts. By realizing their relationship with God, couples are more effective in preventing problems, resolving conflicts, and forgiving each other than spouses who do not enter into such relationships with God (Bukalski, 2016;Krok, 2007Krok, , p. 58, 2012Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, 2010). Mature religiosity in the lives of spouses and related religious motivation allow them to pursue holiness in an intentional and conscious manner. ...
... Pobożność przy tym i modlitwę uznaje się za akty wewnętrzne, a pozostałe za zewnętrzne. Najbardziej zaś zasadniczym i podstawowym nazywa się pobożność" (Wichrowicz, 1996, s. 139 (Bukalski, 2016;Krok, 2007, s. 58;2012;Lambert, Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, 2010). Dojrzała religijność w życiu małżonków i związana z nią motywacja religijna pozwala realizować świętość w sposób zamierzony i świadomy. ...
Article
The question of marital dialogue and relationship with God in the lives of Luigi and Maria Quattrocchi and Louis and Zelia Martin is the main research problem addressed in this paper. Both married couples were the first to be beatified and canonised in the history of the Catholic Church. The marital relationship is here approached from a psychological perspective while the relationship with God is analysed from a theological perspective. In order to study the aforementioned research problem, the author analyses letters or diaries of the saint couples and testimonies of their family members and friends. Dialogue with another human being (a spouse) and dialogue with God allowed them to pursue holiness in a consistent and conscious way.
... A religion that instructs people to be loving, faithful, patient, and forgiving promotes healthy relationship outcomes (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, 2010). Accordingly, the partners' religiosity can significantly affect marital quality, satisfaction, and stability (e.g., Perry, 2014;Mahoney et al., 2008). ...
... Religiosity refers to a person's religious beliefs and behaviors as well as the subjective importance of religion to thatperson (Chapman, 2014). Religious involvement also reduces divorce rates (Brown, Orbuch, & Bauermeister, 2008;Vaaler et al., 2009), increases marital adjustment (Schramm et al., 2012) and conflict (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney et al., 2008), and improves couples' communication (Parker, 2009).In Islam, marriage is obligatory and its benefits are emphasized in the Quran and the Hadith of the Prophet Muhammed. Devotion to Islam can protect Muslim couples and provide stability and commitment (Alshugairi, 2010). ...
Article
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With the growing Muslim population in the United States, Islamophobia and discriminatory acts toward Muslims have been increasing. Negative images in the media, which have strengthened stereotypes about Islam, have affected Muslim individuals, couples, and families. Although the impact of islamophobia has been addressed for individuals, not enough attention has been paid to Muslim couples who experience discrimination due to their religious beliefs. Experience of harassment and negativity is likely to profoundly affect individuals’ couple and family relationships. This lack of research may leave mental health professionals unprepared to sufficiently help Muslim couples that encounter discrimination. Thus, the present study discusses Muslims and their experiences in the U. S. before considering important concerns about couple relationships for mental health professionals working with this population. The purpose is to provide guidance and possible strategies to assist couple therapists for culturally competent practice with Muslim couples.
... Though the three Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are different religions and should not be considered the same, they do converge around the sanctity of marriage and the perception of God as a divine attachment figure Prothero, 2011). The Abrahamic religion's emphasis on God as an attachment figure and the perception that God instituted marriage as a sacred covenant, promotes marital happiness and stability, reduces the likelihood of infidelity, and protects the relational bond (Atkins & Kessel, 2008;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Lambert & Dollahite, 2008). ...
... Pargament, Smith, Koenig, and Perez (1998) differentiate between positive and negative religious coping. Many partners exhibit positive religious coping after an affair, which is to turn to a secure relationship with God and find solace in the midst of pain and suffering (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Pargament et al., 1998). Couples who engage in negative religious coping, experience conflicted feelings and beliefs about God as a trusted attachment figure in the midst of suffering (Pargament et al., 1998). ...
Article
Attachment-focused narrative interventions used with religious couples of the Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) dealing with the effects of infidelity is discussed in this article. With religious couples, the couple attachment bond is commonly harmed after infidelity. The attachment bond with God can also be affected with one or both partners. Partners who once felt close and connected with God can feel angry and distant because of infidelity. Since the Abrahamic faiths are narrative-based religions, and an attachment bond with God is essential, attachment-focused narrative interventions can help couples re-story their relationship with each other and with God. Attachment-based narrative interventions are also illustrated using case-examples to help practitioners collaborate with religious couples to co-author new narratives and journey toward empowered futures.
... Pernikahan beda agama juga diartikan sebagai pernikahan yang dilakukan oleh dua orang manusia yang saling mencintai namun dibatasi oleh prinsip dan nilai hidup yang berbeda yaitu agama (Kertamuda, 2009). Curtis & Ellison menyatakan bahwa kemungkinan peran dan perbedaan keyakinan dapat menjadi pemicu terjadinya konflik dalam pernikahan sehingga dapat mengurangi kualitas hubungan di dalam pernikahan (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006 (Syam et al., 2015). ...
... 8 Yapılan çalışmalarda duanın evlilikteki çatışmayı azalttığı, öfke kontrolünü sağladığı ve iletişimi kolaylaştırdığı (Dudley & Kosinski, 1990;Robinson, 1994;Butler, Gardner & Bird, 1998;Marsh & Dallos, 2000;Butler, Stout & Gardner, 2002;Marks, 2005;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006), ilişkideki doyumu (Fincham vd., 2008;Beach vd., 2011), uyumu (Gruner, 1985), kaliteyi (Ellison, Burdette & Wilcox, 2010) ve bağlanımı (Robinson, 1994) ise artırdığı tespit edilmiştir. 9 Bkz. ...
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, evlilik uyumu ve dindarlık arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Dinler, birey ve toplum hayatında önemli bir yeri olan evlilik ve aile yaşantısına fazlaca ilgi göstermişlerdir. Bu iki kurumun muhafazası amacıyla birtakım emir ve yasaklar ortaya koymuşlar, eşler arasındaki ilişkinin huzurlu ve uzun süreli olmasını amaçlamışlardır. Ancak son dönemlerde yaşanan modernleşme ve sekülerleşme gibi büyük çaplı değişimlerin, dinlerin insanlar üzerindeki etkisini azalttığı öne sürülmekte, bu azalan etki evlilik ve ailenin yapısı ve işleyişinde de hissedilmektedir. Bilhassa son yüzyılda cinsellik algısının, kadın ve erkek rollerinin belirgin bir şekilde değişmesi, nikâhsız birliktelik, boşanma ve tek ebeveynli aile oranlarının artması gibi somut bulgular bu açıdan değerlendirilmektedir. Bu bağlamda dinî yaşayış ile evlilik ve aile hayatı arasındaki ilişkinin günümüzde devam edip etmediği sorusu önem kazanmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi, en az bir yıllık evli olan 418 bireyden oluşmaktadır. Veriler Çift Uyum Ölçeği ve Dinsel Yaşayış Ölçeği ile toplanmıştır. Toplanan veriler Pearson Moment ve Spearman Rho korelasyon analizi ile incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre evlilik uyumu ve dindarlık arasında pozitif yönde, anlamlı, ancak düşük düzeyde bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Aynı şekilde dindarlık ve evlilik uyumunun alt boyutları ile evlilik uyumu ve dindarlığın alt boyutları arasında da pozitif yönde, genellikle anlamlı ve düşük düzeyde bir ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ortaya çıkan bu araştırma bulguları ilgili literatür bağlamında tartışılmış ve yorumlanmış, ileride yapılacak çalışmalar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Bu bağlamda dinlerin, sosyal kontrol ve sosyal destek özellikleri vasıtasıyla bireyin evlilik uyumuna katkı sağlayabilecekleri, çiftler için sosyal bir ağ vazifesi görebilecekleri, birlikte yapılan dinî pratiklerin evliliğe olumlu yansımalarının olabileceği, geleneksel dinî kabullerin evlilik uyumuna destek olmakla birlikte modern dönemde birtakım problemleri beraberinde getirebileceği, travmatik olaylar karşısında tercih edilen dinî başa çıkma tarzının çiftlerin ilişkisinde etkili olabileceği ifade edilmiştir. Ayrıca evlilik uyumunu etkileyen birçok faktör olduğu için, dindarlığın, evlilikteki bütün problemlerin anahtarı olduğunu öne sürmenin doğru olmayacağı, dindarlığın ikincil bir faktör olarak daha çok evlilik uyumunu etkileyen faktörlere bakışı şekillendirdiği belirtilmiştir. Öneriler kısmında ise dindarlık düzeyinden ziyade dindarlık tarzlarını ölçen ölçeklerle de çalışmaların yapılması gerektiği, bu sayede bazı dindarlık tarzlarının evlilik uyumu üzerindeki olası negatif etkilerinin ortaya çıkarılabileceği, farklı kültürel kabullerden mütevellit evlilik uyumuna dair uyarlama ölçeklerin yerelleştirilmesine ya da kültürle uyumlu ve onu temsil kabiliyetine sahip özgün ve yerli ölçekler geliştirilmesine ihtiyaç duyulduğu, evlilik uyumu çalışmalarında boylamsal çalışmaların daha sağlıklı sonuçlar vereceği, çalışmamızda elde ettiğimiz bulguların evlilik ve aile terapilerinde dinî yaşayışın kullanılmasına ilişkin çalışma yapacak uzmanlara veriler sunabileceği belirtilmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Evlilik uyumu, evlilik doyumu, dindarlık, aile, yakın ilişkiler.
... Research also suggests that religious involvement not only encourages people to form new relationships but also to strengthen their already-existing relationships. Studies looking at the connection between prayer and relationship satisfaction have found that prayer plays an integral part in preventing and resolving marital conflicts (Beach et al. 2008;Lambert and Dollahite 2006;Marsh and Dallos 2001), as well as promoting forgiveness and achieving lower levels of anxiety in general (McCullough, Worthington, and Rachal 1997;Lambert et al. 2010;Harris, Schoneman, and Carrera 2005). These findings suggest that religion may provide a greater sense of meaning in life both through its role in encouraging people to form new relationships and through the positive influence it has on people's already-existing relationships. ...
... Relational forgiveness and reconciliation. (Batson & Marks, 2008;Burr et al., 2012;Dollahite, Marks, & Barrow, 2019;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;White et al., 2018). Participants reported that their religious beliefs and practices facilitated relational forgiveness and reconciliation. ...
Article
Generative devotion is a middle‐range theory grounded in analyses of interviews with religious and nonreligious families that illuminates ways religion can facilitate strong family relations within and across generations. Generative devotion is a way of approaching religious and spiritual beliefs, practices, and communities that attends to the long‐term well‐being of family members, is essentially other‐oriented, responds to abiding needs of persons, respects the agency of others, and is consciously relational in nature. This article discusses various influences that have informed the development of the theoretical framework of generative devotion; the major terms of the framework and how generative devotion differs from other forms of religious devotion; 10 pathways to generative devotion; a metaprocess (generative family conversations) to better realize generative devotion; and assumptions about devotion in general, shared devotion, and generative devotion. Concepts are illustrated with quotes from in‐depth interviews.
... Beliefs, such as the sanctity of marriage and parenting, and practices, such as prayer, have been linked to increased trust between spouses (Lambert, Fincham, LaVallee, & Brantley, 2012) and higher levels of overall marital well-being (Ellison et al., 2011;Olson, Marshall, Goddard, & Schramm, 2015). Religiosity can also help families reduce or overcome divisive behaviors such as marital conflict (Butler, Stout, & Gardner, 2002;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Mahoney, Pargament, Murray-Swank, & Murray-Swank, 2003), infidelity (Dollahite & Lambert, 2007;Fincham, Lambert, & Beach, 2010), and divorce (Brown, Orbuch, & Bauermeister, 2008). Although religion can help to strengthen families and to reduce certain problematic issues in relationships, it can also be a major source of conflict. ...
Article
Previous research has suggested that religion can be both helpful and harmful. However, much of the research on religion and families has employed relatively simple, distal measures of religion and has focused on predominantly only one side of the dualistic nature of religion. Drawing upon interviews with 198 religious couples (N = 396 individuals), the purpose of this study was to better understand how religion can have both a unifying and a dividing influence on marital relationships. Three overarching themes, accompanied by supporting primary qualitative data from participants, are presented. These themes include (a) how religious beliefs unite and divide marriages, (b) how religious practices unite and divide marriages, and (c) how religious communities unite and divide marriages. For the couples in this study, religion was most commonly identified as a unifying influence. However, it was also identified as having a dividing influence, including when principles were misapplied or done in excess or when ideas regarding religious beliefs, practices, and community were not shared between spouses. Implications and considerations for future research are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
... Accordingly, they may have to go back to the Islamic psycho-spiritual approach. Studies conducted in western countries have shown that spiritual practices have a positive impact on marriage relationships (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Wolfinger & Wilcox, 2008). Even though there is no empirical study conducted in Malaysia to assess whether religious and spiritual practices have a positive impact on marriage relationship among Muslims or not, but it has been stated in the Holy Quran (30: 21) which was mentioned that marriage relationships is a platform for Muslims to live in peace and tranquility. ...
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Statistics released by Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM) shows that the marital conflict and divorce rates among Muslim increases every year. There are a range of factors associated with marital conflict and divorce. In present study, personality, communication, and attachment are highlighted as the factors that contribute to marital conflict and divorce among Muslim spouses. It is because previous studies have documented that personality has an impact on spousal interaction, marital functioning, and marital adjustment while communication was identified by JAKIM as one of the factors for marital conflict and divorce among Muslim spouses. Besides, studies have shown that Muslim reported higher levels of attachment (especially in anxiety dimension) than Chinese and Indian which were associated with lower marital quality. In an effort to help spouses manage and overcome marital conflicts, Muslim spouses need for an Islamic base according to the religious perspective. A psychoeducational group is a systematic effort to help improve the functioning of Muslim spouses through education and preventative means which widely used in guidance and counseling services. It is a group approach conducted by marriage counselors to educate and disseminating knowledge and skills related to marriage relationships. For that purposes, this study proposed a psychoeducational group known as Marital Psycho-Spiritual Intervention (MP-SI) that focuses on teaching marriage knowledge and skills according to Islamic way. The overarching goal of the present study is to examine the effects of the MP-SI on personality, communication and attachment among Muslim spouses in Kedah, Malaysia. The research design utilized in this study was randomized controlled trials (randomized, pretest, posttest, follow up tests, control group design). This study involved 76 participants. These participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 38) or the control group (n = 38). Only participants in the experimental group received treatment of the MP-SI for 6 weeks (2 hours per week). A self-administered questionnaire containing the Ummatic Personality Inventory (UPI), Marital Communication Inventory (MCI), and Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) were used for collecting data. Data were collected from participants at the baseline assessment prior to the intervention (pretest), then 2 weeks following the completion of the intervention (posttest), and follow up after 2 months (follow up test). Data were analyzed using statistical test, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and mixed between-within subjects ANOVA. The results from mixed between-within subjects ANOVA showed that there were a statistically significant main effect of time and group for personality, communication, and attachment (avoidance dimension). The result of MANOVA revealed that there was a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group for the dimension of personality; worship, trust, and knowledge. These results reveal valuable information that an Islamic psycho-spiritual approach that emphasizes the spiritual practices and element of nafs (soul), aql (intellect), qalb (heart), and ruh (spirit) help improve Muslim spouses’ personality, communication and avoidance attachment. In conclusion, the findings of this study give positive reactions on the impact of the Islamic psycho-spiritual approach on human growth. Besides, it leads to theoretical implication for guidance and counseling and a wide range of implication for practice especially for Muslim spouses, marriage counselors, religious departments, and to the public. It is recommended a psychoeducational group of the MP-SI to be used as an intervention in helping Muslim spouses.
... Di samping itu, mendekatkan diri pada Allah SWT dengan berbagai ritual ibadah juga dapat memunculkan beragam perasaan positif seperti bahagia dan tenang (Najati, 2005a). Berbagai penelitian juga menunjukkan adanya hubungan positif antara religiusitas dengan berbagai aspek kehidupan, seperti kesehatan mental dan kesehatan fisik (Koenig, 2004), mencegah, mengatasi, dan menyelesaikan konflik pernikahan (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006), serta kepuasan hidup dan kebahagiaan (Lun & Bond, 2013). ...
Article
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The low family socioeconomic status (SES) often resulted in variety of negative impact towards child development. One of the mechanism how SES affect children is through parenting. In family with low SES, many parents experience stress due to economic pressure that they implement harsh parenting practices. This then leads to various negative impact in children psychological development. One of the most significant protective factor to reduce the negative impact of low SES is religiosity. Based on the dimensions of religiosity, this research tried to capture how religiosity among low SES parents can serve as protective factor. The subjects of this research three low SES parents who considered as religios by local people and their children managed to achieve high education. The research method is quallitative with in-depth interview. The data analysis employed by coding, formulating units of meaning, and categorization. The results showed that based on the five dimensions of religiosity, all three subjects have adequate religious knowledge particularly related to religion-based parenting knowledge, then this followed by intensive and devoted religious ritual, and from experiential dimension they often experience grace and closeness to Allah SWT. The impact of those five dimensions of religiosity is they are able to show many positive virtues which enables them to overcome various obstacles the low SES brought. Those virtues are patience, sincere, nrimo (acceptance), pasrah (surrender), and optimistic. They also then transmitted their religiosity to their children with value internalization and guiding worship rituals. INTISARI Kondisi status sosial ekonomi (SSE) keluarga yang rendah mengakibatkan berbagai dampak negatif pada perkembangan anak. Salah satu mekanisme bagaimana kondisi sosial ekonomi dapat mempengaruhi anak adalah melalui pengasuhan. Pada keluarga dengan SSE rendah, banyak orangtua stres akibat tekanan ekonomi sehingga banyak terjadi praktik pengasuhan yang kasar. Hal ini mengakibatkan berbagai dampak negatif pada perkembangan psikologis anak. Salah satu faktor protektif yang secara signifikan dianggap dapat mengurangi dampak negatif dari kondisi SSE rendah adalah religiusitas. Berdasarkan dimensi-dimensi religiusitas, penelitian ini mencoba menangkap bagaimana religiusitas pada orangtua dengan SSE rendah dapat berfungsi sebagai faktor protektif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah tiga pasang orangtua dengan SSE rendah yang dianggap religius oleh warga sekitar dan anaknya berhasil mencapai pendidikan tinggi. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif dengan wawancara mendalam. Analisis data penelitian dilakukan dengan koding, merumuskan unit makna, dan kategorisasi. Hasilnya berdasarkan lima dimensi religiusitas, ketiga pasang orangtua tersebut memiliki dimensi pengetahuan agama terutama terkait pengasuhan yang memadai, hal ini kemudian diikuti dengan dimensi ritual ibadah yang intensif dan penuh dengan ketaatan, dari
... Social science research on religion and family life has identified positive correlations between participation in religious rituals and marital quality, when those practices are shared among family members (Marks, 2004). Shared religious practices also reportedly help many couples to prevent and resolve marital conflict (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). Fiese and Tomcho (2001) similarly found that higher marital satisfaction was related to shared participation in religious holiday rituals. ...
Article
Scholars of religious ritual have noted that inadequate attention has been paid to religious ritual in the social sciences. Based on what has been done, it is apparent that sacred family rituals (when done well and with relational sensitivity) can enhance structure, meaning, and family unity. The present study examines the family-level ritual practice of weekly Family Home Evening among members of 26 Latter-day Saint (LDS) families (N = 58 individuals). Qualitative analyses found the following three themes: (a) Family Home Evening as a Conversation; (b) Challenges of Family Home Evening; and (c) The Value of Family Home Evening. Primary data that support and illustrate the three themes are presented, along with implications and applications.
... (1) significantly lower divorce rates among same-faith married couples (Bahr 1981;Call and Heaton 1997;Lehrer and Chiswick 1993;Lehrer 2009); (2) relatively high reported marital satisfaction and/or fidelity rates (particularly among same-faith marriages), as noted in both quantitative-focused studies and reviews (Bahr and Chadwick 1985, pp. 411-13;Dollahite et al. 2004;Thomas and Cornwall 1990), as well as qualitative-based reports (Lambert and Dollahite 2006;Lu et al. 2013;Kaslow and Robison 1996;Robinson 1994;Robinson and Blanton 1993); and (3) the typically positive influence of rituals and sacred practices (including prayer, scripture study, etc.) on both marital and parent-child relationships (Dudley and Kosinski 1990;Fiese et al. 1993Fiese et al. , 2002Fiese and Tomcho 2001;Mahoney et al. 2001, pp. 583-87;Marks 2004;Marks and Dollahite 2012;Spagnola and Fiese 2007; for exceptions related to compulsory family worship, see Burr et al. 2012, pp. ...
Article
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Islam is a major world religion and the Muslim population is one of the fastest growing religious populations in the Western world, including in the United States. However, few research studies have examined the lived religious experience of U.S. Muslim families. Much of the attention on Islam among researchers and the media tends to be on controversial aspects of the religion. The purpose of this paper is to examine the unique religious practice of the month-long fast of Ramadan, especially its perceived role on marital and familial relationships from an insider’s perspective. Content analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews of twenty diverse Shia and Sunni Muslim families living in the United States (N = 47 individuals) yielded several emergent themes. This study presents and explores data on the focal theme: “fasting brings us closer together.” These data suggest that Ramadan serves a sacred, unifying, and integrating purpose for many of the 47 practicing Muslim mothers, fathers, and youth in this study. Meanings and processes involved in Ramadan and family relationships are explored and explained. Implications and applications of the research findings are discussed and some potential directions for future research are outlined.
... Several studies from the American Families of Faith Project have grouped Latter-day Saints with other Abrahamic faiths to gain insights into overarching beliefs, practices, and strengths that may provide explanation for the positive influence of religion (e.g., Dollahite, Layton, Bahr, Walker, & Thatcher, 2009;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Marks, 2004). Indeed, LDS families have similarities to other Abrahamic faiths. ...
... Prayer increases unity in the relationship, which in turn modifies the relationship between couple prayer and trust (Lambert, Fincham, LaVallee, & Brantley, 2012). Lambert and Dollahite (2006) also reported that religious beliefs and practices help couples to view the institution of marriage as sacred, decrease the levels of stress and create unity in marriage, which in turn leads to reduced marital conflict. According to them, religious practices such as prayer and attendance at religious services play a decisive role in conflict resolution. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine the role of sanctification of marriage and prayer for the spouse in reducing marital infidelity. The present study was a causal-comparative study design. Two hundred and twenty-three individuals were selected as the sample through the available sampling method among those referred to three counselling centres in the city of Tehran, Iran. To evaluate the variables, the Prayer for the Spouse Questionnaire, the Manifestation of God in Marriage Scale and the Infidelity Scale were used. For data analysis, descriptive and regression analyses were used. The results indicated that sanctification of marriage and prayer for the spouse are negatively correlated with marital infidelity. The study findings also indicated that sanctification of marriage and prayer for the spouse can be considered as suitable predictive factors for reducing the probability of individuals’ engagement in marital infidelity.
... Research has emphasized the importance of healthy relationships for successful transmission of religious identity and commitment (Bengtson et al. 2013). Given the inevitable conflicts that occur in religious families (Lambert and Dollahite 2006), it is crucial for religious parents who wish to maintain the kind of relationships that facilitate religious transmission to learn how to draw from religious beliefs and practices to bring relational reconciliation after conflict (Dollahite et al. n.d.). ...
Article
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Research has found that intergenerational transmission of religiosity results in higher family functioning and improved family relationships. Yet the Pew Research Center found that 44% of Americans reported that they had left the religious affiliation of their childhood. And 78% of the expanding group of those who identify as religiously unaffiliated (“Nones”) reported that they were raised in “highly religious families.” We suggest that this may be, in part, associated with religious parents exercising excessive firmness with inadequate flexibility (rigidity). We used a multiphase, systematic, team-based process to code 8000+ pages of in-depth interviews from 198 Christian, Jewish, and Muslim families from 17 states in all 8 major religio-cultural regions of the United States. We framed firmness as mainly about loyalty to God and God’s purposes, and flexibility as mainly about loyalty to family members and their needs and circumstances. The reported findings provided a range of examples illustrating (a) religious firmness, (b) religious flexibility, as well as (c) efforts to balance and combine firmness and flexibility. We discuss conceptual and practical implications of treating firmness and flexibility as complementary loyalties in intergenerational faith transmission.
... For older adults specifically, many findings suggest that religion and spirituality can influence relationship quality (Clements & Swensen, 2000;Henry et al., 2005;Sabey, Rauer, & Jensen, 2014;Walker & Luszcz, 2009;Yorgason, 2015) and in couples counseling functions as a way of respectfully addressing client-centered needs (Anderson & Worthen, 1997;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Rivett, 2001). A broad search for purpose and meaning is especially evident in times of personal crisis and illness, retirement, or in aging and life transitions (Le & Doukas, 2013;MacKinlay, 2014;Marston, 2010;Smith, 2001), and can serve as important foundations for exploring spirituality in couples' work. ...
Article
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The role of spirituality among older adult couples seeking to enhance the quality of their relationship is a relatively unexplored field. Although baby boomers have effected profound changes in societal norms, including in health care, economics, and their work environments, at the more intimate level, the divorce rate for first-time marriages for this generation continues to be high. Popular media cite graying divorce or examples of couples who remain together in spite of their growing dissatisfaction. A case illustration is offered to explore how spirituality may help older adult couples seeking to enhance the quality of their relationship.
... Oldukça dindar Müslüman, Yahudi ve Hristiyan çiftlerle yapılan nitel bir araştırmaya (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006), göre çiftlerin; ilişkilerindeki problemleri önlemede, geçimsizlikleri çözmede ve birbirlerine ilişkisel uzlaşma doğrultusunda davranmalarında, dini inanç ve pratiklerinin etkili 13 11. asırdan 18. asıra kadar yaşamış en önemli ahlakçılardan (El-Maverdi, 1998, s. 224-246), (Tusi, 2005, s. 203-237), (Gülşeni, 2004, s. 137-158), kitaplarında "pratik ahlak" olarak adlandırdıkları bölümlerde, aile ahlakını ele almışlardır. ...
Article
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During the Period of Adolesence and Youth Violence Against Women a Model Essay of Religious-Moral- So-cial, Çukurova University Journal of Faculty of Divinity 15 (2), 123-158. Abstract- Violence against women can be in various forms in one’s life cycle; these can start from infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, adult-hood and may also continue into old age. Firstly this study tackles the types and causes of violence against women between the ages of 10-24. Women have experienced violence during this period, due to psychologi-cal and psychiatric factors, the structure of the society , lack of law en-forcement, false religious and moral understandings. They may be ex-posed to psychological, verbal, physical, sexual, social and economic vio-lence. Could religion and religiosity cause directly or indirectly be one of the reasons that trigger violence against women? or could these phe-nomena have an important role in preventing violence? This article seeks a way to answer these questions. Thus, taking into consideration the causes and consequences of violence, this study offers solutions that are value-based, protective- preventive- educational-based and social-based. The study has been discussed by reviewing the literature with a descriptive method. By means of values and educational-based ap-proach, to be gained true religious and moral values and to be raised awareness of the society has an important place in preventing violence against women. But, it is not to say this problem whose backgrounds are a lot of possible reasons can only be solved by this approach. Politics, bureaucracy, economics, education, religious and moral education, non governmental organizations and institutions and organizations dealing with media should work in interaction. New solutions must be produced together, using the results of positive and negative experiences. Keywords- Violence against women, religion and religious, value-based approach, educational-based approach, women's shelter
... According to Mahoney et al (2001), spiritual teachings properly imbibed by marriage partners can help strengthen marriages. Shared spiritual teachings and practices also appear to help married couples prevent or quickly resolve marital conflict (Lambert and Dollahite 2006). This is because spiritual teachings generally emphasis core positive principles such as commitment and fidelity, honesty, compassion, forgiveness for one another, selflessness, mutual respect and empathy. ...
Article
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The sustenance of marriage unions between two consenting adults has been fraught with a lot of challenges including but not limited to rampant divorces, domestic violence and depression. As societies evolve with the advent of industrialization and heightened technological growth, marital couples have tended to grow apart and become less available for one another with less than pleasant consequences. This study therefore examined the impact of spousal availability on the strengthening of marriage in Nigeria. Survey research design method was adopted for the study. Primary data was used in obtaining information through a well-structured questionnaire administered to seventy (70) married individuals in Nigeria and sixty-five (65) questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The research hypotheses were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. The result showed that spousal availability had a statistically and positive impact on marital strength in Nigeria (AdjR 2 = 0.65; F-statistics ((3, 44) =30.42; p-value = 0.00 < 0.05) and that attentiveness to emotional needs is the most important quality desired by Nigerian married couples. The study recommended that to ensure longevity of marriages, spouses need to be more selfless in considering the needs of their partners and avoid marriages in proxies as couples living in different towns, cities or countries contradict and inverse to the result of this study.
... The first author interviewed couples conjointly, either at their homes or in private offices of participants' churches. Video-recording the dyadic interviews allowed observation of body language and other nonverbal communication (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006;Marks & Dollahite, 2011). He used intentional, open-ended questions in directed conversations (Charmaz, 2006) such as, "Can you tell me about how you have experienced God in your relationship with each other? ...
Article
The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to develop a deeper understanding of the relational system of married couples and God. We interviewed nine marital couples from Christian denominations that reported having a strong relationship with each other and with God together. We used constructivist grounded theory techniques presented by Charmaz (2006) and analyzed emergent categories of behaviors, emotions, and cognitions to construct a theory and model of Christian marital couples and their shared relationship with God. We then compared and contrasted the results and theory to existing literature on attachment theory and theorized a shared attachment to God. We applied the theological concept of kinship covenant to the results in order to organize and situate the theory into a Christian framework. Finally, we discuss clinical, pastoral, and future research implications.
... The use of prayer specifically was successful in reducing daily stress and bolstering a collaborative relationship with God (Ferguson et al., 2010). Lambert and Dollahite (2006) found that praying during a conflict helped spouses renew harmony in their relationship. Prayer also enabled daily management of pain in chronic pain patients through encouragement of positive reappraisal (Dezutter, Wachholtz, & Corveleyn, 2011). ...
Article
Burgeoning research investigating the effects of daily stress on romantic relationships has paved the way for identifying a variety of means of buffering the negative effects of stress. This article reviews the literature on stress spillover from outside the relationship (extradyadic) on relationship behaviors for both partners to stress inside the relationship, or intradyadic stress, as well as crossover of stress from one partner to another. Analysis of studies on daily stress spillover and crossover in dyads highlights mediators and moderators that can shape future research. Finally, an area central to the life of many people, religious beliefs and behaviors is considered. A meaning‐making process is identified, partner‐focused petitionary prayer, that could buffer the spillover of extradyadic stress on intradyadic stress, as well as the crossover to partner stress, ultimately having an impact on relationship outcomes. The potential to develop interventions around existing daily behaviors is explored.
... Relationships between marital happiness and religiosity have been reported as positive predictors for married couples. Therefore, family counselors who engage with marital issues strongly recommend religious orientation to the couple (Mahoney, 2005;Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). ...
Article
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This study was carried out to find how and to what extent the level of religiosity affects marital satisfaction in dual career couples. A total of 82 dual career spouses were selected through snowball sampling method in Hazara University Mansehra. Marital satisfaction of the study participants was measured with the help of Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) with four components: dyadic consensus, dyadic affectional expression, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion. Likewise, the respondents were asked to rate their level of religiosity on a statement analyzed through mean, standard deviation, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results of descriptive statistics show that our participants had a higher level of religiosity and marital satisfaction. Furthermore, results of Pearson correlation suggest significant correlations between religiosity and all the components i.e. dyadic consensus, affection, cohesion and dyadic satisfaction. It was further found that all components of dyadic scale were also found in significant correlation with one another. It was concluded from this study that religiosity is a positive predictor of marital satisfaction in dual career couples.
... Religion may also help couples overcome their conflict. Lambert and Dollahite (2006) found that religion not only helped couples avoid marital conflict by providing a shared vision and enhancing relational virtues like selflessness and unconditional love, but it also helped them resolve conflict by fostering relationship commitment and a willingness to forgive. To our knowledge, however, there has been no direct empirical investigation of the relationship between marital conflict and sexual satisfaction. ...
Article
Although many studies have examined the association between religion and sexuality, the majority of these studies have focused on nonmarital sex. Unfortunately, despite the fact that a satisfying sexual relationship plays a critical role in married couples’ relationship quality and stability, the associations between religiosity and marital sexual satisfaction are not well understood. Thus, to examine the association between religiosity and couples’ reports of married sexual satisfaction, the authors of this study used dyadic data from a nationally representative sample of married couples ( N = 1,368) between the ages of 18 and 45. They used both joint and individual measures of religiosity as well as examining the relationship mechanisms that might link religiosity and sexual satisfaction. In the models, individual-level reports of marital sanctification were positively associated with wives’ and husbands’ reports of sexual satisfaction. Furthermore, joint religious activities done in the home were positively associated with husbands’ reports of sexual satisfaction. Marital commitment, relationship maintenance behaviors, and spousal time fully mediated these associations for husbands, while commitment partially mediated the association for wives.
... Religious beliefs concerning relational values (e.g., forgiveness, commitment and sacrifice) appear to indirectly improve marriage satisfaction and quality (Randal & Alan, 2013). It also includes beliefs about the sanctification of marriage that may help married couples resolve conflict by preventing conflict, improving conflict resolution and enhancing relationship and reconciliation (Nathaniel & David, 2006). ...
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Moral decay among youths in Tanzania, especially students, is associated by different factors among them is the decrease in following and abiding to religious ethics. This article examines the way in which religious education contributes greatly to building an ethical society for the future generation of Tanzania. This article has used a desktop research study method whereby literature has been surveyed. The article argues that following religious principles and commandments in different places of the globe, Tanzania in particular, contributes much in moral development to school boys and girls. Hence, lagging behind the emphasis on following and living according to religious principles and commandments, contributes much to moral decay leading them to engaging in various deviant behaviours. The article suggests that there is a need to curb the devastating situation through re-emphasizing vigorously on teaching and learning religious ethics to students. This initiative should be done by the Tanzanian government to re-authorize religious subjects to be taught and learned as subjects with credits in the National Examination showing their importance and applicability in the life of students.
... Similar results, in different research groups, can be observed in other studies. For example, religious beliefs and practices tend to diminish the intensity of anger in Roman Catholic (Marsh and Dallos 2004) and Abrahamic faith couples (Lambert and Dollahite 2006). Márquez-González et al. (2010) suggest that spiritual meaning and support from a religious community are directly and negatively related to anger. ...
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Does the way we think or feel about ourselves have an impact on our anger-based reactions? Is the direction and strength of this relationship direct, or affected by other factors as well? Given that there is a lack of research on the loss of self-dignity and anger, the first aim of the present study consisted in examining whether or not there is a connection between both variables, with particular emphasis on early adulthood. The second purpose was to explore the moderating role of religiosity on the relationship between loss of self-dignity and anger. Methods: Data were gathered from 462 participants aged 18 to 35. The main methods applied were the Questionnaire of Sense of Self-Dignity, Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and Religious Meaning System Questionnaire. The results show a statistically significant positive correlation between loss of self-dignity and anger, a negative correlation between religiosity and anger, and no significant association between the loss of self-dignity and religiosity. However, all other dimensions of the sense of self-dignity correlated positively with religiosity. Our findings also confirm that the level of anger resulting from the loss of self-dignity is significantly lower as the level of religiosity increases. Such outcomes seem to support the conception that religiosity may act as a protective factor between the risk (loss of self-dignity) and the outcome factor (anger).
... Accordingly, it was expected that religious relationship standards would correlate with Couple Bond standards. Many religions also promote family responsibility standards relevant to relationships, including fulfilling one's familial role, and closeness in families (Lambert & Dollahite, 2006). Furthermore, conservative religious faiths promote the endorsement of traditional gender roles (Fisher, 1994). ...
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Couple relationship standards (beliefs about what makes for a satisfying couple relationship) have not included standards held about religion, which is surprising given how important religion is in many parts of the world. In the current study, we developed the Importance of Religion in Couple Relationships Scale (IRCRS) with the aim of having a scale suitable for use across different cultural and religious groups. The IRCRS was administered to three samples: 354 Pakistani residents (178 females, 176 males) who identified as Muslim; 274 Thai residents (157 females, 117 males) who identified as Buddhist; and 165 Westerners (resident in Australia or the United States, 60 males, 105 females) who identified as either not religious (n = 74) or Christian (n = 91). We developed a 13-item measure with a two level structure yielding an overall importance of religion score. The items in the IRCRS had acceptable cross-cultural structural invariance in a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis of the Pakistani Muslims, Thai Buddhists, and Westerners. Pakistani Muslims endorsed IRCRS standards most strongly, Western Christians next most strongly, Thai Buddhists next, and Westerners with no religion least strongly. There were no gender differences, and only very small differences by relationship status. The IRCRS can be used in future research to investigate the association of religious relationship standards with couple relationship satisfaction and might be a useful clinical tool to assess the importance of religion to couples.
... Abbott, Berry and Meredith 1990;Agate, Zabriskie, and Eggett 2007;Marks 2006). Family worship also plays an important part in helping couples prevent, resolve, and overcome marital conflict (Lambert and Dollahite 2006). ...
Article
This study explored the relationships between five types of everyday family routines (leisure, chores, TV viewing, worship, and meals) with family satisfaction, and the degree to which work–family fit (WFF) moderated this relationship. Data come from a nationally representative sample of workers in Singapore, using a subset of 623 married, employed parents. Results revealed that family routines were differentially related to family satisfaction, with TV viewing having the strongest positive relationship. WFF itself was directly related to greater family satisfaction and also moderated the relationships between family routines and family satisfaction. Findings suggest WFF – the perception of successfully integrating work and personal/family life – is strongly related to family satisfaction and may play a role in helping employed parents to experience benefits in the home, in the workplace, and even in their health and well‐being. Key points Work‐family fit is an important issue that represents how well employees balance work and family. Work‐family fit is related to employees' self‐reports of their level of satisfaction with their families. Work‐family fit seems to influence how often employees participate in various activities with their families.
... Unfortunately, we still lack "whys" and "hows" behind most of these recurring correlations, as well as knowledge regarding the intervening processes that are involved in the religionfamily interface (Dollahite and Lambert, 2007;Lambert and Dollahite, 2006). Indeed, most measures of religiosity have been based on one of three different indicators: (a) denomination, or reported affiliation with a faith community; (b) quantifiable religious behavior such as church attendance; or (c) values (Marks, 2005)-^and most studies have included only one or two of these three types of indicators (Mahoney, 2010). ...
Article
Researchers have found recurring connections between shared marital religious involvement and improved marital stability functioning. However, researchers know little about the processes at work behind this connection. More specifically, there is a lack of data that addresses these issues in African American families, even though Black families tend to be involved in and influenced by religion. To address this paucity, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 60 married, African-American parents to explore the reported influence of faith in their personal, marital, and family lives. Using qualitative coding and analysis, researchers identified recurring concepts and key themes. In this chapter, six key themes relating to the interface between spiritual beliefs and Black families are presented. Those themes are: 1) “It’s more than a religion, it’s a relationship”; 2) “It’s not a sacrifice…It’s good stewardship”; 3) “Faith gets you through the rough times”; 4) “All things work together for good to them that love God”; 5) “Our last breath on earth is our first breath with Him”; and 6) “God ordained marriage and family.” Rich qualitative data from the interviews that illustrate why these spiritual/religious beliefs are seen as valuable and meaningful are presented. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Article
We used qualitative methodology to explore forgiveness motivations and processes in an ethnically, economically, and geographically diverse sample of 198 highly religious Christian, Muslim, and Jewish families in the United States (N = 480). Prior research has identified several significant relational implications and outcomes of forgiveness. However, there is a need for additional research on forgiveness processes and motivations among highly religious families. Families were interviewed jointly through a semistructured interview protocol. Analysis was conducted using thematic and team‐based coding procedures. Core themes included (a) “Why forgive?”: Relational, religious, and spiritual motivations; (b) “What enables state forgiveness?”: Relational, religious, and spiritual processes; and (c) The role and development of trait forgiveness (forgivingness). Findings highlight the relational, religious, and spiritual motivations and processes present in forgiveness and the role religious/spiritual beliefs and practices play in those processes. Additionally, findings illustrate participants' value of the virtue of forgivingness and reported religious and relational processes that helped in developing the trait of forgivingness. We offer several questions that can be used as a starting point for practitioners to work within the worldview of religious clients to empower individuals, couples, and families to forgive.
Article
International joint ventures (IJVs) are formed to address skills and knowledge deficiencies in executing complex construction projects. Despite many configurations of IJVs, there is still a heavy reliance on overseas expertise due to a limited understanding of the significant factors affecting the acquisition of vital managerial knowledge from the IJV’s foreign partner. Using factor and regression analyses, this paper investigates the critical variables for ensuring that there is a transfer of the required expertise in IJVs. An evaluation of 41 companies involved in IJVs produced 6 factors affecting the acquisition of knowledge; these are conflict and trust, intent to learn, interaction climate, active involvement, performance, and articulated goals. The regression analysis showed articulated goals, intent to learn, and interaction climate having a significant positive effect on acquired knowledge. Clear written guidelines for the IJV organization’s goals and plans are the most influential factor and the first step in signaling a genuine learning intention, as well as in creating the right atmosphere for the transfer of knowledge. The findings of this study are expected to guide government agencies, policy makers, and construction practitioners when reflecting on their strategic plan before entering into IJVs. This research provides knowledge-transfer enablers for the successful joining of resources for two or more firms into a separate jointly owned entity. Also, an understanding of knowledge acquisition builds local capacity and minimizes external dependencies.
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1] Sociology [2] Statement in the youth meeting in the northern Khorasan province [3] Islamic lifestyle in thought of supreme leader [4] Successful family [5] The tools of Shi'a (Wasael al-shi'a) [6] Reward of works (Savab al-A'mal) [7] Imam's leaflet (Sahife Imam) Volume 1 [8] The gifts of wisdoms (Tuhaf al-Uqul) [9] Knowledge of love: an excerpt from the guidance of Ayatullah Seyyed Ali Khamenei to young couples [10] The seas of lights (Behar al-anwar) [11] The adequate principles (Usul al-kafi) [12] The favorites of wisdoms (Gorar al-hekam) [13] Religion and marital quality among low-income couples [14] Differences in marital satisfaction of men and woman [15] How religiosity helps couples prevent, resolve, and overcome marital conflict [16] Characteristics of long-term first marriages [17] Marriage and the spiritual realm: the role of proximal and distal religious constructs in marital functioning [18] Spirituality and affect: a function of changes in religious affiliation [19] Religious heterogamy and marital conflict [20] Marital adjustment and religiosity: a comparison of those under 65 with those age 65 and older [21] Intimacy in older women's lives [22] State of minde: analysis of change in psychotherapy [23] Relation of forgiveness, love, intimacy with marital satisfaction [24] J New Psychother [25] Relationship between types of love and mental well-being in married students [26] Relation and humility with personality, religion and factional well-being [27] Study on the relationship between communication and marital attachment in Romanian Families Aim(s) In the Islamic lifestyle, with the aim of achieving the satisfaction of the almighty God, the family has particular importance. Spouses' love for each other is one of the most important indicators of family strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of love (including Islamic lifestyle indicators) with the mental health of married women. Instruments & Methods This research is a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population of the study consisted of married female teachers aged 25-45 years in Tehran, Iran in the academic year of 2014-2015. 379 subjects were selected using cluster sampling method through the Morgan table. Data collection was carried out using a researcher-made questionnaire of Islamic lifestyle characteristics in marital relationships and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 through the Pearson correlation and liner regression tests. Findings There was a positive and significant correlation between mental health and love (r=0.796; p=0.0001). The coefficient of determination or R2 was equal to 0.633; therefore, the love rate variable explains the variance of 63.3% for the mental health variable. Conclusion With increasing love and intimacy of marital relationships, the mental health of married women increases.
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Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi intensitas marital conflict seperti variabel kepribadian, dukungan sosial, dan individu serta variabel demografis yaitu jenis kelamin, usia menikah, pendapatan, pendidikan, riwayat perceraian orang tua, riwayat berpacaran. Sampel berjumlah 200 orang yang berusia dewasa dan sudah menikah selama dua tahun atau lebih, yang berdomisili di Jakarta. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis memodifikasi instrumen pengumpulan data, yaitu The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), Big Five Inventory (BFI), The Social Provision Scale, dan Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh yang signifikan variabel kepribadian, dukungan sosial, religiusitas, dan faktor demografi terhadap intensitas marital conflict. Hasil uji hipotesis minor yang menguji signifikansi masing-masing dimensi dari independent variable terhadap intensitas marital conflict terdapat tiga koefisien regresi yang signifikan, diantaranya religiusitas, faktor demografi usia menikah, dan tipe kepribadian conscentiousness. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan proporsi varians dari intensitas marital conflict yang dijelaskan semua independent variable sebesar 42,8% dan 57,2% sisanya dipengaruhi oleh variabel lain di luar penelitian ini.
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Context Spiritual well-being is the expression of one's spirituality as measured in the dimensions of existential and religious well-being. The Smith Cognitive Affective Model of Athletic Burnout suggests that personality factors such as spiritual well-being and the use of religious coping methods may affect burnout as well as its causes and outcomes. This has not been examined in collegiate athletic trainers (ATs). Objective To investigate the relationship between spiritual well-being and burnout in collegiate ATs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants A total of 783 certified ATs employed full time in the collegiate setting participated. Part-time employees (eg, graduate assistants, interns) were excluded. Main Outcome Measure(s) A 100-item online questionnaire was created for this study. It used items from previously developed scales, including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Brief RCOPE, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and substance-use questions from the Monitoring the Future study. Participants were able to complete the survey in approximately 10–15 minutes. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyze survey data. We mapped all independent (existential well-being, religious well-being, positive and negative religious coping) and dependent variables (situational variables, Maslach Burnout Inventory burnout subscales, substance use, and intention to leave) onto the Smith Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout to determine which variables altered burnout levels, substance use, and intention to leave. Tests of mediation or moderation were conducted when appropriate. Results Existential well-being was a significant positive predictor of social support and a significant negative predictor of work-family conflict, decreased sense of personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, intention to leave the profession, and binge drinking. Existential well-being also served as a mediator or moderator in several components of the model. Conclusions Existential well-being was a protective factor against burnout as well as some of the causes and effects of burnout in collegiate ATs.
Article
This study investigates whether shared Christian religious identity between spouses, individual/shared religiousness, and satisfaction with that religiousness affects individual and marital satisfaction. Research participants ( N = 568) completed psychometric measures to report: individual wellbeing, emotional intimacy as a couple, satisfaction with sexual intimacy as a couple, and overall marital satisfaction. Results indicated shared religious identity was correlated with higher marital satisfaction. Generally, higher levels of religiousness were correlated with higher scores on the outcome measures. Finally, participants’ satisfaction with their individual and shared religiousness was significantly correlated with higher scores on the selected outcome measures.
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Previous research has identified the heightened amount of perceived stress experienced by migrants in the West. Muslim women specifically may be at a greater exposure to perceived stress, easily being identified as different from others due to the observance of the hijab (Ahmed, 1992). However, Muslims in the UK generally have one of the lowest rates of accessing mental health services (Joint Commissioning Panel for Mental Health, 2014). Current research shows the positive role religion plays in managing perceived stress and the potential development of mental health difficulties. Few studies have been conducted on migrant populations and even fewer with female Muslim migrants. The current study aimed to investigate religiosity, as a mediator of the relationship between religious coping and perceived stress in migrant Muslim women. It also aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived stress and migration. The results found religiosity to mediate the relationship between religious coping and perceived stress, that is, individuals with higher religiosity used religious coping and had lower perceived stress. However, there was no significant relationship between experiences of migration and perceived stress. These findings provide possible directions for mental health practitioners when working with clients from such backgrounds.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Islamic-based couple therapy on the marital Quality of women in Rasht. The research design was a semi-experimental design with control group, pre-test and post-test. The statistical population consisted of all women (mothers of elementary school students) in Rasht in 2018 who were randomly selected. Mothers who scored the lowest score in the Enrich questionnaire were identified and selected and randomly assigned to two groups of tests and controls. After receiving the pre-test from all subjects, the Islamic-based couple therapy program was trained in the experimental group for 10 weeks. At the end of the training, the post-test was carried out. The results of Univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the total score of marital Quality and marital satisfaction, consensus and cohesion as the subscales of marital quality of subjects in the two groups after intervention was significant and the quality of marital life in the experimental group have increased. Therefore, this method can be used as a native-cultural model for increasing the quality of marital life.
Article
The quality of romantic relationships influences physical and mental health. However, maintaining happy and healthy relationships is challenging; relationship satisfaction declines over time, and relationship dissolution is frequent. This raises the question of which factors contribute to the maintenance versus decline of relationship satisfaction. In this Review, we examine the key factors that have been linked to relationship satisfaction in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Specifically, we describe how self-reported perceptions (subjective perceptions of the self, the partner or the relationship), implicit evaluations (automatic evaluations of one’s partner assessed indirectly) and objective indexes (demographics, life events, communication patterns and biological indexes) relate to relationship satisfaction. This synthesis suggests that self-reported perceptions are not always the most reliable predictors of longitudinal changes in relationship satisfaction. Thus, to uncover why some relationships flourish and others struggle over time, future research should not solely focus on self-reported perceptions, but also on implicit evaluations, demographics, life events, communication patterns and biological factors, and their combination. The quality of romantic relationships influences physical and mental health. However, maintaining happy and healthy relationships is challenging. In this Review, Righetti et al. examine the key factors that have been linked to relationship satisfaction in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
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Despite ample evidence that global indexes of religiousness are linked to family functioning, the mechanisms by which religion uniquely influences family dynamics are not well understood or empirically documented. To advance the scientific study of religion's role in families, we delineate how the construct of sanctification applies to marital and parent-child relationships as well as to the entire family systems according to diverse religious traditions. We define sanctification as a psychological process in which aspects of life are perceived as having spiritual character and significance. We summarize the psychometric properties of two sets of measures that we have developed to assess the sanctification of marriage, parent-child relationships, and sexuality: Manifestation of God and Sacred Qualities scales. We hypothesize that sanctification has desirable implications for family life, supporting this assertion with initial empirical findings from our program of research. We also highlight the potential harm that may result from the sanctification of family relationships and discuss circumstances that may present particular risks (unavoidable challenges, violations by family members, loss, conflict, and intrapsychic and institutional barriers). Finally, we discuss future research directions to study more closely the influence of religion and sanctification on family life.
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A large body of research has correlated various aspects of personal and relational religious involvement with salutary and protective features of individual development and marriage and family relationships. However, the "hows," "whys," and processes at work behind these correlations remain largely unidentified. We present a research-based conceptual model developed, tested and revised using qualitative data from 74 highly religious Jewish, Christian, Mormon, and Muslim families from New England, Northwest, Mid Atlantic, Midwest, and Southern states. The framework models the contexts, processes, and outcomes at work in highly religious families as they strive together to fulfill the sacred purposes suggested by their faith. Identified contexts were: spiritual beliefs, religious expectations, faith community, and extended family. Identified processes were: relying on God or God's word for support, guidance, and strength; sanctifying the family by living religion at home including family religious traditions; resolving conflict with prayer, repentance, and forgiveness; loving and serving others in the family, faith community, and wider community; overcoming challenges and trials through shared faith; abstaining from proscribed activities and substances; sacrificing time, money, comfort, and convenience; nurturing spiritual observance and growth through teaching, example, and discussion; obeying God, prophets, parents, or commandments; and putting faith or family ahead of personal or secular interests. Identified outcomes were: peace, health, and identity; marital trust and happiness; family unity; community supportiveness and connection.
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Ninety-seven couples completed questionnaires about their involvement in joint religious activities and their perceptions regarding the sanctification of marriage, including perceived sacred qualities of marriage and beliefs about the manifestation of God in marriage. In contrast to individual religiousness and religious homogamy (distal religious constructs), these proximal religious variables directly reflect an integration of religion and marriage, and they were associated with greater global marital adjustment, more perceived benefits from marriage, less marital conflict, more verbal collaboration, and less use of verbal aggression and stalemate to discuss disagreements for both wives and husbands. The proximal measures also added substantial unique variance (adjusted R² change ranged from .06 to .48) to specific aspects of marital functioning after controlling demographic factors and distal religious variables in hierarchical regression analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses marriages as partnerships in which the spouses are devoted to creating a long-term partnership, improving their own character, and developing the richness and vitality that may be dormant in their relationships. Using real-life examples from thriving relationships, the author shows how spouses can create deeply meaningful relationships devoted to mutual goals such as raising children, contributing to the life of their community, and maintaining family or religious traditions. Couples not only flourish as they engage in worthwhile activities together, but as they extend themselves beyond there own gratification they also gain strength from their extended families and their communities. The book is filled with suggestions spouses can use to develop the traits or virtues-including, friendship, loyalty, self-restraint, courage, generosity, and justice-that can bring this vision to life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Michael and Harriet McManus describe their approach to community-based marriage interventions, particularly focusing on churches and ministry organizations. Their marriage mentoring program is described with case examples. The authors' beliefs about why marriages are deteriorating with recommendations of how government, researchers and communities can improve marriages are made. Finally, recommendations for future marital counselors are included.
Article
We proposed a family process model that links maternal and paternal formal religiosity to marital interaction quality, parental cocaregiver support and conflict, parent-youth relationship quality, and parental use of inconsistent/nattering parenting strategies. The sample included 90 African American youths and their married parents, who lived in the rural South. African American community members participated in the development of the self-report instruments and observational research methods used to test the model. The results supported most of the hypotheses. Religiosity was linked with higher levels of marital interaction quality and co-caregiver support, and with lower levels of marital and co-caregiver conflict. The associations between religiosity and parent-youth relationship quality were mediated by the marital and co-caregiver relationships.
Article
Journals in the fields of family, religion, sociology, psychology, and therapy were searched for articles examining both religion and the family. The interface between religion and family is being addressed by social scientists studying the family who also have an interest in religion, and by some social scientists studying religion who also have an interest in family. Few articles examine the interrelations among multiple dimensions of each institution. This review reveals a pressing need for more serious theoretical and conceptual work that incorporates multidimensional approaches and is specifically designed to illuminate the interrelationships between religion and the family.
Article
Findings from this study add strong support to the theoretical proposition by Boss (1975, 1977) that in a family with a physically absent father, a high degree of Psychological Father Presence relates to wife dysfunction and is a significant predictor of Wife as well as Family Dysfunction. There is no support for the premise that the wife's androgynous qualities allow her to close-out her missing husband more easily from the family system but this is due to the even greater importance of her instrumental qualities in the organization of a father absent family. Although correlational findings indicate that androgyny is significantly and positively related to wife's ease in performing instrumental family roles while PFP relates more to her personal psychological state, regression analyses show that PFP remains the only significant predictor of wife and family function in these families with missing fathers. Though PFP remains a wife-focused variable, it appears to be significant as well in blocking the regenerative power of the entire family system. On the basis of findings from this disaster sample, further study is now warranted using larger, more normative populations of families with ambiguously-absent fathers.
Article
The variables found to be significant in previous research on the influence of religion on the marriage relationship were tested on Seventh-day Adventist married people living with their spouses. Relatively little research has been conducted on this group whose lifestyle and beliefs may seem more conservative than those of mainstream America. This midwestern sample of 228 individuals completed a 63-item instrument that measured marital satisfaction with the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale. The strongest predictors for marital satisfaction were family worship and congruence with spouse on religiosity and church attendance (spouses sharing religious activities). Other statistically significant religiosity variables were an intrinsic religious orientation (which was the theoretical base), private and public ritualistic practices, religious experience, and salience. The single religiosity variables predicted about 30 percent of the variance on marital satisfaction and the scales predicted about 27 percent when demographic variables were controlled.
Article
Researchers frequently postulate a strong relationship between religiosity and marital stability. We incorporate a multidimensional specification of religiosity into event-history models of the religion-marital stability relationship. Results are based on panel data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 4,587 married couples). While no single dimension of religiosity adequately describes the effect of religious experience on marital stability, the frequency of religious attendance has the greatest positive impact on marital stability. When both spouses attend church regularly, the couple has the lowest risk of divorce. Spouse differences in church attendance increase the risk of dissolution. All significant religious affiliation influences disappear once demographic characteristics are controlled. The wife's religious beliefs concerning marital commitment and nonmarital sex are more important to the stability of the marriage than the husband's beliefs.
Article
Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable—marital satisfaction—in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness Inventory (ENRICH; D. H. Olson, D. G. Fournier, & J. M. Druckman, 1987) provided scales to measure marital interaction processes and marital satisfaction. A new instrument, the Characteristics of Marriage Inventory (CHARISMA; J. R. Rosen‐Grandon & J. E. Myers, 2001), was developed using factor analysis to determine which marital characteristics were statistically significant. Structural equation modeling identified a path model wherein 6 marital interaction processes had a statistically significant influence on marital satisfaction when mediated by 3 latent factors of marital characteristics (love, loyalty, and shared values) and 2 moderating variables (length of marriage and gender of participant).
Article
Highly religious couples constitute a substantial portion of marital therapy clients in the U.S. Married Christian individuals ( N = 211) completed a survey of demographics and religiosity (religious values and Christian beliefs). They rated preferences and expectations for one of four marital therapy situations: Christian therapist using Christian practices (e.g., prayer or reference to Scripture), Christian therapist using psychological practices only, non-Christian therapist willing to use Christian practices, and non-Christian therapist using psychological practices only. High religious values and high Christian beliefs predicted ratings of marital therapy situations, where high was defined as one standard deviation above the mean of standardized norm groups. Low to moderate religious values or Christian beliefs did not predict ratings of marital therapy. It was concluded that highly religious couples present a special situation where the marketing, assessment, and practice of marital therapy might differ from therapy with other types of couples.
Article
This study addresses two questions: Do religiously dissimilar couples argue more often than other couples? Are religious differences among partners associated with arguments concerning particular issues? We investigate these issues using data on 2,945 co-residing, first-time married couples from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Denominational homo/heterogamy, measured in several different ways, has little bearing on the frequency or types of marital disagreements. Men's religious attendance is inversely related to the overall frequency of disputes and to disagreements over housework, money, how time is spent, and sex, whereas women's attendance is not. Attendance (dis)similarities among partners are positively associated with the overall frequency of conflicts. Theological disparities between partners are linked with more frequent conflicts overall and also with disagreements over household labor and finances. Several implications and promising directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Religious variations in domestic violence remain understudied. Arguments are developed linking aspects of religious affiliation, practice, theology, and couples' religious (dis)similarities with domestic violence. These relationships are then examined via gender-specific models of data from the first wave of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH-1). The authors find that regular attendance at religious services is inversely associated with self-reported perpetration of domestic violence for men and women. Denominational homogamy (i.e., same-faith vs. mixed-faith relationships) has little bearing on the likelihood of abuse. Other forms of religious dissimilarity do appear to heighten the risk of abuse. In particular, men who hold much more conservative theological views than their partners are especially likely to perpetrate domestic violence. The implications of these and other findings are discussed, and several promising directions for further research are identified.
Article
Spirituality and spiritual practices loom large as predictors of individual and relationship outcomes (Richards & Bergin, 1997). For religious couples, Deity's influence in their marriage is often invoked and experienced through prayer, and Deity may more regularly and significantly influence religious couples' interaction than anyone else, including family members (Butler & Harper, 1994). As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, a geographically diverse sample of religious spouses ( n = 217) completed a 102-item Likertscaled questionnaire assessing their phenomenological experience of prayer during marital conflict. Participant spouses noted relationship softening, healing (neutral/self-change) perspective, and perception or experience of change responsibility as significant effects associated with their prayer experience. Issues surrounding clinical use of prayer as a conflict resolution tactic for religious couples are considered.
Article
Reference is made to the literature showing that marital commitment (defined by Becker as a “bet” on the future) has been strongly affected by variables such as love/caring and positive conflict resolution. The issue raised in this study is whether, given the continuing changes in female/male relationships over the past 20 years, additional factors stemming from those gender-based changes might gradually become part of a syndrome affecting the nature of the marital bond. This syndrome of factors includes gender role preferences, religious devoutness, and locus of control in marriage. Theoretical arguments supporting this gradual evolutionary emergence are presented along with an exploratory study suggesting propositions to be tested in future research—preferably within a life course perspective.
Article
Synthesizing over 20 years of research in forgiveness, the authors explain the process of forgiveness in psychotherapy in a way that can be applied by clinicians regardless of their theoretical orientation. The clear, detailed descriptions of the national and international empirical studies of forgiveness and of validated forgiveness measures are excellent resources for those wishing to pursue research in this area. How to recognize when forgiveness is an appropriate client goal; how to introduce and explain to clients what forgiveness is and is not; and concrete, stepwise ways of working forgiveness into therapy with individuals, couples, and families are among the many topics covered in this comprehensive volume. The roles that anger and forgiveness play in specific emotional disorders and clinical examples of work with individuals suffering from these disorders make this a practical resource and highly documented sourcebook for all mental health practitioners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Qualitative methods were used to research the effects of the religious beliefs and practices of ten Roman Catholic couples on the ways in which they managed anger and conflict in their marital relationship. The couples were interviewed separately, twice each, using Grounded Theory techniques in the first, semi-structured interview, and Repertory Grids in the second. Religious beliefs supported a broad range of positions on anger management from self-control through to the thoughtful expression of anger. It is suggested that religious beliefs and practices can be thought of as expanding or restricting “space” by reducing the intensity of anger experienced and by providing an opportunity for reflection which enabled participants to take greater responsibility for their part in conflicts. The relationship with God affected the “space” in the couple relationship by meeting some of the unmet needs of individuals and by detouring anger away from the spouse to God where it was felt to be safely contained. This procedure was used more by wives; their husbands seemed more often to fear and avoid conflicts and the expression of anger. Links were made between the marital relationship and the relationship with God. It was proposed that these systems are both evolving interactively with changes in one resulting in changes in the other. However, there can be a delay before changes in one system can be integrated with conflicting beliefs or practices in the reciprocal system, which may result in ambivalent attitudes toward anger and conflict. Clinical implications and directions for future research were suggested.
Article
We present an evaluation of the extent to which an empirically based couples' intervention program was successfully disseminated in the community. Clergy and lay leaders from 27 religious organizations who were trained to deliver the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) were contacted approximately yearly for 5 years following training to determine whether they still used PREP and which aspects were used. Results indicated that 82% continued to use at least parts of the program, especially parts dealing with communication and conflict management. Results also showed that clergy and lay leaders extended the use of the curriculum from premarital couples to married couples. We discuss implications for future efforts toward disseminating empirically based programs into community settings.
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A meta–analysis was performed in an attempt to clarify the proposed relationship between religiosity and psychological adjustment. Specific focus was given to the issue of definition, namely, whether differences in researchers’ conceptualizations of religiosity and mental health could account for the various contradictory findings by psychologists of religion. Analysis of 34 studies conducted during the past 12 years revealed that the definitions of religiosity and mental health utilized by psychologists in this field were indeed associated with different types and strengths of the correlations between religiosity and mental health. Discussion of results assesses the fit between relevant theory and the pattern of change in effect size across categories of religion and adjustment, and concludes with implications for therapeutic uses of religious involvement.
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This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research article—introduction and literature review, method, results, and discussion. Considerations stemming from the fact that data on marriages and families are produced largely through interviews also are addressed.
Article
There is an irony—perhaps a paradox—here: that a methodology that is based on “interpretation” should itself prove so hard to interpret. (Dey, 1999, p. 23) Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be used to greater effect, I rely on 5 principles to interpret 3 major phases in GTM coding: open, axial, and selective. The history of GTM establishes a foundation for the interpretation, whereas recognition of the dialectic between induction and deduction underscores the importance of incorporating constructivism in GTM thinking. My goal is to propose a methodologically condensed but still comprehensive interpretation of GTM, an interpretation that researchers hopefully will find easy to understand and employ.
Article
Seven sequential stages of marital conflict are delineated: (a) conflicts of interest, (b) stressful circumstances, (c) precipitating events, (d) engagement versus avoidance, (e) interaction scenario, (f) immediate outcome, and (g) return to normal. Selected theory and empirical research concerning differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are presented for these stages.
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Manual para la investigación cualitativa en ciencias sociales, en el que se presentan -paso a paso- técnicas para recoger, enfocar y analizar datos cualitativos.
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Using data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households, this paper studies the role of the religious composition of unions as a determinant of marital stability. With the exceptions of Mormons and individuals with no religious identification, stability is found to be remarkably similar across the various types of homogamous unions. Consistent with the notion that religion is a complementary marital trait, interfaith unions have generally higher rates of dissolution than intrafaith unions. The destabilizing effect of out-marriage varies inversely with the similarity in beliefs and practices of the two religions as well as with the mutual tolerance embodied in their respective doctrines. The results also suggest that religious compatibility between spouses at the time of marriage has a large influence on marital stability, rivaling in magnitude that of age at marriage and, at least for Protestants and Catholics, dominating any adverse effects of differences in religious background.
Article
Quantitative research examining linkages between family relationships and religious experience has increased substantially in recent years. However, related qualitative research, including research that examines the processes and meanings behind recurring religion-family correlations, remains scant. To address this paucity, a racially diverse sample (N = 24) of married, highly religious Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim parents of school-aged children were interviewed regarding the importance of religious family interactions, rituals, and practices in their families. Mothers and fathers discussed several religious practices that were meaningful to them and explained why these practices were meaningful. Parents also identified costs and challenges associated with these practices. Interview data are presented in connection with three themes: (1) "practicing [and parenting] what you preach," (2) religious practices, family connection, and family communion, and (3) costs of family religious practices. The importance of family clinicians and researchers attending to the influence of religious practice in the lives of highly religious individuals and families is discussed.
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